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Electron transport chain mechanism

Hao Zhou, Pingjun Zhu, Jin Wang, Hong Zhu, Jun Ren, Yundai Chen
Disturbed mitochondrial homeostasis contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiac ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, although the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we demonstrated that casein kinase 2α (CK2α) was upregulated following acute cardiac IR injury. Increased CK2α was shown to be instrumental to mitochondrial damage, cardiomyocyte death, infarction area expansion and cardiac dysfunction, whereas cardiac-specific CK2α knockout (CK2αCKO ) mice were protected against IR injury and mitochondrial damage...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Andreas Carstensen, Andrei Herdean, Sidsel Birkelund Schmidt, Anurag Sharma, Cornelia Spetea, Mathias Pribil, Søren Husted
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient, and P deficiency limits plant productivity. Recent work showed that P deficiency affects electron transport to photosystem I (PSI), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we present a comprehensive biological model describing how P deficiency disrupts the photosynthetic machinery and the electron transport chain through a series of sequential events in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Phosphorus deficiency reduces the orthophosphate (Pi) concentration in the chloroplast stroma to levels that inhibit ATP synthase activity...
March 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
Mouadh Mihoub, André Pichette, Balla Sylla, Charles Gauthier, Jean Legault
Betulin has a wide range of biological and pharmacological properties with its anticancer activity attracting most of the attention as it offers a possible alternative treatment to chemotherapy. However, betulin's in vivo biological effectiveness is limited by its poor solubility. As such, we synthesized polar glycosylated derivatives to increase its hydrosolubility and enhance its pharmacological properties. Among these synthesized compounds, 28-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosylbetulin 3β-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (Bi-L-RhamBet) was assessed for its cytotoxic effects against a suite of lung cancer cell lines...
2018: PloS One
Petra Bilić, Nicolas Guillemin, Alan Kovačević, Blanka Beer Ljubić, Ines Jović, Asier Galan, Peter David Eckersall, Richard Burchmore, Vladimir Mrljak
Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (iDCM) is a primary myocardial disorder with an unknown aetiology, characterized by reduced contractility and ventricular dilation of the left or both ventricles. Naturally occurring canine iDCM was used herein to identify serum proteomic signature of the disease compared to the healthy state, providing an insight into underlying mechanisms and revealing proteins with biomarker potential. To achieve this, we used high-throughput label-based quantitative LC-MS/MS proteomics approach and bioinformatics analysis of the in silico inferred interactome protein network created from the initial list of differential proteins...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Yu-Ting Li, Ying Liang, Yue-Nan Li, Xing-Kai Che, Shi-Jie Zhao, Zi-Shan Zhang, Hui-Yuan Gao
Bisphenol A (BPA), a widely distributed pollutant, suppresses photosynthesis in leaves. In previous studies on higher plants, the plants were treated by BPA through irrigation to root. This method cannot distinguish whether the BPA directly suppresses photosynthesis in leaves, or indirectly influences photosynthesis through affecting the function of root. Here, only the leaves but not the roots of cucumber were infiltrated with BPA solution. The photosystem II and I (PSII, PSI) were insensitive to BPA under darkness...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cheng-Ju Kuo, Sin-Tian Wang, Chia-Mei Lin, Hao-Chieh Chiu, Cheng-Rung Huang, Der-Yen Lee, Geen-Dong Chang, Ting-Chen Chou, Jenn-Wei Chen, Chang-Shi Chen
The enteric pathogen enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is responsible for outbreaks of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide. Several molecular mechanisms have been described for the pathogenicity of EHEC; however, the role of bacterial metabolism in the virulence of EHEC during infection in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that aerobic metabolism plays an important role in the regulation of EHEC virulence in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our functional genomic analyses showed that disruption of the genes encoding the succinate dehydrogenase complex (Sdh) of EHEC, including the sdhA gene, attenuated its toxicity toward C...
March 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Megan J Maher, Anuradha S Herath, Saumya R Udagedara, David A Dougan, Kaye N Truscott
Succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) functions in energy metabolism, coupling the tricarboxylic acid cycle and electron transport chain in bacteria and mitochondria. The biogenesis of flavinylated SdhA, the catalytic subunit of SQR, is assisted by a highly conserved assembly factor termed SdhE in bacteria via an unknown mechanism. By using X-ray crystallography, we have solved the structure of Escherichia coli SdhE in complex with SdhA to 2.15-Å resolution. Our structure shows that SdhE makes a direct interaction with the flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked residue His45 in SdhA and maintains the capping domain of SdhA in an "open" conformation...
