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Small intestinal viral overgrowth

Jessica Robinson-Papp, Alexandra Nmashie, Elizabeth Pedowitz, Emma K T Benn, Mary Catherine George, Sandeep Sharma, Jacinta Murray, Josef Machac, Sherif Heiba, Saurabh Mehandru, Seunghee Kim-Schulze, Allison Navis, Isabel Elicer, Susan Morgello
OBJECTIVE: Chronic inflammation in HIV-infected individuals drives disease progression and the development of comorbidities, despite viral suppression with combined antiretroviral therapy. Here, we sought evidence that vagal dysfunction, which occurs commonly as part of HIV-associated autonomic neuropathy, could exacerbate inflammation through gastrointestinal dysmotility, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and alterations in patterns of soluble immune mediators. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional observational study...
June 1, 2018: AIDS
Karen A Chachu, Mark T Osterman
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract and includes both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Patients with IBD often present with abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding but may also have a wide variety of other symptoms such as weight loss, fever, nausea, vomiting, and possibly obstruction. Given that the presentation of IBD is not specific, the differential diagnosis is broad and encompasses a wide spectrum of diseases, many of which can mimic and/or even coexist with IBD...
May 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Shweta Kapil, Ajay Duseja, Bal Krishan Sharma, Bhupesh Singla, Anuradha Chakraborti, Ashim Das, Pallab Ray, Radha K Dhiman, Yogesh Chawla
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is multifactorial. There is sparse literature on the role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in NAFLD. The present study evaluated the relationship of SIBO with expression of TLR signaling genes in patients with NAFLD. METHODS: A total of 142 subjects composed of NAFLD (n = 60, mean age 38.7 ± 10.4 years), chronic viral hepatitis (CVH) (n = 32, mean age 39...
January 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
M Schmulson, M V Bielsa, R Carmona-Sánchez, A Hernández, A López-Colombo, Y López Vidal, M Peláez-Luna, J M Remes-Troche, J L Tamayo, M A Valdovinos
BACKGROUND: Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) prevalence, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), altered microbiota, low-grade inflammation, and antibiotic therapy in IBS are all controversial issues. AIMS: To conduct an evidence-based review of these factors. METHODS: A review of the literature was carried out up to July 2012, with the inclusion of additional articles as far as August 2013, all of which were analyzed through the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) system...
April 2014: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
(no author information available yet)
AIM: To investigate the role of intestinal microflora impairment in development of clinical manifestations of intestinal dyspepsia in patients with hepatic cirrhosis (HC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Endoscopic and morphological examinations of duodenal and colon mucosa were performed in 160 patients with viral HC and portal hypertension (PH) taking consideration of the presence of portal chypertensive duodeno- and colonopathy. Intestinal microflora was studied with lactulose respiration hydrogen test, bacteriological examination of the feces was also made...
2012: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
André Charlett, R John Dobbs, Sylvia M Dobbs, Clive Weller, Mohammad A A Ibrahim, Tracy Dew, Roy Sherwood, Norman L Oxlade, J Malcolm Plant, James Bowthorpe, Andrew J Lawson, Alan Curry, Dale W Peterson, Ingvar T Bjarnason
The two-stage neuroinflammatory process, containment and progression, proposed to underlie neurodegeneration may predicate on systemic inflammation arising from the gastrointestinal tract. Helicobacter infection has been described as one switch in the pathogenic-circuitry of idiopathic parkinsonism (IP): eradication modifies disease progression and marked deterioration accompanies eradication-failure. Moreover, serum Helicobacter-antibody-profile predicts presence, severity and progression of IP. Slow gastrointestinal-transit precedes IP-diagnosis and becomes increasingly-apparent after, predisposing to small-intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO)...
2009: Gut Pathogens
M Guslandi
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by abdominal pain and alterations in bowel habits. Several pathogenetic factors, such as altered intestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, serotonin system abnormalities and psychic disturbances have been identified. Recently, a pathogenetic role of intestinal microflora has been shown in IBS: viral or bacterial infection can trigger post-infectious IBS; some patients have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; the composition of patients' enteric flora is altered; and minimal inflammatory changes, consistent with the pro-inflammatory role of bacteria, have been demonstrated...
