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Altitude sickness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325918/bioactive-fraction-of-rhodiola-algida-against-chronic-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-and-its-anti-proliferation-mechanism-in-rats
#1
Xingmei Nan, Shanshan Su, Ke Ma, Xiaodong Ma, Ximeng Wang, Dongzhu Zhaxi, Rili Ge, Zhanqiang Li, Dianxiang Lu
BACKGROUND: Rhodiola algida has long been used to prevent acute and chronic altitude sickness. In our previous study, we screened for a bioactive fraction from R. algida. However, the effects and mechanisms of this bioactive fraction on chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension remain to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of bioactive fraction from R. algida (ACRT) on chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) and to understand the possible mechanism of its pharmacodynamic actions...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282538/barometric-pressure-change-and-heart-rate-response-during-sleeping-at-%C3%A2-3000%C3%A2-m-altitude
#2
Masahiro Horiuchi, Junko Endo, Yoko Handa, Hiroshi Nose
We investigated effects of change in barometric pressure (P B) with climate change on heart rate (HR) during sleep at 3000 m altitude. Nineteen healthy adults (15 males and four females; mean age 32 years) participated in this study. We measured P B (barometry) and HR (electrocardiography) every minute during their overnight stay in a mountain lodge at ~ 3000 m. We also measured resting arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and evaluated symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) by using the Lake Louise Questionnaire at 2305 and 3000 m, respectively...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259975/relationship-between-smoking-and-acute-mountain-sickness-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#3
REVIEW
Cristina Masuet-Aumatell, Alba Sánchez-Mascuñano, Fernando Agüero Santangelo, Sergio Morchón Ramos, Josep Maria Ramon-Torrell
Aims: Previous epidemiological investigations of the relationship between smoking and acute mountain sickness (AMS) risk yielded inconsistent findings. Therefore, a meta-analysis of observational studies was performed to determine whether smoking is related to the development of AMS. Methods: Searches were performed on PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science for relevant studies that were published before November 2016 reporting smoking prevalence and AMS. Two evaluators independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed study quality...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209435/diseases-potentially-related-to-flammer-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Katarzyna Konieczka, Carl Erb
Flammer syndrome (FS) is a prevalent and mostly benign condition. Subjects with FS seem to have a good life expectancy. Nevertheless, FS subjects are at increased risk for certain diseases, mainly when they are challenged by psychological stress or other stimuli such as coldness. FS is related to ocular diseases, such as normal-tension glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, central serous chorioretinopathy, optic nerve compartment syndrome, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, arterial or venous occlusions in the retina, and choroid and optic nerve head, despite the absence of classical vascular risk factors...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202898/isolated-psychosis-during-exposure-to-very-high-and-extreme-altitude-characterisation-of-a-new-medical-entity
#5
Katharina Hüfner, Hermann Brugger, Eva Kuster, Franziska Dünsser, Agnieszka E Stawinoga, Rachel Turner, Iztok Tomazin, Barbara Sperner-Unterweger
BACKGROUND: Psychotic episodes during exposure to very high or extreme altitude have been frequently reported in mountain literature, but not systematically analysed and acknowledged as a distinct clinical entity. METHODS: Episodes reported above 3500 m altitude with possible psychosis were collected from the lay literature and provide the basis for this observational study. Dimensional criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders were used for psychosis, and the Lake Louise Scoring criteria for acute mountain sickness and high-altitude cerebral oedema (HACE)...
December 5, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186443/into-more-thin-air-exploring-the-adaptation-extremes-of-human-high-altitude-sickness-and-fitness
#6
Joseph Caspermeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177389/-between-the-acclimatization-to-high-altitude-the-medical-anthropology-and-the-civilizing-utopia-mapping-of-the-evolution-of-thought-of-carlos-monge-medrano-on-the-health-illness-process-of-andean-populations
#7
Juan P Murillo
The main objective of this study is to describe how the ideas of Carlos Monge respect to high altitude sickness developed and how these were being deployed in the framework of the discussions on the living conditions of indigenous populations in the period 1928-1963. I postulate that the form how the Monge's paradigm was proposed, the tensions produced by various alternative movements and the way these contradictions were resolved were central, both for the subsequent development of different scientific disciplines and for their different institutional expressions in Peru...
April 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172727/objective-versus-self-reported-sleep-quality-at-high-altitude
#8
Paul J Anderson, Christina M Wood-Wentz, Kent R Bailey, Bruce D Johnson
Anderson, Paul J., Christina M. Wood-Wentz, Kent R. Bailey, and Bruce D. Johnson. Objective versus self-reported sleep quality at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 16:000-000, 2017. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found little relationship between polysomnography and a diagnosis of acute mountain sickness (AMS) using the Lake Louise Symptom Questionnaire (LLSQ). The correlation between sleep question responses on the LLSQ and polysomnography results has not been explored. We compared LLSQ sleep responses and polysomnography data from our previous study of workers rapidly transported to the South Pole...
