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Electron transport chain mechanism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105575/bongkrekic-acid-a-review-of-a-lesser-known-mitochondrial-toxin
#1
REVIEW
Mehruba Anwar, Amelia Kasper, Alaina R Steck, Joshua G Schier
INTRODUCTION: Bongkrekic acid (BA) has a unique mechanism of toxicity among the mitochondrial toxins: it inhibits adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) rather than the electron transport chain. Bongkrekic acid is produced by the bacterium Burkholderia gladioli pathovar cocovenenans (B. cocovenenans) which has been implicated in outbreaks of food-borne illness involving coconut- and corn-based products in Indonesia and China. Our objective was to summarize what is known about the epidemiology, exposure sources, toxicokinetics, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis and treatment of human BA poisoning...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104397/pink1-alleviates-myocardial-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury-by-ameliorating-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#2
Yang Li, Liangxian Qiu, Xiping Liu, Zhiwen Hou, Bo Yu
PTEN inducible kinase-1 (PINK1) mutant induces mitochondrial dysfunction of cells, resulting in an inherited form of Parkinson's disease. However its exact role in the cardiomyocytes is unclear. The present study examined the function of PINK1 in hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) induced H9c2 cell damage and its potential mechanism. The H/R model in H9c2 cells was established by 6 h of hypoxia and 12 h of reoxygenation. The CCK8 and LDH assay indicated that the cell viability was obviously reduced after H/R. The expression of PINK1 was decreased in H/R-induced H9c2 cells compared with control group...
January 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070154/proposed-mechanisms-of-photobiomodulation-or-low-level-light-therapy
#3
Lucas Freitas de Freitas, Michael R Hamblin
Photobiomodulation (PBM) also known as low-level laser (or light) therapy (LLLT), has been known for almost 50 years but still has not gained widespread acceptance, largely due to uncertainty about the molecular, cellular, and tissular mechanisms of action. However, in recent years, much knowledge has been gained in this area, which will be summarized in this review. One of the most important chromophores is cytochrome c oxidase (unit IV in the mitochondrial respiratory chain), which contains both heme and copper centers and absorbs light into the near-infra-red region...
May 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069455/5-hydroxy-1-4-naphthalenedione-exerts-anticancer-effects-on-glioma-cells-through-interaction-with-the-mitochondrial-electron-transport-chain
#4
Kastytis Sidlauskas, Ruta Sidlauskiene, Ningning Li, Julius Liobikas
Survival of patients with glioblastoma remains within the range of several months despite advances in therapeutic options. We have already shown that 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione (juglone) exerts antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and cytotoxic effects on glioma C6 cells. Here, we further revealed that juglone is relatively selective to glioma cells as compared to the normal glial culture, and investigated its mechanisms of action. The incubation of glioma C6 cells with juglone generated high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065841/the-neurotoxic-mechanisms-of-amphetamine-step-by-step-for-striatal-dopamine-depletion
#5
Che-Se Tung, Shang-Tang Chang, Chuen-Lin Huang, Nai-Kuei Huang
