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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332310/advances-and-current-challenges-in-calcium-signaling
#1
REVIEW
Jörg Kudla, Dirk Becker, Erwin Grill, Rainer Hedrich, Michael Hippler, Ursula Kummer, Martin Parniske, Tina Romeis, Karin Schumacher
Content I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII VIII IX X XI ORCID References SUMMARY: Temporally and spatially defined changes in Ca2+ concentration in distinct compartments of cells represent a universal information code in plants. Recently, it has become evident that Ca2+ signals not only govern intracellular regulation but also appear to contribute to long distance or even organismic signal propagation and physiological response regulation. Ca2+ signals are shaped by an intimate interplay of channels and transporters, and during past years important contributing individual components have been identified and characterized...
January 14, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332180/cd39-adenosinergic-axis-in-renal-pathophysiology-and-therapeutics
#2
REVIEW
Bellamkonda K Kishore, Simon C Robson, Karen M Dwyer
Extracellular ATP interacts with purinergic type 2 (P2) receptors and elicits many crucial biological functions. Extracellular ATP is sequentially hydrolyzed to ADP and AMP by the actions of defined nucleotidases, such as CD39, and AMP is converted to adenosine, largely by CD73, an ecto-5'-nucleotidase. Extracellular adenosine interacts with P1 receptors and often opposes the effects of P2 receptor activation. The balance between extracellular ATP and adenosine in the blood and extracellular fluid is regulated chiefly by the activities of CD39 and CD73, which constitute the CD39-adenosinergic axis...
January 13, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332086/current-and-expected-advances-in-deep-brain-stimulation-for-movement-disorders
#3
Ausaf A Bari, Jasmine Thum, Diana Babayan, Andres M Lozano
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become an established treatment for medically refractory movement disorders including Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. The field of DBS continues to evolve with advances in patient selection, target identification, electrode and pulse generator technology, and the development of more effective stimulation paradigms such as closed-loop stimulation. Furthermore, as the safety and efficacy of DBS improves through better hardware design and deeper understanding of its mechanisms of action, the indications for DBS will continue to expand to cover a wider range of disorders...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332080/radiosurgical-pallidotomy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Leslie D Cahan, Ronald F Young, Francisco Li
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been widely accepted as a tool for treating many symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD); pallidotomy has been nearly abandoned. Concerns about both the safety and efficacy of pallidotomy are based on small series, isolated case reports, and techniques that would now be considered obsolete. The senior author recently reviewed long-term follow-up of a series of patients who had gamma knife pallidotomy (GKP) for advanced PD. GKP leads to durable, clinically significant benefit. Bilateral GKP adds incremental improvement...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332076/image-guided-asleep-deep-brain-stimulation
#5
Andrew L Ko, Kim J Burchiel
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become an established treatment for medically refractory movement disorders including Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. The field of DBS continues to evolve with advances in patient selection, target identification, electrode and pulse generator technology, and the development of more effective stimulation paradigms such as closed-loop stimulation. Furthermore, as the safety and efficacy of DBS improves through better hardware design and deeper understanding of its mechanisms of action, the indications for DBS will continue to expand to cover a wider range of disorders...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332074/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-the-basal-ganglia-for-functional-neurosurgery-applications
#6
Francesco Sammartino, Mojgan Hodaie
Since its introduction, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become an important tool in neuroscience given its unprecedented ability to image brain white matter in vivo. The interest in understanding the mechanisms of action of Deep Brain Stimulation in different targets and indications, together with the constant drive towards the improvement in long-term clinical outcomes, has found a logical complement in the application of tractography in this field. Diffusion tensor imaging has been traditionally associated with an increased susceptibility to MRI artifacts, and expensive computational resources...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332026/medicinal-plant-materials-in-the-treatment-of-anxiety-disorders-neurobiological-aspects
#7
Miłosz Jan Gołyszny, Ewa Obuchowicz
Context • Pathological anxiety, which affects approximately one-third of the world population, is an inadequate, irrational reaction of an organism to the environment and to a potential threat. Despite advancements in pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders, further studies are still necessary to search for new substances possessing the desired anxiolytic effects, with as few unwanted effects as possible. Objective • This study intended to examine the characteristics of medicinal plant materials that exhibit anxiolytic properties, with a special emphasis on the mechanisms of action of their active ingredients on the systems involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety...
