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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330967/muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-response-to-heat-stress-is-attenuated-in-chronic-heart-failure-patients
#1
Jian Cui, John Boehmer, Cheryl A Blaha, Lawrence I Sinoway
Heat stress evokes significant increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in healthy individuals. The MSNA response to heat stress in chronic heart failure (CHF) is unknown. We hypothesized that the MSNA response to heat stress is attenuated in CHF. Passive whole body heating was applied with water-perfused suits on 13 patients (61 ± 2 years) with stable class II-III CHF, 12 age-matched (62 ± 2 years) healthy subjects, and 14 young (24 ± 1 years) healthy subjects. Mild heating (i.e. increases in skin temperature ΔTsk ~2-4 °C, internal temperature ΔTcore <0...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319196/h-channels-in-embryonic-biomphalaria-glabrata-cell-membranes-putative-roles-in-snail-host-schistosome-interactions
#2
Brandon J Wright, Utibe Bickham-Wright, Timothy P Yoshino, Meyer B Jackson
The human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni causes intestinal schistosomiasis, a widespread neglected tropical disease. Infection of freshwater snails Biomphalaria spp. is an essential step in the transmission of S. mansoni to humans, although the physiological interactions between the parasite and its obligate snail host that determine success or failure are still poorly understood. In the present study, the B. glabrata embryonic (Bge) cell line, a widely used in vitro model for hemocyte-like activity, was used to investigate membrane properties, and assess the impact of larval transformation proteins (LTP) on identified ion channels...
March 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303198/impacts-of-leaf-age-and-heat-stress-duration-on-photosynthetic-gas-exchange-and-foliar-nonstructural-carbohydrates-in-coffea-arabica
#3
Danielle E Marias, Frederick C Meinzer, Christopher Still
Given future climate predictions of increased temperature, and frequency and intensity of heat waves in the tropics, suitable habitat to grow ecologically, economically, and socially valuable Coffea arabica is severely threatened. We investigated how leaf age and heat stress duration impact recovery from heat stress in C. arabica. Treated plants were heated in a growth chamber at 49°C for 45 or 90 min. Physiological recovery was monitored in situ using gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence (the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence, FV/FM), and leaf nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) on mature and expanding leaves before and 2, 15, 25, and 50 days after treatment...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295305/mitochondrial-ros-induced-erk1-2-activation-and-hsf2-mediated-at1-r-upregulation-are-required-for-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity
#4
Chih-Yang Huang, Jia-Yi Chen, Chia-Hua Kuo, Pei-Ying Pai, Tsung-Jung Ho, Tung-Sheng Chen, Fu-Jen Tsai, V Vijaya Padma, Wei-Wen Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang
Doxorubicin (DOX), one useful chemotherapeutic agent, is limited in clinical use because of its serious cardiotoxicity. Growing evidence suggests that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have cardioprotective effects in DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying the action of ARBs on the prevention of DOX-induced cardiomyocyte cell death have yet to be investigated. Our results showed that angiotensin II receptor type I (AT1 R) plays a critical role in DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291795/experimental-chronic-kidney-disease-attenuates-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-an-ex-vivo-rat-lung-model
#5
Chung-Kan Peng, Kun-Lun Huang, Chou-Chin Lan, Yu-Juei Hsu, Geng-Chin Wu, Chia-Hui Peng, Chin-Pyng Wu, Khee-Siang Chan
Lung ischemia reperfusion injury (LIRI) is one of important complications following lung transplant and cardiopulmonary bypass. Although patients on hemodialysis are still excluded as lung transplant donors because of the possible effects of renal failure on the lungs, increased organ demand has led us to evaluate the influence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on LIRI. A CKD model was induced by feeding Sprague-Dawley rats an adenine-rich (0.75%) diet for 2, 4 and 6 weeks, and an isolated rat lung in situ model was used to evaluate ischemia reperfusion (IR)-induced acute lung injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279436/characterisation-of-nanovoiding-in-dental-porcelain-using-small-angle-neutron-scattering-and-transmission-electron-microscopy
#6
Alexander Lunt, Ann Terry, Siqi Ying, Nikolaos Baimpas, Tan Sui, Saurabh Kabra, Joe Kelleher, Stephen King, Neo Tee Khin, Alexander M Korsunsky
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies of the yttria partially stabilised zirconia-porcelain interface have revealed the presence of near-interface porcelain nanovoiding which reduces toughness and leads to component failure. One potential explanation for these nanoscale features is thermal creep which is induced by the combination of the residual stresses at the interface and sintering temperatures applied during manufacture. The present study provides improved understanding of this important phenomenon...