September 2007: Journal of International Medical Research
Christy A McKnight, Roger K Maes, Annabel G Wise, Matti Kiupel
Diagnosis of canine parvovirus type 2 and feline panleukopenia virus infection in dogs and cats may be hampered by the severity of enteric lesions, secondary bacterial overgrowth, and rapid onset of autolysis. In contrast to small intestine, tongue epithelium is less sensitive to postmortem changes. Sections of tongue and small intestine from 11 dogs and 11 cats with a clinical history and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with canine and feline parvoviral infection were examined for parvoviral infection using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and direct fluorescent antibody testing (FA)...
July 2007: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
R D Rolfe
The use of probiotics to enhance intestinal health has been proposed for many years. Probiotics are traditionally defined as viable microorganisms that have a beneficial effect in the prevention and treatment of specific pathologic conditions when they are ingested. There is a relatively large volume of literature that supports the use of probiotics to prevent or treat intestinal disorders. However, the scientific basis of probiotic use has been firmly established only recently, and sound clinical studies have begun to be published...
February 2000: Journal of Nutrition
M Virally-Monod, D Tielmans, J P Kevorkian, Y Bouhnik, B Flourie, B Porokhov, C Ajzenberg, A Warnet, P J Guillausseau
The mechanisms of chronic diarrhoea, a frequent symptom in diabetes mellitus, are multifactorial and complex, although small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and autonomic neuropathy seem to play a major role. This study evaluated the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and the effects of antibiotic treatment in a population of diabetic patients with chronic diarrhoea (defined as > 3 stools/24 h, weight > 200 g/24 h, duration > 3 weeks). Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome was diagnosed by glucose-hydrogen breath testing (sensitivity: 78%, specificity: 89%)...
December 1998: Diabetes & Metabolism
R N Ratnaike, T E Jones
In the rapidly increasing elderly population, diarrhoea as a result of drug therapy is an important consideration. The elderly consume a disproportionately large number of drugs for multiple acute and chronic diseases. Drugs can compromise both immune and nonimmune responses. Aging decreases the quality and proportion of T cells which in turn reduces the production of secretory IgA, the primary immune response of the gut. Acid production in the stomach decreases with increasing age and this compromise its vital 'self-sterilising' function, thus increasing the risk of diarrhoea due to viral, bacterial and protozoal pathogens...
September 1998: Drugs & Aging
C Y Yang, C S Chang, G H Chen
BACKGROUND: Small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been considered a predisposing factor of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients by bacterial translocation or hematogenous spread during spontaneous bacteremia. We investigated 45 cirrhotic patients and 28 healthy subjects to assess the prevalence of SIBO and its relationship with the severity of liver dysfunction and the presence of ascites. METHODS: Bacterial overgrowth was measured by the glucose hydrogen and methane breath test...
August 1998: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
K Papasouliotis, T J Gruffydd-Jones, G Werrett, P J Brown, C D Hopper, C R Stokes, D A Harbour
OBJECTIVE: To identify consistent relevant mechanisms of small intestinal dysfunction in cats with experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection (FIV) that developed chronic diarrhea during the time they were being used in studies of pathogenicity and transmission of FIV. ANIMALS: 10 cats. PROCEDURE: The following investigative tests and techniques were performed on each of the cats: routine hematologic and serum biochemical analyses; urinalysis; fecal parasitologic and microbiologic examinations; breath hydrogen lactulose (BH2LT) and xylose (BH2XT) tests; intestinal permeability test; endoscopic examination of the intestinal mucosa; bacteriologic culture of endoscopically collected small intestinal juice; and histologic examination of endoscopically obtained intestinal biopsy specimens...
May 1998: American Journal of Veterinary Research
G C Cook
Postinfective tropical malabsorption (TM; tropical sprue) starts with an acute intestinal infection (bacterial, viral, or parasitic) which can affect predominantly the small or the large intestine. Miscellaneous invasive pathogens cause subsequent enterocyte damage affecting the entire small intestine and, to a lesser extent, the colon. Enteroglucagon, a tropic hormone, is then liberated and reaches a high plasma concentration. Small-intestinal stasis results. Further bacterial colonisation (in the lumen and also at the enterocyte surface) is encouraged...
March 31, 1984: Lancet
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