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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784969/north-american-domestic-pigs-are-susceptible-to-experimental-infection-with-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#1
So Lee Park, Yan-Jang S Huang, Amy C Lyons, Victoria B Ayers, Susan M Hettenbach, D Scott McVey, Kenneth R Burton, Stephen Higgs, Dana L Vanlandingham
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is capable of causing encephalitic diseases in children. While humans can succumb to severe disease, the transmission cycle is maintained by viremic birds and pigs in endemic regions. Although JEV is regarded as a significant threat to the United States (U.S.), the susceptibility of domestic swine to JEV infection has not been evaluated. In this study, domestic pigs from North America were intravenously challenged with JEV to characterize the pathological outcomes...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784645/harnessing-post-translational-modifications-for-next-generation-hiv-immunogens
#2
REVIEW
Joel D Allen, Rogier W Sanders, Katie J Doores, Max Crispin
The extensive post-translational modifications of the envelope spikes of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) present considerable challenges and opportunities for HIV vaccine design. These oligomeric glycoproteins typically have over 30 disulfide bonds and around a 100 N-linked glycosylation sites, and are functionally dependent on protease cleavage within the secretory system. The resulting mature structure adopts a compact fold with the vast majority of its surface obscured by a protective shield of glycans which can be targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs)...
May 21, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784499/erratum-to-antibodies-derived-from-a-toxoid-mefa-multiepitope-fusion-antigen-show-neutralizing-activities-against-heat-labile-toxin-lt-heat-stable-toxins-sta-stb-and-shiga-toxin-2e-stx2e-of-porcine-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-etec-vet-microbiol-202-2017
#3
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784005/cd8-t-cells-mediate-the-antitumor-activity-of-frankincense-and-myrrh-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
Chun Xu, Xian Lu, Wei Liu, Anxian Chen, Gang Meng, Hailin Zhang, Binghua Li, Yonghui Zhang, Junhua Wu, Jiwu Wei
BACKGROUND: Tumor-promoting inflammation is an emerging hallmark of cancer, which participates in both cancer progression and immune escape. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a typical inflammation-related cancer with an extremely poor prognosis. Frankincense and myrrh are anti-inflammation agents commonly used in clinic. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether extract of frankincense and myrrh (FM) downregulates inflammatory microenvironment of HCC and thereby restores antitumor immune responses...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783722/the-occurrence-of-a-commercial-n-pro-and-e-rns-double-mutant-bvdv-1-live-vaccine-strain-in-newborn-calves
#5
Kerstin Wernike, Anna Michelitsch, Andrea Aebischer, Uwe Schaarschmidt, Andrea Konrath, Hermann Nieper, Julia Sehl, Jens P Teifke, Martin Beer
The major source for the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are in-utero infected, immunotolerant, persistently infected (PI) animals since they shed enormous amounts of viruses throughout their lives. During the sequence-based virus typing of diagnostic ear notch samples performed in the context of the obligatory German BVDV eradication program, the commercial Npro and Erns double mutant BVDV-1 live-vaccine strain KE-9 was detected in seven newborn calves; their mothers were immunized in the first trimester of gestation...
May 19, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783162/a-peripheral-immune-response-to-remembering-trauma-contributes-to-the-maintenance-of-fear-memory-in-mice
#6
Matthew B Young, Leonard L Howell, Lauren Hopkins, Cassandra Moshfegh, Zhe Yu, Lauren Clubb, Jessica Seidenberg, Jeanie Park, Adam P Swiercz, Paul J Marvar
Alterations in peripheral immune markers are observed in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is characterized in part by impaired extinction of fear memory for a traumatic experience. We hypothesized that fear memory extinction is regulated by immune signaling stimulated when fear memory is retrieved. The relationship between fear memory and the peripheral immune response was tested using auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning in mice. Memory for the association was quantified by the amount of conditioned freezing exhibited in response to the conditioned stimulus (CS), extinction and time-dependent changes in circulating inflammatory cytokines...
May 17, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779923/a-viral-vectored-rsv-vaccine-induces-long-lived-humoral-immunity-in-cotton-rats
#7
Jessica L Grieves, Zhiwei Yin, Adolfo Garcia-Sastre, Ignacio Mena, Mark E Peeples, Heidi P Risman, Hannah Federman, Marvin J Sandoval, Russell K Durbin, Joan E Durbin
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower airway disease in infants worldwide and repeatedly infects immunocompetent individuals throughout life. Severe lower airway RSV infection during infancy can be life-threatening, but is also associated with important sequelae including development of asthma and recurrent wheezing in later childhood. The basis for the inadequate, short-lived adaptive immune response to RSV infection is poorly understood, but it is widely recognized that RSV actively antagonizes Type I interferon (IFN) production...