Amphetamine (AMPH) is a commonly abused psychostimulant that induces neuronal cell death/degeneration in humans and experimental animals. Although multiple neurotoxic mechanisms of AMPH have been intensively investigated, the interplay between these mechanisms has remained elusive. In this study, we used a rat model of AMPH-induced long-lasting striatal dopamine (DA) depletion and identified mechanisms of neurotoxicity, energy failure, excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress. Pretreatment with nicotinamide (NAM, a co-factor for the electron transport chain) blocked AMPH-induced free radical formation, energy failure, and striatal DA decrease...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062414/a-novel-complex-i-inhibitor-protects-against-hypertension-induced-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#6
Nobutoshi Matsumura, Ian M Robertson, Shereen M Hamza, Carrie-Lynn M Soltys, Miranda M Sung, Grant Masson, Donna L Beker, Jason R B Dyck
Since left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) increases the susceptibility for the development of other cardiac conditions, pharmacotherapy that mitigates pathological cardiac remodeling may prove to be beneficial in patients with LVH. Previous work has shown that the activation of the energy-sensing kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), can inhibit some of the molecular mechanisms that are involved in LVH. Of interest, metformin activates AMPK through its inhibition of mitochondrial complex 1 in the electron transport chain, and can prevent LVH induced by pressure overload...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049716/sideroflexin-3-is-a-%C3%AE-synuclein-dependent-mitochondrial-protein-that-regulates-synaptic-morphology
#7
Inês S Amorim, Laura C Graham, Roderick N Carter, Nicholas M Morton, Fella Hammachi, Tilo Kunath, Giuseppa Pennetta, Sarah M Carpanini, Jean C Manson, Douglas J Lamont, Thomas M Wishart, Thomas H Gillingwater
α-synuclein plays a central role in Parkinson's disease, where it contributes to the vulnerability of synapses to degeneration. However, the downstream mechanisms through which α-synuclein controls synaptic stability and degeneration are not fully understood. Here, comparative proteomics on synapses isolated from α-synuclein(-/-) mouse brain identified mitochondrial proteins as primary targets of α-synuclein, revealing 37 mitochondrial proteins not previously linked to α-synuclein or neurodegeneration pathways...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040647/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-phenol-tolerance-mechanism-of-evolved-chlorella-strain
#8
Lin Zhou, Dujia Cheng, Liang Wang, Juan Gao, Quanyu Zhao, Wei Wei, Yuhan Sun
The growth of microalgae is inhibited by high concentration phenol due to reactive oxygen species. An evolved strain tolerated to 500mg/L phenol, Chlorella sp. L5, was obtained in previous study. In this study, comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed for Chlorella sp. L5 and its original strain (Chlorella sp. L3). The tolerance mechanism of Chlorella sp. L5 for high concentration phenol was explored on genome scale. It was identified that the up-regulations of the related genes according to antioxidant enzymes (SOD, APX, CAT and GR) and carotenoids (astaxanthin, lutein and lycopene) biosynthesis had critical roles to tolerate high concentration phenol...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040265/pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-4-deficiency-attenuates-cisplatin-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#9
Chang Joo Oh, Chae-Myeong Ha, Young-Keun Choi, Sungmi Park, Mi Sun Choe, Nam Ho Jeoung, Yang Hoon Huh, Hyo-Jeong Kim, Hee-Seok Kweon, Ji-Min Lee, Sun Joo Lee, Jae-Han Jeon, Robert A Harris, Keun-Gyu Park, In-Kyu Lee
Clinical prescription of cisplatin, one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents, is limited by its side effects, particularly tubular injury-associated nephrotoxicity. Since details of the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, we investigated the role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Among the PDK isoforms, PDK4 mRNA and protein levels were markedly increased in the kidneys of mice treated with cisplatin, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation was involved in cisplatin-induced renal PDK4 expression...
