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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065312/using-fast-acting-temperature-sensitive-mutants-to-study-cell-division-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#1
T Davies, S Sundaramoorthy, S N Jordan, M Shirasu-Hiza, J Dumont, J C Canman
Fast-acting temperature-sensitive (ts) mutations are powerful conditional tools for studying transient cellular processes such as cytokinesis. Fast-acting ts cytokinesis-defective mutants are functional at the permissive temperature; yet show a fully penetrant loss-of-function cytokinesis failure phenotype when upshifted to the restrictive temperature. Fast-acting ts mutations thus allow functional tunability and rapid and reversible protein inactivation by simply shifting the temperature at precise times throughout cell division...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060529/is-domain-highlighting-actually-helpful-in-identifying-phishing-web-pages
#2
Aiping Xiong, Robert W Proctor, Weining Yang, Ninghui Li
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of domain highlighting in helping users identify whether Web pages are legitimate or spurious. BACKGROUND: As a component of the URL, a domain name can be overlooked. Consequently, browsers highlight the domain name to help users identify which Web site they are visiting. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed the effectiveness of domain highlighting, and the only formal study confounded highlighting with instructions to look at the address bar...
December 1, 2016: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054235/heated-humidified-high-flow-nasal-cannula-for-prevention-of-extubation-failure-in-preterm-infants
#3
Sasivimon Soonsawad, Buranee Swatesutipun, Anchalee Limrungsikul, Pracha Nuntnarumit
OBJECTIVES: To compare extubation failure rate between the heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) groups. METHODS: Intubated infants with gestational age (GA) <32 wk, who were ready to extubate, were randomized to receive respiratory support with either CPAP or HHHFNC after extubation. In CPAP group, nasal mask CPAP with preset pressure and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) equal to positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and FiO2 of ventilator before extubation was applied...
January 5, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031826/acute-eosinophilic-pneumonia-following-heat-not-burn-cigarette-smoking
#4
Takahiro Kamada, Yosuke Yamashita, Hiromi Tomioka
A 20-year-old man was admitted with acute respiratory failure. He had started smoking 20 heat-not-burn cigarettes (HC) per day 6 months previously, then purchased a second device for smoking HC to increase smoking to 40 cigarettes per day 2 weeks before hospitalization. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) was diagnosed based on medical history, chest high-resolution computed tomographic findings, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid eosinophilia. On starting treatment with prednisolone, the patient exhibited complete recovery...
November 2016: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028213/programming-function-into-mechanical-forms-by-directed-assembly-of-silk-bulk-materials
#5
Benedetto Marelli, Nereus Patel, Thomas Duggan, Giovanni Perotto, Elijah Shirman, Chunmei Li, David L Kaplan, Fiorenzo G Omenetto
We report simple, water-based fabrication methods based on protein self-assembly to generate 3D silk fibroin bulk materials that can be easily hybridized with water-soluble molecules to obtain multiple solid formats with predesigned functions. Controlling self-assembly leads to robust, machinable formats that exhibit thermoplastic behavior consenting material reshaping at the nanoscale, microscale, and macroscale. We illustrate the versatility of the approach by realizing demonstrator devices where large silk monoliths can be generated, polished, and reshaped into functional mechanical components that can be nanopatterned, embed optical function, heated on demand in response to infrared light, or can visualize mechanical failure through colorimetric chemistries embedded in the assembled (bulk) protein matrix...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025302/micromechanics-of-sea-ice-frictional-slip-from-test-basin-scale-experiments
#6
Peter R Sammonds, Daniel C Hatton, Daniel L Feltham
We have conducted a series of high-resolution friction experiments on large floating saline ice floes in an environmental test basin. In these experiments, a central ice floe was pushed between two other floes, sliding along two interfacial faults. The frictional motion was predominantly stick-slip. Shear stresses, normal stresses, local strains and slip displacement were measured along the sliding faults, and acoustic emissions were monitored. High-resolution measurements during a single stick-slip cycle at several positions along the fault allowed us to identify two phases of frictional slip: a nucleation phase, where a nucleation zone begins to slip before the rest of the fault, and a propagation phase when the entire fault is slipping...
February 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018126/sublimation-like-behavior-of-cardiac-dynamics-in-heart-failure-a-malignant-phase-transition
#7
Ary L Goldberger, Teresa Henriques, Sara Mariani
An abrupt transition from sinus cardiac rhythm to atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). We propose a conceptual framework for viewing this malignant transition in terms of a type of sublimation marked by the switch from highly periodic sinus interbeat interval dynamics characteristic of CHF to a state of random disorganization with AF. Sublimation of physical substances involves an increase in entropy via heat transfer. In contrast, the disease-related sublimation-like behavior involves a loss of information content, associated decreases in cardiac bioenergetic capacity and in multiscale entropy...
