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Electron transport chain mechanism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332118/nutrition-and-training-influences-on-the-regulation-of-mitochondrial-adenosine-diphosphate-sensitivity-and-bioenergetics
#1
REVIEW
Graham P Holloway
Since the seminal finding almost 50 years ago that exercise training increases mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle, a considerable amount of research has been dedicated to elucidate the mechanisms inducing mitochondrial biogenesis. The discovery of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α as a major regulator of exercise-induced gene transcription was instrumental in beginning to understand the signals regulating this process. However, almost two decades after its discovery, our understanding of the signals inducing mitochondrial biogenesis remain poorly defined, limiting our insights into possible novel training modalities in elite athletes that can increase the oxidative potential of muscle...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329820/hepatocellular-toxicity-of-imidazole-and-triazole-antimycotic-agents
#2
Patrizia Haegler, Lorenz Joerin, Stephan Krähenbühl, Jamal Bouitbir
Hepatotoxicity has been described for all antimycotic azoles currently marketed. A possible mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction has been postulated for ketoconazole, but not for the other azoles. The aim of the current investigations was to study the toxicity of different azoles in human cell models and to find out mechanisms of their toxicity. In HepG2 cells, posaconazole and ketoconazole were cytotoxic starting at 20 and 50 µM and decreased the cellular ATP content starting at 5 and 10 µM, respectively...
January 27, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325762/a-genetic-screen-reveals-that-synthesis-of-1-4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate-dhna-but-not-full-length-menaquinone-is-required-for-listeria-monocytogenes-cytosolic-survival
#3
Grischa Y Chen, Courtney E McDougal, Marc A D'Antonio, Jonathan L Portman, John-Demian Sauer
Through unknown mechanisms, the host cytosol restricts bacterial colonization; therefore, only professional cytosolic pathogens are adapted to colonize this host environment. Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive intracellular pathogen that is highly adapted to colonize the cytosol of both phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells. To identify L. monocytogenes determinants of cytosolic survival, we designed and executed a novel screen to isolate L. monocytogenes mutants with cytosolic survival defects. Multiple mutants identified in the screen were defective for synthesis of menaquinone (MK), an essential molecule in the electron transport chain...
March 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303003/effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-and-moderate-intensity-continuous-training-on-glycaemic-control-and-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-function-in-db-db-mice
#4
Vivien Chavanelle, Nathalie Boisseau, Yolanda F Otero, Lydie Combaret, Dominique Dardevet, Christophe Montaurier, Geoffrey Delcros, Sébastien L Peltier, Pascal Sirvent
Physical activity is known as an effective strategy for prevention and treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. The aim of this work was to compare the effects of a traditional Moderate Intensity Continuous Training (MICT) with a High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on glucose metabolism and mitochondrial function in diabetic mice. Diabetic db/db male mice (N = 25) aged 6 weeks were subdivided into MICT, HIIT or control (CON) group. Animals in the training groups ran on a treadmill 5 days/week during 10 weeks...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295945/parallel-evolution-of-genes-controlling-mitonuclear-balance-in-short-lived-annual-fishes
#5
Arne Sahm, Martin Bens, Matthias Platzer, Alessandro Cellerino
The current molecular understanding of the aging process derives almost exclusively from the study of random or targeted single-gene mutations in highly inbred laboratory species, mostly invertebrates. Little information is available as to the genetic mechanisms responsible for natural lifespan variation and the evolution of lifespan, especially in vertebrates. Here, we investigated the pattern of positive selection in annual (i.e., short-lived) and nonannual (i.e., longer-lived) African killifishes to identify a genomic substrate for evolution of annual life history (and reduced lifespan)...
March 11, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291354/regulation-of-respiratory-pathway-and-electron-transport-chain-in-relation-to-senescence-of-postharvest-white-mushroom-agaricus-bisporus-under-high-o2-co2-controlled-atmospheres
#6
Ling Li, Hiroaki Kitazawa, Xiangyou Wang, Han Sun
In order to study the respiration metabolism mechanism based on the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) by the electron transport chain (ETC) of the white mushroom under high O2/CO2 controlled atmospheres (CA), the treatments of 100% O2, 80% O2 + 20% CO2, 60% O2 + 40% CO2 and 40% O2 + 60% CO2 were employed and natural air was used as the control. ATP and energy charge can maintain the membrane integrity and function, life activities and physic-chemical reactions of high plants...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288978/mff-dependent-mitochondrial-fission-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiac-microvasculature-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-induction-of-mros-mediated-cardiolipin-oxidation-and-hk2-vdac1-disassociation-involved-mptp-opening
#7
Hao Zhou, Shunying Hu, Qinhua Jin, Chen Shi, Ying Zhang, Pingjun Zhu, Qiang Ma, Feng Tian, Yundai Chen
BACKGROUND: The cardiac microvascular system ischemia/reperfusion injury following percutaneous coronary intervention is a clinical thorny problem. This study explores the mechanisms by which ischemia/reperfusion injury induces cardiac microcirculation collapse. METHODS AND RESULTS: In wild-type mice, mitochondrial fission factor (Mff) expression increased in response to acute microvascular ischemia/reperfusion injury. Compared with wild-type mice, homozygous Mff-deficient (Mff(gt)) mice exhibited a smaller infarcted area, restored cardiac function, improved blood flow, and reduced microcirculation perfusion defects...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271339/spin-probe-multi-frequency-epr-study-of-unprocessed-cotton-fibers
#8
Antonin Marek, Maxim A Voinov, Alex I Smirnov
Known since the ancient times, cotton continues to be one of the essential materials for the human civilization. Cotton fibers are almost pure cellulose and contain both crystalline and amorphous nanodomains with different physicochemical properties. While understanding of interactions between the individual cellulose chains within the crystalline phase is important from a perspective of mechanical properties, studies of the amorphous phase lead to characterization of the essential transport parameters, such as solvent diffusion, dyeing, drug release, and toxin absorption, as well as more complex processes of enzymatic degradation...
