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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817835/history-of-thyroid-disease-and-survival-of-ovarian-cancer-patients-results-from-the-ovarian-cancer-association-consortium-a-brief-report
#1
Albina N Minlikeeva, Jo L Freudenheim, Rikki A Cannioto, Kevin H Eng, J Brian Szender, Paul Mayor, John L Etter, Daniel W Cramer, Brenda Diergaarde, Jennifer A Doherty, Thilo Dörk, Robert Edwards, Anna deFazio, Grace Friel, Marc T Goodman, Peter Hillemanns, Estrid Høgdall, Allan Jensen, Susan J Jordan, Beth Y Karlan, Susanne K Kjær, Rüdiger Klapdor, Keitaro Matsuo, Mika Mizuno, Christina M Nagle, Kunle Odunsi, Lisa Paddock, Mary Anne Rossing, Joellen M Schildkraut, Barbara Schmalfeldt, Brahm H Segal, Kristen Starbuck, Kathryn L Terry, Penelope M Webb, Emese Zsiros, Roberta B Ness, Francesmary Modugno, Elisa V Bandera, Jenny Chang-Claude, Kirsten B Moysich
BACKGROUND: Findings from in vitro studies suggest that increased exposure to thyroid hormones can influence progression of ovarian tumours. However, epidemiologic evidence on this topic is limited. METHODS: We pooled data from 11 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated associations between hyper- and hypothyroidism and medications prescribed for these conditions with 5-year all-cause survival among women diagnosed with invasive ovarian cancer...
August 17, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817801/a-sensitized-igf1-treatment-restores-corticospinal-axon-dependent-functions
#2
Yuanyuan Liu, Xuhua Wang, Wenlei Li, Qian Zhang, Yi Li, Zicong Zhang, Junjie Zhu, Bo Chen, Philip R Williams, Yiming Zhang, Bin Yu, Xiaosong Gu, Zhigang He
A major hurdle for functional recovery after both spinal cord injury and cortical stroke is the limited regrowth of the axons in the corticospinal tract (CST) that originate in the motor cortex and innervate the spinal cord. Despite recent advances in engaging the intrinsic mechanisms that control CST regrowth, it remains to be tested whether such methods can promote functional recovery in translatable settings. Here we show that post-lesional AAV-assisted co-expression of two soluble proteins, namely insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and osteopontin (OPN), in cortical neurons leads to robust CST regrowth and the recovery of CST-dependent behavioral performance after both T10 lateral spinal hemisection and a unilateral cortical stroke...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817798/toward-a-wiring-diagram-understanding-of-appetite-control
#3
REVIEW
Mark L Andermann, Bradford B Lowell
Prior mouse genetic research has set the stage for a deep understanding of appetite regulation. This goal is now being realized through the use of recent technological advances, such as the ability to map connectivity between neurons, manipulate neural activity in real time, and measure neural activity during behavior. Indeed, major progress has been made with regard to meal-related gut control of appetite, arcuate nucleus-based hypothalamic circuits linking energy state to the motivational drive, hunger, and, finally, limbic and cognitive processes that bring about hunger-mediated increases in reward value and perception of food...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817785/diving-into-the-world-of-alcohol-teratogenesis-a-review-of-zebrafish-models-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#4
Yohaan Fernandes, Desirè M Buckley, Johann K Eberhart
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) refer to the entire suite of deleterious outcomes resulting from embryonic alcohol exposure. Along with other reviews in this edition, we provide insight into how animal models, specifically the zebrafish; have informed our understanding of FASD. We first provide a brief introduction to FASD. We discuss the zebrafish as a model organism and its strengths for alcohol research. We detail how zebrafish has been used to model some of the major defects present in FASD. These include behavioral defects, such as social behavior as well as learning and memory, and structural defects, disrupting organs such as the brain, sensory organs, heart and craniofacial skeleton...
August 17, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817753/efficacy-and-safety-of-durvalumab-in-locally-advanced-or-metastatic-urothelial-carcinoma-updated-results-from-a-phase-1-2-open-label-study
#5
Thomas Powles, Peter H O'Donnell, Christophe Massard, Hendrik-Tobias Arkenau, Terence W Friedlander, Christopher J Hoimes, Jae Lyun Lee, Michael Ong, Srikala S Sridhar, Nicholas J Vogelzang, Mayer N Fishman, Jingsong Zhang, Sandy Srinivas, Jigar Parikh, Joyce Antal, Xiaoping Jin, Ashok K Gupta, Yong Ben, Noah M Hahn
Importance: The data reported herein were accepted for assessment by the US Food and Drug Administration for Biologics License Application under priority review to establish the clinical benefit of durvalumab as second-line therapy for locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC), resulting in its recent US approval. Objective: To report a planned update of the safety and efficacy of durvalumab in patients with locally advanced/metastatic UC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is an ongoing phase 1/2 open-label study of 191 adult patients with histologically or cytologically confirmed locally advanced/metastatic UC whose disease had progressed on, were ineligible for, or refused prior chemotherapy from 60 sites in 9 countries as reported herein...
