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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110463/biomarkers-of-renal-tumors-the-current-state-and-clinical-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Marina O Golovastova, Dmitry O Korolev, Larisa V Tsoy, Vladimir A Varshavsky, Wan-Hai Xu, Andrey Z Vinarov, Evgeni Yu Zernii, Pavel P Philippov, Andrey A Zamyatnin
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) ranks the first death rate among the urogenital tumors, whereas its incidence follows the incidences of prostate and bladder cancer. The diagnosis of RCC at early stages allows immediately undertaking appropriate treatment, which significantly increases patients' survival rate. Early and accurate diagnosis avoids inadequate treatment, provides the disease progression forecast, and permits to apply more efficient therapy. Unfortunately, the small renal tumors are usually asymptomatic resulting in the late diagnosis and, therefore, low efficacy of treatment...
January 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110462/endoluminal-and-interstitial-brachytherapy-for-the-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-malignancies-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Sujana Gottumukkala, Vasu Tumati, Brian Hrycushko, Michael Folkert
Radiation therapy is an integral component in the multimodality management of many gastrointestinal (GI) cancers at all stages of clinical presentation. With recent advances in technology and radiation delivery, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) can be delivered with reduced toxicity. However, despite these advances, EBRT doses are still limited by the presence of radiosensitive serial structures near clinical targets in the GI tract. Relative to EBRT techniques, brachytherapy techniques have a lower integral dose and more rapid fall-off, allowing for high-dose delivery with little normal tissue exposure...
January 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110422/interventions-for-neurocognitive-dysfunction
#3
REVIEW
Jacqueline Ellero, Michal Lubomski, Bruce Brew
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aimed to evaluate current barriers to HIV cure strategies and interventions for neurocognitive dysfunction with a particular focus on recent advancements over the last 3 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Optimal anti-retroviral therapy (ART) poses challenges to minimise neurotoxicity, whilst ensuring blood-brain barrier penetration and minimising the risk of cerebrovascular disease. CSF biomarkers, BCL11B and neurofilament light chain may be implicated with a neuroinflammatory cascade leading to cognitive impairment...
January 21, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110381/minimal-residual-disease-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#4
REVIEW
Pamela J Sung, Selina M Luger
New technology and improved understanding of the pathogenesis of acute leukemias have allowed for sensitive detection of minimal residual disease (MRD). Despite many years of research demonstrating the prognostic value of MRD, there is no standard of care for measurement of MRD in acute myeloid leukemia. The techniques for assessment are continuing to improve at a rapid pace; however, the benefit of risk-adapted approaches for MRD positive disease remains a major question. This review focuses on recent methodological advances for MRD detection, the role of MRD in prognostication, and current application of the available evidence in guiding therapy decisions...
January 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110335/personalised-medicine-for-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Liam G Heaney, Lorcan P A McGarvey
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are prevalent conditions, and despite recent advances and multiple available therapies and interventions, there remains a significant unmet clinical need. In recent years, it has become clear that there is both significant heterogeneity within each of these conditions and additionally significant overlap in many of the clinical and inflammatory features. In parallel, useful clinical and immunological biomarkers which inform about prognosis and response to therapy have emerged in both asthma and COPD...
January 21, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110321/recent-advances-in-arsenic-trioxide-encapsulated-nanoparticles-as-drug-delivery-agents-to-solid-cancers
#6
Akhtar Anam, Wang Scarlet Xiaoyan, Ghali Lucy, Bell Celia, Wen Xuesong
Since arsenic trioxide was first approved as the front line therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia 25 years ago, its anti-cancer properties for various malignancies have been under intense investigation. However, the clinical successes of arsenic trioxide in treating hematological cancers have not been translated to solid cancers. This is due to arsenic's rapid clearance by the body's immune system before reaching the tumor site. Several attempts have henceforth been made to increase its bioavailability toward solid cancers without increasing its dosage albeit without much success...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110204/new-classification-of-epilepsy-related-neoplasms-the-clinical-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Burkhard S Kasper, Ekkehard M Kasper
Neoplastic CNS lesions are a common cause of focal epilepsy refractory to anticonvulsant treatment, i.e. long-term epilepsy-associated tumors (LEATs). Epileptogenic tumors encompass a variety of intriguing lesions, e.g. dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors or gangliogliomas, which differ from more common CNS neoplasms in their clinical context as well as on histopathology. Long-term epilepsy-associated tumor classification is a rapidly evolving issue in surgical neuropathology, with new entities still being elucidated...
