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Electron transport chain mechanism

Zhongbo Liu, Pasha Apontes, Ekaterina V Fomenko, Nan Chi, Victor L Schuster, Irwin J Kurland, Jeffrey E Pessin, Yuling Chi
One of the main causes of hyperglycemia is inefficient or impaired glucose utilization by skeletal muscle, which can be exacerbated by chronic high caloric intake. Previously, we identified a natural compound, mangiferin (MGF) that improved glucose utilization in high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistant mice. To further identify the molecular mechanisms of MGF action on glucose metabolism, we conducted targeted metabolomics and transcriptomics studies of glycolyic and mitochondrial bioenergetics pathways in skeletal muscle...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shabbir A Ansari, Usha R Pendurthi, L Vijaya Mohan Rao
Many pathophysiologic agents transform cryptic tissue factor (TF) on cells to prothrombotic TF, and one such stimulus is 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), the most abundant aldehyde produced by the oxidation of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. HNE was shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and p38 MAPK activation, but the link between them and their role in TF decryption are unclear. The present study was carried out to elucidate potential mechanisms involved in HNE-induced TF decryption in monocytic cells...
November 28, 2017: Blood Advances
W A Baldassini, J J Ramsey, K Hagopian, D P D Lanna
The purpose of this study was to determine if Shc proteins influence the metabolic response to acute (7 days) feeding of a high-fat diet (HFD). To this end, whole animal energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation were measured in the Shc knockout (ShcKO) and wild-type (WT) mice fed a control or HFD. The activities of enzymes of glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, electron transport chain (ETC), and β-oxidation were also investigated in liver and skeletal muscle of ShcKO and WT animals. The study showed that ShcKO increases (P < ...
December 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Jeremy Astier, Inonge Gross, Jörg Durner
Nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule in plant physiology. However, its production in photosynthetic organisms remains partially unresolved. The best characterized NO production route involves the reduction of nitrite to NO via different non-enzymatic or enzymatic mechanisms. Nitrate reductases (NRs), the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and the new complex between NR and NOFNiR (nitric oxide-forming nitrite reductase) described in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are the main enzymatic systems that perform this reductive NO production in plants...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Tatiana P Shkurat, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Andrey V Grechko, Alexander N Orekhov
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Proper mitochondrial function is necessary in tissues and organs that are of high energy demand, including the heart. Mitochondria are very sensitive to nutrient and oxygen supply and undergo metabolic adaptation to the changing environment. In CVD, such an adaptation is impaired, which, in turn, leads to a progressive decline of the mitochondrial function associated with abnormalities in the respiratory chain and ATP synthesis, increased oxidative stress, and loss of the structural integrity of mitochondria...
December 18, 2017: Annals of Medicine
Marco A Allodi, John P Otto, Sara H Sohail, Rafael G Saer, Ryan E Wood, Brian S Rolczynski, Sara C Massey, Po-Chieh Ting, Robert E Blankenship, Gregory S Engel
Pigment-protein complexes in photosynthetic antennae can suffer oxidative damage from reactive oxygen species generated during solar light harvesting. How the redox environment of a pigment-protein complex affects energy transport on the ultrafast light-harvesting timescale remains poorly understood. Using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, we observe differences in femtosecond energy-transfer processes in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) antenna complex under different redox conditions. We attribute these differences in the ultrafast dynamics to changes to the system-bath coupling around specific chromophores, and we identify a highly-conserved tyrosine/tryptophan chain near the chromophores showing the largest changes...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Mohammad Jodeiri Farshbaf, Abbas Kiani-Esfahani
Onset of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases as neurodegenerative disorders is increased by age. Alleviation of clinical symptoms and protection of neurons against degeneration are the main aspects of researches to establish new therapeutic strategies. Many studies have shown that mitochondria play crucial roles in high energy demand tissues like brain. Impairments in mitochondrial activity and physiology can makes neurons vulnerable to stress and degeneration. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) connects tricarboxylic cycle to the electron transport chain...
