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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102224/optimality-and-sub-optimality-in-a-bacterial-growth-law
#1
Benjamin D Towbin, Yael Korem, Anat Bren, Shany Doron, Rotem Sorek, Uri Alon
Organisms adjust their gene expression to improve fitness in diverse environments. But finding the optimal expression in each environment presents a challenge. We ask how good cells are at finding such optima by studying the control of carbon catabolism genes in Escherichia coli. Bacteria show a growth law: growth rate on different carbon sources declines linearly with the steady-state expression of carbon catabolic genes. We experimentally modulate gene expression to ask if this growth law always maximizes growth rate, as has been suggested by theory...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099931/a-new-semisynthetic-cardenolide-analog-3%C3%AE-2-1-amantadine-1-on-ethylamine-digitoxigenin-amantadig-affects-g2-m-cell-cycle-arrest-and-mirna-expression-profiles-and-enhances-proapoptotic-survivin-2b-expression-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-cell-lines
#2
Elke Nolte, Sven Wach, Izabella Thais Silva, Sabine Lukat, Arif B Ekici, Jennifer Munkert, Frieder Müller-Uri, Wolfgang Kreis, Cláudia Maria Oliveira Simões, Julio Vera, Bernd Wullich, Helge Taubert, Xin Lai
Cardiac glycosides are well known in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases; however, their application as treatment option for cancer patients is under discussion. We showed that the cardiac glycoside digitoxin and its analog AMANTADIG can inhibit the growth of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines and increase G2/M cell cycle arrest. To identify the signaling pathways and molecular basis of this G2/M arrest, microRNAs were profiled using microRNA arrays. Cardiac glycoside treatment significantly deregulated two microRNAs, miR-2278 and miR-670-5p...
January 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099068/same-story-different-story
#3
Yaara Yeshurun, Stephen Swanson, Erez Simony, Janice Chen, Christina Lazaridi, Christopher J Honey, Uri Hasson
Differences in people's beliefs can substantially impact their interpretation of a series of events. In this functional MRI study, we manipulated subjects' beliefs, leading two groups of subjects to interpret the same narrative in different ways. We found that responses in higher-order brain areas-including the default-mode network, language areas, and subsets of the mirror neuron system-tended to be similar among people who shared the same interpretation, but different from those of people with an opposing interpretation...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092501/parallel-molecular-distributed-detection-with-brownian-motion
#4
Uri Rogers, Min-Sung Koh
This paper explores the in vivo distributed detection of an undesired biological agent's (BAs) biomarkers by a group of biological sized nanomachines in an aqueous medium under drift. The term distributed, indicates that the system information relative to the BAs presence is dispersed across the collection of nanomachines, where each nanomachine possesses limited communication, computation, and movement capabilities. Using Brownian motion with drift, a probabilistic detection and optimal data fusion framework, coined molecular distributed detection, will be introduced that combines theory from both molecular communication and distributed detection...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090806/randomized-sham-controlled-study-of-high-frequency-bilateral-deep-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-dtms-to-treat-adult-attention-hyperactive-disorder-adhd-negative-results
#5
Yaniv Paz, Keren Friedwald, Yeheal Levkovitz, Abraham Zangen, Uri Alyagon, Uri Nitzan, Aviv Segev, Hagai Maoz, May Koubi, Yuval Bloch
BACKGROUND: Recent studies support the possible effectiveness of rTMS as a treatment for ADHD. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and possible efficacy of bilateral prefrontal deep rTMS for the treatment of adult ADHD. METHODS: Twenty-six adult ADHD patients were randomized blindly to sham or actual deep TMS. Twenty daily sessions were conducted using the bilateral H5 deep TMS coil (Brainsway, IL) in order to stimulate the prefrontal cortex at 120% of the motor threshold at high frequency...