March 7, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270819/effects-of-low-ph-on-photosynthesis-related-physiological-parameters-and-nutrient-profiles-of-citrus
#9
An Long, Jiang Zhang, Lin-Tong Yang, Xin Ye, Ning-Wei Lai, Ling-Ling Tan, Dan Lin, Li-Song Chen
Seedlings of "Xuegan" (Citrus sinensis) and "Sour pummelo" (Citrus grandis) were irrigated daily with a nutrient solution at a pH of 2.5, 3, 4, 5, or 6 for 9 months. Thereafter, the following responses were investigated: seedling growth; root, stem, and leaf concentrations of nutrient elements; leaf gas exchange, pigment concentration, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity and chlorophyll a fluorescence; relative water content, total soluble protein level, H2O2 production and electrolyte leakage in roots and leaves...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270591/decreased-transcriptional-corepressor-p107-is-associated-with-exercise-induced-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#10
Debasmita Bhattacharya, Mia Ydfors, Meghan C Hughes, Jessica Norrbom, Christopher G R Perry, Anthony Scimè
Increased mitochondrial content is a hallmark of exercise-induced skeletal muscle remodeling. For this process, considerable evidence underscores the involvement of transcriptional coactivators in mediating mitochondrial biogenesis. However, our knowledge regarding the role of transcriptional corepressors is lacking. In this study, we assessed the association of the transcriptional corepressor Rb family proteins, Rb and p107, with endurance exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptation in human skeletal muscle...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262890/mechanistic-insights-into-the-catalytic-reaction-of-ferulic-acid-decarboxylase-from-aspergillus-niger-a-qm-mm-study
#11
Ge Tian, Yongjun Liu
Ubiquinone plays a pivotal role in the aerobic cellular respiratory electron transport chain, whereas ferulic acid decarboxylase (FDC) is involved in the biosynthesis of ubiquinone precursor. Recently, the complete crystal structure of FDC (based on the co-expression of the A. niger fdc1 gene in E. coli with the associated ubix gene from E. coli) at high resolution was reported. Herein, the detailed catalytic non-oxidative decarboxylation mechanism of FDC has been investigated by a combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach...
March 6, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248087/thermoelectric-enhancement-by-compositing-carbon-nanotubes-into-iodine-doped-poly-2-methoxy-5-2-ethylhexyloxy-1-4-phenylenevinylene
#12
Murat Tonga, Lang Wei, Patrick S Taylor, Eugene Wilusz, Ljiljana Korugic-Karasz, Frank E Karasz, Paul M Lahti
Free-standing iodine-doped composite samples of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) with carbon nanotubes (NTs) showed thermoelectric (TE) power factors (PFs) up to 33 μW·m(-1)·K(-2) after optimizing multiple factors, including: (1) sample fabrication solvent, (2) doping time, (3) average MEH-PPV molecular weight, (4) NT fraction in the composite, and (5) use of single-wall versus multi-wall nanotubes (SWNT and MWNT, respectively). Composite fabrication from halogenated solvents gave the best TE performance after iodine doping times of 2-4 h; performance drops substantially in ∼20 h doped samples...
