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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918477/in-vitro-inhibition-of-hiv-1-replication-in-autologous-cd4-t-cells-indicates-viral-containment-by-multifactorial-mechanisms
#1
Ting Tu, Jianbo Zhan, Danlei Mou, Wei Li, Bin Su, Tong Zhang, Tao Li, Ning Li, Hao Wu, Cong Jin, Huabiao Chen
HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are present during chronic infection, but the relative contributions of these effector mechanisms to viral containment remain unclear. Here, using an in vitro model involving autologous CD4(+) T cells, primary HIV-1 isolates, HIV-1-specific CTLs, and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, we show that b12, a potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody to HIV-1, was able to block viral infection when preincubated with virus prior to infection, but was much less effective than CTLs at limiting virus replication when added to infected cell cultures...
September 15, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918059/regulatory-role-of-the-microrna-29b-il-6-signaling-in-the-formation-of-vascular-mimicry
#2
Jian-Hong Fang, Zhi-Yuan Zheng, Jin-Yu Liu, Chen Xie, Zi-Jun Zhang, Shi-Mei Zhuang
Vascular mimicry (VM) is a critical complement for microcirculation and is implicated in tumor progression. We showed that IL-6 derived from tumor cells and stroma cells promoted tumor cells to form a VM structure, whereas blocking the IL-6 signaling by RNA interference, IL-6-neutralizing antibody, or STAT3 inhibitor suppressed the VM formation of tumor cells. Mechanism investigations revealed that IL-6 stimulated VM formation by activating STAT3, in turn upregulating VE-cadherin expression and MMP2 activity...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916870/efficacy-and-immunogenicity-of-recombinant-swinepox-virus-expressing-the-truncated-s-protein-of-a-novel-isolate-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus
#3
Xiaomin Yuan, Huixing Lin, Bin Li, Kongwang He, Hongjie Fan
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes significant loss to the swine industry. The emergence of novel PEDV strains in recent years has decreased the effectiveness of PEDV vaccines. We have developed a live recombinant vaccine, a swinepox virus vector that expresses a truncated S protein (rSPV-St) from a recent PEDV strain, SQ2014, and evaluated its immunogenicity and effectiveness in a swine model. Vaccination of swine with rSPV-St elicited a robust antibody response specific for the homologous PEDV SQ2014...
September 15, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916391/zika-virus-structural-biology-and-progress-in-vaccine-development
#4
REVIEW
Hsiao-Han Lin, Bak-Sau Yip, Li-Min Huang, Suh-Chin Wu
The growing number of zika virus (ZIKV) infections plus a 20-fold increase in neonatal microcephaly in newborns in Brazil have raised alarms in many countries regarding the threat to pregnant women. Instances of microcephaly and central nervous system malformations continue to increase in ZIKV outbreak regions. ZIKV is a small enveloped positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. High-resolution ZIKV structures recently identified by cryo-electron microscopy indicate that the overall ZIKV structure is similar to those of other flaviviruses...
September 12, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916265/glycans-function-as-anchors-for-antibodies-and-help-drive-hiv-broadly-neutralizing-antibody-development
#5
Raiees Andrabi, Ching-Yao Su, Chi-Hui Liang, Sachin S Shivatare, Bryan Briney, James E Voss, Salar Khan Nawazi, Chung-Yi Wu, Chi-Huey Wong, Dennis R Burton
Apex broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies (bnAbs) recognize glycans and protein surface close to the 3-fold axis of the envelope (Env) trimer and are among the most potent and broad Abs described. The evolution of apex bnAbs from one donor (CAP256) has been studied in detail and many Abs at different stages of maturation have been described. Using diverse engineering tools, we investigated the involvement of glycan recognition in the development of the CAP256.VRC26 Ab lineage. We found that sialic acid-bearing glycans were recognized by germline-encoded and somatically mutated residues on the Ab heavy chain...
