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Electron transport chain mechanism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767788/acute-maneb-exposure-significantly-alters-both-glycolysis-and-mitochondrial-function-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#1
Colin C Anderson, Stefanos Aivazidis, Crystal L Kuzyk, Abhilasha Jain, James R Roede
The pesticides paraquat (PQ) and maneb (MB) have been described as environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD), with mechanisms associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. A combined exposure of PQ and MB in murine models and neuroblastoma cells has been utilized to further advance understanding of the PD phenotype. MB acts as a redox modulator through alkylation of protein thiols and has been previously characterized to inhibit complex III of the electron transport chain (ETC) and uncouple the mitochondrial proton gradient...
May 14, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767769/regulation-of-chlorophagy-during-photoinhibition-and-senescence-lessons-from-mitophagy
#2
Sakuya Nakamura, Masanori Izumi
Light energy is essential for photosynthetic energy production and plant growth. Chloroplasts in green tissues convert energy from sunlight into chemical energy via the electron transport chain. When the level of light energy exceeds the capacity of the photosynthetic apparatus, chloroplasts undergo a process known as photoinhibition. Since photoinhibition leads to the overaccumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the spreading of cell death, plants have developed multiple systems to protect chloroplasts from strong light...
May 14, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765861/mitochondrial-metabolism-mediated-regulation-of-adult-neurogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Ruth Beckervordersandforth
The life-long generation of new neurons from radial glia-like neural stem cells (NSCs) is achieved through a stereotypic developmental sequence that requires precise regulatory mechanisms to prevent exhaustion or uncontrolled growth of the stem cell pool. Cellular metabolism is the new kid on the block of adult neurogenesis research and the identity of stage-specific metabolic programs and their impact on neurogenesis turns out to be an emerging research topic in the field. Mitochondrial metabolism is best known for energy production but it contains a great deal more...
November 9, 2017: Brain Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752896/wavelength-dependence-of-vasodilation-and-no-release-from-s-nitrosothiols-and-dinitrosyl-iron-complexes-by-far-red-near-infrared-light
#4
Agnes Keszler, Brian Lindemer, Neil Hogg, Dorothee Weihrauch, Nicole L Lohr
Far red/near infrared (R/NIR) energy is a novel therapy, but its mechanism of action is poorly characterized. Cytochrome c oxidase (Cco) of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is considered the primary photoacceptor for R/NIR to photolyze a putative heme nitrosyl in Cco to liberate free nitric oxide (NO). We previously observed R/NIR light directly liberates NO from nitrosylated hemoglobin and myoglobin, and recently suggested S-nitrosothiols (RSNO) and dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) may be primary sources of R/NIR-mediated NO...
May 9, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751215/a-docked-state-conformational-dynamics-model-to-explain-the-ionic-strength-dependence-of-fmn-heme-electron-transfer-in-nitric-oxide-synthase
#5
Andrei V Astashkin, Jinghui Li, Huayu Zheng, Yubin Miao, Changjian Feng
The FMN-heme interdomain electron transfer (IET) in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is a key stage of the electron transport chain, which supplies the catalytic heme site(s) with the NADPH-derived electrons. While there is a recognition that this IET depends on both the electron tunneling and the conformational dynamics, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. In this work, the IET kinetics were measured by laser flash photolysis for a bidomain oxygenase/FMN (oxyFMN) construct of human inducible NOS (iNOS) over the ionic strength range from 0...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749475/mir-125a-induces-apoptosis-metabolism-disorder-and-migrationimpairment-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells-by-targeting-mfn2-related-mitochondrial-fission
#6
Lichao Pan, Lin Zhou, Weijia Yin, Jia Bai, Rong Liu
Mitochondrial fission is important for the development and progression of pancreatic cancer (PC). However, little is known regarding its role in pancreatic cancer apoptosis, metabolism and migration. In the current study, the mechanism by which mitochondrial fission modifies the biological characteristics of PC was explored. MicroRNA‑125a (miR‑125a) had the ability to inhibit mitochondrial fission and contributed to cellular survival. Suppressed mitochondrial fission led to a reduction in mitochondrial debris, preserved the mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, ablated cytochrome c leakage into the cytoplasm and reduced the pro‑apoptotic protein contents, finally blocking mitochondria related apoptosis pathways...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740774/sirtuin-signaling-controls-mitochondrial-function-in-glycogen-storage-disease-type-ia
#7
Jun-Ho Cho, Goo-Young Kim, Brian C Mansfield, Janice Y Chou
Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) deficient in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α) is a metabolic disorder characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and a long-term complication of hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma (HCA/HCC). Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in GSD-Ia but the underlying mechanism and its contribution to HCA/HCC development remain unclear. We have shown that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency leads to downregulation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) signaling that underlies defective hepatic autophagy in GSD-Ia...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732581/discrete-mitochondrial-aberrations-in-the-spinal-cord-of-sporadic-als-patients
#8
Vedad Delic, Crupa Kurien, Josean Cruz, Sandra Zivkovic, Jennifer Barretta, Avery Thomson, Daniel Hennessey, Jaheem Joseph, Jared Ehrhart, Alison E Willing, Patrick Bradshaw, Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor neuron degeneration in the brain and spinal cord leading to muscle atrophy, paralysis, and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major contributor to motor neuron degeneration associated with ALS progression. Mitochondrial abnormalities have been determined in spinal cords of animal disease models and ALS patients. However, molecular mechanisms leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in sporadic ALS (sALS) patients remain unclear...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730295/ifi27-is-indispensable-for-mitochondrial-function-and-browning-in-adipocytes
#9
Weiwei Jin, Wenfang Jin, Dongning Pan
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for energy expenditure, but the signaling pathways that regulate BAT metabolism and activity are incompletely understood. Interferon (IFN) signaling is a sophisticated defense mechanism to counteract viral infection. IFNs and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) are reported to exert profound effects on adipocytes. IFN-α inducible protein 27 (Ifi27/ISG12a) is a BAT-enriched gene, yet no any studies on its roles in BAT have been reported. Here, we show that Ifi27 protein localizes to mitochondria and the expression of Ifi27 can be induced by β3-adrenergic activation in adipose tissues...