May 17, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778513/the-immune-response-of-rhesus-macaques-to-novel-vaccines-comprising-hepatitis-b-virus-s-pres1-and-core-antigens
#8
Xia Chuai, Bangxiang Xie, Hong Chen, Xinyi Tan, Wen Wang, Baoying Huang, Yao Deng, Wenhui Li, Wenjie Tan
Therapeutic vaccines represent a unique approach to hepatitis B virus (HBV) treatment and have the potential to induce long-term control of infection. This study explored the immune responses of rhesus macaques to novel vaccines comprising the S, PreS1, and Core antigens of the HBV that showed promise as prophylactic and therapeutic approaches in a mouse model. The tested vaccines included two DNA vaccines (pVRC-SS1, pVRC-CS1), an HBV particle subunit (HBSS1) vaccine and the recombinant vaccinia virus- (RVJ-) based vaccines (RVJSS1 and RVJCS1) in which SS1 containing S (1-223 aa) and PreS1 (21-47 aa), CS1 containing Core (1-144 aa) and PreS1 (1-42 aa)...
May 16, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778211/serological-survey-for-antibodies-against-pestiviruses-in-wyoming-domestic-sheep
#9
S Silveira, S M Falkenberg, M J Elderbrook, K S Sondgeroth, R P Dassanayake, J D Neill, J F Ridpath, C W Canal
Pestiviruses including Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2 and Border disease virus (BDV) have been reported in both sheep and cattle populations, together with the HoBi-like, an emerging group of pestiviruses. Pestivirus control programs in the United States have focused on the control of BVDV-1 and 2. The incidence of pestivirus infection in sheep in the United States and the risk of transmission between cattle and sheep populations are unknown. The aim of this study was to perform serological surveillance for pestivirus exposure in sheep from an important sheep producing state in the Unites States, Wyoming...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778203/evaluation-of-the-immune-response-afforded-by-a-subunit-vaccine-candidate-against-bluetongue-virus-in-mice-and-sheep
#10
Darien Kheder Ali Mohamed, Junzheng Du, Shandian Gao, Zhancheng Tian, Guorui Zhang, Dexuan Huang, Rongsheng Du, Biao Kang, Guangyuan Liu, Jianxun Luo, Hong Yin
Bluetongue virus (BTV), a vector-borne pathogen, is the causative agent of bluetongue disease in ruminants. In view of the recent emergence of BTV in regions previously known to be free from the disease and/or specific serotypes or strains, optimization of the currently available vaccination strategies to control the spread of vector-borne bluetongue is crucial. The main objective of the current study was to develop a subunit vaccine candidate targeting BTV-16, a strain previously isolated in China from sheep with obvious clinical signs...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778181/live-attenuated-duck-hepatitis-virus-vaccine-in-breeder-ducks-protective-efficacy-and-kinetics-of-maternally-derived-antibodies
#11
Jae-Hee Roh, Min Kang
Duck viral hepatitis type I is a rapidly spreading infection lethal in young ducklings, caused by the duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV). Vaccination of breeder ducks is a common practice to control DHAV. However, maintaining proper maternal antibody levels in large flocks is difficult. Therefore, a simple vaccination strategy that can induces stable high antibody levels through mass vaccination is desirable. We evaluated a DHAV vaccination strategy for breeder ducks involving oral administration under field conditions, and examined the kinetics of antibody response in the ducks and their progeny...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777754/hmgb1-neutralization-attenuates-hippocampal-neuronal-death-and-cognitive-impairment-in-rats-with-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-via-suppressing-inflammatory-responses-and-oxidative-stress
#12
Yue Hei, Rong Chen, Xicai Yi, Qianfa Long, Dakuan Gao, Weiping Liu
High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) acts as a proinflammatory molecule once released into the extracellular space and inhibition of HMGB1 signaling has been reported be neuroprotective in neurodegenerative diseases. Besides, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes cognitive impairment in neurodegenerative diseases. Here we tested the protective role of HMGB1 inhibition using anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody (Ab) against CCH in rats after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO). 169 male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 2VO or sham operation...
May 16, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777205/oviduct-epithelium-induces-interferon-tau-in-bovine-day-4-embryos-which-generates-an-anti-inflammatory-response-in-immune-cells
#13
Anup K Talukder, Mohammad B Rashid, Mohamed S Yousef, Kazuya Kusama, Takashi Shimizu, Masayuki Shimada, Susan S Suarez, Kazuhiko Imakawa, Akio Miyamoto
Recent studies indicate that communication between the bovine embryo and the mother begins in the oviduct. Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of embryos on bovine oviducts for their immune responses using an in vitro model. First, zygotes were cultured with or without bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs) for 4 days, when embryos had reached the 16-cell stage. At that time, we detected interferon-tau (IFNT) in embryos co-cultured with BOECs, but not in embryos cultured alone. Next, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were incubated either in media from embryo alone cultures or from co-cultures of embryos with BOECs...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777102/a-virus-like-particle-based-tetravalent-vaccine-for-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-elicits-broad-and-balanced-protective-immunity
#14
Wei Zhang, Wenlong Dai, Chao Zhang, Yu Zhou, Pei Xiong, Shuxia Wang, Xiaohua Ye, Qingwei Liu, Dongming Zhou, Zhong Huang
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease that mainly affects infants and children, causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. HFMD is commonly caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses A16 (CVA16), A6 (CVA6), and A10 (CVA10). Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines are currently available in China; however, these vaccines fail to confer cross-protection against infections by other HFMD-causing enteroviruses, highlighting the necessity of developing a multivalent HFMD vaccine...