November 27, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166795/pharmacological-interventions-for-preventing-acute-mountain-sickness-a-network-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#9
Kannan Sridharan, Gowri Sivaramakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Individuals ascending to high altitude are at a risk of getting acute mountain sickness (AMS). The present study is a network meta-analysis comparing all the interventions available to prevent AMS. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomized clinical trials evaluating the use of drugs to prevent AMS. Incidence of AMS was the primary outcome and incidence of severe AMS, paraesthesia (as side effect of acetazolamide use), headache and severe headache, and oxygen saturation were the secondary outcomes...
November 23, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161578/probabilistic-pharmacokinetic-models-of-decompression-sickness-in-humans-part-2-coupled-perfusion-diffusion-models
#10
F Gregory Murphy, Ethan A Hada, David J Doolette, Laurens E Howle
Decompression sickness (DCS) can be experienced following a reduction in ambient pressure; such as that associated with diving or ascent to high altitudes. DCS is believed to result when supersaturated inert gas dissolved in biological tissues exits solution and forms bubbles. Models to predict the probability of DCS are typically based on nitrogen and/or helium gas uptake and washout in several theoretical tissues, each represented by a single perfusion-limited compartment. It has been previously shown that coupled perfusion-diffusion compartments are better descriptors than solely perfusion-based models of nitrogen and helium uptake and elimination kinetics observed in the brain and skeletal muscle of sheep...
November 15, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157337/simulated-high-altitude-helium-oxygen-diving
#11
Lu Shi, Yan-Meng Zhang, Katsuura Tetsuo, Zhong-Yuan Shi, Yi-Qun Fang, Petar J Denoble, Yang-Yang Li
BACKGROUND: Experience with commercial heliox diving at high altitude is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute high-altitude exposure on fitness to dive and the safety of decompression after heliox diving while using U.S. Navy heliox decompression tables with Cross correction. METHOD: Four professional male divers were consecutively decompressed in a hypo- and hyperbaric chamber to altitudes of 3000 m (9842.5 ft), 4000 m (13,123...
December 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156832/associations-of-high-altitude-polycythemia-with-polymorphisms-in-epas1-itga6-and-erbb4-in-chinese-han-and-tibetan-populations
#12
Yiduo Zhao, Zhiying Zhang, Lijun Liu, Yao Zhang, Xiaowei Fan, Lifeng Ma, Jing Li, Yuan Zhang, Haijin He, Longli Kang
High altitude polycythemia (HAPC) is a common chronic disease at high altitude, which is characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (females, hemoglobin ≥ 190 g/L; males, hemoglobin ≥ 210 g/L). It is the most common disease in chronic mountain sickness casued primarily by persistent arterial hypoxia and ventilatory impairment. However, the disease is still unmanageable and related molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. This study aims to explore the genetic basis of HAPC in the Chinese Han and Tibetan populations...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153259/reduction-of-olfactory-sensitivity-during-normobaric-hypoxia
#13
Tilman Huppertz, Jessica Freiherr, Bernhard Olzowy, Ulrich Kisser, Jutta Stephan, Gunther Fesl, Kathrin Haegler, Berend Feddersen, Rainald Fischer, Klaus Mees, Sven Becker
OBJECTIVE: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is caused by a low partial pressure of oxygen and may occur above 2500m. The aim of this research was to evaluate olfactory and gustatory abilities of healthy subjects during baseline conditions and after seven hours of normobaric hypoxia. METHODS: Sixteen healthy subjects were assessed using the Sniffin' Sticks, as well as intensity and pleasantness ratings. Gustatory function was evaluated utilizing the Taste Strips. Experiments were carried out under baseline conditions (518m altitude) followed by a second testing session after seven hours of normobaric hypoxia exposure (comparable to 4000m altitude)...
November 15, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136449/does-this-patient-have-acute-mountain-sickness-the-rational-clinical-examination-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
David Meier, Tinh-Hai Collet, Isabella Locatelli, Jacques Cornuz, Bengt Kayser, David L Simel, Claudio Sartori
Importance: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) affects more than 25% of individuals ascending to 3500 m (11 500 ft) and more than 50% of those above 6000 m (19 700 ft). AMS may progress from nonspecific symptoms to life-threatening high-altitude cerebral edema in less than 1% of patients. It is not clear how to best diagnose AMS. Objective: To systematically review studies assessing the accuracy of AMS diagnostic instruments, including the visual analog scale (VAS) score, which quantifies the overall feeling of sickness at altitude (VAS[O]; various thresholds), Acute Mountain Sickness-Cerebral score (AMS-C; ≥0...