November 2016: Complexity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010179/investigation-and-modelling-the-residential-infiltration-of-fine-particulate-matter-in-beijing
#8
Chunyu Xu, Na Li, Yibing Yang, Yunpu Li, Zhe Liu, Qin Wang, Tongzhang Zheng, Anna Civitarese, Dongqun Xu
Failure to consider the differences between indoor and outdoor PM2.5 may contribute to exposure misclassification in epidemiological studies estimating exposure from a central site measurement. This study was conducted in Beijing to investigate residential PM2.5 infiltration factor and to develop a localized predictive model in both non-heating and heating seasons. High variations of PM2.5 infiltration factor between the two seasons and across homes within each season were found, highlighting the importance of including infiltration factor into assessment of exposure to PM2...
December 23, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006712/effect-of-annealing-on-the-mechanical-properties-and-the-degradation-of-electrospun-polydioxanone-filaments
#9
Roxanna E Abhari, Pierre-Alexis Mouthuy, Nasim Zargar, Cameron Brown, Andrew Carr
Annealing, or heat treatment, has traditionally been used as a treatment to improve the strength and stiffness of electrospun materials. Understanding the extent to which annealing can improve the mechanical properties and alter the degradation rate of electrospun polydioxanone filaments could influence the range of its potential clinical applications. In this study, we investigated the effect of annealing electrospun polydioxanone filaments at varying times and temperatures and subsequently subjecting them to in vitro degradation in phosphate buffer saline for up to 6 weeks...
December 15, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002908/heat-shock-induces-the-expression-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-human-achilles-tendon-tenocytes
#10
A D'Addona, D Somma, S Formisano, D Rosa, S L Di Donato, N Maffulli
The aim of our study is to investigate the behaviour of healthy and tendinopathic human tenocytes after a heat shock. After we harvested tendinopathic and healthy human tendon samples, we split tenocytes into 4 groups: 3 groups were submitted to heat shock, followed by different periods of post-heating (2, 4 and 20 h). The other group represents our negative control. The target genes were analysed using Real Time PCR. IL-1β and IL-6 expression were significantly increased in tendinopathic samples after heat shock...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996976/magmas-near-the-critical-degassing-pressure-drive-volcanic-unrest-towards-a-critical-state
#11
Giovanni Chiodini, Antonio Paonita, Alessandro Aiuppa, Antonio Costa, Stefano Caliro, Prospero De Martino, Valerio Acocella, Jean Vandemeulebrouck
During the reawaking of a volcano, magmas migrating through the shallow crust have to pass through hydrothermal fluids and rocks. The resulting magma-hydrothermal interactions are still poorly understood, which impairs the ability to interpret volcano monitoring signals and perform hazard assessments. Here we use the results of physical and volatile saturation models to demonstrate that magmatic volatiles released by decompressing magmas at a critical degassing pressure (CDP) can drive volcanic unrest towards a critical state...
December 20, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989581/influence-of-temperature-on-cyclic-fatigue-resistance-of-protaper-gold-and-protaper-universal-rotary-files
#12
Gianluca Plotino, Nicola M Grande, Montse Mercadé, Luca Testarelli, Gianluca Gambarini
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cyclic fatigue resistance of ProTaper Universal (PTU; Dentsply Maillefer, Baillagues, Switzerland) and ProTaper Gold (PTG, Dentsply Maillefer) nickel-titanium rotary files at room and intracanal temperatures. METHODS: A total of 120 files were used to test the cyclic fatigue resistance of PTU (S1 and F2) and PTG (S1 and F2) in an artificial canal at room temperature (20°C) and at intracanal temperature (35°C)...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965417/why-diets-fail-a-hypothesis-for-discussion
#13
Philip D Welsby
Weight regulation depends on the difference between weights of absorbed and metabolised carbon and excretion of the end products of metabolism, calories and carbon dioxide, which can be independently and variably excreted. Calories can be variably excreted as heat by vasoconstriction or vasodilation and carbon dioxide can be excreted variably as exhaled carbon dioxide (the major route of carbon excretion). Unless there are changes in ventilatory carbon excretion, 'metabolism,' 'genetic factors,' 'hormones' or 'exercise' do not provide complete explanatory mechanisms for weight changes, obesity and failure of diets...