May 18, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776611/nasal-delivery-of-chitosan-alginate-nanoparticle-encapsulated-bee-apis-mellifera-venom-promotes-antibody-production-and-viral-clearance-during-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection-by-modulating-t-cell-related-responses
#15
Jina Lee, Yun-Mi Kim, Ju-Heon Kim, Cheong-Weon Cho, Jong-Woon Jeon, Jin-Kyu Park, Sang-Ho Lee, Bock-Gie Jung, Bong-Joo Lee
In this study, we administered specially developed chitosan/alginate nanoparticle encapsulated BV (CH/AL-BV) which has slow-releasing properties and mucosal adhesiveness to pig via nasal route and evaluate whether it can facilitate systemic immune response and improve clearance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The CH/AL-BV-administered group with PRRSV vaccination showed significantly enhanced Th1-related responses including a high population of CD4+ T lymphocyte and cytokine mRNA levels including interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-12 and increased PRRSV-specific IgG levels...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775847/strategies-for-a-multi-stage-neutralizing-antibody-based-hiv-vaccine
#16
REVIEW
Raiees Andrabi, Jinal N Bhiman, Dennis R Burton
A critical property of a prophylactic HIV vaccine is likely to be its ability to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). BnAbs typically have multiple unusual features and are generated in a fraction of HIV-infected individuals through complex pathways. Current vaccine design approaches seek to trigger rare B cell precursors and then steer affinity maturation toward bnAbs in a multi-stage multi-component immunization approach. These vaccine design strategies have been facilitated by molecular descriptions of bnAb interactions with stabilized HIV trimers, the use of an array of sophisticated approaches for immunogen design, the development of novel animal models for immunogen evaluation and advanced technologies to interrogate antibody responses...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775812/virus-entry-and-its-inhibition-to-prevent-and-treat-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-d-virus-infections
#17
REVIEW
Thomas Tu, Stephan Urban
While chronic infection with the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) inflict major health burdens worldwide, current therapies cannot cure patients. One possible novel approach is blocking virus entry to prevent the establishment of infection in naïve hepatocytes. As HBV and HDV use identical viral envelope proteins and the same entry mechanisms, such a strategy would target both viruses. Entry inhibitors (e.g. neutralizing antibodies) have been relegated to the limited role of prophylaxis...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774519/zika-virus-baculovirus-expressed-virus-like-particles-induce-neutralizing-antibodies-in-mice
#18
Shiyu Dai, Tao Zhang, Yanfang Zhang, Hualin Wang, Fei Deng
The newly emerged mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) strains pose a global challenge owing to its ability to cause microcephaly and neurological disorders. Several ZIKV vaccine candidates have been proposed, including inactivated and live attenuated virus vaccines, vector-based vaccines, DNA and RNA vaccines. These have been shown to be efficacious in preclinical studies in mice and nonhuman primates, but their use will potentially be a threat to immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are empty particles composed merely of viral proteins, which can serve as a safe and valuable tool for clinical prevention and treatment strategies...
May 17, 2018: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773891/assessing-the-feasibility-of-neutralizing-osteopontin-with-various-therapeutic-antibody-modalities
#19
Vahid Farrokhi, Jeffrey R Chabot, Hendrik Neubert, Zhiyong Yang
Osteopontin is a secreted glycophosphoprotein that is highly implicated in many physiological and pathological processes such as biomineralization, cell-mediated immunity, inflammation, fibrosis, cell survival, tumorigenesis and metastasis. Antibodies against osteopontin have been actively pursued as potential therapeutics for various diseases by pharmaceutical companies and academic laboratories. Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of osteopontin inhibition in a variety of preclinical models of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, but clinical utility has not yet been demonstrated...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773829/sequential-immunizations-with-a-panel-of-hiv-1-env-virus-like-particles-coach-immune-system-to-make-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#20
Teena Mohan, Zachary Berman, Sang-Moo Kang, Bao-Zhong Wang
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are correlated with passive HIV/SHIV protection and are desirable components of a HIV protective immunity. In the current study, we have designed a sequential-immunization strategy with a panel of envelope glycoprotein (Env)-enriched virus-like particles (VLPs) from various HIV-1 clades (A-E) to elicit bnAbs with high breadth and potency of neutralization in rabbits. We have compared this regimen with repetitive immunizations of individual Env (subtype B) VLPs or a mixture of various Env VLPs...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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