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Electron transport chain mechanism

Alejandro Morales, Xinyou Yin, Jeremy Harbinson, Steven Michiel Driever, Jaap Molenaar, David M Kramer, Paul Struik
We present a new simulation model of the reactions in the photosynthetic electron transport chain of C3 species. We show that including recent insights about the regulation of the thylakoid proton motive force, ATP/NADPH balancing mechanisms (cyclic and non-cyclic alternative electron transport), and regulation of Rubisco activity, leads to emergent behaviors that may affect the operation and regulation of photosynthesis under different dynamic environmental conditions. The model was parameterized with experimental results in the literature, with a focus on Arabidopsis thaliana...
September 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
Zhijun Guo, Irina F Sevrioukova, Ilia G Denisov, Xia Zhang, Ting-Lan Chiu, Dafydd G Thomas, Eric A Hanse, Rebecca A D Cuellar, Yelena V Grinkova, Vanessa Wankhede Langenfeld, Daniel S Swedien, Justin D Stamschror, Juan Alvarez, Fernando Luna, Adela Galván, Young Kyung Bae, Julia D Wulfkuhle, Rosa I Gallagher, Emanuel F Petricoin, Beverly Norris, Craig M Flory, Robert J Schumacher, M Gerard O'Sullivan, Qing Cao, Haitao Chu, John D Lipscomb, William M Atkins, Kalpna Gupta, Ameeta Kelekar, Ian A Blair, Jorge H Capdevila, John R Falck, Stephen G Sligar, Thomas L Poulos, Gunda I Georg, Elizabeth Ambrose, David A Potter
The mechanisms by which cancer cell-intrinsic CYP monooxygenases promote tumor progression are largely unknown. CYP3A4 was unexpectedly associated with breast cancer mitochondria and synthesized arachidonic acid (AA)-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which promoted the electron transport chain/respiration and inhibited AMPKα. CYP3A4 knockdown activated AMPKα, promoted autophagy, and prevented mammary tumor formation. The diabetes drug metformin inhibited CYP3A4-mediated EET biosynthesis and depleted cancer cell-intrinsic EETs...
August 29, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
Carlos R P Dechandt, Felippe H Zuccolotto-Dos-Reis, Bruno G Teodoro, Anna Maria A P Fernandes, Marcos N Eberlin, Isis C Kettelhut, Carlos Curti, Luciane C Alberici
Intracellular long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL) activate fatty acids to produce acyl-CoA, which undergoes β-oxidation and participates in the synthesis of esterified lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). Imbalances in these metabolic routes are closely associated with the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Triacsin C is one of the few compounds that inhibit TAG accumulation into lipid droplets (LD) by suppressing ACSL activity. Here we report that treatment of primary rat hepatocytes with triacsin C at concentrations lower than the IC50 (4...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Luke S Tain, Robert Sehlke, Chirag Jain, Manopriya Chokkalingam, Nagarjuna Nagaraj, Paul Essers, Mark Rassner, Sebastian Grönke, Jenny Froelich, Christoph Dieterich, Matthias Mann, Nazif Alic, Andreas Beyer, Linda Partridge
Lowered activity of the insulin/IGF signalling (IIS) network can ameliorate the effects of ageing in laboratory animals and, possibly, humans. Although transcriptome remodelling in long-lived IIS mutants has been extensively documented, the causal mechanisms contributing to extended lifespan, particularly in specific tissues, remain unclear. We have characterized the proteomes of four key insulin-sensitive tissues in a long-lived Drosophila IIS mutant and control, and detected 44% of the predicted proteome (6,085 proteins)...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Deming Zhao, Tariq Hussain, Lifeng Yang
Neurons are highly energy demanding cells dependent on the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system. Mitochondria generate energy via respiratory complexes that constitute the electron transport chain. Adenosine triphosphate depletion or glucose starvation act as a trigger for the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is an evolutionarily conserved protein that plays an important role in cell survival and organismal longevity through modulation of energy homeostasis and autophagy...