March 6, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275944/fine-tuning-of-actin-dynamics-by-the-hspb8-bag3-chaperone-complex-facilitates-cytokinesis-and-contributes-to-its-impact-on-cell-division
#7
Alice Anaïs Varlet, Margit Fuchs, Carole Luthold, Herman Lambert, Jacques Landry, Josée N Lavoie
The small heat shock protein HSPB8 and its co-chaperone BAG3 are proposed to regulate cytoskeletal proteostasis in response to mechanical signaling in muscle cells. Here, we show that in dividing cells, the HSPB8-BAG3 complex is instrumental to the accurate disassembly of the actin-based contractile ring during cytokinesis, a process required to allow abscission of daughter cells. Silencing of HSPB8 markedly decreased the mitotic levels of BAG3 in HeLa cells, supporting its crucial role in BAG3 mitotic functions...
March 8, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272544/maximum-power-game-as-a-physical-and-social-extension-of-classical-games
#8
Pilwon Kim
We consider an electric circuit in which the players participate as resistors and adjust their resistance in pursuit of individual maximum power. The maximum power game(MPG) becomes very complicated in a circuit which is indecomposable into serial/parallel components, yielding a nontrivial power distribution at equilibrium. Depending on the circuit topology, MPG covers a wide range of phenomena: from a social dilemma in which the whole group loses to a well-coordinated situation in which the individual pursuit of power promotes the collective outcomes...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262349/trends-in-heart-failure-hospitalizations-patient-characteristics-in-hospital-and-1-year-mortality-a-population-study-from-2000-to-2012-in-lombardy
#9
Maria Frigerio, Cristina Mazzali, Anna Maria Paganoni, Francesca Ieva, Pietro Barbieri, Mauro Maistrello, Ornella Agostoni, Cristina Masella, Simonetta Scalvini
BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to evaluate trends in heat failure hospitalizations (HFHs) and 1-year mortality of HFH in Lombardy, the largest Italian region, from 2000 to 2012. METHODS: Hospital discharge forms with HF-related ICD-9 CM codes collected from 2000 to 2012 by the regional healthcare service (n=699797 in 370538 adult patients), were analyzed with respect to in-hospital and 1-year mortality; Group (G) 1 included most acute HF episodes with primary cardiac diagnosis (70%); G2 included cardiomyopathies without acute HF codes (17%); and G3 included non-cardiac conditions with HF as secondary diagnosis (13%)...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260156/attention-and-pain-are-auditory-distractors-special
#10
Page Sloan, Mark Hollins
It is well established that manipulations of attention and emotional state can modulate pain. Some researchers have used olfactory or visual distractors to manipulate these factors in combination, and have found that attention and emotion have different effects on pain intensity and unpleasantness. Specifically, distraction from pain was found to markedly reduce its intensity while having little effect on its unpleasantness. Other evidence indicates, however, that the strength of intermodal attentional shifts depends on the specific modalities involved, with auditory-somesthetic shifts being relatively weak...
March 4, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260077/atorvastatin-protects-against-contrast-induced-nephropathy-via-anti-apoptosis-by-the-upregulation-of-hsp27-in%C3%A2-vivo-and-in%C3%A2-vitro
#11
Xuyu He, Junqing Yang, Liwen Li, Hong Tan, Ying Wu, Peng Ran, Shuo Sun, Jiyan Chen, Yingling Zhou
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an iatrogenic acute renal failure occurring following the intravascular injection of iodinated radiographic contrast medium. However, the regulatory mechanisms for CIN remain to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate whether atorvastatin protects against CIN via anti‑apoptotic effects by the upregulation of Hsp27 in vivo and in vitro. To determine whether atorvastatin attenuated CIN, the inflammatory response and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro, a rat model of iopamidol‑induced CIN was used, and human embryonic proximal tubule (HK2) cell damage was assessed...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245557/temperature-mapping-of-3d-printed-polymer-plates-experimental-and-numerical-study
#12
Charoula Kousiatza, Nikoleta Chatzidai, Dimitris Karalekas
In Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), which is a common thermoplastic Additive Manufacturing (AM) method, the polymer model material that is in the form of a flexible filament is heated above its glass transition temperature (Tg) to a semi-molten state in the head's liquefier. The heated material is extruded in a rastering configuration onto the building platform where it rapidly cools and solidifies with the adjoining material. The heating and rapid cooling cycles of the work materials exhibited during the FDM process provoke non-uniform thermal gradients and cause stress build-up that consequently result in part distortions, dimensional inaccuracy and even possible part fabrication failure...
February 24, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244292/humidified-high-flow-nasal-cannula-versus-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-as-an-initial-respiratory-support-in-preterm-infants-with-respiratory-distress-a-randomized-controlled-non-inferiority-trial
#13
Jeonghee Shin, Kyuhee Park, Eun Hee Lee, Byung Min Choi
Heated, humidified, high-flow nasal cannula (HHFNC) is frequently used as a noninvasive respiratory support for preterm infants with respiratory distress. But there are limited studies that compares HHFNC with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) only as the initial treatment of respiratory distress in preterm infants immediately after birth. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and safety of HHFNC compared to nCPAP for the initial treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress...
