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Electron transport chain mechanism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531964/non-electron-transfer-chain-mitochondrial-defects-differently-regulate-hif-1%C3%AE-degradation-and-transcription
#1
Antonina N Shvetsova, Daniela Mennerich, Juha M Kerätär, J Kalervo Hiltunen, Thomas Kietzmann
Mitochondria are the main consumers of molecular O2 in a cell as well as an abundant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both, molecular oxygen and ROS are powerful regulators of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-subunit (HIF-α). While a number of mechanisms in the oxygen-dependent HIF-α regulation are quite well known, the view with respect to mitochondria is less clear. Several approaches using pharmacological or genetic tools targeting the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) indicated that ROS, mainly formed at the Rieske cluster of complex III of the ETC, are drivers of HIF-1α activation...
May 8, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524096/itraq-mitoproteome-analysis-reveals-mechanisms-of-programmed-cell-death-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-induced-by-ochratoxin-a
#2
Yan Wang, Xiaoli Peng, Zhuojun Yang, Weiwei Zhao, Wentao Xu, Junran Hao, Weihong Wu, Xiao Li Shen, Yunbo Luo, Kunlun Huang
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most common and dangerous mycotoxins in the world. Previous work indicated that OTA could elicit spontaneous HR-like lesions formation Arabidopsis thaliana, reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in OTA toxicity, and their major endogenous source is mitochondria. However, there has been no evidence as to whether OTA induces directly PCD in plants until now. In this study, the presence of OTA in Arabidopsisthaliana leaves triggered accelerated respiration, increased production of mitochondrial ROS, the opening of ROS-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pores and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential as well as the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol...
May 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522903/oxidative-stress-antioxidants-and-intestinal-calcium-absorption
#3
REVIEW
Gabriela Diaz de Barboza, Solange Guizzardi, Luciana Moine, Nori Tolosa de Talamoni
The disequilibrium between the production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species and their elimination by protective mechanisms leads to oxidative stress. Mitochondria are the main source of ROS as by-products of electron transport chain. Most of the time the intestine responds adequately against the oxidative stress, but with aging or under conditions that exacerbate the ROS and/or RNS production, the defenses are not enough and contribute to developing intestinal pathologies. The endogenous antioxidant defense system in gut includes glutathione (GSH) and GSH-dependent enzymes as major components...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511347/mitochondrial-complex-i-deactivation-is-related-to-superoxide-production-in-acute-hypoxia
#4
Pablo Hernansanz-Agustín, Elena Ramos, Elisa Navarro, Esther Parada, Nuria Sánchez-López, Laura Peláez-Aguado, J Daniel Cabrera-García, Daniel Tello, Izaskun Buendia, Anabel Marina, Javier Egea, Manuela G López, Anna Bogdanova, Antonio Martínez-Ruiz
Mitochondria use oxygen as the final acceptor of the respiratory chain, but its incomplete reduction can also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially superoxide. Acute hypoxia produces a superoxide burst in different cell types, but the triggering mechanism is still unknown. Herein, we show that complex I is involved in this superoxide burst under acute hypoxia in endothelial cells. We have also studied the possible mechanisms by which complex I could be involved in this burst, discarding reverse electron transport in complex I and the implication of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)...
April 21, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510056/the-two-sides-of-a-lipid-protein-story
#5
REVIEW
Luis G Mansor Basso, Luis F Santos Mendes, Antonio J Costa-Filho
Protein-membrane interactions play essential roles in a variety of cell functions such as signaling, membrane trafficking, and transport. Membrane-recruited cytosolic proteins that interact transiently and interfacially with lipid bilayers perform several of those functions. Experimental techniques capable of probing changes on the structural dynamics of this weak association are surprisingly limited. Among such techniques, electron spin resonance (ESR) has the enormous advantage of providing valuable local information from both membrane and protein perspectives by using intrinsic paramagnetic probes in metalloproteins or by attaching nitroxide spin labels to proteins and lipids...
June 2016: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509551/significance-of-the-2fe-2s-cluster-n1a-for-electron-transfer-and-assembly-of-escherichia-coli-respiratory-complex-i
#6
Katerina Dörner, Marta Vranas, Johannes Schimpf, Isabella R Straub, Jo Hoeser, Thorsten Friedrich
NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, respiratory complex I, couples electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone with proton translocation across the membrane. NADH reduces a non-covalently bound FMN and the electrons are transported further to the quinone reduction site by a 95 Å long chain of seven iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters. The binuclear Fe-S cluster N1a is not part of this long chain but is located in electron transfer distance on the opposite site of FMN. The relevance of N1a to the mechanism of complex I is not known...
May 16, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508189/the-contribution-of-superoxide-radical-to-cadmium-toxicity-in-e-coli
#7
Milini Thomas, Ludmil Benov
Numerous reports suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in cadmium toxicity, but the nature of the reactive species and the mechanism of Cd-induced oxidative damage are not clear. In this study, E. coli mutants were used to investigate mechanisms of Cd toxicity. Effects of Cd on metabolic activity, production of superoxide radical by the respiratory chain, and induction of enzymes controlled by the soxRS regulon were investigated. In E. coli, the soxRS regulon controls defense against O2·(-)and univalent oxidants...
