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Kfir Kuchuk, Uri Sivan
Hydration interaction shapes biomolecules and is a dominant inter-molecular force. Mapping the hydration patterns of biomolecules is therefore essential for understanding molecular processes in biology. Numerous studies have been devoted to this challenge but current methods cannot map the hydration of single biomolecules, let alone under physiological conditions. Here, we show that FM-AFM can fill this gap and generate 3D hydration maps of single DNA molecules under near-physiological conditions. Additionally, we present real space images of DNA in which the double helix is resolved with unprecedented resolution, clearly revealing individual phosphate groups along the DNA backbone...
March 22, 2018: Nano Letters
Annekathrin Reinhardt, Damian Stichel, Daniel Schrimpf, Felix Sahm, Andrey Korshunov, David E Reuss, Christian Koelsche, Kristin Huang, Annika K Wefers, Volker Hovestadt, Martin Sill, Dorothee Gramatzki, Joerg Felsberg, Guido Reifenberger, Arend Koch, Ulrich-W Thomale, Albert Becker, Volkmar H Hans, Marco Prinz, Ori Staszewski, Till Acker, Hildegard Dohmen, Christian Hartmann, Wolf Mueller, Muin S A Tuffaha, Werner Paulus, Katharina Heß, Benjamin Brokinkel, Jens Schittenhelm, Camelia-Maria Monoranu, Almuth Friederike Kessler, Mario Loehr, Rolf Buslei, Martina Deckert, Christian Mawrin, Patricia Kohlhof, Ekkehard Hewer, Adriana Olar, Fausto J Rodriguez, Caterina Giannini, Amulya A NageswaraRao, Uri Tabori, Nuno Miguel Nunes, Michael Weller, Ute Pohl, Zane Jaunmuktane, Sebastian Brandner, Andreas Unterberg, Daniel Hänggi, Michael Platten, Stefan M Pfister, Wolfgang Wick, Christel Herold-Mende, David T W Jones, Andreas von Deimling, David Capper
Tumors with histological features of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), but with increased mitotic activity and additional high-grade features (particularly microvascular proliferation and palisading necrosis) have often been designated anaplastic pilocytic astrocytomas. The status of these tumors as a separate entity has not yet been conclusively demonstrated and molecular features have only been partially characterized. We performed DNA methylation profiling of 102 histologically defined anaplastic pilocytic astrocytomas...
March 21, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Yarden Shalev, Shannon M Soucy, R Thane Papke, J Peter Gogarten, Jerry Eichler, Uri Gophna
Within the Haloferax genus, both the surface (S)-layer protein, and the glycans that can decorate it, vary between species, which can potentially result in many different surface types, analogous to bacterial serotypes. This variation may mediate phenotypes, such as sensitivity to different viruses and mating preferences. Here, we describe S-layer glycoproteins found in multiple Haloferax strains and perform comparative genomics analyses of major and alternative glycosylation clusters of isolates from two coastal sites...
March 20, 2018: Genes
Judith Sebestyen VanSickle, Tarak Srivastava, Uri S Alon
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) plays an important role in the homeostasis of serum ionized calcium by regulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and tubular calcium handling. Calcimimetics, which act by allosteric modulation of the CaSR, mimic hypercalcemia resulting in suppression of PTH release and increase in calciuria. Mostly used in children to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with advanced renal failure, we have shown that calcimimetics can also be successfully used in children with bone and mineral disorders in which elevated PTH plays a detrimental role in skeletal pathophysiology in the face of normal kidney function...
March 19, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Jungeun Won, Guillermo L Monroy, Pin-Chieh Huang, Roshan Dsouza, Malcolm C Hill, Michael A Novak, Ryan G Porter, Eric Chaney, Ronit Barkalifa, Stephen A Boppart
Pneumatic otoscopy to assess the mobility of the tympanic membrane (TM) is a highly recommended diagnostic method of otitis media (OM), a widespread middle ear infection characterized by the fluid accumulation in the middle ear. Nonetheless, limited depth perception and subjective interpretation of small TM displacements have challenged the appropriate and efficient examination of TM dynamics experienced during OM. In this paper, a pneumatic otoscope integrated with low coherence interferometry (LCI) was adapted with a controlled pressure-generating system to record the pneumatic response of the TM and to estimate middle ear pressure (MEP)...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Uri Hamiel, Idan Hecht, Achia Nemet, Liron Pe'er, Vitaly Man, Assaf Hilely, Asaf Achiron
AIMS: Abbreviations are common in the medical record. Their inappropriate use may ultimately lead to patient harm, yet little is known regarding the extent of their use and their comprehension. Our aim was to assess the extent of their use, their comprehension and physicians' attitudes towards them, using ophthalmology consults in a tertiary hospital as a model. METHODS: We first mapped the frequency with which English abbreviations were used in the departments' computerised databases...