January 16, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089543/optimal-regulatory-circuit-topologies-for-fold-change-detection
#6
Miri Adler, Pablo Szekely, Avi Mayo, Uri Alon
Evolution repeatedly converges on only a few regulatory circuit designs that achieve a given function. This simplicity helps us understand biological networks. However, why so few circuits are rediscovered by evolution is unclear. We address this question for the case of fold-change detection (FCD): a response to relative changes of input rather than absolute changes. Two types of FCD circuits recur in biological systems-the incoherent feedforward and non-linear integral-feedback loops. We performed an analytical screen of all three-node circuits in a class comprising ∼500,000 topologies...
January 10, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089238/ruxolitinib-for-symptom-control-in-patients-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-a-single-group-phase-2-trial
#7
Preetesh Jain, Michael Keating, Sarah Renner, Charles Cleeland, Huang Xuelin, Graciela Nogueras Gonzalez, David Harris, Ping Li, Zhiming Liu, Ivo Veletic, Uri Rozovski, Nitin Jain, Phillip Thompson, Prithviraj Bose, Courtney DiNardo, Alessandra Ferrajoli, Susan O'Brien, Jan Burger, William Wierda, Srdan Verstovsek, Hagop Kantarjian, Zeev Estrov
BACKGROUND: Disease-related symptoms impair the quality of life of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) who do not require systemic therapy. Available therapies are not specifically aimed at symptom control. Because stimulation of the B-cell receptor activates JAK2 in CLL cells and the JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib improves symptoms in patients with myelofibrosis, we postulated that ruxolitinib would improve disease-related symptoms in patients with CLL. We did a phase 2 trial of ruxolitinib to test this hypothesis...
January 11, 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088167/randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-to-assess-the-safety-and-effectiveness-of-a-novel-dual-action-oral-topical-formulation-against-upper-respiratory-infections
#8
Pranab K Mukherjee, Frank Esper, Ken Buchheit, Karen Arters, Ina Adkins, Mahmoud A Ghannoum, Robert A Salata
BACKGROUND: Current prevention options for upper respiratory infections (URIs) are not optimal. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ARMS-I™ (currently marketed as Halo™) in the prevention of URIs. METHODS: ARMS-I is patented novel formulation for the prevention and treatment of influenza, comprising a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent (cetylpyridinium chloride, CPC) and components (glycerin and xanthan gum) that form a barrier on the host mucosa, thus preventing viral contact and invasion...
January 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070330/the-approximated-cardiovascular-reserve-index-complies-with-haemorrhage-related-hemodynamic-deterioration-pattern-a-swine-exsanguination-model
#9
Roy Nadler, Elon Glassberg, Itay E Gabbay, Linn Wagnert-Avraham, Gal Yaniv, David Kushnir, Arik Eisenkraft, Ben-Zion Bobrovsky, Uri Gabbay
BACKGROUND: To estimate the cardiovascular reserve we formulated the Cardiovascular Reserve Index (CVRI) based on physiological measurements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of CVRI in haemorrhage-related haemodynamic deterioration in an animal model simulating combat injury. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from a research database of swine exsanguination model in which serial physiological measurements were made under anesthesia in 12 swine of haemorrhagic injury and 5 controls...
February 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068870/induced-remodeling-of-porcine-tendons-to-human-anterior-cruciate-ligaments-by-%C3%AE-gal-epitope-removal-and-partial-crosslinking
#10
Kevin Robert Stone, Ann Walgenbach, Uri Galili
This review describes a novel method developed for processing porcine tendon and other ligament implants which enables in situ remodeling into autologous ligaments in humans. The method differs from methods using extracellular matrices (ECM) which provide post-operative ortho-biologic support (i.e. augmentation grafts) for healing of injured ligaments, in that the porcine bone-patellar-tendon-bone itself serves as the graft replacing ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The method allows for gradual remodeling of porcine tendon into autologous human ACL while maintaining the biomechanical integrity...