January 15, 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331943/modern-management-of-perianal-fistulas-in-crohn-s-disease-future-directions
#8
REVIEW
Paulo Gustavo Kotze, Bo Shen, Amy Lightner, Takayuki Yamamoto, Antonino Spinelli, Subrata Ghosh, Remo Panaccione
Perianal fistulae in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) can be associated with significant morbidity resulting in negative impact on quality of life. The last two decades have seen significant advancements in the management of perianal fistulas in CD, which has evolved into a multidisciplinary approach that includes gastroenterologists, colorectal surgeons, endoscopists and radiologists. Despite the introduction of new medical therapies such as antitumour necrosis factor and novel models of care delivery, the best fistula healing rates reported with combined medical and surgical approaches are approximately 50%...
January 13, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331803/caspases-are-key-regulators-of-inflammatory-and-innate-immune-responses-mediated-by-tlr3-in-vivo
#9
Abeer Shaalan, Guy Carpenter, Gordon Proctor
Understanding the key regulators which impact the innate immune response during initial phases of tissue injury, can advance the use of therapeutic approaches which aim at attenuating inflammation and organ damage. Recognition of microbial components by TLRs, initiates the transcription of innate immune signal pathways, that induce the expression of key inflammatory mediators: cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. Beside regulating apoptotic cell death, recent studies have revealed distinct roles for caspases in the optimal production of inflammatory cytokines and host defense against injurious infections...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331738/recent-advances-in-neural-dust-towards-a-neural-interface-platform
#10
REVIEW
Ryan M Neely, David K Piech, Samantha R Santacruz, Michel M Maharbiz, Jose M Carmena
The neural dust platform uses ultrasonic power and communication to enable a scalable, wireless, and batteryless system for interfacing with the nervous system. Ultrasound offers several advantages over alternative wireless approaches, including a safe method for powering and communicating with sub mm-sized devices implanted deep in tissue. Early studies demonstrated that neural dust motes could wirelessly transmit high-fidelity electrophysiological data in vivo, and that theoretically, this system could be miniaturized well below the mm-scale...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331684/reprogramming-neurodegeneration-in-the-big-data-era
#11
REVIEW
Lujia Zhou, Patrik Verstreken
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous genetic risk variants for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, deciphering the functional consequences of GWAS data is challenging due to a lack of reliable model systems to study the genetic variants that are often of low penetrance and non-coding identities. Pluripotent stem cell (PSC) technologies offer unprecedented opportunities for molecular phenotyping of GWAS variants in human neurons and microglia...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331641/enzymes-from-piezophiles
#12
REVIEW
Toshiko Ichiye
The discovery of microbial communities in extreme conditions that would seem hostile to life leads to the question of how the molecules making up these microbes can maintain their structure and function. While microbes that live under extremes of temperature have been heavily studied, those that live under extremes of pressure, or "piezophiles", are now increasingly being studied because of advances in sample collection and high-pressure cells for biochemical and biophysical measurements. Here, adaptations of enzymes in piezophiles against the effects of pressure are discussed in light of recent experimental and computational studies...
January 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331640/recent-advances-in-application-of-uv-light-emitting-diodes-for-degrading-organic-pollutants-in-water-through-advanced-oxidation-processes-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Galina Matafonova, Valeriy Batoev
Over the last decade, ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have attracted considerable attention as alternative mercury-free UV sources for water treatment purposes. This review is a comprehensive analysis of data reported in recent years (mostly, post 2014) on the application of UV LED-induced advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to degrade organic pollutants, primarily dyes, phenols, pharmaceuticals, insecticides, estrogens and cyanotoxins, in aqueous media. Heterogeneous TiO2-based photocatalysis in lab grade water using UVA LEDs is the most frequently applied method for treating organic contaminants...
January 4, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331556/polypoidal-choroidal-vasculopathy-definition-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management
#14
REVIEW
Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung, Timothy Y Y Lai, Paisan Ruamviboonsuk, Shih-Jen Chen, Youxin Chen, K Bailey Freund, Fomi Gomi, Adrian H Koh, Won-Ki Lee, Tien Yin Wong
Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is an age-related macular degeneration (AMD) subtype and is seen particularly in Asians. Previous studies have suggested disparity in response to intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents between PCV and typical AMD, and thus, the preferred treatment for PCV has remained unclear. Recent research has provided novel insights into the pathogenesis of PCV, and imaging studies based on OCT suggest that PCV belongs to a spectrum of conditions characterized by pachychoroid, in which disturbance in the choroidal circulation seems to be central to its pathogenesis...
