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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775793/analysis-of-dna-methylation-at-specific-loci-in-stool-samples-detects-colorectal-cancer-and-high-grade-dysplasia-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
John B Kisiel, Pasquale Klepp, Hatim T Allawi, William R Taylor, Maria Giakoumopoulos, Tamara Sander, Tracy C Yab, Bjorn A Moum, Graham P Lidgard, Stephan Brackmann, Douglas W Mahoney, Arne Roseth, David A Ahlquist
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), are at increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Analyses of DNA methylation patterns in stool samples have been reported to detect CRC in patients with IBD. We sought to validate these findings in larger cohorts and assess the accuracy of analysis of DNA methylation patterns in stool for detection of CRC and high-grade dysplasia (HGD) normalized to methylation level at ZDHHC1...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775750/the-effects-of-capn1-gene-inactivation-on-the-differential-expression-of-genes-in-skeletal-muscle
#2
William T Olive, Brittney N Keel, Amanda K Lindholm-Perry, Justyna Horodyska, Andrew P Foote
Protein turnover is required for muscle growth and regeneration and several proteolytic enzymes, including the calpains, degrade myofibrillar proteins during this process. In a previous experiment, phenotypic differences were observed between μ-calpain knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice, including nutrient accretion and fiber type differences. These changes were particularly evident as the animals aged. Thus, we utilized 18 mice (9 KO and 9 WT) to compare transcript abundance to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 52 wk of age...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775599/model-to-determine-risk-of-pancreatic-cancer-in-patients-with-new-onset-diabetes
#3
Ayush Sharma, Harika Kandlakunta, Sajan Jiv Singh Nagpal, Feng Ziding, William Hoos, Gloria M Petersen, Suresh T Chari
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Of subjects with new-onset diabetes (based on glycemia) over the age of 50 years, approximately 1% are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer within 3 years. We aimed to develop and validate a model to determine risk of pancreatic cancer in individuals with new-onset diabetes. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 4 independent, non-overlapping cohorts of patients (n=1561) with new-onset diabetes (based on glycemia; data collected at date of diagnosis and 12 months before) in the Rochester Epidemiology Project, from January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2015 to create our model...
May 15, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774780/increased-levels-of-circulating-gfap-and-crmp2-autoantibodies-in-the-acute-stage-of-spinal-cord-injury-predict-the-subsequent-development-of-neuropathic-pain
#4
Georgene W Hergenroeder, John B Redell, Huimahn Alex Choi, Lisa Hollan Schmitt, William Donovan, Gerard E Francisco, Karl M Schmitt, Anthony N Moore, Pramod K Dash
Neuropathic pain develops in 40-70% of spinal cord injury (SCI) patients and markedly compromises quality of life. We examined plasma from SCI patients for autoantibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) and evaluated their relationship to the development of neuropathic pain. In study 1, plasma samples and clinical data from 80 chronic SCI patients (1-41 years post-SCI) were collected and screened for GFAP autoantibodies (GFAPab). Results from study 1 indicated that GFAPab were present in 34 of 80 (42...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774637/potassium-octatitanate-fibers-induce-persistent-lung-and-pleural-injury-and-are-possibly-carcinogenic-in-male-fischer-344-rats
#5
Mohamed Abdelgied, Ahmed M El-Gazzar, David B Alexander, William T Alexander, Takamasa Numano, Masaaki Iigou, Aya Naiki-Ito, Hirotsugu Takase, Khaled Abbas Abdou, Akihiko Hirose, Yuhji Taquahashi, Jun Kanno, Hiroyuki Tsuda, Satoru Takahashi
Potassium octatitanate fibers (K2 O•8TiO2 , POT fibers) are widely used as an alternative to asbestos. We investigated the pulmonary and pleural toxicity of POT fibers with reference to 2 non-fibrous titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2 ), photo-reactive anatase (a-nTiO2 ) and inert rutile (r-nTiO2 ). Ten-week old male F344 rats were administered 0.5 ml of 250-μg/ml suspensions of POT fibers, a-nTiO2 , or r-nTiO2 , eight times (1 mg/rat) over a 15 day period by trans-tracheal intrapulmonary spraying (TIPS)...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774471/age-at-first-full-term-birth-and-breast-cancer-risk-in-brca1-and-brca2-mutation-carriers
#6
Joanne Kotsopoulos, Jacek Gronwald, Henry T Lynch, Andrea Eisen, Susan L Neuhausen, Nadine Tung, Peter Ainsworth, Jeffrey N Weitzel, Tuya Pal, William D Foulkes, Charis Eng, Christian F Singer, Leigha Senter, Ping Sun, Jan Lubinski, Steven A Narod
PURPOSE: In the general population, an early age at first full-term birth confers protection against the risk of developing breast cancer. The relationship between age at first birth and breast cancer risk is not clear for women with a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. Thus, we undertook a case-control study of women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation to study the effects of age at first full-term birth matched for other reproductive factors. METHODS: Information about reproductive factors, including age at first birth as well as medical history, was collected from a routinely administered research questionnaire...