January 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110121/s100a12-friend-or-foe-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#8
Vahid Bagheri
In humans, S100A12 (also named Calgranulin C and EN-RAGE) is mainly expressed and secreted by neutrophil granulocytes. Extracellular S100A12 is involved in innate immune responses against microorganisms and parasites. S100A12 is a ligand for the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), which is a cell surface receptor on macrophages, endothelium, and lymphocytes. In a recent study, Realegeno et al. showed that S100A12 exerts antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium leprae in infected human macrophages...
January 18, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110042/recent-advances-in-compartmentalized-synthetic-architectures-as-drug-carriers-cell-mimics-and-artificial-organelles
#9
REVIEW
M J York-Duran, M Godoy-Gallardo, C Labay, A J Urquhart, T L Andresen, L Hosta-Rigau
Compartmentalization is a key feature of biological cells which conduct their metabolic activity in individual steps isolated in distinct, separated compartments. The creation of architectures containing multiple compartments with a structure that resembles that of a biological cell has generated significant research attention and these assemblies are proposed as candidate materials for a range of biomedical applications. In this Review article, the recent successes of multicompartment architectures as carriers for the delivery of therapeutic cargo or the creation of micro- and nanoreactors that mimic metabolic activities, thus acting as artificial cells or organelles, are discussed...
January 16, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109966/misconceptions-and-facts-about-aortic-stenosis
#10
REVIEW
Edgar Argulian, Stephan Windecker, Franz H Messerli
Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease leading to intervention and it is typically a disease of the elderly. Recent clinical advances have expanded the role of transcatheter aortic valve intervention in patients with severe aortic stenosis making aortic valve intervention feasible and effective even in patients at intermediate, high and prohibitive surgical risk. With the rapid advances in treatment proper diagnosis becomes crucial for a wide range of patients with aortic stenosis: from 'concordant' high-gradient aortic stenosis to 'discordant' low-gradient aortic stenosis...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109771/assessment-of-learning-memory-and-attention-in-developmental-neurotoxicology-regulatory-testing-commentary-on-essentiality-of-cognitive-assessment-for-protecting-child-health
#11
Charles V Vorhees
This commentary is in response to the remarks of Drs. Christina Sobin, Mari Golub, and David Herr on the Special Issue of this Journal entitled "Assessment of Learning, Memory, and Attention in Developmental Neurotoxicology Regulatory Testing." I endorse the views expressed by Drs. Sobin, Golub, and Herr and add some discussion on a recent Organization on Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline, the Extended One Generation Reproductive Toxicology Guideline (OECD 446), in which testing for higher cognitive function (learning and memory) has been eliminated...
January 18, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109728/the-utility-of-hair-cortisol-concentrations-in-the-prediction-of-ptsd-symptoms-following-traumatic-physical-injury
#12
Maria L Pacella, Bryce Hruska, Susann Steudte-Schmiedgen, Richard L George, Douglas L Delahanty
RATIONALE: Although cortisol alterations have been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD symptoms (PTSS), the direction of association is mixed. Cortisol which is measured in blood, saliva, or urine is subject to transient factors that may confound results. Recent advances in cortisol sampling techniques provide novel opportunities to address these inconsistencies. Hair cortisol sampling is a non-invasive method for the retrospective assessment of long-term integrated cortisol, yet its utility at predicting PTSS has not been assessed in acute injury victims...
January 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109636/management-of-non-variceal-upper-gastrointestinal-bleeding-position-statement-of-the-catalan-society-of-gastroenterology
#13
Pilar García-Iglesias, Josep-Maria Botargues, Faust Feu Caballé, Càndid Villanueva Sánchez, Xavier Calvet Calvo, Enric Brullet Benedi, Gabriel Cánovas Moreno, Esther Fort Martorell, Marta Gallach Montero, Emili Gené Tous, José-Manuel Hidalgo Rosas, Amelia Lago Macía, Ana Nieto Rodríguez, Michel Papo Berger, Montserrat Planella de Rubinat, Joan Saló Rich, Rafel Campo Fernández de Los Ríos
In recent years there have been advances in the management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding that have helped reduce rebleeding and mortality. This document positioning of the Catalan Society of Digestologia is an update of evidence-based recommendations on management of gastrointestinal bleeding peptic ulcer.