March 14, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Shlomo Mendlovic, Amit Saad, Uri Roll, Ariel Ben Yehuda, Rivka Tuval-Mashiah, Dana Atzil-Slonim
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine the association between patient-therapist micro-level congruence/incongruence ratio and psychotherapeutic outcome. METHOD: Nine good- and nine poor-outcome psychodynamic treatments (segregated by comparing pre- and post-treatment BDI-II) were analyzed (N = 18) moment by moment using the MATRIX (total number of MATRIX codes analyzed = 11,125). MATRIX congruence was defined as similar adjacent MATRIX codes. RESULTS: the congruence/incongruence ratio tended to increase as the treatment progressed only in good-outcome treatments...
March 14, 2018: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Caradee Y Wright, Vusumuzi Nkosi, Janine Wichmann
Respiratory health outcomes are among the top five causes of child morbidity and mortality around the world. We aimed to investigate possible food-related risk and protective factors for respiratory health outcomes in children. Structured questionnaires completed by primary caregivers of 10-year old children were used to collect information on demographics, socio-economic status, house characteristics and child respiratory health status. Upper (URIs) and Lower (LRIs) respiratory illnesses comprised hay fever, and wheezing, asthma and bronchitis, respectively...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
John Repass, Elizabeth Iorns, Alexandria Denis, Stephen R Williams, Nicole Perfito, Timothy M Errington
As part of the <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href="">Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology</ext-link>, we published a Registered Report (Repass et al., 2016), that described how we intended to replicate an experiment from the paper ' Fusobacterium nucleatum infection is prevalent in human colorectal carcinoma' (Castellarin et al., 2012). Here we report the results. When measuring Fusobacterium nucleatum DNA by qPCR in colorectal carcinoma (CRC), adjacent normal tissue, and separate matched control tissue, we did not detect a signal for F...
March 13, 2018: ELife
Christien P Laber, Jonathan E Hunter, Filipa Carvalho, James R Collins, Elias J Hunter, Brittany M Schieler, Emmanuel Boss, Kuldeep More, Miguel Frada, Kimberlee Thamatrakoln, Christopher M Brown, Liti Haramaty, Justin Ossolinski, Helen Fredricks, Jozef I Nissimov, Rebecca Vandzura, Uri Sheyn, Yoav Lehahn, Robert J Chant, Ana M Martins, Marco J L Coolen, Assaf Vardi, Giacomo R DiTullio, Benjamin A S Van Mooy, Kay D Bidle
Marine phytoplankton account for approximately half of global primary productivity1 , making their fate an important driver of the marine carbon cycle. Viruses are thought to recycle more than one-quarter of oceanic photosynthetically fixed organic carbon2 , which can stimulate nutrient regeneration, primary production and upper ocean respiration2 via lytic infection and the 'virus shunt'. Ultimately, this limits the trophic transfer of carbon and energy to both higher food webs and the deep ocean2 . Using imagery taken by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua satellite, along with a suite of diagnostic lipid- and gene-based molecular biomarkers, in situ optical sensors and sediment traps, we show that Coccolithovirus infections of mesoscale (~100 km) Emiliania huxleyi blooms in the North Atlantic are coupled with particle aggregation, high zooplankton grazing and greater downward vertical fluxes of both particulate organic and particulate inorganic carbon from the upper mixed layer...
March 12, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Vittorio Iacovella, Luca Faes, Uri Hasson
Neuroimaging research has shown that different cognitive tasks induce relatively specific activation patterns, as well as less task-specific deactivation patterns. Here we examined whether individual differences in Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) activity during task performance correlate with the magnitude of task-induced deactivation. In an fMRI study, participants performed a continuous mental arithmetic task in a task/rest block design, while undergoing combined fMRI and heart / respiration rate acquisitions using photoplethysmograph and respiration belt...
March 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Uri Weill, Eric C Arakel, Omer Goldmann, Matan Golan, Silvia Chuartzman, Sean Munro, Blanche Schwappach, Maya Schuldiner
A third of yeast genes encode for proteins that function in the endomembrane system. However, the precise localization for many of these proteins is still uncertain. Here, we visualized a collection of ~500 N-terminally, green fluorescent protein (GFP), tagged proteins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By co-localizing them with seven known markers of endomembrane compartments we determined the localization for over 200 of them. Using this approach, we create a systematic database of the various secretory compartments and identify several new residents...
