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Altitude sickness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731986/the-effect-of-sex-on-heart-rate-variability-at-high-altitude
#1
Christopher John Boos, Emma Vincent, Adrian Mellor, John O'Hara, Caroline Newman, Richard Cruttenden, Phylip Scott, Mark Cooke, Jamie Matu, David Richard Woods
There is evidence to suggest that high altitude (HA) exposure leads to a fall in heart rate variability (HRV) that is linked to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). The effects of sex on changes in HRV at HA and its relationship to AMS are unknown. METHODS: HRV (5-minute single lead ECG) was measured in 63 healthy adults (41 men and 22 women) aged 18-56 years at sea level (SL) and during a HA trek at 3619m, 4600m and 5140m respectively. The main effects of altitude (SL, 3619, 4600 and 5140m) and sex (men vs women) and their potential interaction were assessed using a Factorial Repeated Measures ANOVA...
July 20, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716290/yarsagumba-fungus-health-problems-in-the-himalayan-gold-rush
#2
Pranawa Koirala, Bidur Pandit, Pratibha Phuyal, Ken Zafren
INTRODUCTION: Seasonal migration of people in search of Yarsagumba fungus creates a population of collectors that faces hardship and health risks in austere high-altitude settings. METHODS: In 2016, our 4-person team performed a 2-day health-needs survey of people collecting Yarsagumba fungus near the village of Yak Kharka (4020 m) in the Manang District of Nepal. RESULTS: There were approximately 800 people, both male and female, from age 10 to over 60, collecting Yarsagumba fungus...
July 14, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705998/is-normobaric-hypoxia-an-effective-treatment-for-sustaining-previously-acquired-altitude-acclimatization
#3
Beth A Beidleman, Charles S Fulco, Bruce S Cadarette, Allen Cymerman, Mark J Buller, Roy M Salgado, Alexander M Posch, Janet E Staab, Ingrid V Sils, Beau R Yurkevicius, Adam J Luippold, Alexander P Welles, Stephen R Muza
This study examined whether normobaric hypoxia (NH) treatment is more efficacious for sustaining high altitude (HA) acclimatization during re-introduction to altitude (RA) than no treatment at all. Seventeen sea level (SL) residents (age=23±6yrs; mean±SE) completed in the following order: 1)4d of SL testing, 2)12d of high altitude (HA) acclimatization at 4300m, 3)12d at SL post HA acclimatization (Post) where each received either NH (n=9;FiO2=0.122) or Sham (n=8;FiO2=0.207) treatment, and 4)24-h re-introduction to 4300m altitude (RA) in a hypobaric chamber...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705997/evidence-from-high-altitude-acclimatization-for-an-integrated-cerebrovascular-and-ventilatory-hypercapnic-response-but-different-responses-to-hypoxia
#4
Zachary M Smith, Erin Krizay, Rui Carlos Sa, Ethan T Li, Miriam Scadeng, Frank L Powell, David J Dubowitz
Ventilation and cerebral blood flow (CBF) are both sensitive to hypoxia and hypercapnia. To compare chemosensitivity in these two systems, we made simultaneous measurements of ventilatory and cerebrovascular responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in 35 normal human subjects before and after acclimatization to hypoxia. Ventilation and CBF were measured during stepwise changes in isocapnic hypoxia and iso-oxic hypercapnia. We used MRI to quantify actual cerebral perfusion. Measurements were repeated after 2-days of acclimatization to hypoxia at 3,800m altitude (PiO2 = 90 Torr) to compare plasticity in the chemosensitivity of these two systems...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704259/systemic-blood-pressure-at-exercise-in-hypoxia-in-hypertensive-and-normotensive-patients
#5
Laurent Winkler, François J Lhuissier, Jean-Paul Richalet
OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to determine whether acute hypoxia exposure in laboratory conditions associated with exercise induces an increase in systemic blood pressure (BP) in normotensive and hypertensive patients, and whether hypertensive patients are more prone to develop severe acute mountain sickness (sAMS). Finally, to determine if BP changes at exercise in acute hypoxia in hypertensive patients are predictive factors for sAMS. METHODS: From 2012 to 2015, 852 normotensive and 106 hypertensive patients went through an acute hypoxia exercise test before a sojourn at high altitude...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698346/acute-mountain-sickness-arterial-oxygen-saturation-and-heart-rate-among-tibetan-students-who-reascend-to-lhasa-after-7-years-at-low-altitude-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Gonggalanzi, Labasangzhu, Espen Bjertness, Tianyi Wu, Hein Stigum, Per Nafstad
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) and address the changes in arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and heart rate (HR) in native Tibetans who reascend to the high-altitude city of Lhasa (3658 m) after a 7-year stay at low altitude. METHODS: We followed two cohorts of students aged 17-21 years (859 Native Tibetan and 801 Han Chinese), travelling from lowland China until 3 days after their arrival in highland city of Lhasa...