January 9, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061917/upper-respiratory-infections-and-barotrauma-among-commercial-pilots
#11
Nina Monrad Boel, Mads Klokker
BACKGROUND: Health incapacitation is a serious threat to flight safety. Therefore, a study conducted 10 yr ago examined the incidents of ear-nose-throat (ENT) barotrauma and upper respiratory infection (URI) among commercial pilots and found that a large number continued to carry out their duties despite the risk of incapacitation. Now, 10 yr later, this new study examines if the attention to URIs has improved. METHOD: This study was conducted at the Danish Aeromedical Centre over the course of 1 yr with 463 valid respondents to a questionnaire on URIs and ENT barotrauma...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049721/pex35-is-a-regulator-of-peroxisome-abundance
#12
Ido Yofe, Kareem Soliman, Silvia G Chuartzman, Bruce Morgan, Uri Weill, Eden Yifrach, Tobias P Dick, Sara J Cooper, Christer S Ejsing, Maya Schuldiner, Einat Zalckvar, Sven Thoms
Peroxisomes are cellular organelles with vital functions in lipid, amino acid, and redox metabolism. The cellular formation and dynamics of peroxisomes are governed by PEX genes, however, the regulation of peroxisome abundance is yet poorly understood. Here we use a high-content microscopy screen to identify novel regulators of peroxisome size and abundance. Our screen led to the identification of a previously uncharacterized gene, which we term PEX35, which affects peroxisome abundance. PEX35 encodes a peroxisomal membrane protein, a remote homolog to several curvature generating human proteins...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039512/efficacy-and-safety-of-autologous-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-in-elderly-patients-with-multiple-myeloma-a-retrospective-national-multi-site-cohort-study
#13
Yael C Cohen, Tsila Zuckerman, Moshe Yeshurun, Galit Perez, Hila Magen, Israel Henig, Itai Levi, Liat Shargian, Svetlana Trestman, Uri Rouvio, Elizabeth Naparstek, Eti Ganon-Elazar, Irit Avivi, Ron Ram
We aimed to test the efficacy and toxicity of autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) in Multiple Myeloma (MM) patients aged ≥65 years compared to patients aged 60-64. Two hundred twenty consecutive patients (age ≥65, n = 87) with MM aged 60 and above, who underwent HCT as part of an upfront MM treatment, at four Israeli centers between 2000 and 2014 were included. A melphalan dose of 200 mg/m(2) was more frequent in the 60-64 age group vs. the ≥65 age group (77 vs. 57%, p = 0.002). There were no differences between groups in median day of neutrophil engraftment, incidence of infections, grades 3-4 mucositis, cardiovascular events, or non-relapse mortality at 100 days post HCT (4...
February 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038970/can-commercial-low-cost-sensor-platforms-contribute-to-air-quality-monitoring-and-exposure-estimates
#14
Nuria Castell, Franck R Dauge, Philipp Schneider, Matthias Vogt, Uri Lerner, Barak Fishbain, David Broday, Alena Bartonova
The emergence of low-cost, user-friendly and very compact air pollution platforms enable observations at high spatial resolution in near-real-time and provide new opportunities to simultaneously enhance existing monitoring systems, as well as engage citizens in active environmental monitoring. This provides a whole new set of capabilities in the assessment of human exposure to air pollution. However, the data generated by these platforms are often of questionable quality. We have conducted an exhaustive evaluation of 24 identical units of a commercial low-cost sensor platform against CEN (European Standardization Organization) reference analyzers, evaluating their measurement capability over time and a range of environmental conditions...
December 27, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028921/oscillospira-and-related-bacteria-from-metagenomics-species-to-metabolic-features
#15
Uri Gophna, Tom Konikoff, Henrik Bjørn Nielsen
Oscillospira is an under-studied anaerobic bacterial genus from Clostridial cluster IV that has resisted cultivation for over a decade since the first time it was observed. In recent years its 16S rRNA gene was identified in several human gut microbiota studies where it was often associated with interesting traits, especially leanness. However, very little is known about its metabolism or physiology. Here we use nearly complete genomes derived from shot-gun metagenomic data from the human gut to analyze Oscillospira and related bacteria...