August 17, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817682/experimental-study-of-tuberculosis-from-animal-models-to-complex-cell-systems-and-organoids
#6
REVIEW
Kaori L Fonseca, Pedro N S Rodrigues, I Anna S Olsson, Margarida Saraiva
Tuberculosis (TB) is a devastating disease to mankind that has killed more people than any other infectious disease. Despite many efforts and successes from the scientific and health communities, the prospect of TB elimination remains distant. On the one hand, sustainable public health programs with affordable and broad implementation of anti-TB measures are needed. On the other hand, achieving TB elimination requires critical advances in three areas: vaccination, diagnosis, and treatment. It is also well accepted that succeeding in advancing these areas requires a deeper knowledge of host-pathogen interactions during infection, and for that, better experimental models are needed...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817665/concentrations-of-trace-elements-in-human-milk-comparisons-among-women-in-argentina-namibia-poland-and-the-united-states
#7
Laura D Klein, Alicia A Breakey, Brooke Scelza, Claudia Valeggia, Grazyna Jasienska, Katie Hinde
Human milk contains essential micronutrients for growth and development during early life. Environmental pollutants, such as potentially toxic metals, can also be transferred to the infant through human milk. These elements have been well-studied, but changing diets and environments and advances in laboratory technology require re-examining these elements in a variety of settings. The aim of this study was to characterize the concentrations of essential and toxic metals in human milk from four diverse populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817495/nursing-management-of-the-patient-undergoing-focused-ultrasound-a-new-treatment-option-for-essential-tremor
#8
Katherine Dale Shaw, Amy Sue Johnston, Shelly Rush-Evans, Susan Prather, Kathy Maynard
Essential tremor (ET) is among the most common neurological movement disorders that causes postural or action tremors, with an estimated prevalence nationwide of less than 3% of the population. The incidence of ET increases with age but often affects younger adults and has a familial trait association. Depending on disease progression, ET can cause significant limitations for individuals, in many cases, significantly limiting their ability to perform activities of daily living and occupational responsibilities...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817484/levosimendan-in-acute-and-advanced-heart-failure-an-appraisal-of-the-clinical-database-and-evaluation-of-its-therapeutic-applications
#9
J Altenberger, F Gustafsson, V-P Harjola, K Karason, D Kindgen-Milles, M Kivikko, G Malfatto, Z Papp, J Parissis, P Pollesello, G Pölzl, C Tschöpe
The use of inotropes for correcting haemodynamic dysfunction in patients with congestive heart failure has been described over many decades. However, negative or insufficient data have been collected regarding the effects of cardiac glycosides, catecholamines and phosphodiesterase inhibitors on quality of life and survival. More recently, the calcium sensitizer and potassium channel-opener levosimendan has been proposed as a safer inodilator than traditional agents in some heart failure settings, such as Advanced Heart Failure...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817465/new-insights-into-the-recognition-classification-and-management-of-systemic-sclerosis-associated-pulmonary-hypertension
#10
Christopher J Mullin, Stephen C Mathai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pulmonary hypertension is a common complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc), and remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. We will review recent developments in the recognition, classification and treatment of pulmonary hypertension in SSc. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in screening for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and use of exercise haemodynamics may help to identify pulmonary vascular disease earlier in SSc. Recent studies have led to changes in recommendations for adjunct therapy and selection of pulmonary vasodilators for the treatment of SSc-associated PAH...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817401/challenges-in-the-anesthetic-management-of-ambulatory-patients-in-the-mri-suites
#11
Jasper Deen, Yzabel Vandevivere, Peter Van de Putte
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: MRI is becoming an indispensable diagnostic tool. The need for prolonged motion-free periods has substantially increased the need for deep sedation or anesthesia in a challenging environment. This review summarises recent literature with respect to pharmacological sedative strategies, nonpharmacological alternative approaches, airway management and safety issues in the ambulatory setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Most literature researches the pediatric patient population...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817399/chemotherapy-for-oligometastatic-prostate-cancer
#12
Tanya B Dorff, Christopher J Sweeney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To analyze recent trials of upfront chemotherapy to determine how this paradigm can be applied to oligometastatic prostate cancer patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Upfront chemotherapy prolongs survival in metastatic prostate cancer, according to the ChemoHormonal Therapy versus Androgen Ablation Randomized Trial for Extensive Disease in Prostate Cancer and STAMPEDE docetaxel trials. However, the benefit is driven by the high volume subset and may not apply to low-volume/oligometastatic patients...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817382/quantum-mechanical-force-fields-for-condensed-phase-molecular-simulations
#13
Timothy J Giese, Darrin M York