December 13, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927623/metabolic-and-functional-characterization-of-effects-of-developmental-temperature-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Mads F Schou, Torsten Nygaard Kristensen, Anders Pedersen, Goran B Karlsson, Volker Loeschcke, Anders Malmendal
The ability of ectotherms to respond to changes in their thermal environment through plastic mechanisms is central to their adaptive capability. However, we still lack knowledge on physiological and functional responses by which ectotherms acclimate to temperatures during development, and in particular, how physiological stress at extreme temperatures may counteract beneficial acclimation responses at benign temperatures. We exposed Drosophila melanogaster to ten developmental temperatures covering their entire permissible temperature range...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916937/the-emergence-and-epidemiology-of-haff-disease-in-china
#15
REVIEW
Thomas Y K Chan
Haff disease is a rare syndrome of unexplained myalgia and rhabdomyolysis occurring within 24 h of consumption of certain types of cooked freshwater fish or crustacean. It is caused by a yet unidentified heat-stable toxin. In the present review of published case studies and official press releases, the main objective is to report the emergence and epidemiology of Haff disease in China. Haff disease first occurred in Beijing in 2000 and in Lianzhou and Liannan, Guangdong Province in 2009. Subsequent outbreaks mostly occurred in the Jiangsu Province-Nanjing, Yangzhou, Huai'an, and Yancheng...
December 1, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905297/altered-thermoregulatory-responses-in-heart-failure-patients-exercising-in-the-heat
#16
Bryce N Balmain, Ollie Jay, Surendran Sabapathy, Danielle Royston, Glenn M Stewart, Rohan Jayasinghe, Norman R Morris
Heart failure (HF) patients appear to exhibit impaired thermoregulatory capacity during passive heating, as evidenced by diminished vascular conductance. Although some preliminary studies have described the thermoregulatory response to passive heating in HF, responses during exercise in the heat remain to be described. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare thermoregulatory responses in HF and controls (CON) during exercise in the heat. Ten HF (NYHA classes I-II) and eight CON were included. Core temperature (Tc), skin temperature (Tsk), and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) were assessed at rest and during 1 h of exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889388/cellular-aging-contributes-to-failure-of-cold-induced-beige-adipocyte-formation-in-old-mice-and-humans
#17
Daniel C Berry, Yuwei Jiang, Robert W Arpke, Elizabeth L Close, Aki Uchida, David Reading, Eric D Berglund, Michael Kyba, Jonathan M Graff
Cold temperatures induce progenitor cells within white adipose tissue to form beige adipocytes that burn energy and generate heat; this is a potential anti-diabesity therapy. However, the potential to form cold-induced beige adipocytes declines with age. This creates a clinical roadblock to potential therapeutic use in older individuals, who constitute a large percentage of the obesity epidemic. Here we show that aging murine and human beige progenitor cells display a cellular aging, senescence-like phenotype that accounts for their age-dependent failure...
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885739/analysis-of-factors-affecting-outcome-of-ultrasound-guided-radiofrequency-heat-ablation-for-treatment-of-primary-hyperparathyroidism-in-dogs
#18
Daniel Bucy, Rachel Pollard, Richard Nelson
Radiofrequency (RF) parathyroid ablation is a noninvasive treatment for hyperparathyroidism in dogs. There are no published data assessing factors associated with RF parathyroid ablation success or failure in order to guide patient selection and improve outcome. The purpose of this retrospective analytical study was to determine whether imaging findings, biochemical data, or concurrent diseases were associated with RF heat ablation treatment failure. For inclusion in the study, dogs must have had a clinical diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism, undergone cervical ultrasound and RF ablation of abnormal parathyroid tissue, and must have had at least 3 months of follow-up information available following the date of ultrasound-guided parathyroid ablation...
November 24, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879385/fio2-in-an-adult-model-simulating-high-flow-nasal-cannula-therapy
#19
Yusuke Chikata, Mutsuo Onodera, Jun Oto, Masaji Nishimura
BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal cannula therapy (HFNC) is widely used for patients with acute respiratory failure. HFNC has a number of physiological effects. Although FIO2 is considered to be constant, because HFNC is an open system, FIO2 varies according to inspiratory flow, tidal volume (VT), and HFNC gas flow. We investigated the influence of HFNC gas flow and other respiratory parameters on FIO2 during HFNC. METHODS: We evaluated an HFNC system and, for comparison, a conventional oxygen therapy system...
November 22, 2016: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832001/scaling-the-low-shear-pulsatile-torvad-for-pediatric-heart-failure
#20
Jeffrey R Gohean, Erik R Larson, Brian H Hsi, Mark Kurusz, Richard W Smalling, Raul G Longoria
This article provides an overview of the design challenges associated with scaling the low-shear pulsatile TORVAD ventricular assist device (VAD) for treating pediatric heart failure. A cardiovascular system model was used to determine that a 15 ml stroke volume device with a maximum flow rate of 4 L/min can provide full support to pediatric patients with body surface areas between 0.6 to 1.5 m2. Low shear stress in the blood is preserved as the device is scaled down and remains at least two orders of magnitude less than continuous flow VADs...
November 9, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
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