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Electron transport chain mechanism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431359/reconstruction-of-microbial-community-structures-as-evidences-for-soil-redox-coupled-reductive-dechlorination-of-pcp-in-a-mangrove-soil
#1
Yan Xu, Yan He, Xianjin Tang, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu
The aim was to investigate the influence of pentachlorophenol (PCP) on the soil microbial communities and the coupled mechanism between PCP reductive dechlorination and soil redox under anaerobic condition. Accordingly, a slurry incubation experiment was carried out in which bacterial and archaeal communities were detected by MiSeq amplicon sequencing. The original microbial community balance was gradually disrupted and new microbial structure was reconstructed subsequently through self-regulation and acclimation during PCP transformation, coupling with the changes of soil biogeochemical redox dynamics...
April 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428331/a-personalized-model-of-coq2-nephropathy-rescued-by-the-wild-type-coq2-allele-or-dietary-coenzyme-q10-supplementation
#2
Jun-Yi Zhu, Yulong Fu, Adam Richman, Zhanzheng Zhao, Patricio E Ray, Zhe Han
Clinical studies have identified patients with nephrotic syndrome caused by mutations in genes involved in the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a lipid component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and an important antioxidant. However, the cellular mechanisms through which these mutations induce podocyte injury remain obscure. Here, we exploited the striking similarities between Drosophila nephrocytes and human podocytes to develop a Drosophila model of these renal diseases, and performed a systematic in vivo analysis assessing the role of CoQ10 pathway genes in renal function...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427248/caloric-restriction-induced-extension-of-chronological-lifespan-requires-intact-respiration-in-budding-yeast
#3
Young-Yon Kwon, Sung-Keun Lee, Cheol-Koo Lee
Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to extend lifespan and prevent cellular senescence in various species ranging from yeast to humans. Many effects of CR may contribute to extend lifespan. Specifically, CR prevents oxidative damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS) by enhancing mitochondrial function. In this study, we characterized 33 single electron transport chain (ETC) gene-deletion strains to identify CR-induced chronological lifespan (CLS) extension mechanisms. Interestingly, defects in 17 of these 33 ETC genedeleted strains showed loss of both respiratory function and CR-induced CLS extension...
April 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409426/ethylenediurea-as-a-potential-tool-in-evaluating-ozone-phytotoxicity-a-review-study-on-physiological-biochemical-and-morphological-responses-of-plants
#4
Supriya Tiwari
Present-day climate change scenario has intensified the problem of continuously increasing ground-level ozone (O3), which is responsible for causing deleterious effects on growth and development of plants. Studies involving use of ethylenediurea (EDU), a chemical with antiozonant properties, have given some promising results in evaluating O3 injury in plants. The use of EDU is especially advantageous in developing countries which face a more severe problem of ground-level O3, and technical O3-induced yield loss assessment techniques like open-top chambers cannot be used...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406958/molecular-analysis-of-culex-quinquefasciatus-larvae-responses-to-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-bin-toxin
#5
Chontida Tangsongcharoen, Natapong Jupatanakul, Boonhiang Promdonkoy, George Dimopoulos, Panadda Boonserm
Lysinibacillus sphaericus produces the mosquito larvicidal binary toxin consisting of BinA and BinB, which are both required for toxicity against Culex and Anopheles larvae. The molecular mechanisms behind Bin toxin-induced damage remain unexplored. We used whole-genome microarray-based transcriptome analysis to better understand how Culex larvae respond to Bin toxin treatment at the molecular level. Our analyses of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae transcriptome changes at 6, 12, and 18 h after Bin toxin treatment revealed a wide range of transcript signatures, including genes linked to the cytoskeleton, metabolism, immunity, and cellular stress, with a greater number of down-regulated genes than up-regulated genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403199/the-plastoquinone-pool-of-nannochloropsis-oceanica-is-not-completely-reduced-during-bright-light-pulses
#6
Gunvor Røkke, Thor Bernt Melø, Martin Frank Hohmann-Marriott
The lipid-producing model alga Nannochloropsis oceanica has a distinct photosynthetic machinery. This organism possesses chlorophyll a as its only chlorophyll species, and has a high ratio of PSI to PSII. This high ratio of PSI to PSII may affect the redox state of the plastoquinone pool during exposure to light, and consequently may play a role in activating photoprotection mechanisms. We utilized pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometry to investigate the redox state of the plastoquinone pool during and after bright light pulses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367838/anti-biofouling-function-of-amorphous-nano-ta2o5-coating-for-vo2-based-intelligent-windows
#7
Jinhua Li, Geyong Guo, Jiaxing Wang, Huaijuan Zhou, Hao Shen, Kelvin W K Yeung
From environmental and health perspectives, the acquisition of a surface anti-biofouling property holds important significance for the usability of VO2 intelligent windows. Herein, we firstly deposited amorphous Ta2O5 nanoparticles on VO2 film by the magnetron sputtering method. It was found that the amorphous nano-Ta2O5 coating possessed a favorable anti-biofouling capability against Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an environmental microorganism model, behind which lay the mechanism that the amorphous nano-Ta2O5 could interrupt the microbial membrane electron transport chain and significantly elevate the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level...