May 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725325/mitochondria-an-organelle-of-bacterial-origin-controlling-inflammation
#10
REVIEW
Alain Meyer, Gilles Laverny, Livio Bernardi, Anne Laure Charles, Ghada Alsaleh, Julien Pottecher, Jean Sibilia, Bernard Geny
Inflammation is a cellular and molecular response to infection and/or tissues injury. While a suited inflammatory response in intensity and time allows for killing pathogens, clearing necrotic tissue, and healing injury; an excessive inflammatory response drives various diseases in which inflammation and tissues damages/stress self-sustain each other. Microbes have been poorly implied in non-resolving inflammation, emphasizing the importance of endogenous regulation of inflammation. Mitochondria have been historically identified as the main source of cellular energy, by coupling the oxidation of fatty acids and pyruvate with the production of high amount of adenosine triphosphate by the electron transport chain...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714168/in-pursuit-of-barrierless-transition-metal-dichalcogenides-lateral-heterojunctions
#11
Yierpan Aierken, Cem Sevik, Oguz Gulseren, Francois M Peeters, Deniz Cakir
There is an increasing need to understand interfaces between two-dimensional (2D) materials to
 realize an energy-efficient boundary with low contact resistance and small heat dissipation. In this
 respect, we investigated the impact of charge and substitutional atom doping on the electronic transport
 properties of the hybrid metallic-semiconducting lateral junctions, formed between metallic (1T
 and 1Td) and semiconducting (1H) phases of MoS2 by means of first-principles and non-equilibrium
 Green function formalism based calculations...
May 1, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710809/anti-oxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-ketogenic-diet-new-perspectives-for-neuroprotection-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Alessandro Pinto, Alessio Bonucci, Elisa Maggi, Mariangela Corsi, Rita Businaro
The ketogenic diet, originally developed for the treatment of epilepsy in non-responder children, is spreading to be used in the treatment of many diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. The main activity of the ketogenic diet has been related to improved mitochondrial function and decreased oxidative stress. B-Hydroxybutyrate, the most studied ketone body, has been shown to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), improving mitochondrial respiration: it stimulates the cellular endogenous antioxidant system with the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), it modulates the ratio between the oxidized and reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD⁺/NADH) and it increases the efficiency of electron transport chain through the expression of uncoupling proteins...
April 28, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682614/oxidant-stress-and-lipid-peroxidation-in-acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity
#13
Hartmut Jaeschke, Anup Ramachandran
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most frequent cause of liver injury and acute liver failure in many western countries. The mechanism of APAP-induced hepatocyte necrosis has been investigated extensively. The formation of a reactive metabolite and its binding to cellular proteins was initially thought to be responsible for cell death. A competing hypothesis was introduced that questioned the relevance of protein binding and instead suggested that P450-derived oxidant stress and lipid peroxidation causes APAP-induced liver injury...