May 15, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500266/n-terminal-thioredoxin-reductase-domains-and-thioredoxins-act-concertedly-in-seedling-development
#8
Valle Ojeda, Juan M Pérez-Ruiz, María-Cruz González, Victoria A Nájera, Mariam Sahrawy, Antonio Jesús Serrato, Peter Geigenberger, Francisco J Cejudo
Thiol-dependent redox regulation of enzyme activity plays a central role in the rapid acclimation of chloroplast metabolism to ever fluctuating light availability. This regulatory mechanism relies on ferredoxin (Fdx) reduced by the photosynthetic electron transport chain, which fuels reducing power to thioredoxins (Trxs) via a Fdx-dependent Trx reductase (FTR). In addition, chloroplasts harbour an NADPH-dependent Trx reductase, which has a joint Trx domain at the C-terminus, termed NTRC. Thus, a relevant issue in chloroplast function is to establish the relationship between these two redox systems and its impact on plant development...
May 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493864/power-provides-protection-genetic-robustness-in-yeast-depends-on-the-capacity-to-generate-energy
#9
Marcin Plech, Katarzyna Tomala, Hanna Tutaj, Dominika Ewa Piwcewicz, J Arjan G M de Visser, Ryszard Korona
The functional basis of genetic robustness, the ability of organisms to suppress the effects of mutations, remains incompletely understood. We exposed a set of 15 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae form diverse environments to increasing doses of the chemical mutagen EMS. The number of the resulting random mutations was similar for all tested strains. However, there were differences in immediate mortality after the mutagenic treatment and in defective growth of survivors. An analysis of gene expression revealed that immediate mortality was lowest in strains with lowest expression of transmembrane proteins, which are rich in thiol groups and thus vulnerable to EMS...
May 11, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493603/age-related-endothelial-dysfunction-in-human-skeletal-muscle-feed-arteries-the-role-of-free-radicals-derived-from-mitochondria-in-the-vasculature
#10
Song-Young Park, Oh Sung Kwon, Robert H I Andtbacka, John R Hyngstrom, Van Reese, Michael P Murphy, Russell S Richardson
AIM: This study sought to determine the role of free radicals derived from mitochondria in the vasculature in the recognized age-related endothelial dysfunction of human skeletal muscle feed arteries (SMFAs). METHODS: A total of 44 SMFAs were studied with and without acute exposure to the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blockade. The relative abundance of proteins from the electron transport chain, phosphorylated (p-) to endothelial (e) NOS ratio, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and the mitochondria-derived superoxide (O2(-) ) levels were assessed in SMFA...
May 11, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446709/control-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-function-by-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system
#11
REVIEW
Piotr Bragoszewski, Michal Turek, Agnieszka Chacinska
Mitochondria are pivotal organelles in eukaryotic cells. The complex proteome of mitochondria comprises proteins that are encoded by nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins requires their transport in an unfolded state with a high risk of misfolding. The mislocalization of mitochondrial proteins is deleterious to the cell. The electron transport chain in mitochondria is a source of reactive oxygen species that damage proteins. Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to many pathological conditions and, together with the loss of cellular protein homeostasis (proteostasis), are hallmarks of ageing and ageing-related degeneration diseases...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434671/resveratrol-improves-mitochondrial-function-in-the-remnant-kidney-from-5-6-nephrectomized-rats
#12
Yan Hui, Miaomiao Lu, Yarong Han, Hongli Zhou, Wei Liu, Lijing Li, Ruixia Jin
Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Resveratrol has been demonstrated to be beneficial for the recovery of kidney diseases. In this study, the 5/6 nephrectomized rat was used as a CKD model and the TGF-β1-exposed mouse mesangial cells were used as an in vitro model. Pathological examination showed that resveratrol treatment attenuated glomerular injury in the remnant kidney of 5/6 nephrectomized rat. Additionally, resveratrol improved mitochondrial function in vivo and in vitro, as evidenced by increasing mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing ATP, decreasing reactive oxygen species production and enhancing activities of complex I and III...
April 20, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432125/sequential-adaptive-changes-in-a-c-myc-driven-model-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
James M Dolezal, Huabo Wang, Sucheta Kulkarni, Laura Jackson, Jie Lu, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Eric S Goetzman, Sivakama Bharathi, Kevin Beezhold, Craig A Byersdorfer, Edward V Prochownik
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer that frequently over-expresses the c-Myc (Myc) oncoprotein. Using a mouse model of Myc-induced HCC, we studied the metabolic, biochemical and molecular changes accompanying HCC progression, regression and recurrence. These involved altered rates of pyruvate and fatty acid β-oxidation and the likely re-directing of glutamine into biosynthetic rather than energy-generating pathways. Initial tumors also showed reduced mitochondrial mass and differential contributions of electron transport chain Complexes I and II to respiration...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431359/reconstruction-of-microbial-community-structures-as-evidences-for-soil-redox-coupled-reductive-dechlorination-of-pcp-in-a-mangrove-soil
#14
Yan Xu, Yan He, Xianjin Tang, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu
The aim was to investigate the influence of pentachlorophenol (PCP) on the soil microbial communities and the coupled mechanism between PCP reductive dechlorination and soil redox under anaerobic condition. Accordingly, a slurry incubation experiment was carried out in which bacterial and archaeal communities were detected by MiSeq amplicon sequencing. The original microbial community balance was gradually disrupted and new microbial structure was reconstructed subsequently through self-regulation and acclimation during PCP transformation, coupling with the changes of soil biogeochemical redox dynamics...