November 14, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130390/investigation-of-the-differences-between-the-tibetan-and-han-populations-in-the-hemoglobin-oxygen-affinity-of-red-blood-cells-and-in-the-adaptation-to-high-altitude-environments
#15
Cuiying Li, Xiaowei Li, Juan Liu, Xiu Fan, Guoxing You, Lian Zhao, Hong Zhou, Jingqi Li, Huifen Lei
OBJECTIVE: High altitude is characterized by low oxygen pressure, resulting in multiple adaptive responses. Tibetans who have lived in the plateau for thousands of years have developed unique phenotypes, such as downregulation of the HIF pathway through EPAS1 and EGLN1 gene mutation. However, the changes of hemoglobin-oxygen affinity under hypoxia environment remain elusive. METHODS: A blood cell analyzer and a blood oxygen analyzer were used to conduct routine blood tests and measure the oxygen affinity P50 in in the Han population that rapidly entered the plateau (for 3-7 days), the plateau-acclimatized Han population (residing for 30 days on the plateau), the plateau Han population (more than 10 years on the plateau), and the Tibetan population...
November 12, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100088/natural-selection-on-genes-related-to-cardiovascular-health-in-high-altitude-adapted-andeans
#16
Jacob E Crawford, Ricardo Amaru, Jihyun Song, Colleen G Julian, Fernando Racimo, Jade Yu Cheng, Xiuqing Guo, Jie Yao, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, João A Lima, Jerome I Rotter, Josef Stehlik, Lorna G Moore, Josef T Prchal, Rasmus Nielsen
The increase in red blood cell mass (polycythemia) due to the reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) of residence at high altitude or other conditions is generally thought to be beneficial in terms of increasing tissue oxygen supply. However, the extreme polycythemia and accompanying increased mortality due to heart failure in chronic mountain sickness most likely reduces fitness. Tibetan highlanders have adapted to high altitude, possibly in part via the selection of genetic variants associated with reduced polycythemic response to hypoxia...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042272/effects-of-dietary-nitrate-on-respiratory-physiology-at-high-altitude-results-from-the-xtreme-alps-study
#17
Andrew F Cumpstey, Philip J Hennis, Edward T Gilbert-Kawai, Bernadette O Fernandez, Matthieu Poudevigne, Alexandra Cobb, Paula Meale, Kay Mitchell, Helen Moyses, Helmut Pöhnl, Monty G Mythen, Michael P W Grocott, Martin Feelisch, Daniel S Martin
Nitric oxide (NO) production plays a central role in conferring tolerance to hypoxia. Tibetan highlanders, successful high-altitude dwellers for millennia, have higher circulating nitrate and exhaled NO (ENO) levels than native lowlanders. Since nitrate itself can reduce the oxygen cost of exercise in normoxia it may confer additional benefits at high altitude. Xtreme Alps was a double-blinded randomised placebo-controlled trial to investigate how dietary nitrate supplementation affects physiological responses to hypoxia in 28 healthy adult volunteers resident at 4559 m for 1 week; 14 receiving a beetroot-based high-nitrate supplement and 14 receiving a low-nitrate 'placebo' of matching appearance/taste...
December 1, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029226/new-insights-into-the-genetic-basis-of-monge-s-disease-and-adaptation-to-high-altitude
#18
Tsering Stobdan, Ali Akbari, Priti Azad, Dan Zhou, Orit Poulsen, Otto Appenzeller, Gustavo F Gonzales, Amalio Telenti, Emily H M Wong, Shubham Saini, Ewen F Kirkness, J Craig Venter, Vineet Bafna, Gabriel G Haddad
Human high-altitude (HA) adaptation or mal-adaptation is explored to understand the physiology, pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms that underlie long-term exposure to hypoxia. Here we report the results of an analysis of the largest whole-genome-sequencing of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS) and non-CMS individuals, identified candidate genes and functionally validated these candidates in a genetic model system (Drosophila). We used PreCIOSS algorithm that uses Haplotype Allele Frequency score to separate haplotypes carrying the favored allele from the non-carriers and accordingly prioritize genes associated with the CMS or non-CMS phenotype...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021909/managing-diabetes-at-high-altitude-personal-experience-with-support-from-a-multidisciplinary-physical-activity-and-diabetes-clinic
#19
Gary Malcolm, Sian Rilstone, Sivasujan Sivasubramaniyam, Carol Jairam, Stephen Chew, Nick Oliver, Neil E Hill
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity is important for well-being but can be challenging for people with diabetes. Data informing support of specialist activities such as climbing and high-altitude trekking are limited. A 42-year-old man with type 1 diabetes (duration 30 years) attended a Multidisciplinary Physical Activity and Diabetes Clinic planning to climb Mont Blanc during the summer and trek to Everest Base Camp in the autumn. His aims were to complete these adventures without his diabetes impacting on their success...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986453/reduced-cardiac-calcineurin-expression-mimics-long-term-hypoxia-induced-heart-defects-in-drosophila
#20
Rachel Zarndt, Stanley M Walls, Karen Ocorr, Rolf Bodmer
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia is often associated with cardiopulmonary diseases, which represent some of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Long-term hypoxia exposures, whether from disease or environmental condition, can cause cardiomyopathy and lead to heart failure. Indeed, hypoxia-induced heart failure is a hallmark feature of chronic mountain sickness in maladapted populations living at high altitude. In a previously established Drosophila heart model for long-term hypoxia exposure, we found that hypoxia caused heart dysfunction...
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
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