December 28, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028085/diversity-and-resource-use-patterns-of-anthophile-insects-in-cuatro-ci%C3%A3-negas-coahuila-mexico
#16
Omar Ávalos-Hernández, Zenón Cano-Santana, Marysol Trujano-Ortega, Uri Omar García-Vázquez
Bees and flies are the main pollinators responsible for the maintenance of plant diversity and crop production. Studies of pollinator communities have focused on bees; however, community structures may vary among groups of pollinators. We describe and compare the diversity and resource use patterns of six Apoidea and two Diptera anthophile families in Cuatro Ciénegas in the northeast of Mexico. We sampled insects in two distinct geographic units (valley and mountains) and two seasons (rainy and dry). Spatial and temporal patterns in species composition and abundance of these families were identified and the diversity in each family compared...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018433/viral-agents-causing-acute-respiratory-infections-in-children-under-five-a-study-from-eastern-india
#17
Pravakar Mishra, Lipika Nayak, Rashmi Ranjan Das, Bhagirathi Dwibedi, Amitabh Singh
Background. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are important cause of mortality and morbidity in children under five in developing country. Methods. This observational study was conducted over two-year period in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Eastern India. Nasal and throat swabs were collected, transported to the laboratory at 2-8°C in viral transport media, and then processed for detection of viruses using mono/multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. A total of 300 children aged 2-60 months with ARIs were included...
2016: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017846/increased-post-procedural-non-gastrointestinal-adverse-events-after-outpatient-colonoscopy-in-high-risk-patients
#18
David A Johnson, David Lieberman, John M Inadomi, Uri Ladabaum, Richard C Becker, Seth A Gross, Kristin L Hood, Susan Kushins, Mark Pochapin, Douglas J Robertson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The incidence and predictors of non-gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events (AEs) following colonoscopy are not well understood. We studied the effects of anti-thrombotic agents, cardiopulmonary comorbidities, and age on risk of non-GI AEs after colonoscopy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective longitudinal analysis to assess the diagnosis, procedure, and prescription drug codes in a United States commercial claims database (March 2010 - March 2012)...
December 22, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011110/characterization-and-10-be-content-of-iron-carbonate-concretions-for-genetic-aspects-weathering-desert-varnish-or-burning-rim-effects-in-iron-carbonate-concretions
#19
Márta Polgári, Szaniszló Bérczi, Kazuho Horiuchi, Hiroyuki Matsuzaki, Tibor Kovács, Sándor Józsa, Zsolt Bendő, Krisztián Fintor, József Fekete, Zoltán Homonnay, Ernő Kuzmann, Arnold Gucsik, Ildikó Gyollai, János Kovács, István Dódony
The research investigated three iron carbonate (siderite) sedimentary concretions from Nagykovácsi, Úri and Délegyháza, Hungary. To identify possible source rocks and effects of the glaze-like exposed surface of the concretions, we carried on comparative petrological, mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic studies. The samples were microbially mediated siderite concretions with embedded metamorphous and igneous mineral clasts, and had specific rim belts characterized by semi-concentric outer Fe-oxide layers, fluffy pyrite-rich outer belts and siderite inner parts...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000760/mice-lacking-wrb-reveal-differential-biogenesis-requirements-of-tail-anchored-proteins-in-vivo
#20
Jhon Rivera-Monroy, Lena Musiol, Kirsten Unthan-Fechner, Ákos Farkas, Anne Clancy, Javier Coy-Vergara, Uri Weill, Sarah Gockel, Shuh-Yow Lin, David P Corey, Tobias Kohl, Philipp Ströbel, Maya Schuldiner, Blanche Schwappach, Fabio Vilardi
Tail-anchored (TA) proteins are post-translationally inserted into membranes. The TRC40 pathway targets TA proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum via a receptor comprised of WRB and CAML. TRC40 pathway clients have been identified using in vitro assays, however, the relevance of the TRC40 pathway in vivo remains unknown. We followed the fate of TA proteins in two tissue-specific WRB knockout mouse models and found that their dependence on the TRC40 pathway in vitro did not predict their reaction to receptor depletion in vivo...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
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