December 7, 2017: Mitochondrion
D A Cherepanov, G E Milanovsky, A A Petrova, A N Tikhonov, A Yu Semenov
This review considers the state-of-the-art on mechanisms and alternative pathways of electron transfer in photosynthetic electron transport chains of chloroplasts and cyanobacteria. The mechanisms of electron transport control between photosystems (PS) I and II and the Calvin-Benson cycle are considered. The redistribution of electron fluxes between the noncyclic, cyclic, and pseudocyclic pathways plays an important role in the regulation of photosynthesis. Mathematical modeling of light-induced electron transport processes is considered...
November 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Lei Yan, Jiyu Xu, Fangwei Wang, Sheng Meng
Hydrogen gas production from solar water splitting provides a renewable energy cycle to address the grand global energy challenge, however, its dynamics and fundamental mechanism remain elusive. We directly explore by first principles the ultrafast electron-nuclear quantum dynamics on the timescale of ~100 femtoseconds during water photosplitting on plasmonic cluster embedded in liquid water. Water molecule splitting is assisted by rapid proton transport in liquid water in a Grotthuss-like mechanism. We identify that plasmon-induced field enhancement effect dominates water splitting, while charge transfer from gold to anti-bonding orbital of water molecule also plays an important role...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
L Escrivá, D Jennen, F Caiment, L Manyes
Beauvericin (BEA), an ionophoric cyclic hexadepsipeptide mycotoxin, is able to increase oxidative stress by altering membrane ion permeability and uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. A toxicogenomic study was performed to investigate gene expression changes triggered by BEA exposure (1.5, 3 and 5μM; 24h) in Jurkat cells through RNA-sequencing and differential gene expression analysis. Perturbed gene expression was observed in a concentration dependent manner, with 43 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) overlapped in the three studied concentrations...
December 1, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Denise C Bailey, Callie E Todt, Shelbie L Burchfield, Aireal S Pressley, Rachel D Denney, Isaac B Snapp, Rekek Negga, Wendy L Traynor, Vanessa A Fitsanakis
Glyphosate-containing herbicides are among the most widely-used in the world. Although glyphosate itself is relatively non-toxic, growing evidence suggests that commercial herbicide formulations may lead to increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial inhibition. In order to assess these mechanisms in vivo, we chronically (24h) exposed Caenorhabditis elegans to various concentrations of the glyphosate-containing herbicide TouchDown (TD). Following TD exposure, we evaluated the function of specific mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes...
November 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Jing Tang, Maria A Hegeman, Jian Hu, Ming Xie, Wenbiao Shi, Yong Jiang, Vincent de Boer, Yuming Guo, Shuisheng Hou, Jaap Keijer
Suboptimal vitamin B2 status is encountered globally. Riboflavin deficiency depresses growth and results in a fatty liver. The underlying mechanisms remain to be established and an overview of molecular alterations is lacking. We investigated hepatic proteome changes induced by riboflavin deficiency to explain its effects on growth and hepatic lipid metabolism. In all, 360 1-d-old Pekin ducks were divided into three groups of 120 birds each, with twelve replicates and ten birds per replicate. For 21 d, the ducks were fed ad libitum a control diet (CAL), a riboflavin-deficient diet (RD) or were pair-fed with the control diet to the mean daily intake of the RD group (CPF)...