January 18, 2017: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109438/proteomic-analysis-of-metabolic-responses-to-biofuels-and-chemicals-in-photosynthetic-cyanobacteria
#14
T Sun, L Chen, W Zhang
Recent progresses in various "omics" technologies have enabled quantitative measurements of biological molecules in a high-throughput manner. Among them, high-throughput proteomics is a rapidly advancing field that offers a new means to quantify metabolic changes at protein level, which has significantly facilitated our understanding of cellular process, such as protein synthesis, posttranslational modifications, and degradation in responding to environmental perturbations. Cyanobacteria are autotrophic prokaryotes that can perform oxygenic photosynthesis and have recently attracted significant attentions as one promising alternative to traditionally biomass-based "microbial cell factories" to produce green fuels and chemicals...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109435/an-overview-of-advanced-silac-labeling-strategies-for-quantitative-proteomics
#15
F Terzi, S Cambridge
Comparative, quantitative mass spectrometry of proteins provides great insight to protein abundance and function, but some molecular characteristics related to protein dynamics are not so easily obtained. Because the metabolic incorporation of stable amino acid isotopes allows the extraction of distinct temporal and spatial aspects of protein dynamics, the SILAC methodology is uniquely suited to be adapted for advanced labeling strategies. New SILAC strategies have emerged that allow deeper foraging into the complexity of cellular proteomes...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109434/application-of-a-thioredoxin-trapping-mutant-for-analysis-of-the-cellular-nitrosoproteome
#16
M Benhar
Nitric oxide influences a wide range of cellular functions through S-nitrosylation, a redox-dependent posttranslational protein modification that involves attachment of a nitroso moiety to a reactive thiol group. Over the past two decades, S-nitrosylation has emerged as a ubiquitous mechanism for controlling the activity, subcellular localization, and molecular interactions of proteins, thereby influencing many cellular processes. In addition, recent studies have indicated that aberrant S-nitrosylation may lead to cellular dysfunction and damage...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109325/studying-hematopoiesis-using-single-cell-technologies
#17
REVIEW
Fang Ye, Wentao Huang, Guoji Guo
Hematopoiesis is probably the best-understood stem cell differentiation system; hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation represents the most widely used regenerative therapy. The classical view of lineage hierarchy in hematopoiesis is built on cell type definition system by a group of cell surface markers. However, the traditional model is facing increasing challenges, as many classical cell types are proved to be heterogeneous. Recently, the developments of new technologies allow genome, transcriptome, proteome, and epigenome analysis at the single-cell level...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109310/consolidating-drug-data-on-a-global-scale-using-linked-data
#18
Milos Jovanovik, Dimitar Trajanov
BACKGROUND: Drug product data is available on the Web in a distributed fashion. The reasons lie within the regulatory domains, which exist on a national level. As a consequence, the drug data available on the Web are independently curated by national institutions from each country, leaving the data in varying languages, with a varying structure, granularity level and format, on different locations on the Web. Therefore, one of the main challenges in the realm of drug data is the consolidation and integration of large amounts of heterogeneous data into a comprehensive dataspace, for the purpose of developing data-driven applications...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109259/unfavourable-risk-factor-control-after-coronary-events-in-routine-clinical-practice
#19
Elise Sverre, Kari Peersen, Einar Husebye, Erik Gjertsen, Lars Gullestad, Torbjørn Moum, Jan Erik Otterstad, Toril Dammen, John Munkhaugen
BACKGROUND: Risk factor control after a coronary event in a recent European multi-centre study was inadequate. Patient selection from academic centres and low participation rate, however, may underscore failing risk factor control in routine clinical practice. Improved understanding of the patient factors that influence risk factor control is needed to improve secondary preventive strategies. The objective of the present paper was to determine control of the major risk factors in a coronary population from routine clinical practice, and how risk factor control was influenced by the study factors age, gender, number of coronary events, and time since the index event...
January 21, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109168/integrated-omics-analysis-of-specialized-metabolism-in-medicinal-plants
#20
Amit Rai, Kazuki Saito, Mami Yamazaki
Medicinal plants are the rich source of highly diverse specialized metabolites with important pharmacological properties. Until recently, plant biologists were limited in their approach to explore biosynthetic pathways of these metabolites, mainly due to the scarcity of plant genomics resources. Recent advancements in the high-throughput large-scale analytical methods have enabled plant biologists to discover biosynthetic pathways for important plant-based medicinal metabolites. Reduced cost to generate omics datasets, and the development of computational tools for their analysis and integration have led to the elucidation of biosynthetic pathways of several plant origin bio-active metabolites...
January 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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