May 17, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774304/arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-cardiomyopathy-in-boxer-dogs-the-diagnosis-as-a-link-to-the-human-disease
#7
Annina S Vischer, David J Connolly, Caroline J Coats, Virginia Luis Fuentes, William J McKenna, Silvia Castelletti, Antonios A Pantazis
Background: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a myocardial disease with an increased risk for ventricular arrhythmias. The condition, which occurs in Boxer dogs, shares phenotypic features with the human disease arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) suggesting its potential as a natural animal model. However, there are currently no universally accepted clinical criteria to diagnose ARVC in Boxer dogs. We aimed to identify diagnostic criteria for ARVC in Boxer dogs defining a more uniform and consistent phenotype...
September 2017: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773717/stk11-lkb1-mutations-and-pd-1-inhibitor-resistance-in-kras-mutant-lung-adenocarcinoma
#8
Ferdinandos Skoulidis, Michael E Goldberg, Danielle M Greenawalt, Matthew D Hellmann, Mark M Awad, Justin F Gainor, Alexa B Schrock, Ryan J Hartmaier, Sally E Trabucco, Laurie Gay, Siraj M Ali, Julia A Elvin, Gaurav Singal, Jeffrey S Ross, David Fabrizio, Peter M Szabo, Han Chang, Ariella Sasson, Sujaya Srinivasan, Stefan Kirov, Joseph Szustakowski, Patrik Vitazka, Robin Edwards, Jose A Bufill, Neelesh Sharma, Sai-Hong I Ou, Nir Peled, David R Spigel, Hira Rizvi, Elizabeth Jimenez Aguilar, Brett W Carter, Jeremy Erasmus, Darragh F Halpenny, Andrew J Plodkowski, Niamh M Long, Mizuki Nishino, Warren L Denning, Ana Galan-Cobo, Haifa Hamdi, Taghreed Hirz, Pan Tong, Jing Wang, Jaime Rodriguez-Canales, Pamela A Villalobos, Edwin R Parra, Neda Kalhor, Lynette M Sholl, Jennifer L Sauter, Achim A Jungbluth, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Roxana Azimi, Yasir Y Elamin, Jianjun Zhang, Giulia C Leonardi, Fei Jiang, Kwok-Kin Wong, J Jack Lee, Vassiliki A Papadimitrakopoulou, Ignacio I Wistuba, Vincent A Miller, Garrett M Frampton, Jedd D Wolchok, Alice T Shaw, Pasi A Jänne, Philip J Stephens, Charles M Rudin, William J Geese, Lee A Albacker, John V Heymach
KRAS is the most common oncogenic driver in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAC). We previously reported that STK11/LKB1 (KL) or TP53 (KP) co-mutations define distinct subgroups of KRAS-mutant LUAC. Here, we examine the efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors in these subgroups. Objective response rates to PD-1 blockade differed significantly among KL (7.4%), KP (35.7%), and K-only (28.6%) subgroups (P<0.001) in the SU2C cohort (174 patients) with KRAS-mutant LUAC and in patients treated with nivolumab in the CheckMate-057 phase 3 trial (0% vs 57...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772965/association-of-surgical-approach-with-complication-rate-progression-free-survival-time-and-disease-specific-survival-time-in-cats-with-mammary-adenocarcinoma-107-cases-1991-2014
#9
Francesco Gemignani, Philipp D Mayhew, Michelle A Giuffrida, Jason Palaigos, Jeffrey J Runge, David E Holt, Nicholas A Robertson, Bernard Seguin, Meaghan Walker, Ameet Singh, Julius M Liptak, Giorgio Romanelli, Marina Martano, Sarah E Boston, Cassie Lux, Roberto Busetto, William T N Culp, Katherine A Skorupski, Jenna H Burton
OBJECTIVE To evaluate potential associations between surgical approach and complication rate, progression-free survival time, and disease-specific survival time in cats with mammary adenocarcinoma. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 107 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES Medical records of cats that underwent surgical excision of mammary adenocarcinoma by means of a unilateral or bilateral (staged or single-session) mastectomy at 9 hospitals between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed. Relevant clinicopathologic data and details of surgical and adjuvant treatments were recorded...