April 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243032/interlaboratory-study-for-nickel-alloy-625-made-by-laser-powder-bed-fusion-to-quantify-mechanical-property-variability
#14
Christopher U Brown, Gregor Jacob, Mark Stoudt, Shawn Moylan, John Slotwinski, Alkan Donmez
Six different organizations participated in this interlaboratory study to quantify the variability in the tensile properties of Inconel 625 specimens manufactured using laser-powder-bed-fusion additive manufacturing machines. The tensile specimens were heat treated and tensile tests conducted until failure. The properties measured were yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elastic modulus, and elongation. Statistical analysis revealed that between-participant variability for yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elastic modulus values were significantly higher (up to 4 times) than typical within-participant variations...
August 2016: Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238198/the-social-historical-and-institutional-contingencies-of-dam-removal
#15
F J Magilligan, C S Sneddon, C A Fox
Environmental managers in the United States and elsewhere are increasingly perceiving dam removal as a critical tool for river restoration and enhancing watershed resilience. In New England, over 125 dams have been dismantled for ecological and economic rationales. A surprising number of these removals, including many that are ongoing, have generated heated conflicts between restoration proponents and local communities who value their dammed landscapes. Using a comparative case study approach, we examine the environmental conflict around efforts to remove six dams in New England...
February 25, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218260/effect-of-hydrogen-on-the-integrity-of-aluminium-oxide-interface-at-elevated-temperatures
#16
Meng Li, De-Gang Xie, Evan Ma, Ju Li, Xi-Xiang Zhang, Zhi-Wei Shan
Hydrogen can facilitate the detachment of protective oxide layer off metals and alloys. The degradation is usually exacerbated at elevated temperatures in many industrial applications; however, its origin remains poorly understood. Here by heating hydrogenated aluminium inside an environmental transmission electron microscope, we show that hydrogen exposure of just a few minutes can greatly degrade the high temperature integrity of metal-oxide interface. Moreover, there exists a critical temperature of ∼150 °C, above which the growth of cavities at the metal-oxide interface reverses to shrinkage, followed by the formation of a few giant cavities...
February 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211793/a-novel-field-emission-microscopy-method-to-study-field-emission-characteristics-of-freestanding-carbon-nanotube-arrays
#17
Yunhan Li, Yonghai Sun, David A Jaffray, John T W Yeow
Field emission (FE) uniformity and the mechanism of emitter failure of freestanding carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have not been well studied due to the difficulty of observing and quantifying FE performance of each emitter in CNT arrays. Herein a field emission microscopy (FEM) method based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin film is proposed to study the FE uniformity and CNT emitter failure of freestanding CNT arrays. FE uniformity of freestanding CNT arrays and different levels of FE current contributions from each emitter in the arrays are recorded and visualized...
April 18, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211166/clinical-relevance-of-pre-ovulatory-follicular-temperature-in-heat-stressed-lactating-dairy-cows
#18
F López-Gatius, Rhf Hunter
Temperature gradients in female reproductive tissues seem to influence the success of key processes such as ovulation and fertilization. The objective of this study was to investigate whether pre-ovulatory follicles are cooler than neighbouring uterine tissue and deep rectal temperatures in lactating dairy cows under heat stress conditions. Temperatures within the pre-ovulatory follicle, on the uterine adjacent surface and 20 cm deep within rectum, were measured using fine thermistor probes within 45 min after sunrise (dawn)...
February 17, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182765/rapamycin-sodium-hyaluronate-binding-on-nano-hydroxyapatite-coated-titanium-surface-improves-mc3t3-e1-osteogenesis
#19
Chao Liu, Jian Yong Dong, Lin Lin Yue, Shao Hua Liu, Yi Wan, Hong Liu, Wan Ye Tan, Qian Qian Guo, Dong Zhang
Endosseous titanium (Ti) implant failure due to poor biocompatibility of implant surface remains a major problem for osseointegration. Improving the topography of Ti surface may enhance osseointegration, however, the mechanism remains unknown. To investigate the effect of modified Ti surface on osteogenesis, we loaded rapamycin (RA) onto nano-hydroxyapatite (HAp) coated Ti surface which was acid-etched, alkali-heated and HAp coated sequentially. Sodium hyaluronate (SH) was employed as an intermediate layer for the load of RA, and a steady release rate of RA was maintained...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178853/clinical-vagus-nerve-stimulation-paradigms-induce-pronounced-brain-and-body-hypothermia-in-rats
#20
Lars Emil Larsen, Wouter Van Lysebettens, Charlotte Germonpré, Sofie Carrette, Sofie Daelemans, Mathieu Sprengers, Lisa Thyrion, Wytse Jan Wadman, Evelien Carrette, Jean Delbeke, Paul Boon, Kristl Vonck, Robrecht Raedt
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a widely used neuromodulation technique that is currently used or being investigated as therapy for a wide array of human diseases such as epilepsy, depression, Alzheimer's disease, tinnitus, inflammatory diseases, pain, heart failure and many others. Here, we report a pronounced decrease in brain and core temperature during VNS in freely moving rats. Two hours of rapid cycle VNS (7s on/18s off) decreased brain temperature by around [Formula: see text]C, while standard cycle VNS (30[Formula: see text]s on/300[Formula: see text]s off) was associated with a decrease of around [Formula: see text]C...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
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