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Electron transport chain mechanism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916530/enhanced-respiratory-chain-supercomplex-formation-in-response-to-exercise-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#1
Chiara Greggio, Pooja Jha, Sameer S Kulkarni, Sylviane Lagarrigue, Nicholas T Broskey, Marie Boutant, Xu Wang, Sonia Conde Alonso, Emmanuel Ofori, Johan Auwerx, Carles Cantó, Francesca Amati
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of multiple metabolic complications. Physical activity is known to increase mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle, counteracting age-related decline in muscle function and protecting against metabolic and cardiovascular complications. Here, we investigated the effect of 4 months of exercise training on skeletal muscle mitochondria electron transport chain complexes and supercomplexes in 26 healthy, sedentary older adults. Exercise differentially modulated respiratory complexes...
November 28, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915046/dna-damage-related-crosstalk-between-the-nucleus-and-mitochondria
#2
Mohammad Saki, Aishwarya Prakash
The electron transport chain is the primary pathway by which a cell generates energy in the form of ATP. Byproducts of this process produce reactive oxygen species that can cause damage to mitochondrial DNA. If not properly repaired, the accumulation of DNA damage can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction linked to several human disorders including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Mitochondria are able to combat oxidative DNA damage via repair mechanisms that are analogous to those found in the nucleus. Of the repair pathways currently reported in the mitochondria, the base excision repair pathway is the most comprehensively described...
November 30, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914013/inhibitory-effect-of-homocysteine-on-rat-neural-stem-cell-growth-in-vitro-is-associated-with-reduced-protein-levels-and-enzymatic-activities-of-aconitase-and-respiratory-complex-iii
#3
Xu-Mei Zhang, Ya-Qian Zhao, Hai Yan, Huan Liu, Guo-Wei Huang
Increased blood plasma concentration of the sulphur amino acid homocysteine (Hcy) is considered as an independent risk factor of the neurodegenerative diseases. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms by which Hcy leads to neurotoxicity have yet to be clarified. Recent research has suggested that neurotoxicity of Hcy may involve negative regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation. In the current study, primary NSCs were isolated from neonatal rat brain hippocampus and the inhibition in cell growth was observed after exposure to l50 μM and 500 μM L-Hcy...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913766/myocardial-cytochrome-oxidase-activity-increases-with-age-and-hypoxemia-in-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease
#4
Michael Onwugbufor, Richard J Levy, David Zurakowski, Richard A Jonas, Pranava Sinha
BACKGROUND: Myocardial tolerance to ischemia is influenced by age and preoperative cyanosis through unknown mechanisms and significantly affects postoperative outcomes. Cytochrome c oxidase (CcOx), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, may play a role in the susceptibility to ischemic-reperfusion (IR) injury. Our study aimed at investigating changes in human myocardial CcOx activity based on age and preoperative oxygen saturation to understand its role in transition from neonatal to mature myocardium and hypoxic conditions...
December 1, 2016: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913098/succinyl-coa-synthetase-sucla2-deficiency-in-two-siblings-with-impaired-activity-of-other-mitochondrial-oxidative-enzymes-in-skeletal-muscle-without-mitochondrial-dna-depletion
#5
Xiaoping Huang, Jirair K Bedoyan, Didem Demirbas, David J Harris, Alexander Miron, Simone Edelheit, George Grahame, Suzanne D DeBrosse, Lee-Jun Wong, Charles L Hoppel, Douglas S Kerr, Irina Anselm, Gerard T Berry
Mutations in SUCLA2 result in succinyl-CoA ligase (ATP-forming) or succinyl-CoA synthetase (ADP-forming) (A-SCS) deficiency, a mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle disorder. The phenotype associated with this gene defect is largely encephalomyopathy. We describe two siblings compound heterozygous for SUCLA2 mutations, c.985A>G (p.M329V) and c.920C>T (p.A307V), with parents confirmed as carriers of each mutation. We developed a new LC-MS/MS based enzyme assay to demonstrate the decreased SCS activity in the siblings with this unique genotype...