September 8, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915259/a-novel-mechanism-of-antibody-mediated-enhancement-of-flavivirus-infection
#6
Denise Haslwanter, Dieter Blaas, Franz X Heinz, Karin Stiasny
Antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection is a well-described phenomenon that is based on the cellular uptake of infectious virus-antibody complexes following their interaction with Fcγ receptors expressed on myeloid cells. Here we describe a novel mechanism of antibody-mediated enhancement of infection by a flavivirus (tick-borne encephalitis virus) in transformed and primary human cells, which is independent of the presence of Fcγ receptors. Using chemical cross-linking and immunoassays, we demonstrate that the monoclonal antibody (mab) A5, recognizing an epitope at the interface of the dimeric envelope protein E, causes dimer dissociation and leads to the exposure of the fusion loop (FL)...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914200/development-of-peptide-vaccines-in-dengue
#7
Kavita Reginald, Yanqi Chan, Magdalena Plebanski, Chit Laa Poh
Dengue is one of the most important arboviral infection worldwide, infecting up to 390 million people and causing 25,000 deaths annually. Although a licensed dengue vaccine is available, it is not efficacious against dengue serotypes that infect people living in South East Asia, where dengue is an endemic disease. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop an efficient dengue vaccine for this region. Data from different clinical trials indicate that a successful dengue vaccine must elicit both neutralizing antibodies and cell mediated immunity...
September 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912784/comparison-of-the-protective-efficacy-of-neutralizing-epitopes-of-2009-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-hemagglutinin
#8
Bo Peng, Na Peng, Yanan Zhang, Fenghua Zhang, Xuguang Li, Haiyan Chang, Fang Fang, Fuyan Wang, Fangguo Lu, Ze Chen
The 2009 H1N1 influenza (Pdm09) pandemic has been referred to as the first influenza pandemic of the twenty-first century. There is a marked difference in antigenicity between the pandemic H1N1 virus and past seasonal H1N1 viruses, which allowed the pandemic virus to spread rapidly in humans. Antibodies (Abs) against hemagglutinin (HA), especially neutralizing Abs against epitopes in the head of HA, play critical roles in defending the host against the virus. Some preexisting neutralizing Abs that recognize neutralizing epitopes of Pdm09 HA, thereby affording cross-protection, have been reported...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912761/preliminary-characterization-of-medle-2-a-protein-potentially-involved-in-the-invasion-of-cryptosporidium-parvum
#9
Baoling Li, Haizhen Wu, Na Li, Jiayuan Su, Ruilian Jia, Jianlin Jiang, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
Cryptosporidium spp. are important causes of diarrhea in humans, ruminants, and other mammals. Comparative genomic analysis indicated that genetically related and host-adapted Cryptosporidium species have different numbers of subtelomeric genes encoding the Cryptosporidium-specific MEDLE family of secreted proteins, which could contribute to differences in host specificity. In this study, a Cryptosporidium parvum-specific member of the protein family MEDLE-2 encoded by cgd5_4590 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912760/immunization-with-live-human-rhinovirus-hrv-16-induces-protection-in-cotton-rats-against-hrv14-infection
#10
Mira C Patel, Lioubov M Pletneva, Marina S Boukhvalova, Stefanie N Vogel, Adriana E Kajon, Jorge C G Blanco
Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the main cause of cold-like illnesses, and currently no vaccine or antiviral therapies against HRVs are available to prevent or mitigate HRV infection. There are more than 150 antigenically heterogeneous HRV serotypes, with ∼90 HRVs belonging to major group species A and B. Development of small animal models that are susceptible to infection with major group HRVs would be beneficial for vaccine research. Previously, we showed that the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is semi-permissive to HRV16 (major group, species HRV-A virus) infection, replicating in the upper and lower respiratory tracts with measurable pathology, mucus production, and expression of inflammatory mediators...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912595/analysis-of-vsv-pseudotype-virus-infection-mediated-by-rubella-virus-envelope-proteins
#11