April 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428331/a-personalized-model-of-coq2-nephropathy-rescued-by-the-wild-type-coq2-allele-or-dietary-coenzyme-q10-supplementation
#15
Jun-Yi Zhu, Yulong Fu, Adam Richman, Zhanzheng Zhao, Patricio E Ray, Zhe Han
Clinical studies have identified patients with nephrotic syndrome caused by mutations in genes involved in the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a lipid component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and an important antioxidant. However, the cellular mechanisms through which these mutations induce podocyte injury remain obscure. Here, we exploited the striking similarities between Drosophila nephrocytes and human podocytes to develop a Drosophila model of these renal diseases, and performed a systematic in vivo analysis assessing the role of CoQ10 pathway genes in renal function...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427248/caloric-restriction-induced-extension-of-chronological-lifespan-requires-intact-respiration-in-budding-yeast
#16
Young-Yon Kwon, Sung-Keun Lee, Cheol-Koo Lee
Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to extend lifespan and prevent cellular senescence in various species ranging from yeast to humans. Many effects of CR may contribute to extend lifespan. Specifically, CR prevents oxidative damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS) by enhancing mitochondrial function. In this study, we characterized 33 single electron transport chain (ETC) gene-deletion strains to identify CR-induced chronological lifespan (CLS) extension mechanisms. Interestingly, defects in 17 of these 33 ETC gene-deleted strains showed loss of both respiratory function and CR-induced CLS extension...
April 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409426/ethylenediurea-as-a-potential-tool-in-evaluating-ozone-phytotoxicity-a-review-study-on-physiological-biochemical-and-morphological-responses-of-plants
#17
Supriya Tiwari
Present-day climate change scenario has intensified the problem of continuously increasing ground-level ozone (O3), which is responsible for causing deleterious effects on growth and development of plants. Studies involving use of ethylenediurea (EDU), a chemical with antiozonant properties, have given some promising results in evaluating O3 injury in plants. The use of EDU is especially advantageous in developing countries which face a more severe problem of ground-level O3, and technical O3-induced yield loss assessment techniques like open-top chambers cannot be used...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406958/molecular-analysis-of-culex-quinquefasciatus-larvae-responses-to-lysinibacillus-sphaericus-bin-toxin
#18
Chontida Tangsongcharoen, Natapong Jupatanakul, Boonhiang Promdonkoy, George Dimopoulos, Panadda Boonserm
Lysinibacillus sphaericus produces the mosquito larvicidal binary toxin consisting of BinA and BinB, which are both required for toxicity against Culex and Anopheles larvae. The molecular mechanisms behind Bin toxin-induced damage remain unexplored. We used whole-genome microarray-based transcriptome analysis to better understand how Culex larvae respond to Bin toxin treatment at the molecular level. Our analyses of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae transcriptome changes at 6, 12, and 18 h after Bin toxin treatment revealed a wide range of transcript signatures, including genes linked to the cytoskeleton, metabolism, immunity, and cellular stress, with a greater number of down-regulated genes than up-regulated genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403199/the-plastoquinone-pool-of-nannochloropsis-oceanica-is-not-completely-reduced-during-bright-light-pulses
#19
Gunvor Røkke, Thor Bernt Melø, Martin Frank Hohmann-Marriott
The lipid-producing model alga Nannochloropsis oceanica has a distinct photosynthetic machinery. This organism possesses chlorophyll a as its only chlorophyll species, and has a high ratio of PSI to PSII. This high ratio of PSI to PSII may affect the redox state of the plastoquinone pool during exposure to light, and consequently may play a role in activating photoprotection mechanisms. We utilized pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometry to investigate the redox state of the plastoquinone pool during and after bright light pulses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367838/anti-biofouling-function-of-amorphous-nano-ta2o5-coating-for-vo2-based-intelligent-windows
#20
Jinhua Li, Geyong Guo, Jiaxing Wang, Huaijuan Zhou, Hao Shen, Kelvin W K Yeung
From environmental and health perspectives, the acquisition of a surface anti-biofouling property holds important significance for the usability of VO2 intelligent windows. Herein, we firstly deposited amorphous Ta2O5 nanoparticles on VO2 film by the magnetron sputtering method. It was found that the amorphous nano-Ta2O5 coating possessed a favorable anti-biofouling capability against Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an environmental microorganism model, behind which lay the mechanism that the amorphous nano-Ta2O5 could interrupt the microbial membrane electron transport chain and significantly elevate the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level...
April 28, 2017: Nanotechnology
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