July 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695835/the-concept-of-travel-medicine-and-the-actual-situation-of-travel-related-illnesses
#7
Varol Tunalı, Nevin Turgay
Travel medicine defines all diseases and medical situations that are related to travel. Travel medicine comprises infectious diseases, traumas, altitude sickness, sun burns, embolisms, jet lag, and many more travel-related situations. With the increasing possibility and ease of travel, the number of people who have travelled internationally has exceeded 1.13 billion in 2014, and the revenues of international travel have exceeded 1.25 trillion dollars. With every passing day, international travels are shifting toward the developing countries and to more exotic regions of the world, and travelers tend to be more adventurous and daring, thereby increasing risky behaviors during travels...
June 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694388/annexin-a2-supports-pulmonary-microvascular-integrity-by-linking-vascular-endothelial-cadherin-and-protein-tyrosine-phosphatases
#8
Min Luo, Elle C Flood, Dena Almeida, LunBiao Yan, David A Berlin, Paul M Heerdt, Katherine A Hajjar
Relative or absolute hypoxia activates signaling pathways that alter gene expression and stabilize the pulmonary microvasculature. Alveolar hypoxia occurs in disorders ranging from altitude sickness to airway obstruction, apnea, and atelectasis. Here, we report that the phospholipid-binding protein, annexin A2 (ANXA2) functions to maintain vascular integrity in the face of alveolar hypoxia. We demonstrate that microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) from Anxa2(-/-) mice display reduced barrier function and excessive Src-related tyrosine phosphorylation of the adherens junction protein vascular endothelial cadherin (VEC)...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684588/dietary-nitrate-supplementation-increases-acute-mountain-sickness-severity-and-sense-of-effort-during-hypoxic-exercise
#9
Gabriella M K Rossetti, Jamie Hugo Macdonald, Lee J Wylie, Samuel J Little, Victoria Newton, Benjamin Wood, Kieran A Hawkins, Rhys Beddoe, Hannah E Davies, Samuel James Oliver
Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances sea level performance and may ameliorate hypoxemia at high altitude. However, nitrate may exacerbate acute mountain sickness (AMS), specifically headache. This study investigated the effect of nitrate supplementation on AMS symptoms and exercise responses with 6h hypoxia. Twenty recreationally-active men (mean(SD): age 22(4) years, V̇O2max 51(6) mL·min-1·kg-1) completed this randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled crossover study. Twelve participants were classified as AMS- based on Environmental Symptom Questionnaire (AMS-C) score <0...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665150/association-between-plasma-n-acylethanolamides-and-high-hemoglobin-concentration-in-southern-peruvian-highlanders
#10
Dulce E Alarcón-Yaquetto, Lidia Caballero, Gustavo F Gonzales
Alarcón-Yaquetto, Dulce E., Lidia Caballero, and Gustavo F. Gonzales. Association between plasma N-acylethanolamides and high hemoglobin concentration in Southern Peruvian highlanders. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-High-altitude (HA) hypoxia is a stressful condition endured by organisms through different mechanisms. Failing to adapt to chronic HA exposure leads to a disease called chronic mountain sickness (CMS) characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (hemoglobin [Hb] ≥19 g/dL for women and ≥21 g/dL for men)...
June 30, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661230/circle-co2-reabsorbing-breathing-systems-human-applications
#11
Patrick Magee
Artificial breathing systems to help humans survive extreme environments are used over a range of ambient pressures, using various gases of different volumetric concentrations. These activities include anaesthesia and intensive care activity, high-altitude mountaineering, firefighting, aerospace extravehicular space activity and underwater diving operations. A circle breathing system is one in which the exhaled carbon dioxide is absorbed by an alkali substance and the remaining unused gases are recirculated, usually for the sake of economy and environment...
July 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653390/interventions-for-preventing-high-altitude-illness-part-1-commonly-used-classes-of-drugs
#12
REVIEW
Víctor H Nieto Estrada, Daniel Molano Franco, Roger David Medina, Alejandro G Gonzalez Garay, Arturo J Martí-Carvajal, Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: High altitude illness (HAI) is a term used to describe a group of cerebral and pulmonary syndromes that can occur during travel to elevations above 2500 metres (8202 feet). Acute hypoxia, acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral oedema (HACE) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) are reported as potential medical problems associated with high altitude. In this review, the first in a series of three about preventive strategies for HAI, we assess the effectiveness of six of the most recommended classes of pharmacological interventions...