June 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771765/comparison-of-fasting-human-pancreatic-polypeptide-levels-among-patients-with-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-chronic-pancreatitis-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Sajan Jiv Singh Nagpal, William R Bamlet, Yogish C Kudva, Suresh T Chari
OBJECTIVES: Human pancreatic polypeptide (HPP) is a hormone secreted by the ventral pancreas. While postprandial HPP levels have been studied in chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), there are limited data on fasting HPP in these diseases. METHODS: Fasting serum HPP was measured in the following groups of patients: CP with diabetes mellitus (DM) (n = 16), CP without DM (n = 34), PDAC with new-onset DM (n = 50), PDAC without DM (n = 49), new-onset type 2 DM (n = 50), and controls without DM (n = 49)...
May 17, 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771698/updates-in-colorectal-cancer-screening-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
William T Clarke, Joseph D Feuerstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review article will discuss the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as well as the current recommendations for CRC screening and surveillance in patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's colitis involving one-third of the colon. RECENT FINDINGS: Given that most cases of CRC are thought to arise from dysplasia, previous guidelines have recommended endoscopic surveillance with random biopsies obtained from all segments of the colon...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771607/mechanistic-insights-into-the-modulatory-role-of-the-mechanoreflex-on-central-hemodynamics-using-passive-leg-movement-in-humans
#12
Nicholas T Kruse, William E Hughes, Darren P Casey
The aim of this study was to examine the independent contributions of joint range of motion (ROM), muscle fascicle length (MFL) and joint angular velocity on mechanoreceptor mediated central cardiovascular dynamics using passive leg movement (PLM) in humans. Twelve healthy males (age: 23{plus minus}2 yrs, body mass index: 23.7 kg/m2 ) performed continuous PLM at various randomized joint angles ROM (0-50{degree sign} vs. 50-100{degree sign} vs. 0-100{degree sign}) and joint angular velocities ('fast': 200{degree sign}/s vs...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771599/clinical-characterization-of-children-with-resistant-airflow-obstruction-a-multicenter-study
#13
Sankaran Krishnan, Allen J Dozor, Leonard Bacharier, Jason E Lang, Charles G Irvin, David Kaminsky, Harold J Farber, Lynn Gerald, Mark Brown, Janet T Holbrook, Robert A Wise, Julie Ryu, Sonali Bose, Yasin Razan, Joy Saams, Robert J Henderson, William G Teague
OBJECTIVE: To characterize a cohort of children with airflow limitation resistant to bronchodilator (BD) therapy. METHODS: Pulmonary function tests performed in children 6-17 years of age at 15 centers in a clinical research consortium were screened for resistant airflow limitation, defined as a post-BD FEV1 and/or an FEV1 /FVC less than the lower limits of normal. Demographic and clinical data were analyzed for associations with pulmonary function. RESULTS: 582 children were identified...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771353/predictors-for-identifying-burn-sepsis-and-performance-versus-existing-criteria
#14
David M Hill, Matthew D Percy, Sai R Velamuri, Julio Lanfranco, Ivan Romero Legro, Scott E Sinclair, William L Hickerson
Sepsis is the largest cause of mortality in thermally injured patients. Traditional SIRS criteria do not aid diagnosis of sepsis in burn centers. Studies have attempted identification of the best indicators of sepsis in the thermal injured patient, but predictive variables are inconsistent across the various studies. Currently, consensus guidelines lack evidential support as to which patients will benefit most from prompt antimicrobial therapy. The purpose of our study was to evaluate novel diagnostic parameters for thermal injured patients with known sepsis and compare these parameters with existing diagnostic criteria...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770706/intestinal-transplants-review-of-normal-imaging-appearance-and-complications
#15
Bashir Hakim, Daniel T Myers, Todd R Williams, Shunji Nagai, John Bonnett
Intestinal transplant (IT) is one of the least common forms of organ transplant but is increasing both in volume of cases and number of centers performing intestinal transplants, with the busiest centers in North America and Europe. IT can be performed in isolation or as part of a multivisceral transplant (MVT). Intestinal failure either in the form of short gut syndrome or functional bowel problems is the primary indication for IT. The normal post-surgical anatomy can be variable due to both recipient anatomy in regard to amount of residual bowel and status of native vasculature as well as whether the transplant is isolated or part of an multivisceral transplant...