January 10, 2018: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331536/chronic-inflammation-and-sarcopenia-a-regenerative-cell-therapy-perspective
#15
Jagadish K Chhetri, Philipe de Souto Barreto, Bertrand Fougère, Yves Rolland, Bruno Vellas, Matteo Cesari
Sarcopenia is characterized by reduced skeletal muscle mass and strength in older individuals. It is one of the leading cause of physical limitation in older adults, and associated with wide spectrum of adverse events including disability and mortality. The phenomenon of chronic-inflammation or inflamm-aging with aging is known to be a major contributor to myriad of geriatric conditions including sarcopenia. Recent advances in regenerative medicine, in particular cell therapy have opened up new possibilities to ameliorate broad range of inflammatory disorders...
January 10, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331447/sharp-wave-ripples-as-a-signature-of-hippocampal-prefrontal-reactivation-for-memory-during-sleep-and-waking-states
#16
Wenbo Tang, Shantanu P Jadhav
It is widely believed that memories that are encoded and retrieved during waking behavior are consolidated during sleep. Recent studies on the interactions between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex have greatly advanced our understanding of the physiological bases of these memory processes. Although hippocampal-prefrontal network activity differs in many aspects during waking and sleep states, here we review evidence that hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) emerge as a common neurophysiological pattern in both states, facilitating communication between these two regions via coordinated reactivation of stored memory information...
January 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331400/locally-advanced-pancreas-cancer-staging-and-goals-of-therapy
#17
Nikolaos A Chatzizacharias, Susan Tsai, Michael Griffin, Parag Tolat, Paul Ritch, Ben George, Chad Barnes, Mohammed Aldakkak, Abdul H Khan, William Hall, Beth Erickson, Douglas B Evans, Kathleen K Christians
BACKGROUND: Patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer have historically been considered inoperable. The purpose of this report was to determine resectability rates for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer based on our recently described definitions of type A and type B locally advanced pancreatic cancer. METHODS: An institutional prospective pancreas cancer database was queried for consecutive patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated between January 2009 and June 2017...
January 10, 2018: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331396/autophagy-in-ischemic-stroke
#18
REVIEW
Pei Wang, Bo-Zong Shao, Zhiqiang Deng, Shi Chen, Zhenyu Yue, Chao-Yu Miao
Autophagy is a self-eating cellular catabolic pathway, through which long-lived proteins, damaged organelles and misfolded proteins are degraded and recycled for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and normal cellular functions. Autophagy plays an important homeostatic role in the regulation of cell survival. Accumulating evidence shows that autophagy is activated in various cell types in the brain such as neurons, glia cells, and brain microvascular cells upon ischemic stroke. However, the exact role and molecular mechanisms of autophagy process that is implicated in ischemic stroke have yet to be elucidated...
January 10, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331301/marrow-adipose-tissue-imaging-in-humans
#19
Vibha Singhal, Miriam A Bredella
Bone strength is affected not only by bone mineral density (BMD) and bone microarchitecture but also its microenvironment. Recent studies have focused on the role of marrow adipose tissue (MAT) in the pathogenesis of bone loss. Osteoblasts and adipocytes arise from a common mesenchymal stem cell within bone marrow and many osteoporotic states, including aging, medication use, immobility, over - and undernutrition are associated with increased marrow adiposity. Advancements in imaging technology allow the non-invasive quantification of MAT...
January 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331278/impact-of-treatment-with-a-protein-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-genistein-on-acute-and-chronic-experimental-schistosoma-mansoni-infection
#20
Maysa Mohamed Kamel Sobhy, Soheir Sayed Mahmoud, Shaimaa Helmy El-Sayed, Enas Mohamed Ali Rizk, Amira Raafat, Mohamed Sherif Ismail Negm
Schistosomiasis mansoni is considered one of the most common fibrotic diseases resulting from inflammation and deposition of fibrous tissue around parasitic eggs trapped in the liver, causing morbidity and mortality. Chemotherapy against schistosomiasis is largely dependent on Praziquantel (PZQ). Yet, the huge administration of it in endemic areas and its incompetence towards the immature stages have raised serious alarms against the development of drug resistance. Few drugs are directed to reverse schistosomal liver fibrosis, particularly at the chronic and advanced stages of the disease...
January 10, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
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