March 12, 2018: Traffic
Ricardo Leão, Joana Dias Apolónio, Donghyun Lee, Arnaldo Figueiredo, Uri Tabori, Pedro Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: Limitless self-renewal is one of the hallmarks of cancer and is attained by telomere maintenance, essentially through telomerase (hTERT) activation. Transcriptional regulation of hTERT is believed to play a major role in telomerase activation in human cancers. MAIN BODY: The dominant interest in telomerase results from its role in cancer. The role of telomeres and telomere maintenance mechanisms is well established as a major driving force in generating chromosomal and genomic instability...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Uri Kaplan, Scott Penner, Forough Farrokhyar, Nicole Andruszkiewicz, Ruth Breau, Scott Gmora, Dennis Hong, Mehran Anvari
PURPOSE: Older age (> 60) has been considered a relative contraindication for bariatric surgery due to increased complication risk. This study examined the risks and benefits of bariatric surgery for patients older than 60 years in Canadian population. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of the Ontario Bariatric Registry: a database recording peri-operative and post-operative outcomes of publicly funded bariatric surgeries across the province. Patients who completed 1 year follow-up, who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass (LRYGB) or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) between January 2010 and May 2013, were divided into older (> 60) and younger (> 60) cohorts, and outcomes were compared...
March 10, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Blai Ferrer-Uris, Albert Busquets, Rosa Angulo-Barroso
We assessed the effect of an acute intense exercise bout on the adaptation and consolidation of a visuomotor adaptation task in children. We also sought to assess if exercise and learning task presentation order could affect task consolidation. Thirty-three children were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) exercise before the learning task, (b) exercise after the learning task, and (c) only learning task. Baseline performance was assessed by practicing the learning task in a 0° rotation condition...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Yuvalal Liron, Noa Raindel, Uri Alon
Existing approaches to describe social interactions consider emotional states or use ad-hoc descriptors for microanalysis of interactions. Such descriptors are different in each context thereby limiting comparisons, and can also mix facets of meaning such as emotional states, short term tactics and long-term goals. To develop a systematic set of concepts for second-by-second social interactions, we suggest a complementary approach based on practices employed in theater. Theater uses the concept of dramatic action, the effort that one makes to change the psychological state of another...
2018: PloS One
Uri Obolski, José Lourenço, Craig Thompson, Robin Thompson, Andrea Gori, Sunetra Gupta
The bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major public health concern, being responsible for more than 1.5 million deaths annually through pneumonia, meningitis, and septicemia. Available vaccines target only a subset of serotypes, so vaccination is often accompanied by a rise in the frequency of nonvaccine serotypes. Epidemiological studies suggest that such a change in serotype frequencies is often coupled with an increase of antibiotic resistance among nonvaccine serotypes. Building on previous multilocus models for bacterial pathogen population structure, we have developed a theoretical framework incorporating variation of serotype and antibiotic resistance to examine how their associations may be affected by vaccination...
March 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ran Svirsky, Dana Brabbing-Goldstein, Uri Rozovski, Livia Kapusta, Adi Reches, Yuval Yaron
INTRODUCTION: Our objective was an evaluation of the incidence of chromosomal aberration (both microscopic and submicroscopic) and the clinical outcome of fetuses with isolated muscular ventricular septal defect. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 40 pregnant women whose fetuses were diagnosed with isolated muscular ventricular septal defect (mVSD). Of these, 30 patients underwent amniocentesis and 10 declined. All samples were tested by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Arthur H Friedlander, Lindsay L Graves, Tina I Chang, K Karl Kawakami, Urie K Lee, Shannon C Grabich, Zhuang T Fang, Michelle R Zeidler, JoAnn A Giaconi
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) prevalence among obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients because the perioperative environment risks further damaging the optic nerve. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed a "convenience sample" referred by Sleep Medicine for oral appliances because of continuous positive airway pressure intolerance. We determined the aggregate prevalence of the 3 POAG subtypes-"classic" open-angle glaucoma (COAG), normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), and open-angle glaucoma suspect (OAGS)-among the index population and compared it with that of same hospital's general population...
January 31, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Daniel Silverberg, Uri Rimon, Daniel Raskin, Avner BarDayan, Moshe Halak
Background "Chimney" techniques with parallel grafts used in order to extend the landing zones in endovascular aneurysm repair (ch-EVAR) are increasingly being reported. Conflicting data has been reported regarding the success and durability of the repair. We report a single center experience and outcome using ch-EVAR in treating complex aortic pathologies. Methods We performed a retrospective review of all patients treated with ch-EVAR in our institution between 2013 and 2017. Data collected included patients demographics, indications for surgery, configuration of parallel grafts, technical success, and perioperative morbidity and mortality...
January 1, 2018: Vascular
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