Molecular simulations are powerful tools for providing atomic-level details into complex chemical and physical processes that occur in the condensed phase. For strongly interacting systems where quantum many-body effects are known to play an important role, density-functional methods are often used to provide the model with the potential energy used to drive dynamics. These methods, however, suffer from two major drawbacks. First, they are often too computationally intensive to practically apply to large systems over long time scales, limiting their scope of application...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817360/closing-the-gap-mouse-models-to-study-adhesion-in-secondary-palatogenesis
#14
K J Lough, K M Byrd, D C Spitzer, S E Williams
Secondary palatogenesis occurs when the bilateral palatal shelves (PS), arising from maxillary prominences, fuse at the midline, forming the hard and soft palate. This embryonic phenomenon involves a complex array of morphogenetic events that require coordinated proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and adhesion in the PS epithelia and underlying mesenchyme. When the delicate process of craniofacial morphogenesis is disrupted, the result is orofacial clefting, including cleft lip and cleft palate (CL/P). Through human genetic and animal studies, there are now hundreds of known genetic alternations associated with orofacial clefts; so, it is not surprising that CL/P is among the most common of all birth defects...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817258/synthesis-of-complex-glycolates-by-enantioconvergent-addition-reactions
#15
Samuel L Bartlett, Jeffrey S Johnson
The unique role that stereochemistry plays in molecular recognition events continues to provide a driving force for synthesizing organic compounds in enantioenriched form. The tendency of enantioenriched organic compounds to revert to an entropically favored racemic state in the presence of viable racemization pathways (e.g., the enolization of stereogenic carbonyl derivatives) can sometimes interfere with this objective; however, beginning with Noyori's foundational disclosure of a dynamic kinetic transfer hydrogenation, the ability to channel racemic, configurationally labile starting materials through stereoconvergent reaction pathways has been recognized as a powerful strategy in asymmetric synthesis...
August 17, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817257/cation-anion-arrangement-patterns-in-self-assembled-pd2l4-and-pd4l8-coordination-cages
#16
Guido H Clever, Philip Punt
Compounds featuring one-dimensional regular arrangements of stacked metal complexes and alternating [cation-anion]∞ sequences have raised considerable interest owing to their peculiar electronic and optical properties as well as guest inclusion capabilities. While traditional ways to realize these structural motifs rely on crystalline compounds, exclusively existing in the solid state, recent progress in the area of metal-mediated supramolecular self-assembly allows for the rational synthesis of structurally well-defined short stretches of stacked metal complexes and cation-anion arrangements...
August 17, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817224/a-novel-post-hoc-method-for-detecting-index-switching-finds-no-evidence-for-increased-switching-on-the-illumina-hiseq-x
#17
Gregory L Owens, Marco Todesco, Emily B M Drummond, Sam Yeaman, Loren H Rieseberg
High throughput sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq platform is a pervasive and critical molecular ecology resource, and has provided the data underlying many recent advances. A recent study has suggested that 'index switching', where reads are misattributed to the wrong sample, may be higher in new versions of the HiSeq platform. This has the potential to invalidate both published and in-progress work across the field. Here, we test for evidence of index switching in an exemplar whole genome shotgun dataset sequenced on both the Illumina HiSeq 2500, which should not have the problem, and the Illumina HiSeq X, which may...
August 17, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817209/huntington-s-disease-a-clinical-review
#18
Peter McColgan, Sarah J Tabrizi
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fully penetrant neurodegenerative disease caused by a dominantly inherited CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene on chromosome 4. In Western populations HD has a prevalence of 10.6-13.7 individuals per 100,000. It is characterised by cognitive, motor and psychiatric disturbance. At the cellular level mutant huntingtin results in neuronal dysfunction and death through a number of mechanisms, including disruption of proteostasis, transcription and mitochondrial function and direct toxicity of the mutant protein...
August 17, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817166/pregnancy-outcomes-following-cervical-conization-or-loop-electrosurgical-excision-procedures
#19
Luke A Gatta, Jeffrey A Kuller, Eleanor H J Rhee
Background: Conservative excisional measures used to manage cervical dysplasia are often cited as risk factors for preterm labor in subsequent pregnancies. Objective: We performed an evidence-based review of the obstetric complications following excisional procedures for cervical dysplasia in women of reproductive age. Evidence Acquisition: Between 1993 and 2016, there were 7 published meta-analyses of cohort studies that consistently demonstrated an association between excisional cervical procedures and preterm labor...
August 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817107/ag-nanorods-oxide-hybrid-array-substrates-synthesis-characterization-and-applications-in-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering
#20
REVIEW
Lingwei Ma, Jianghao Li, Sumeng Zou, Zhengjun Zhang
Over the last few decades, benefitting from the sufficient sensitivity, high specificity, nondestructive, and rapid detection capability of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique, numerous nanostructures have been elaborately designed and successfully synthesized as high-performance SERS substrates, which have been extensively exploited for the identification of chemical and biological analytes. Among these, Ag nanorods coated with thin metal oxide layers (AgNRs-oxide hybrid array substrates) featuring many outstanding advantages have been proposed as fascinating SERS substrates, and are of particular research interest...
August 17, 2017: Sensors
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