April 28, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366515/coq10-selective-miscibility-and-penetration-into-lipid-monolayers-with-lower-lateral-packing-density
#8
Sumit Garg, Vandana Swaminathan, Sirisha Dhavala, Michael A Kiebish, Rangaprasad Sarangarajan, Niven R Narain
CoQ10 is ubiquitously present in eukaryotic cells. It acts as electron carrier in the electron transport chain of the inner membrane of the mitochondria to facilitate aerobic cellular respiration. A highly stable lipid nanodispersion formulation containing CoQ10 (BPM31510) is currently in clinical investigation for treatment of cancer. This study was designed to determine whether biophysical interactions between CoQ10 and lipid, in part, explain the observed stability and cellular accumulation of CoQ10 in cells and tissues...
March 30, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366030/genetic-diversities-of-mt-nd1-and-mt-nd2-genes-are-associated-with-high-altitude-adaptation-in-yak
#9
Yu Shi, Yongsong Hu, Jie Wang, Mauricio A Elzo, Xue Yang, Songjia Lai
Tibetan yak (Bos grunniens) inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) where the average altitude is 4000 m, is specially adapted to live at these altitudes. Conversely, cattle (B. taurus) has been found to suffer from high-altitude hypertension or heart failure when exposed to these high altitudes. Two mitochondrial genes, MT-ND1 and MT-ND2, encode two subunits of NADH dehydrogenase play an essential role in the electron transport chain of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We sequenced these two mitochondrial genes in two bovine groups (70 Tibetan yaks and 70 Xuanhan cattle) and downloaded 300 sequences of B...
April 1, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358486/separation-of-semiconducting-carbon-nanotubes-for-flexible-and-stretchable-electronics-using-polymer-removable-method
#10
Ting Lei, Igor Pochorovski, Zhenan Bao
Electronics that are soft, conformal, and stretchable are highly desirable for wearable electronics, prosthetics, and robotics. Among the various available electronic materials, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and their network have exhibited high mechanical flexibility and stretchability, along with comparable electrical performance to traditional rigid materials, e.g. polysilicon and metal oxides. Unfortunately, SWNTs produced en masse contain a mixture of semiconducting (s-) and metallic (m-) SWNTs, rendering them unsuitable for electronic applications...
March 30, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358305/electrochemical-field-effect-transistor-utilization-to-study-the-coupling-success-rate-of-photosynthetic-protein-complexes-to-cytochrome-c
#11
Arash Takshi, Houman Yaghoubi, Jing Wang, Daniel Jun, J Thomas Beatty
Due to the high internal quantum efficiency, reaction center (RC) proteins from photosynthetic organisms have been studied in various bio-photoelectrochemical devices for solar energy harvesting. In vivo, RC and cytochrome c (cyt c; a component of the biological electron transport chain) can form a cocomplex via interprotein docking. This mechanism can be used in vitro for efficient electron transfer from an electrode to the RC in a bio-photoelectrochemical device. Hence, the success rate in coupling RCs to cyt c is of great importance for practical applications in the future...
March 30, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348025/vibrio-cholerae-vcib-mediates-iron-reduction
#12
Eric D Peng, Shelley M Payne
Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the severe diarrheal disease cholera. V. cholerae thrives within the human host where it replicates to high numbers but also persists within the aquatic environments of ocean and brackish water. To survive within these nutritionally diverse environments, V. cholerae must encode the necessary tools to acquire the essential nutrient iron in all forms it may encounter. A prior study of systems involved in iron transport in V. cholerae revealed the existence of vciB which, while unable to directly transport iron, stimulates the transport of iron through ferrous (Fe(2+)) iron transport systems...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345881/silane-and-germane-molecular-electronics
#13
Timothy A Su, Haixing Li, Rebekka S Klausen, Nathaniel T Kim, Madhav Neupane, James L Leighton, Michael L Steigerwald, Latha Venkataraman, Colin Nuckolls
This Account provides an overview of our recent efforts to uncover the fundamental charge transport properties of Si-Si and Ge-Ge single bonds and introduce useful functions into group 14 molecular wires. We utilize the tools of chemical synthesis and a scanning tunneling microscopy-based break-junction technique to study the mechanism of charge transport in these molecular systems. We evaluated the fundamental ability of silicon, germanium, and carbon molecular wires to transport charge by comparing conductances within families of well-defined structures, the members of which differ only in the number of Si (or Ge or C) atoms in the wire...
March 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332118/nutrition-and-training-influences-on-the-regulation-of-mitochondrial-adenosine-diphosphate-sensitivity-and-bioenergetics
#14
REVIEW
Graham P Holloway
Since the seminal finding almost 50 years ago that exercise training increases mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle, a considerable amount of research has been dedicated to elucidate the mechanisms inducing mitochondrial biogenesis. The discovery of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α as a major regulator of exercise-induced gene transcription was instrumental in beginning to understand the signals regulating this process. However, almost two decades after its discovery, our understanding of the signals inducing mitochondrial biogenesis remain poorly defined, limiting our insights into possible novel training modalities in elite athletes that can increase the oxidative potential of muscle...