September 10, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
Giuseppe Vitiello, Domenica Musumeci, Alexandros Koutsioubas, Luigi Paduano, Daniela Montesarchio, Gerardino D'Errico
An amphiphilic derivative of guanosine, carrying a myristoyl group at the 5'-position and two methoxy(triethylene glycol) appendages at the 2' and 3'-positions (1), endowed with high ionophoric activity, has been here studied in its interaction mode with a model lipid membrane along with its 5'-spin-labelled analogue 2, bearing the 5-doxyl-stearic in lieu of the myristic residue. Electron spin resonance spectra, carried out on the spin-labelled nucleolipid 2 in mixture with a DOPC/DOPG phospholipid bilayer, on one side, and on spin-labelled lipids mixed with 1, on the other, integrated with dynamic light scattering and neutron reflectivity measurements, allowed getting an in-depth picture of the effect of the ionophores on membrane structure, relevant to clarify the ion transport mechanism through lipid bilayers...
September 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Kan Li, Jie Sun, Jingping Yang, Stephen M Roberts, Xu-Xiang Zhang, Xinyi Cui, Si Wei, Lena Q Ma
The stability coupled with its wide use of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) cause serious concern regarding its potential risks to human health. The molecular mechanisms of PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity relevant to human health was investigated by using both in vivo (mice model) and in vitro (human hepatocyte cells, HL-7702) techniques. Both male and female Balb/c mice were administered with PFOA at 0.05, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/kg-d for 28-d, which induced serum concentrations at environmental relevance levels. Liver samples were examined for histology and proteomic change using iTRAQ and Western Blotting, showing dose-dependent hepatocyte apoptosis and peroxisome proliferation...
September 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Nora E Gray, Jonathan A Zweig, Donald G Matthews, Maya Caruso, Joseph F Quinn, Amala Soumyanath
Centella asiatica has been used for centuries to enhance memory. We have previously shown that a water extract of Centella asiatica (CAW) protects against the deleterious effects of amyloid-β (Aβ) in neuroblastoma cells and attenuates Aβ-induced cognitive deficits in mice. Yet, the neuroprotective mechanism of CAW has yet to be thoroughly explored in neurons from these animals. This study investigates the effects of CAW on neuronal metabolism and oxidative stress in isolated Aβ-expressing neurons. Hippocampal neurons from amyloid precursor protein overexpressing Tg2576 mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were treated with CAW...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Youchao Zhu, Jiahui Xu, Tao Lu, Meng Zhang, Mingjing Ke, Zhengwei Fu, Xiangliang Pan, Haifeng Qian
Copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) have been used in a broad range of applications. However, they are inevitably released into the marine environment, making it necessary to evaluate their potential effects on marine phytoplankton. In this study, the short-term (96h) effects of CuNPs and CuSO4 on Phacodactylum tricornutum growth, photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species production and transcription were assessed. It was found that high concentrations (40μM) of CuNPs and CuSO4 significantly inhibited the growth, photosynthesis and induced oxidative stress of P...
August 31, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Li Sun, Quan Yuan, Tianhua Xu, Li Yao, Jiangmin Feng, Jianfei Ma, Lining Wang, Changlong Lu, Danan Wang
Pioglitazone is a type of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist and has been demonstrated to be effective in chronic kidney diseases (CKD) treatment. However, the underlying mechanism involved in the renoprotection of pioglitazone has not been fully revealed. In the present study, the renoprotective mechanism of pioglitazone was investigated in 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) rats and TGF-β1-exposed HK-2 cells. Pioglitazone attenuated renal injury and improved renal function, as examined by 24 h urinary protein, blood urea nitrogen and plasma creatinine in Nx rats...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Lingmei Sun, Kai Liao, Dayong Wang
BACKGROUND: Honokiol, a compound extracted from Magnolia officinalis, has antifungal activities by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and triggering apoptosis in Candida albicans. However, the mechanism of honokiol-induced oxidative stress is poorly understood. The present investigation was designed to determine the specific mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generation component. METHODS/RESULTS: We found that honokiol induced mitochondrial ROS accumulation, mainly superoxide anions (O2•-) measured by fluorescent staining method...
2017: PloS One
Celena Scheede-Bergdahl, Andreas Bergdahl
Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Although the clinical manifestations of this disease are well documented, the etiology and progression remain to be fully understood. Recently, the mitochondria have been implicated in important cellular processes involved in development of atherosclerosis. Despite the link between mitochondria and atherosclerosis, early phase mechanisms of the disease have yet to be elucidated. The aim of this project was to explore the role of mitochondria in vascular smooth muscle (VSMC) dedifferentiation...