March 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chao-Pin Hsiao, Charles Hoppel
Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is responsible for producing most of the adenosine triphosphate required by eukaryotic cells. Lymphocytes make up the majority of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells are readily obtainable, providing an ideal sample to monitor systemic changes and understand molecular signaling mechanisms in disease processes. Mitochondrial energy metabolism of lymphocyte has been used to screen for OXPHOS disorders. While there are increasing studies of lymphocyte OXPHOS, few studies examined activity of electron transport chain of lymphocyte mitochondria...
March 2, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Ana Stancic, Aleksandra Jankovic, Aleksandra Korac, Dusko Cirovic, Vesna Otasevic, Kenneth B Storey, Bato Korac
In the present study we hypothesized that myocardial adaptive phenotype in mammalian hibernation involves rearrangement of mitochondria bioenergetic pathways providing protective pattern in states of reduced metabolism and low temperature. European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) were exposed to low temperature (4 ± 1 °C) and then divided into two groups: (1) animals that fell into torpor (hibernating group) and (2) animals that stayed active and euthermic for 1, 3, 7, 12, or 21 days (cold-exposed group)...
March 5, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Setsuko Komatsu, Akiko Hashiguchi
Soybean, which is rich in protein and oil, is cultivated in several climatic zones; however, its growth is markedly decreased by flooding. Proteomics is a useful tool for understanding the flooding-response mechanism in soybean. Subcellular proteomics has the potential to elucidate localized cellular responses and investigate communications among subcellular components during plant growth and during stress. Under flooding, proteins related to signaling, stress and the antioxidative system are increased in the plasma membrane; scavenging enzymes for reactive-oxygen species are suppressed in the cell wall; protein translation is suppressed through inhibition of proteins related to preribosome biogenesis and mRNA processing in the nucleus; levels of proteins involved in the electron transport chain are reduced in the mitochondrion; and levels of proteins related to protein folding are decreased in the endoplasmic reticulum...
February 27, 2018: Proteomes
Stephen Frenk, Jonathan Houseley
Ageing leads to dramatic changes in the physiology of many different tissues resulting in a spectrum of pathology. Nonetheless, many lines of evidence suggest that ageing is driven by highly conserved cell intrinsic processes, and a set of unifying hallmarks of ageing has been defined. Here, we survey reports of age-linked changes in basal gene expression across eukaryotes from yeast to human and identify six gene expression hallmarks of cellular ageing: downregulation of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins; downregulation of the protein synthesis machinery; dysregulation of immune system genes; reduced growth factor signalling; constitutive responses to stress and DNA damage; dysregulation of gene expression and mRNA processing...
February 28, 2018: Biogerontology
Tanmoy Halder, Gouranga Upadhyaya, Chandra Basak, Arup Das, Chandrima Chakraborty, Sudipta Ray
Environmental stresses generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) which might be detrimental to the plants when produced in an uncontrolled way. However, the plants ameliorate such stresses by synthesizing antioxidants and enzymes responsible for the dismutation of ROS. Additionally, the dehydrins were also able to protect the inactivation of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase against hydroxyl radicals (OH⋅ ) generated during Fenton's reaction. SbDhn1 and SbDhn2 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants were able to protect against oxidative damage...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Taylor S Cohen, Michelle L Boland, Brandon B Boland, Virginia Takahashi, Andrey Tovchigrechko, Young Lee, Aimee D Wilde, Mark J Mazaitis, Omari Jones-Nelson, Christine Tkaczyk, Rajiv Raja, C Kendall Stover, Bret R Sellman
Clinical severity of Staphylococcus aureus respiratory infection correlates with alpha toxin (AT) expression. AT activates the NLRP3 inflammasome; deletion of Nlrp3, or AT neutralization, protects mice from lethal S. aureus pneumonia. We tested the hypothesis that this protection is not due to a reduction in inflammasome-dependent cytokines (IL-1β/IL-18) but increased bactericidal function of macrophages. In vivo, neutralization of AT or NLRP3 improved bacterial clearance and survival, while blocking IL-1β/IL-18 did not...