May 2018: Reactive Oxygen Species (Apex, N.C.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676913/glutathione-gsh-reduces-cytotoxicity-evoked-by-patulin-pat-in-hek293-cells-by-preventing-oxidative-damage-and-mitochondrial-apoptotic-pathway
#14
Xiaorui Wang, Chengni Jin, Yujie Zhong, Xuan Li, Jiahui Han, Wei Xue, Peng Wu, Xiaodong Xia, Xiaoli Peng
Patulin (PAT) is a mycotoxin which frequently detected in moldy fruits and fruit products. This study investigated the protective role of glutathione (GSH), a antioxidant agent, against PAT induced cytotoxicity and its potential mechanisms in HEK293 cells. The obtained results showed that addition of GSH significantly reduced cell viability and apoptosis induced by PAT. Additionally, GSH decreased intracellular ROS and mitochondrial ROS overproduction, suppressed the decline of mitochondrial membrane potential, and maintained the cellular ATP content...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673555/structure-and-mechanism-of-mitochondrial-electron-transport-chain
#15
REVIEW
Runyu Guo, Jinke Gu, Shuai Zong, Meng Wu, Maojun Yang
Respiration is one of the most vital and basic features of living organisms. In mammals, respiration is accomplished by respiratory chain complexes located on the mitochondrial inner membrane. In the past century, scientists put tremendous efforts in understanding these complexes, but failed to solve the high resolution structure until recently. In 2016, three research groups reported the structure of respiratory chain supercomplex from different species, and fortunately the structure solved by our group has the highest resolution...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660310/a-modeling-and-simulation-perspective-on-the-mechanism-and-function-of-respiratory-complex-i
#16
REVIEW
Outi Haapanen, Vivek Sharma
Respiratory complex I is a giant redox-driven proton pump, and central to energy production in mitochondria and bacteria. It catalyses the reduction of quinone to quinol, and converts the free energy released into the endergonic proton translocation across the membrane. The proton pumping sets up the proton electrochemical gradient, which propels the synthesis of ATP. Despite the availability of extensive biochemical, biophysical and structural data on complex I, the mechanism of coupling between the electron and proton transfer reactions remain uncertain...
April 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643356/disc1-regulates-lactate-metabolism-in-astrocytes-implications-for-psychiatric-disorders
#17
Yan Jouroukhin, Yusuke Kageyama, Varvara Misheneva, Alexey Shevelkin, Shaida Andrabi, Emese Prandovszky, Robert H Yolken, Valina L Dawson, Ted M Dawson, Susan Aja, Hiromi Sesaki, Mikhail V Pletnikov
Our knowledge of how genetic risk variants contribute to psychiatric disease is mainly limited to neurons. However, the mechanisms whereby the same genetic risk factors could affect the physiology of glial cells remain poorly understood. We studied the role of a psychiatric genetic risk factor, Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), in metabolic functions of astrocytes. We evaluated the effects of knockdown of mouse endogenous DISC1 (DISC1-KD) and expression of a dominant-negative, C-terminus truncated human DISC1 (DN-DISC1) on the markers of energy metabolism, including glucose uptake and lactate production, in primary astrocytes and in mice with selective expression of DN-DISC1 in astrocytes...
April 12, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615678/protein-bound-nad-p-h-lifetime-is-sensitive-to-multiple-fates-of-glucose-carbon
#18
Joe T Sharick, Peter F Favreau, Amani A Gillette, Sophia M Sdao, Matthew J Merrins, Melissa C Skala
While NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) can detect changes in flux through the TCA cycle and electron transport chain (ETC), it remains unclear whether NAD(P)H FLIM is sensitive to other potential fates of glucose. Glucose carbon can be diverted from mitochondria by the pentose phosphate pathway (via glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PDH), lactate production (via lactate dehydrogenase, LDH), and rejection of carbon from the TCA cycle (via pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, PDK), all of which can be upregulated in cancer cells...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611425/biomimetic-interfacial-electron-induced-electrochemiluminesence
#19
Guiqiang Pu, Dongxu Zhang, Xiang Mao, Zhen Zhang, Huan Wang, Xingming Ning, Xiaoquan Lu
We provide here, for the first time, a new interfacial electron-induced electrochemiluminescence (IEIECL) system, realizing bionic construction of bioluminescence (BL) by exploiting electrochemiluminescence (ECL) and ITIES (the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions). Significantly, the superiority of the IEIECL system is embodied with the solution of the two bottlenecks encountered in the conventional ECL innovation. That are (a) the applications of hydrophobic luminophores in more commonly used aqueous solution are inhibited tremendously due to the poor inherent solubility and the instability of radicals; (b) the analytes, insoluble in water, are hard to be discovered in aqueous system because of too little content...
April 3, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594796/alternative-mitochondrial-respiratory-chains-from-two-crustaceans-artemia-franciscana-nauplii-and-the-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#20
Chrystian Rodriguez-Armenta, Salvador Uribe-Carvajal, Monica Rosas-Lemus, Natalia Chiquete-Felix, Jose Angel Huerta-Ocampo, Adriana Muhlia-Almazan
Mitochondrial ATP is synthesized by coupling between the electron transport chain and complex V. In contrast, physiological uncoupling of these processes allows mitochondria to consume oxygen at high rates without ATP synthesis. Such uncoupling mechanisms prevent reactive oxygen species overproduction. One of these mechanisms are the alternative redox enzymes from the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which may help cells to maintain homeostasis under stress independently of ATP synthesis. To date, no reports have been published on alternative redox enzymes in crustaceans mitochondria...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
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