December 28, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035368/5-aminolevulinic-acid-enhances-mitochondrial-stress-upon-ionizing-irradiation-exposure-and-increases-delayed-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-cell-death-in-glioma-cells
#10
Kunihiro Ueta, Junkoh Yamamoto, Tohru Tanaka, Yoshiteru Nakano, Takehiro Kitagawa, Shigeru Nishizawa
5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) can accumulate protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in tumour cell mitochondria and is well known for its utility in fluorescence-guided resection of malignant gliomas as a live molecular marker. Previously, we and other authors demonstrated that 5-ALA has a radiosensitizing effect for tumours. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the radiosensitizing effect of 5-ALA by focusing on glioma cell mitochondria. Using an enhancer (ciprofloxacin) of 5-ALA-induced PpIX accumulation, we evaluated the influence of ionizing irradiation (IR) and delayed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production 12 h after IR by colony-forming assay and flow cytometry (FCM) with different amounts of PpIX accumulation...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018404/functional-and-integrative-analysis-of-the-proteomic-profile-of-radish-root-under-pb-exposure
#11
Yan Wang, Liang Xu, Mingjia Tang, Haiyan Jiang, Wei Chen, Wei Zhang, Ronghua Wang, Liwang Liu
Lead (Pb) is one of the most abundant heavy metal (HM) pollutants, which can penetrate the plant through the root and then enter the food chain causing potential health risks for human beings. Radish is an important root vegetable crop worldwide. To investigate the mechanism underlying plant response to Pb stress in radish, the protein profile changes of radish roots respectively upon Pb(NO3)2 at 500 mg L(-1)(Pb500) and 1000 mg L(-1)(Pb1000), were comprehensively analyzed using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantification)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018309/cyanobacteria-in-sulfidic-spring-microbial-mats-can-perform-oxygenic-and-anoxygenic-photosynthesis-simultaneously-during-an-entire-diurnal-period
#12
Judith M Klatt, Dirk de Beer, Stefan Häusler, Lubos Polerecky
We used microsensors to study the regulation of anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis (AP and OP, respectively) by light and sulfide in a cyanobacterium dominating microbial mats from cold sulfidic springs. Both photosynthetic modes were performed simultaneously over all H2S concentrations (1-2200 μM) and irradiances (4-52 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) tested. AP increased with H2S concentration while the sum of oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthetic rates was constant at each light intensity. Thus, the total photosynthetically driven electron transport rate was solely controlled by the irradiance level...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008780/carnosine-inhibits-the-proliferation-of-human-cervical-gland-carcinoma-cells-through-inhibiting-both-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-glycolysis-pathways-and-retarding-cell-cycle-progression
#13
Yun Bao, Saidan Ding, Jiaoyan Cheng, Yuan Liu, Bingyu Wang, Huijuan Xu, Yao Shen, Jianxin Lyu
Carnosine has been demonstrated to play an antitumorigenic role in certain types of cancer. However, its underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, the roles of carnosine in cell proliferation and its underlying mechanism were investigated in the cultured human cervical gland carcinoma cells HeLa and cervical squamous carcinoma cells SiHa. The results showed that carnosine exerted a significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HeLa cells, whereas its inhibitory action on the proliferation of SiHa cells was much weaker...
December 1, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007968/nitrite-protects-mitochondrial-structure-and-function-under-hypoxia
#14
Kapuganti Jagadis Gupta, Chun Pong Lee, R George Ratcliffe
Oxygen deprivation leads to changes in mitochondrial morphology and impaired flow of reducing equivalents through the electron transport chain. The extent of these changes depends on the duration and severity of the treatment as well as on the species and cell type. Nitrate is known to ameliorate these effects in some instances, but it is possible that it is nitrite, rather than nitrate, that is the key to the mechanism. To test this, mitochondria were isolated from 21-day-old pea (Pisum sativum) roots and incubated for 90 min under normoxia or hypoxia in the presence or absence of 0...
October 25, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007895/hypoxia-inducible-factors-coupling-glucose-metabolism-and-redox-regulation-with-induction-of%C3%A2-the-breast-cancer-stem-cell-phenotype
#15
REVIEW
Gregg L Semenza
Reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) leads to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the electron transport chain. Here, I review recent work delineating mechanisms by which hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) mediates adaptive metabolic responses to hypoxia, including increased flux through the glycolytic pathway and decreased flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, in order to decrease mitochondrial ROS production. HIF-1 also mediates increased flux through the serine synthesis pathway and mitochondrial one-carbon (folate cycle) metabolism to increase mitochondrial antioxidant production (NADPH and glutathione)...