Masafumi Sakata, Hideki Tani, Masaki Anraku, Michiyo Kataoka, Noriyo Nagata, Fumio Seki, Maino Tahara, Noriyuki Otsuki, Kiyoko Okamoto, Makoto Takeda, Yoshio Mori
Rubella virus (RV) generally causes a systemic infection in humans. Viral cell tropism is a key determinant of viral pathogenesis, but the tropism of RV is currently poorly understood. We analyzed various human cell lines and determined that RV only establishes an infection efficiently in particular non-immune cell lines. To establish an infection the host cells must be susceptible and permissible. To assess the susceptibility of individual cell lines, we generated a pseudotype vesicular stomatitis virus bearing RV envelope proteins (VSV-RV/CE2E1)...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912302/prevention-of-renal-apob-retention-is-protective-against-diabetic-nephropathy-role-of-tgf-%C3%AE-inhibition
#12
Patricia G Wilson, Joel C Thompson, Meghan H Yoder, Richard Charnigo, Lisa R Tannock
Animal studies demonstrate that hyperlipidemia and renal lipid accumulation contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. We previously demonstrated that renal lipoproteins co-localize with biglycan, a renal proteoglycan. The purpose of this study was to determine if prevention of renal lipid (apoB) accumulation attenuates diabetic nephropathy. Biglycan deficient and biglycan wildtype Ldlr-/- mice were made diabetic via streptozotocin and fed a high cholesterol diet. As biglycan deficiency is associated with elevated TGF-b, in some experiments mice were injected with either the TGF-b neutralizing antibody 1D11 or with 13C4, an irrelevant control antibody...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911151/expanding-the-phenotypic-and-genotypic-landscape-of-autoimmune-polyendocrine-syndrome-type-1
#13
Elizaveta M Orlova, Leila S Sozaeva, Maria A Kareva, Bergithe E Oftedal, Anette S B Wolff, Lars Breivik, Ekaterina Y Zakharova, Olga N Ivanova, Olle Kämpe, Ivan I Dedov, Per M Knappskog, Valentina A Peterkova, Eystein S Husebye
Context: Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a rare monogenic autoimmune disease caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene and characterized by chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and primary adrenal insufficiency. Comprehensive characterizations of large patient cohorts are rare. Objective: To perform an extensive clinical, immunological, and genetic characterization of a large nationwide Russian APS-1 cohort...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911066/prevention-of-chemotherapy-toxicity-by-agents-that-neutralize-or-degrade-cell-free-chromatin
#14
I Mittra, K Pal, N Pancholi, A Shaikh, B Rane, P Tidke, S Kirolikar, N K Khare, K Agrawal, H Nagare, N K Nair
Background: Toxicity associated with chemotherapy is a major therapeutic challenge and is caused by chemotherapy-induced DNA damage and inflammation. We have recently reported that cell-free chromatin (cfCh) fragments released from dying cells can readily enter into healthy cells of the body to integrate into their genomes and induce DNA double-strand breaks, apoptosis and inflammation in them. We hypothesized that much of the toxicity of chemotherapy might be due to release of large quantities of cfCh from dying cells that could trigger an exaggerated DNA damage, apoptotic and inflammatory response in healthy cells over and above that caused by the drugs themselves...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910445/corneal-epithelium-derived-neurotrophic-factors-promote-nerve-regeneration
#15
Guohu Di, Xia Qi, Xiaowen Zhao, Songmei Zhang, Patrik Danielson, Qingjun Zhou
Purpose: To explore the neurotrophic factor expression in corneal epithelium and evaluate their effects on the trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurite outgrowth and corneal nerve regeneration in mice. Methods: The expression of neurotrophic factors was compared among the intact, regenerating, and regenerated mouse corneal epithelium. Mouse primary TG neurons were treated with the conditioned medium of mouse corneal epithelial cells. Nerve growth factor (NGF) neutralizing antibody and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) neutralizing antibody were used to evaluate their roles in mouse corneal nerve regeneration and TG neurite outgrowth...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910287/generation-of-a-serum-free-cho-dg44-cell-line-stably-producing-a-broadly-protective-anti-influenza-virus-monoclonal-antibody
#16
Veronika Chromikova, Maria A Zaragoza, Florian Krammer