March 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329820/hepatocellular-toxicity-of-imidazole-and-triazole-antimycotic-agents
#15
Patrizia Haegler, Lorenz Joerin, Stephan Krähenbühl, Jamal Bouitbir
Hepatotoxicity has been described for all antimycotic azoles currently marketed. A possible mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction has been postulated for ketoconazole, but not for the other azoles. The aim of the current investigations was to study the toxicity of different azoles in human cell models and to find out mechanisms of their toxicity. In HepG2 cells, posaconazole and ketoconazole were cytotoxic starting at 20 and 50 µM and decreased the cellular ATP content starting at 5 and 10 µM, respectively...
January 27, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325762/a-genetic-screen-reveals-that-synthesis-of-1-4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate-dhna-but-not-full-length-menaquinone-is-required-for-listeria-monocytogenes-cytosolic-survival
#16
Grischa Y Chen, Courtney E McDougal, Marc A D'Antonio, Jonathan L Portman, John-Demian Sauer
Through unknown mechanisms, the host cytosol restricts bacterial colonization; therefore, only professional cytosolic pathogens are adapted to colonize this host environment. Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive intracellular pathogen that is highly adapted to colonize the cytosol of both phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells. To identify L. monocytogenes determinants of cytosolic survival, we designed and executed a novel screen to isolate L. monocytogenes mutants with cytosolic survival defects. Multiple mutants identified in the screen were defective for synthesis of menaquinone (MK), an essential molecule in the electron transport chain...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303003/effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-and-moderate-intensity-continuous-training-on-glycaemic-control-and-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-function-in-db-db-mice
#17
Vivien Chavanelle, Nathalie Boisseau, Yolanda F Otero, Lydie Combaret, Dominique Dardevet, Christophe Montaurier, Geoffrey Delcros, Sébastien L Peltier, Pascal Sirvent
Physical activity is known as an effective strategy for prevention and treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. The aim of this work was to compare the effects of a traditional Moderate Intensity Continuous Training (MICT) with a High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on glucose metabolism and mitochondrial function in diabetic mice. Diabetic db/db male mice (N = 25) aged 6 weeks were subdivided into MICT, HIIT or control (CON) group. Animals in the training groups ran on a treadmill 5 days/week during 10 weeks...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295945/parallel-evolution-of-genes-controlling-mitonuclear-balance-in-short-lived-annual-fishes
#18
Arne Sahm, Martin Bens, Matthias Platzer, Alessandro Cellerino
The current molecular understanding of the aging process derives almost exclusively from the study of random or targeted single-gene mutations in highly inbred laboratory species, mostly invertebrates. Little information is available as to the genetic mechanisms responsible for natural lifespan variation and the evolution of lifespan, especially in vertebrates. Here, we investigated the pattern of positive selection in annual (i.e., short-lived) and nonannual (i.e., longer-lived) African killifishes to identify a genomic substrate for evolution of annual life history (and reduced lifespan)...
March 11, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291354/regulation-of-respiratory-pathway-and-electron-transport-chain-in-relation-to-senescence-of-postharvest-white-mushroom-agaricus-bisporus-under-high-o2-co2-controlled-atmospheres
#19
Ling Li, Hiroaki Kitazawa, Xiangyou Wang, Han Sun
In order to study the respiration metabolism mechanism based on the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) by the electron transport chain (ETC) of the white mushroom under high O2/CO2 controlled atmospheres (CA), the treatments of 100% O2, 80% O2 + 20% CO2, 60% O2 + 40% CO2 and 40% O2 + 60% CO2 were employed and natural air was used as the control. ATP and energy charge can maintain the membrane integrity and function, life activities and physic-chemical reactions of high plants...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288978/mff-dependent-mitochondrial-fission-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiac-microvasculature-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-induction-of-mros-mediated-cardiolipin-oxidation-and-hk2-vdac1-disassociation-involved-mptp-opening
#20
Hao Zhou, Shunying Hu, Qinhua Jin, Chen Shi, Ying Zhang, Pingjun Zhu, Qiang Ma, Feng Tian, Yundai Chen
BACKGROUND: The cardiac microvascular system ischemia/reperfusion injury following percutaneous coronary intervention is a clinical thorny problem. This study explores the mechanisms by which ischemia/reperfusion injury induces cardiac microcirculation collapse. METHODS AND RESULTS: In wild-type mice, mitochondrial fission factor (Mff) expression increased in response to acute microvascular ischemia/reperfusion injury. Compared with wild-type mice, homozygous Mff-deficient (Mff(gt)) mice exhibited a smaller infarcted area, restored cardiac function, improved blood flow, and reduced microcirculation perfusion defects...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
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