December 22, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004807/expert-consensus-document-mitochondrial-function-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-heart-failure
#16
David A Brown, Justin B Perry, Mitchell E Allen, Hani N Sabbah, Brian L Stauffer, Saame Raza Shaikh, John G F Cleland, Wilson S Colucci, Javed Butler, Adriaan A Voors, Stefan D Anker, Bertram Pitt, Burkert Pieske, Gerasimos Filippatos, Stephen J Greene, Mihai Gheorghiade
Heart failure is a pressing worldwide public-health problem with millions of patients having worsening heart failure. Despite all the available therapies, the condition carries a very poor prognosis. Existing therapies provide symptomatic and clinical benefit, but do not fully address molecular abnormalities that occur in cardiomyocytes. This shortcoming is particularly important given that most patients with heart failure have viable dysfunctional myocardium, in which an improvement or normalization of function might be possible...
December 22, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004755/stat3-undergoes-acetylation-dependent-mitochondrial-translocation-to-regulate-pyruvate-metabolism
#17
Yan S Xu, Jinyuan J Liang, Yumei Wang, Xiang-Zhong J Zhao, Li Xu, Ye-Yang Xu, Quanli C Zou, Junxun M Zhang, Cheng-E Tu, Yan-Ge Cui, Wei-Hong Sun, Chao Huang, Jing-Hua Yang, Y Eugene Chin
Cytoplasmic STAT3, after activation by growth factors, translocates to different subcellular compartments, including nuclei and mitochondria, where it carries out different biological functions. However, the precise mechanism by which STAT3 undergoes mitochondrial translocation and subsequently regulates the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-electron transport chain (ETC) remains poorly understood. Here, we clarify this process by visualizing STAT3 acetylation in starved cells after serum reintroduction or insulin stimulation...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002044/dos-cones-along-atomic-chains
#18
Tomasz Kwapinski
The transport properties of a linear atomic chain are studied theoretically within the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Green's function method. Variations of the local density of states along the chain are investigated. They are crucial in the scanning tunnelling experiments and give important insight into the electron transport mechanism and charge distribution inside chains. It is found that depending on the chain parity the local DOS at the Fermi level can form cone-like structures (DOS cones) along the chain...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991883/microbial-stimulation-of-different-toll-like-receptor-signalling-pathways-induces-diverse-metabolic-programmes-in-human-monocytes
#19
Ekta Lachmandas, Lily Boutens, Jacqueline M Ratter, Anneke Hijmans, Guido J Hooiveld, Leo A B Joosten, Richard J Rodenburg, Jack A M Fransen, Riekelt H Houtkooper, Reinout van Crevel, Mihai G Netea, Rinke Stienstra
Microbial stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induce robust metabolic rewiring in immune cells known as the Warburg effect. It is unknown whether this increase in glycolysis and decrease in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is a general characteristic of monocytes that have encountered a pathogen. Using CD14(+) monocytes from healthy donors, we demonstrated that most microbial stimuli increased glycolysis, but that only stimulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 with LPS led to a decrease in OXPHOS. Instead, activation of other TLRs, such as TLR2 activation by Pam3CysSK4 (P3C), increased oxygen consumption and mitochondrial enzyme activity...
December 19, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986792/alternative-oxidase-transcription-factors-aod2-and-aod5-of-neurospora-crassa-control-the-expression-of-genes-involved-in-energy-production-and-metabolism
#20
Zhigang Qi, Kristina M Smith, Erin L Bredeweg, Natasa Bosnjak, Michael Freitag, Frank E Nargang
In Neurospora crassa, blocking the function of the standard mitochondrial electron transport chain results in the induction of an alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX transfers electrons directly from ubiquinol to molecular oxygen. AOX serves as a model of retrograde regulation since it is encoded by a nuclear gene that is regulated in response to signals from mitochondria. The N. crassa transcription factors AOD2 and AOD5 are necessary for the expression of the alternative oxidase gene. To gain insight into the mechanism by which these factors function, and to determine if they have roles in the expression of additional genes in N...
December 16, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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