November 12, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904687/high-fructose-causes-cardiac-hypertrophy-via-mitochondrial-signaling-pathway
#6
Yan-Bo Zhang, Yan-Hai Meng, Shuo Chang, Rong-Yuan Zhang, Chen Shi
High fructose diet can cause cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress is a key mediator for myocardial hypertrophy. Disruption of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) leads to oxidative stress. This study aims to reveal mitochondrial oxidative stress-related signaling pathway in high fructose-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Mice were fed high fructose to develop cardiac hypertrophy. Fructose and H2O2 were used to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 was applied to investigate the possible role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892899/endogenous-mechanisms-of-reactive-oxygen-species-ros-generation
#7
Agata Sarniak, Joanna Lipińska, Karol Tytman, Stanisława Lipińska
The main cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is mitochondrial respiratory chain and active NADPH responsible for "respiratory burst" of phagocytes. Whatsmore ROS are produced in endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, with the participation of xanthine and endothelial oxidase and during autoxidation process of small molecules. Mitochondrial respiratory chain is the main cellular source of ROS. It is considered that in aerobic organisms ROS are mainly formed during normal oxygen metabolism, as byproducts of oxidative phosphorylation, during the synthesis of ATP...
November 14, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892592/mechanical-properties-and-current-carrying-capacity-of-al-reinforced-with-graphene-bn-nanoribbons-a-computational-study
#8
D G Kvashnin, M Ghorbani-Asl, D V Shtansky, D Golberg, A V Krasheninnikov, P B Sorokin
Record high values of Young's modulus and tensile strength of graphene and BN nanoribbons as well as their chemically active edges make them promising candidates for serving as fillers in metal-based composite materials. Herein, using ab initio and analytical potential calculations we carry out a systematic study of the mechanical properties of nanocomposites constructed by reinforcing an Al matrix with BN and graphene nanoribbons. We consider a simple case of uniform distribution of nanoribbons in an Al matrix under the assumption that such configuration will lead to the maximum enhancement of mechanical characteristics...
November 28, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888691/redox-imbalance-and-mitochondrial-abnormalities-in-the-diabetic-lung
#9
Jinzi Wu, Zhen Jin, Liang-Jun Yan
Although the lung is one of the least studied organs in diabetes, increasing evidence indicates that it is an inevitable target of diabetic complications. Nevertheless, the underlying biochemical mechanisms of lung injury in diabetes remain largely unexplored. Given that redox imbalance, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in diabetic tissue injury, we set out to investigate mechanisms of lung injury in diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate NADH/NAD(+) redox status, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial abnormalities in the diabetic lung...