May 17, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770140/seventeen-year-journey-working-with-a-master
#16
Jinfang Zhu
It had been a great honor for me to work with the late Dr. William E. Paul for 17 years in the Laboratory of Immunology (LI) from 1998 until his passing in 2015. He was such a master in the immunology field. Under his outstanding guidance, my research has been focusing on transcriptional regulation of T helper (Th) cell differentiation, especially, on the role of a master transcription factor GATA3 during Th2 cell differentiation. Just as enormous scientific contributions of Dr. Paul (we all call him Bill) to the immunology community are far beyond his serving as the Chief of the LI, GATA3 also plays important roles in different lymphocytes at various developmental stages besides its critical functions in Th2 cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769713/author-correction-discovery-of-a-selective-catalytic-p300-cbp-inhibitor-that-targets-lineage-specific-tumours
#17
Loren M Lasko, Clarissa G Jakob, Rohinton P Edalji, Wei Qiu, Debra Montgomery, Enrico L Digiammarino, T Matt Hansen, Roberto M Risi, Robin Frey, Vlasios Manaves, Bailin Shaw, Mikkel Algire, Paul Hessler, Lloyd T Lam, Tamar Uziel, Emily Faivre, Debra Ferguson, Fritz G Buchanan, Ruth L Martin, Maricel Torrent, Gary G Chiang, Kannan Karukurichi, J William Langston, Brian T Weinert, Chunaram Choudhary, Peter de Vries, Arthur F Kluge, Michael A Patane, John H Van Drie, Ce Wang, David McElligott, Edward A Kesicki, Ronen Marmorstein, Chaohong Sun, Philip A Cole, Saul H Rosenberg, Michael R Michaelides, Albert Lai, Kenneth D Bromberg
In the originally published version of this Letter, the authors Arthur F. Kluge, Michael A. Patane and Ce Wang were inadvertently omitted from the author list. Their affiliations are: I-to-D, Inc., PO Box 6177, Lincoln, Massachusetts 01773, USA (A.F.K.); Mitobridge, Inc. 1030 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA (M.A.P.); and China Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, No. 4218 Jinke Road, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Pudong District, Shanghai 201203, China (C.W.). These authors contributed to the interpretation of results and design of compounds...
May 16, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769378/food-starch-structure-impacts-gut-microbiome-composition
#18
Frederick J Warren, Naoki M Fukuma, Deirdre Mikkelsen, Bernadine M Flanagan, Barbara A Williams, Allan T Lisle, Páraic Ó Cuív, Mark Morrison, Michael J Gidley
Starch is a major source of energy in the human diet and is consumed in diverse forms. Resistant starch (RS) escapes small intestinal digestion and is fermented in the colon by the resident microbiota, with beneficial impacts on colonic function and host health, but the impacts of the micro- and nanoscale structure of different physical forms of food starch on the broader microbial community have not been described previously. Here, we use a porcine in vitro fermentation model to establish that starch structure dramatically impacts microbiome composition, including the key amylolytic species, and markedly alters both digestion kinetics and fermentation outcomes...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769375/baseline-nawm-structural-integrity-and-cbf-predict-periventricular-wmh-expansion-over-time
#19
Nutta-On Promjunyakul, Hiroko H Dodge, David Lahna, Erin L Boespflug, Jeffrey A Kaye, William D Rooney, Lisa C Silbert
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe and compare baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) and microstructural characteristics of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) within the vulnerable periventricular white matter hyperintensity (PVWMH) penumbra region in predicting white matter hyperintensity (WMH) growth over time. METHODS: Fifty-two patients, aged 82.8 years, underwent serial brain MRI, including pulsed arterial spin labeling and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). New WMH and persistent NAWM voxels in relation to WMH penumbra at follow-up were identified...
May 16, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769260/bim-regulates-the-survival-and-suppressive-capability-of-cd8-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-during-murine-gvhd
#20
Kimberle Agle, Benjamin G Vincent, Clint Piper, Ludovic Belle, Vivian Zhou, Warren Shlomchik, Jonathan S Serody, William R Drobyski
CD8+ Foxp3+ T cells (Tregs) are a potent regulatory population whose functional and ontological similarities to CD4+ Fox3+ T cells have not been well delineated. Using an experimental model of graft versus host disease (GVHD), we observed that CD8+ Tregs were significantly less potent than CD4+ Tregs for the suppression of GVHD. To define the mechanistic basis for this observation, we examined the T cell repertoire and the transcriptional profile of in vivo-derived CD4+ and CD8+ Tregs that emerged early during this disease...
May 16, 2018: Blood
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