November 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
András Tamás Mészáros, Ágnes Lilla Szilágyi, László Juhász, Eszter Tuboly, Dániel Érces, Gabriella Varga, Petra Hartmann
This review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of mitochondria in the context of hypoxic cell biology, while providing evidence of how these mechanisms are modulated by methane (CH4). Recent studies have unambiguously confirmed CH4 bioactivity in various in vitro and in vivo experimental models and established the possibility that CH4 can affect many aspects of mitochondrial physiology. To date, no specific binding of CH4 to any enzymes or receptors have been reported, and it is probable that many of its effects are related to physico-chemical properties of the non-polar molecule...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
Li Zhang, Nirmal Goswami, Jianping Xie, Bo Zhang, Yiliang He
While the discovery of numerous attractive properties of silver at the nanoscale has increased their demand in many sectors including medicine, optics, sensing, painting and cosmetics, it has also raised wide public concerns about their effect on living organisms in aquatic environment. Despite the continuous effort to understand the various aspects of the toxicity of silver nanomaterials, the molecular level understanding on their cytotoxicity mechanism to biological organisms has remained unclear. Herein, we demonstrated the underlying mechanism of the photosynthetic toxicity against green algae namely, Scenedesmus obliquus by using an emerging silver nanomaterial, called silver nanoclusters (defined as r-Ag NCs)...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lewis A Quayle, Maria G Pereira, Gerjan Scheper, Tammy Wiltshire, Ria E Peake, Issam Hussain, Carol A Rea, Timothy E Bates
Components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain have recently gained much interest as potential therapeutic targets. Since mitochondria are essential for the supply of energy that is required for both angiogenic and tumourigenic activity, targeting the mitochondria represents a promising potential therapeutic approach for treating cancer. Here we investigate the established anti-angiogenesis drugs combretastatin A4, thalidomide, OGT 2115 and tranilast that we hypothesise are able to exert a direct anti-cancer effect in the absence of vasculature by targeting the mitochondria...
October 24, 2017: Oncotarget
Ryo Nagao, Sho Kitazaki, Takumi Noguchi
Light-induced Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy is a powerful method to study the structures and reactions of redox cofactors involved in the photosynthetic electron transport chain. So far, most of the FTIR studies of the reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis have been performed using isolated photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) preparations, which, however, could be modified during isolation procedures. In this study, we developed a methodology to evaluate the photosynthetic activities of thylakoids using FTIR spectroscopy...
November 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Shuya Liu, Zhiming Yu, Xiuxian Song, Xihua Cao
Among the strategies for treating harmful algal blooms, flocculation using modified clay (MC) has been widely applied in the field. This paper studied the mitigation of MC on Amphidinium carterae Hulburt, finding that MC could not only effectively remove A. carterae, but also affect the physiological activities of the residual algae and inhibit their normal growth. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the residual algae significantly increased compared with the control, indicating that MC stimulated the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in algal cells...
December 2017: Harmful Algae
Jordan T Koehn, Estela S Magallanes, Benjamin J Peters, Cheryle N Beuning, Allison A Haase, Michelle J Zhu, Christopher D Rithner, Dean C Crick, Debbie C Crans
Menaquinones (naphthoquinones, MK) are isoprenoids that play key roles in the respiratory electron transport system of some prokaryotes by shuttling electrons between membrane-bound protein complexes acting as electron acceptors and donors. Menaquinone-2 (MK-2), a truncated MK, was synthesized and the studies presented herein characterize the conformational and chemical properties of the hydrophobic MK-2 molecule. Using 2D NMR spectroscopy, we established for the first time that MK-2 has a folded conformation defined by the isoprenyl side-chain folding back over the napthoquinone in a U-shape, which depends on the specific environmental conditions found in different solvents...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Martín Alcalá, María Calderon-Dominguez, Eduviges Bustos, Pilar Ramos, Núria Casals, Dolors Serra, Marta Viana, Laura Herrero
Obesity is associated with severe metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer. The pathophysiology of obesity-induced metabolic diseases has been strongly related to white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction through several mechanisms such as fibrosis, apoptosis, inflammation, ER and oxidative stress. However, little is known of whether these processes are also present in brown adipose tissue (BAT) during obesity, and the potential consequences on mitochondrial activity...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Cong Shen, Mingrui Li, Pan Zhang, Yueshuai Guo, Hao Zhang, Bo Zheng, Hui Teng, Tao Zhou, Xuejiang Guo, Ran Huo
Generation of haploid gametes by meiosis is a unique property of germ cells and is critical for sexual reproduction. Leaving mitosis and entering meiosis is a key step in germ cell development. Several inducers or intrinsic genes are known to be important for meiotic initiation, but the regulation of meiotic initiation, especially at the protein level, is still not well understood. We constructed a comparative proteome profile of female mouse fetal gonads at specific time points (11.5, 12.5, and 13.5 days post coitum), spanning a critical window for initiation of meiosis in female germ cells...
November 20, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
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