November 17, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883062/genome-wide-transcriptome-analysis-revealed-organelle-specific-responses-to-temperature-variations-in-algae
#10
HyeonSeok Shin, Seong-Joo Hong, Chan Yoo, Mi-Ae Han, Hookeun Lee, Hyung-Kyoon Choi, Suhyung Cho, Choul-Gyun Lee, Byung-Kwan Cho
Temperature is a critical environmental factor that affects microalgal growth. However, microalgal coping mechanisms for temperature variations are unclear. Here, we determined changes in transcriptome, total carbohydrate, total fatty acid methyl ester, and fatty acid composition of Tetraselmis sp. KCTC12432BP, a strain with a broad temperature tolerance range, to elucidate the tolerance mechanisms in response to large temperature variations. Owing to unavailability of genome sequence information, de novo transcriptome assembly coupled with BLAST analysis was performed using strand specific RNA-seq data...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870850/a-biophysical-systems-approach-to-identifying-the-pathways-of-acute-and-chronic-doxorubicin-mitochondrial-cardiotoxicity
#11
Bernardo L de Oliveira, Steven Niederer
The clinical use of the anthracycline doxorubicin is limited by its cardiotoxicity which is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Redox cycling, mitochondrial DNA damage and electron transport chain inhibition have been identified as potential mechanisms of toxicity. However, the relative roles of each of these proposed mechanisms are still not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to identify which of these pathways independently or in combination are responsible for doxorubicin toxicity. A state of the art mathematical model of the mitochondria including the citric acid cycle, electron transport chain and ROS production and scavenging systems was extended by incorporating a novel representation for mitochondrial DNA damage and repair...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869299/anaerobic-reduction-of-2-6-dinitrotoluene-by-shewanella-oneidensis-mr-1-roles-of-mtr-respiratory-pathway-and-nfnb
#12
Dong-Feng Liu, Di Min, Lei Cheng, Feng Zhang, Dao-Bo Li, Xiang Xiao, Guo-Ping Sheng, Han-Qing Yu
Dinitrotoluene (DNT) is a widely present pollutant in aquatic environments, and its biodegradation is an economically attractive way to effectively removal. In aquatic environments, the presence of electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) could contribute to the anaerobic bioreduction of DNT. However, the mechanism behind such a biodegradation process at gene level remains to be further elucidated. In this work, the anaerobic reduction of 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a typical EAB in aquatic environments, was investigated...
November 7, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867099/risky-repair-dna-protein-crosslinks-formed-by-mitochondrial-base-excision-dna-repair-enzymes-acting-on-free-radical-lesions
#13
Rachel Audrey Caston, Bruce Demple
Oxygen is both necessary and dangerous for aerobic cell function. ATP is most efficiently made by the electron transport chain, which requires oxygen as an electron acceptor. However, the presence of oxygen, and to some extent the respiratory chain itself, poses a danger to cellular components. Mitochondria, the sites of oxidative phosphorylation, have defense and repair pathways to cope with oxidative damage. For mitochondrial DNA, an essential pathway is base excision repair, which acts on a variety of small lesions...
November 17, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864175/the-acceptor-side-of-photosystem-ii-is-the-initial-target-of-nitrite-stress-in-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803
#14
Xin Zhang, Fei Ma, Xi Zhu, Junying Zhu, Junfeng Rong, Jiao Zhan, Hui Chen, Chenliu He, Qiang Wang
: Nitrite, a common form of inorganic nitrogen (N), can be used as a nitrogen source through N assimilation. However, high levels of nitrite depress photosynthesis in various organisms. In this study, we investigated which components of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain are targeted by nitrite stress in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells. Measurements of whole-chain and PSII-mediated electron transport activities revealed that high levels of nitrite primarily impair electron flow in PSII...
November 18, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853365/gene-silencing-effects-of-anti-survivin-sirna-delivered-by-rgdv-functionalized-nanodiamond-carrier-in-the-breast-carcinoma-cell-line-mcf-7
#15
Yanzhao Bi, Yifan Zhang, Chunying Cui, Lulu Ren, Xueyun Jiang
Nanodiamond (ND) is a renowned material in nonviral small interfering RNA (siRNA) carrier field due to its unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. In our previous work, it was proven that ND could deliver siRNA into cells efficiently and downregulate the expression of desired protein. However, synthesizing a high-efficient tumor-targeting carrier using ND is still a challenge. In this study, a novel carrier, NDCONH(CH2)2NH-VDGR, was synthesized for siRNA delivery, and its properties were characterized with methods including Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, gel retardation assay, differential scanning calorimetry, confocal microscopy, releasing test, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry, cytotoxicity assay, and gene-silencing efficacy assay in vitro and in vivo...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853213/intrinsically-stretchable-and-healable-semiconducting-polymer-for-organic-transistors
#16
Jin Young Oh, Simon Rondeau-Gagné, Yu-Cheng Chiu, Alex Chortos, Franziska Lissel, Ging-Ji Nathan Wang, Bob C Schroeder, Tadanori Kurosawa, Jeffrey Lopez, Toru Katsumata, Jie Xu, Chenxin Zhu, Xiaodan Gu, Won-Gyu Bae, Yeongin Kim, Lihua Jin, Jong Won Chung, Jeffrey B-H Tok, Zhenan Bao
Thin-film field-effect transistors are essential elements of stretchable electronic devices for wearable electronics. All of the materials and components of such transistors need to be stretchable and mechanically robust. Although there has been recent progress towards stretchable conductors, the realization of stretchable semiconductors has focused mainly on strain-accommodating engineering of materials, or blending of nanofibres or nanowires into elastomers. An alternative approach relies on using semiconductors that are intrinsically stretchable, so that they can be fabricated using standard processing methods...