August 28, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Martin Vestergaard, Katrine Nøhr-Meldgaard, Hanne Ingmer
Staphylococcus aureus confers life-threatening and difficult to treat infections worldwide and antimicrobial resistance is an increasing concern. While acquired resistance has been widely studied, little is known of the contributions from chromosomal determinants that upon inactivation may reduce the susceptibility towards antibiotics. The aim of this study was to identify genetic determinants that upon inactivation reduce aminoglycoside susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus. We screened the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library of 1920 single-gene inactivations in S...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Riccardo Volpi, Ana Claudia Santos Camilo, Demetrio A da Silva Filho, Juan T López Navarrete, Berta Gómez-Lor, M Carmen Ruiz Delgado, Mathieu Linares
We have performed a multiscale approach to study the influence of peripheral substitution in the semiconducting properties of discotic liquid-crystalline triindoles. Charge carrier mobility as high as 1.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) was experimentally reported for triindoles substituted with alkynyl chains on the periphery (Gómez-Lor et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2011, 50, 7399-7402). In this work, our goal is to get a deeper understanding of both the molecular electronic structure and microscopic factors affecting the charge transport properties in triindoles as a function of the spacer group connecting the central cores with the external alkyl chains (i...
September 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Tiantian Zhang, Pengli Bu, Joey Zeng, Ales Vancura
Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration is a complex process that involves several signaling pathways and transcription factors, as well as communication between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Under aerobic condition, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolizes glucose predominantly by glycolysis and fermentation. We have recently shown that altered chromatin structure in yeast induces respiration by a mechanism that requires transport and metabolism of pyruvate in mitochondria...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ellen Winckelmans, Tim S Nawrot, Maria Tsamou, Elly Den Hond, Willy Baeyens, Jos Kleinjans, Wouter Lefebvre, Nicolas Van Larebeke, Martien Peusens, Michelle Plusquin, Hans Reynders, Greet Schoeters, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Theo M de Kok, Karen Vrijens
BACKGROUND: Due to their lack of repair capacity mitochondria are critical targets for environmental toxicants. We studied genes and pathways reflecting mitochondrial responses to short- and medium-term PM10 exposure. METHODS: Whole genome gene expression was measured in peripheral blood of 98 adults (49% women). We performed linear regression analyses stratified by sex and adjusted for individual and temporal characteristics to investigate alterations in gene expression induced by short-term (week before blood sampling) and medium-term (month before blood sampling) PM10 exposure...
August 18, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Naresh C Bal, Sushant Singh, Felipe C G Reis, Santosh K Maurya, Sunil Pani, Leslie A Rowland, Muthu Periasamy
Thermogenesis is an important homeostatic mechanism, essential for survival and normal physiological functions in mammals. Both brown adipose tissue (BAT) (i.e. uncoupling protein 1 [UCP1]-based) and skeletal muscle (i.e. sarcolipin [SLN]-based) thermogenesis processes play important roles in temperature homeostasis, but their relative contributions differ from small to large mammals. In this study, we investigated the functional interplay between skeletal muscle and BAT-based thermogenesis under mild versus severe cold adaptation employing UCP1-/- and SLN-/- mice...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nityananda Khanal, Geoffrey E Bray, Anna Grisnich, Barbara A Moffatt, Gordon R Gray
Photosynthetic organisms are able to sense energy imbalances brought about by the overexcitation of photosystem II (PSII) through the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, estimated as the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter 1-qL, also known as PSII excitation pressure. Plants employ a wide array of photoprotective processes that modulate photosynthesis to correct these energy imbalances. Low temperature and light are well established in their ability to modulate PSII excitation pressure...
August 9, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Ailed Pérez-Sánchez, Salvador Uribe-Carvajal, Alfredo Cabrera-Orefice, Javier Barrios-González
Lovastatin is a commercially important secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus terreus, either by solid-state fermentation or by submerged fermentation. In a previous work, we showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in idiophase positively regulates lovastatin biosynthetic genes. In addition, it has been found that lovastatin-specific production decreases with aeration in solid-state fermentation (SSF). To study this phenomenon, we determined ROS accumulation during lovastatin SSF, under high and low aeration conditions...
August 8, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Minglang Wang, Yongfeng Wang, Stefano Sanvito, Shimin Hou
The atomic structure and electronic transport properties of two types of molecular junctions, in which a series of saturated and conjugated molecules are symmetrically connected to gold electrodes through methylsulfide groups, are investigated using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism combined with density functional theory. Our calculations show that the low-bias junction conductance is determined by the electronic tunneling between the two Au-S donor-acceptor bonds formed at the molecule-electrode interfaces...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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