February 27, 2018: Cell Reports
Annette R Rowe, Pournami Rajeev, Abhiney Jain, Sahand Pirbadian, Akihiro Okamoto, Jeffrey A Gralnick, Mohamed Y El-Naggar, Kenneth H Nealson
While typically investigated as a microorganism capable of extracellular electron transfer to minerals or anodes, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 can also facilitate electron flow from a cathode to terminal electron acceptors, such as fumarate or oxygen, thereby providing a model system for a process that has significant environmental and technological implications. This work demonstrates that cathodic electrons enter the electron transport chain of S. oneidensis when oxygen is used as the terminal electron acceptor...
February 27, 2018: MBio
Daisuke Hira, Ryuji Kitamura, Teruya Nakamura, Yuriko Yamagata, Kenji Furukawa, Takao Fujii
Anammox is a bacterial energy metabolic process that forms N2 gas from nitrite and ammonium ions. The enzymatic mechanisms of anammox have been gradually revealed; however, the electron transport chain in anammox bacteria remains poorly understood. In the present study, we purified and characterized two low-molecular-weight c-type cytochromes from an enriched culture of the anammox bacterium strain, KSU-1. Their genes, KSU1_B0428 and KSU1_C0855, were identified in the KSU-1 genome, and their recombinant proteins were characterized...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Alexander N Tikhonov
This chapter presents an overview of structural properties of the cytochrome (Cyt) b6 f complex and its functioning in chloroplasts. The Cyt b6 f complex stands at the crossroad of photosynthetic electron transport pathways, providing connectivity between Photosystem (PSI) and Photosysten II (PSII) and pumping protons across the membrane into the thylakoid lumen. After a brief review of the chloroplast electron transport chain, the consideration is focused on the structural organization of the Cyt b6 f complex and its interaction with plastoquinol (PQH2 , reduced form of plastoquinone), a mediator of electron transfer from PSII to the Cyt b6 f complex...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Mayra A Borrero Landazabal, Aurora L Carreño Otero, Vladimir V Kouznetsov, Jonny E Duque Luna, Stelia C Mendez-Sanchez
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are responsible for dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus transmission in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. Due to the absence of vaccines or antiviral drugs for human treatment, the majority of control strategies are targeted at Ae. aegypti elimination. Our research on mosquito control insecticidal agents has previously shown that the alkaloid girgensohnine and its analogues (α-aminonitriles) present in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vivo insecticidal activity against Ae...
January 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Isabel Velada, Dariusz Grzebelus, Diana Lousa, Cláudio M Soares, Elisete Santos Macedo, Augusto Peixe, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt, Hélia G Cardoso
Propagation of some Olea europaea L. cultivars is strongly limited due to recalcitrant behavior in adventitious root formation by semi-hardwood cuttings. One example is the cultivar "Galega vulgar". The formation of adventitious roots is considered a morphological response to stress. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway of the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. This enzyme is well known to be induced in response to several biotic and abiotic stress situations...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mehdi Ghasemi, Yunis Mayasi, Anas Hannoun, Seyed Majid Eslami, Raphael Carandang
Mitochondria are key cellular organelles that play crucial roles in the energy production and regulation of cellular metabolism. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial activity can be modulated by nitric oxide (NO). As a key neurotransmitter in biologic systems, NO mediates the majority of its function through activation of the cyclic guanylyl cyclase (cGC) signaling pathway and S-nitrosylation of a variety of proteins involved in cellular functioning including those involved in mitochondrial biology...
February 17, 2018: Neuroscience
Francisco M Gutierrez-Mariscal, Elena M Yubero-Serrano, Jose M Villalba, Jose Lopez-Miranda
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) is a ubiquitous molecule present in all eukaryotic organisms whose principal role in the cell is related to its participation in the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. CoQ10 plays a major role in the control of cell redox status, and both the amount and functionality of this molecule have been related to the regulation of reactive oxygen species generation. Numerous reports can be found discussing the implications of CoQ10 supplementation in human studies and clinical trials related to aging...
February 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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