November 16, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853101/trifloxystrobin-induced-mitophagy-through-mitochondrial-damage-in-human-skin-keratinocytes
#17
Yoonjeong Jang, Ji-Eun Kim, Sang-Hee Jeong, Min-Kyoung Paik, Jun Sung Kim, Myung-Haing Cho
Trifloxystrobin is a strobilurin class fungicide, the mode of action of which is to block the mitochondrial electron transport chain and inhibit energy production in fungi. Although adverse effects have been reported by occupational or environmental exposure of fungicides, the pathophysiological mechanism in human cells remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the impact of trifloxystrobin on exposed skin at the cellular organelle level using HaCaT, the human skin keratinocyte cell line...
2016: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837116/predicting-hairline-fractures-in-eggs-of-mature-hens
#18
S van Mourik, B P G J Alders, F Helderman, L J F van de Ven, P W G Groot Koerkamp
Eggshell damage poses a serious problem for the consumption egg industry. Increasing the maximum age of laying hens will increase eggshell damage due to loss of shell strength. This poses a serious problem for automatic collection, packing, and transport. We performed a model based study focused on hairline fractures in eggs of 88-week-old hens, and simulated side collisions on 1,235 eggs using a specially designed pendulum. The kinetic energy at the moment of impact was related to the accelerations measured by an electronic egg going through the transport chain...
November 11, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832308/mechanism-of-electron-transport-during-thiosulfate-oxidation-in-an-obligately-mixotrophic-bacterium-thiomonas-bhubaneswarensis-strain-s10-dsm-18181-t
#19
Kunwar Digvijay Narayan, Surendra Chandra Sabat, Subrata K Das
This study describes the thiosulfate-supported respiratory electron transport activity of Thiomonas bhubaneswarensis strain S10 (DSM 18181(T)). Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed the presence of complete sox (sulfur oxidation) gene cluster (soxCDYZAXB) including the sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR), sulfide quinone reductase (SQR), sulfide dehydrogenase (flavocytochrome c (fcc)), thiosulfate dehydrogenase (Tsd), sulfite dehydrogenase (SorAB), and intracellular sulfur oxidation protein (DsrE/DsrF). In addition, genes encoding respiratory electron transport chain components viz...
November 10, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832158/arnica-montana-stimulates-extracellular-matrix-gene-expression-in-a-macrophage-cell-line-differentiated-to-wound-healing-phenotype
#20
Marta Marzotto, Clara Bonafini, Debora Olioso, Anna Baruzzi, Laura Bettinetti, Francesca Di Leva, Elisabetta Galbiati, Paolo Bellavite
Arnica montana (Arnica m.) is used for its purported anti-inflammatory and tissue healing actions after trauma, bruises, or tissue injuries, but its cellular and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. This work tested Arnica m. effects on gene expression using an in vitro model of macrophages polarized towards a "wound-healing" phenotype. The monocyte-macrophage human THP-1 cell line was cultured and differentiated with phorbol-myristate acetate and Interleukin-4, then exposed for 24h to Arnica m. centesimal (c) dilutions 2c, 3c, 5c, 9c, 15c or Control...
2016: PloS One
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