June 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641682/health-effects-of-airline-cabin-environments-in-simulated-8-hour-flights
#13
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Commercial air travel is usually without health incidents. However, there is a view that cabin environments may be detrimental to health, especially flights of 8 h or more. Concerns have been raised about deep vein thrombosis, upper respiratory tract infections, altitude sickness, and toxins from the engines. METHODS: Passenger cabin simulators were used to achieve a comparative observational study with 8-h flights at pressures equivalent to terrestrial altitudes of ground, 4000, 6000, and 8000 ft...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611780/il-10-dysregulation-in-acute-mountain-sickness-revealed-by-transcriptome-analysis
#14
Bao Liu, Jian Chen, Long Zhang, Yixing Gao, Jianhua Cui, Erlong Zhang, Gang Xu, Yan Liang, Yu Liang, Jian Wang, Yuqi Gao
Acute mountain sickness (AMS), which may progress to life-threatening high-altitude cerebral edema, is a major threat to millions of people who live in or travel to high altitude. Although studies have revealed the risk factors and pathophysiology theories of AMS, the molecular mechanisms of it do not comprehensively illustrate. Here, we used a system-level methodology, RNA sequencing, to explore the molecular mechanisms of AMS at genome-wide level in 10 individuals. After exposure to high altitude, a total of 1,164 and 1,322 differentially expressed transcripts were identified in AMS and non-AMS groups, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609593/travelling-safely-to-places-at-high-altitude-understanding-and-preventing-altitude-illness
#15
Ivan Parise
BACKGROUND: Greater numbers of people are travelling to places at high altitude each year. Altitude illness is common in places at high altitude and may be life-threatening. General practitioners (GPs) are best placed to provide evidence-based advice to keep travellers well informed of the possible risks they may encounter in places at high altitude. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to review knowledge on altitude illness in order to help GPs assist patients to travel safely to places at high altitude...
June 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590162/exercise-testing-supplemental-oxygen-and-hypoxia
#16
Susan A Ward, Michael P W Grocott, Denny Z H Levett
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in hyperoxia and hypoxia has several applications, stemming from characterization of abnormal physiological response profiles associated with exercise intolerance. As altered oxygenation can impact the performance of gas-concentration and flow sensors and pulmonary gas exchange algorithms, integrated CPET system function requires validation under these conditions. Also, as oxygenation status can influence peak [Formula: see text]o2, care should be taken in the selection of work-rate incrementation rates when CPET performance is to be compared with normobaria at sea level...
July 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582330/high-altitude-illness-in-the-pediatric-population-a-review-of-the-literature-on-prevention-and-treatment
#17
Vanessa Garlick, Anne O'Connor, Catherine D Shubkin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing numbers of children are now traveling to high-altitude destinations, and pediatricians often see these children prior to and immediately following their travels. Thus, pediatricians have the opportunity to provide guidance for the prevention of altitude illness and must treat high-altitude illness (HAI) in some circumstances. This review will examine guidelines for prevention and management of HAI in the pediatric population. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research has examined children's short-term cardiorespiratory adaptation to high altitude, incidence of acute mountain sickness, hypoxic ventilator response, and maximal exercise capacity...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570332/environmental-neurologic-injuries
#18
Rodolfo Savica
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses neurologic complications resulting from environmental injuries and the treatment modalities for these conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advances include improved management of altitude sickness. Relatively uncommon conditions, such as keraunoparalysis (lightning-induced paralysis) and high-pressure neurologic syndrome, are areas of ongoing study. SUMMARY: Environmental injuries may be associated with serious neurologic sequelae...
June 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540933/the-effect-of-high-altitude-on-central-blood-pressure-and-arterial-stiffness
#19
C J Boos, E Vincent, A Mellor, D R Woods, C New, R Cruttenden, M Barlow, M Cooke, K Deighton, P Scott, S Clarke, J O'Hara
Central arterial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and arterial stiffness are known to be better predictors of adverse cardiovascular outcomes than brachial SBP. The effect of progressive high altitude (HA) on these parameters has not been examined. Ninety healthy adults were included. Central BP and the augmentation index (AI) were measured at the level of the brachial artery (Uscom BP(+) device) at <200 m and at 3619, 4600 and 5140 m. The average age of the subjects (70% men) were 32.2±8.7 years. Compared with central arterial pressures, brachial SBP (+8...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533889/effects-of-low-dose-acetazolamide-on-exercise-performance-in-simulated-altitude
#20
Ernst Elisabeth, Gatterer Hannes, Burtscher Johannes, Faulhaber Martin, Pocecco Elena, Burtscher Martin
Preventive effects of acetazolamide (ACZ) on acute mountain sickness (AMS) are well established but effects on exercise performance at high altitude or in hypoxia have been less considered and are still inconsistent. We hypothesized that low-dose ACZ would not impair exercise performance at simulated high altitude. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between low-dose ACZ and exercise performance in normobaric hypoxia. Sixteen subjects (8 males and 8 females) were randomly assigned either to receive low-dose ACZ (3×125 mg in 36 hours) or placebo...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
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