March 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223460/mechanism-of-h2s-oxidation-by-the-dissimilatory-perchlorate-reducing-microorganism-azospira-suillum-ps
#13
Misha G Mehta-Kolte, Dana Loutey, Ouwei Wang, Matthew D Youngblut, Christopher G Hubbard, Kelly M Wetmore, Mark E Conrad, John D Coates
The genetic and biochemical basis of perchlorate-dependent H2S oxidation (PSOX) was investigated in the dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing microorganism (DPRM) Azospira suillum PS (PS). Previously, it was shown that all known DPRMs innately oxidize H2S, producing elemental sulfur (S(o)). Although the process involving PSOX is thermodynamically favorable (ΔG°' = -206 kJ ⋅ mol(-1) H2S), the underlying biochemical and genetic mechanisms are currently unknown. Interestingly, H2S is preferentially utilized over physiological electron donors such as lactate or acetate although no growth benefit is obtained from the metabolism...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217742/piericidin-a1-blocks-yersinia-ysc-type-iii-secretion-system-needle-assembly
#14
Jessica M Morgan, Miles C Duncan, Kevin S Johnson, Andreas Diepold, Hanh Lam, Allison J Dupzyk, Lexi R Martin, Weng Ruh Wong, Judith P Armitage, Roger G Linington, Victoria Auerbuch
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a bacterial virulence factor expressed by dozens of Gram-negative pathogens but largely absent from commensals. The T3SS is an attractive target for antimicrobial agents that may disarm pathogenic bacteria while leaving commensal populations intact. We previously identified piericidin A1 as an inhibitor of the Ysc T3SS in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Piericidins were first discovered as inhibitors of complex I of the electron transport chain in mitochondria and some bacteria...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178891/up-regulation-of-cerebral-cytochrome-c-oxidase-and-hemodynamics-by-transcranial-infrared-laser-stimulation-a-broadband-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#15
Xinlong Wang, Fenghua Tian, Divya D Reddy, Sahil S Nalawade, Douglas W Barrett, Francisco Gonzalez-Lima, Hanli Liu
Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) is a noninvasive form of brain photobiomulation. Cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO), the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, is hypothesized to be the primary intracellular photoacceptor. We hypothesized that TILS up-regulates cerebral CCO and causes hemodynamic changes. We delivered 1064-nm laser stimulation to the forehead of healthy participants ( n = 11), while broadband near-infrared spectroscopy was utilized to acquire light reflectance from the TILS-treated cortical region before, during, and after TILS...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164134/diabetes-induced-reactive-oxygen-species-mechanism-of-their-generation-and-role-in-renal-injury
#16
REVIEW
Selim Fakhruddin, Wael Alanazi, Keith E Jackson
Diabetes induces the onset and progression of renal injury through causing hemodynamic dysregulation along with abnormal morphological and functional nephron changes. The most important event that precedes renal injury is an increase in permeability of plasma proteins such as albumin through a damaged glomerular filtration barrier resulting in excessive urinary albumin excretion (UAE). Moreover, once enhanced UAE begins, it may advance renal injury from progression of abnormal renal hemodynamics, increased glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickness, mesangial expansion, extracellular matrix accumulation, and glomerulosclerosis to eventual end-stage renal damage...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157187/soil-microorganisms-can-overcome-respiration-inhibition-by-coupling-intra-and-extracellular-metabolism-13-c-metabolic-tracing-reveals-the-mechanisms
#17
Ezekiel K Bore, Carolin Apostel, Sara Halicki, Yakov Kuzyakov, Michaela A Dippold
CO2 release from soil is commonly used to estimate toxicity of various substances on microorganisms. However, the mechanisms underlying persistent CO2 release from soil exposed to toxicants inhibiting microbial respiration, for example, sodium azide (NaN3) or heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Cu), remain unclear. To unravel these mechanisms, NaN3-amended soil was incubated with position-specifically (13)C-labeled glucose and (13)C was quantified in CO2, bulk soil, microbial biomass and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs)...
February 3, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115014/effect-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-small-intestinal-injury-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-necrotizing-pancreatitis
#18
Fengchun Lu, Feng Wang, Zhiyao Chen, Heguang Huang
BACKGROUND: Acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) is often complicated by multiple organ failure. The small intestine is frequently damaged during ANP. Capillary leakage in multiple organs during ANP is one of the most important causes of multiple organ dysfunction. Damage to the capillary endothelial barrier and impaired water transportation could lead to capillary leakage in ANP. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into a control group, the ANP group, the culture media-treated group, or the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC)-treated group (30 rats in each group)...
January 23, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105575/bongkrekic-acid-a-review-of-a-lesser-known-mitochondrial-toxin
#19
REVIEW
Mehruba Anwar, Amelia Kasper, Alaina R Steck, Joshua G Schier
INTRODUCTION: Bongkrekic acid (BA) has a unique mechanism of toxicity among the mitochondrial toxins: it inhibits adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) rather than the electron transport chain. Bongkrekic acid is produced by the bacterium Burkholderia gladioli pathovar cocovenenans (B. cocovenenans) which has been implicated in outbreaks of food-borne illness involving coconut- and corn-based products in Indonesia and China. Our objective was to summarize what is known about the epidemiology, exposure sources, toxicokinetics, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis and treatment of human BA poisoning...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104397/pink1-alleviates-myocardial-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury-by-ameliorating-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#20
Yang Li, Liangxian Qiu, Xiping Liu, Zhiwen Hou, Bo Yu
PTEN inducible kinase-1 (PINK1) mutant induces mitochondrial dysfunction of cells, resulting in an inherited form of Parkinson's disease. However its exact role in the cardiomyocytes is unclear. The present study examined the function of PINK1 in hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) induced H9c2 cell damage and its potential mechanism. The H/R model in H9c2 cells was established by 6 h of hypoxia and 12 h of reoxygenation. The CCK8 and LDH assay indicated that the cell viability was obviously reduced after H/R. The expression of PINK1 was decreased in H/R-induced H9c2 cells compared with control group...
January 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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