Because of the broad neutralization and in vivo protection across influenza A and influenza B virus strains, monoclonal antibody CR9114 is widely used in influenza virus research as a positive control in many experiments. To produce amounts sufficient for the demand requires regular transient transfections, resulting in varying yield as well as differing batch to batch quality. Here, we report the development of a serum-free CHO DG44 cell line, stably producing a CR9114-like antibody with a potential to become a useful influenza virus research tool...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910164/botryoid-odontogenic-cyst-exploration-of-proliferative-activity-apoptosis-and-expression-of-tp53-and-bcl2-compared-to-the-histologically-identical-lateral-periodontal-and-gingival-cysts
#17
R S Redman, E Paal, S Chauhan, R Avers, N Bayley
The botryoid odontogenic cyst (BOC) is a rare, locally more aggressive variant of the usually indolent lateral periodontal cyst (LPC) and gingival cyst (GC). A recent case of BOC provided an opportunity for an exploratory study on the causes of its more aggressive behavior. The limited objective was to see if the BOC was sufficiently different from the other cysts to warrant an investment in a large study. Sections of neutral buffered formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from the BOC and archival specimens of four GCs, four LPCs and three odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) were stained using immunohistochemistry for Ki-67, a marker of proliferating cells, caspase-3, a marker of cells undergoing apoptosis, tumor suppressor p53, and the apoptosis inhibitor BCL2...
September 14, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904948/recent-progress-in-deciphering-the-etiopathogenesis-of-primary-membranous-nephropathy
#18
REVIEW
Andreas Kronbichler, Jun Oh, Björn Meijers, Gert Mayer, Jae Il Shin
Primary membranous nephropathy (MN) is the leading cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. Discovery of several antibodies has contributed to an increased understanding of MN. Antibodies against the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) are present in 50-100% with primary MN and are associated with a lower frequency of spontaneous remission. High levels are linked with a higher probability of treatment resistance, higher proteinuria, and impaired renal function, as well as a more rapid decline of kidney function during follow-up...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903577/a-2-4-amino-acid-deletion-in-the-v5-region-of-hiv-1-env-gp120-confers-viral-resistance-to-the-broadly-neutralizing-human-monoclonal-antibody-vrc01
#19
Shingo Tachibana, Maho Sasaki, Takako Tanaka, Mari Inoue, Youdiil Ophinni, Tomohiro Kotaki, Masanori Kameoka
The envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) plays a critical role in viral entry into host cells. The broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody VRC01, which recognizes the CD4 binding site on gp120, neutralizes more than 90% of HIV-1 isolates. However, some of the CRF01_AE viruses prevalent in Southeast Asia are resistant to VRC01-mediated neutralization. We previously reported that 3 amino acid residues at positions 185, 186, and 197 of gp120 played an important role in the VRC01 resistance of CRF01_AE Env (AE-Env) clones isolated from HIV-infected Thai individuals...
September 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902916/targeted-n-glycan-deletion-at-the-receptor-binding-site-retains-hiv-env-nfl-trimer-integrity-and-accelerates-the-elicited-antibody-response
#20
Viktoriya Dubrovskaya, Javier Guenaga, Natalia de Val, Richard Wilson, Yu Feng, Arlette Movsesyan, Gunilla B Karlsson Hedestam, Andrew B Ward, Richard T Wyatt
Extensive shielding by N-glycans on the surface of the HIV envelope glycoproteins (Env) restricts B cell recognition of conserved neutralizing determinants. Elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in selected HIV-infected individuals reveals that Abs capable of penetrating the glycan shield can be generated by the B cell repertoire. Accordingly, we sought to determine if targeted N-glycan deletion might alter antibody responses to Env. We focused on the conserved CD4 binding site (CD4bs) since this is a known neutralizing determinant that is devoid of glycosylation to allow CD4 receptor engagement, but is ringed by surrounding N-glycans...
September 13, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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