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Johanna M U Silvola, Helena Virtanen, Riikka Siitonen, Sanna Hellberg, Heidi Liljenbäck, Olli Metsälä, Mia Ståhle, Tiina Saanijoki, Meeri Käkelä, Harri Hakovirta, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, Pekka Saukko, Matti Jauhiainen, Tibor Z Veres, Sirpa Jalkanen, Juhani Knuuti, Antti Saraste, Anne Roivainen
Given the important role of inflammation and the potential association of the leukocyte trafficking-associated adhesion molecule vascular adhesion protein 1 (VAP-1) with atherosclerosis, this study examined whether functional VAP-1 is expressed in atherosclerotic lesions and, if so, whether it could be targeted by positron emission tomography (PET). First, immunohistochemistry revealed that VAP-1 localized to endothelial cells of intra-plaque neovessels in human carotid endarterectomy samples from patients with recent ischemic symptoms...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rohan Yadav, Shani Leviatan Ben-Arye, Balamurugan Subramani, Vered Padler-Karavani, Raghavendra Kikkeri
Sialic acids (Sias) are important terminal sugars on cell surfaces involved in a wide range of protein-carbohydrate interactions. Hence, agents modulating sias-mediated protein interactions are promising inhibitors or vaccine candidates. Here, we report the synthesis of Neu5Acα(2-6)Gal structural analogs and their binding to a series of siglecs. The results showed distinct binding patterns with conserved siglecs (hCD22 and mCD22) compared to rapid evolving siglecs (Siglecs -3 & -10).
September 27, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Toshi Horie, Megumi Inomata, Takeshi Into, Yoshiaki Hasegawa, Noriyuki Kitai, Fuminobu Yoshimura, Yukitaka Murakami
Bacterial glycoproteins are associated with physiological and pathogenic functions of bacteria. It remains unclear whether bacterial glycoproteins can bind to specific classes of lectins expressed on host cells. Tannerella forsythia is a gram-negative oral anaerobe that contributes to the development of periodontitis. In this study, we aimed to find lectin-binding glycoproteins in T. forsythia. We performed affinity chromatography of wheat germ agglutinin, which binds to N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and sialic acid (Sia), and identified OmpA-like protein as the glycoprotein that has the highest affinity...
2016: PloS One
Ralf Willebrand, David Voehringer
Eosinophils are major effector cells during allergic responses and helminth infections. Recent studies further highlight eosinophils as important players in many other biological processes. Therefore it is important to understand how these cells can be modulated in terms of survival and effector function. In the present study we investigated how eosinophils respond to the alarmin IL-33. We show that IL-33 promotes eosinophil survival in a ST2- and MyD88-dependent manner. IL-33-mediated protection from apoptosis was dependent on autocrine GM-CSF release...
2016: PloS One
Mariella Della Chiesa, Silvia Pesce, Letizia Muccio, Simona Carlomagno, Simona Sivori, Alessandro Moretta, Emanuela Marcenaro
Human NK cells are distinguished into CD56(bright)CD16(-) cells and CD56(dim)CD16(+) cells. These two subsets are conventionally associated with differential functional outcomes and are heterogeneous with respect to the expression of KIR and CD94/NKG2 heterodimers that represent the two major types of HLA-class I-specific receptors. Recent studies indicated that immature CD56(bright) NK cells, homogeneously expressing the inhibitory CD94/NKG2A receptor, are precursors of CD56(dim) NK cells that, in turn, during their process of differentiation, lose expression of CD94/NKG2A and subsequentially acquire inhibitory KIRs and LIR-1...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Gen Kano, Bruce S Bochner, Nives Zimmermann
RATIONALE: Siglec-8 is a surface receptor predominantly expressed on human eosinophils where its ligation induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cell death. Since Siglec-8 has intracellular tyrosine-based motifs, we hypothesized that Src family kinases (SFKs) are involved in ROS formation and cell death induced by Siglec-8 engagement. METHODS: Human peripheral blood eosinophils were purified and incubated with anti-Siglec-8 monoclonal antibodies (mAb, agonist), IL-5, and SFK pharmacological inhibitors...
September 20, 2016: Immunobiology
Sheng Lin, Lihua Lu, Tian-Shu Kang, Jean-Louis Mergny, Chung-Hang Leung, Dik-Lung Ma
Sialic acid (Sia) binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectin-5 (Siglec-5) is a type-I transmembrane protein, and it has been demonstrated as a biomarker of granulocytic maturation and acute myeloid leukemia phenotype. Herein we aimed to construct a method that could sensitively detect Siglec-5 by taking advantage of the high affinity and selectivity of the K19 aptamer for its cognate target, and the selective interaction of luminescent iridium(III) transition metal complexes with G-quadruplex DNA. The iridium(III) complex 1 [Ir(tpyd)2(2,9-dmphen)]PF6 (where tpyd =2-(m-tolyl)pyridine; 2,9-dmphen =2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) was synthesized, and it displayed high luminescence for G-quadruplex DNA compared to dsDNA and ssDNA...
October 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Joseph A Sennello, Alexander V Misharin, Annette S Flozak, Sergejs Berdnikovs, Paul Cheresh, John Varga, David W Kamp, G R Scott Budinger, Cara J Gottardi, Anna P Lam
Previous studies established that attenuating Wnt/β-catenin signaling limits lung fibrosis in the bleomycin mouse model of this disease, but the contribution of this pathway to distinct lung cell phenotypes relevant to tissue repair and fibrosis remains incompletely understood. Using microarray analysis, we found that bleomycin-injured lungs from mice that lack the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and exhibit reduced fibrosis, showed enrichment for pathways related to extracellular matrix processing, immunity, and lymphocyte proliferation, suggesting the contribution of an immune-matrix remodeling axis relevant to fibrosis...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Bojana Milutinovic, Ninoslav Mitic, Jelena Roncevic, Sanja Goc, Miroslava Jankovic
This study was aimed at evaluation of the contribution of acid-soluble glycoproteins (ASG)/mucins and extracellular vesicles (EVs), yet unexplored components of human seminal plasma (hSP) to the complexity of its glycome. Gaining insight into the native presentation and distribution of glycans across hSP could help establish molecular environments supporting specific biological activities based on unique ligand capacities. Soluble and particulate fractions of hSP from healthy subjects were analyzed by gel filtration, electrophoresis, ion-exchange chromatography and a solid phase assay with immobilized charge-resolved glycospecies to test their reactivity with plant lectins, carbohydrate-binding antibodies and selected human lectins...
November 1, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Masashi Ohmae, Mei Kojima, Kenta Mihara, Yuji Yamazaki, Isao Hara, Eri Hara, Shunsaku Kimura
Effects of sialic acid coatings on polymeric micelle consisting of poly(sarcosine)-block-poly(l-lactic acid) (Lactosome) in the aim of prevention of the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon are studied. Two kinds of the sialic acid-presenting Lactosomes targeting the immunosuppressive receptors of Siglec-G and CD22 have been successfully prepared. Lactosome presenting 5-N-acetylneuraminic acid or 5-N-acetylneuraminyl-α(2→6)-galactosyl-β(1→4)-N-acetylglucosamine at the nanocarrier surface diminished the ABC phenomenon due to the reduction of the anti-poly(sarcosine) IgM production...
October 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Yin Wu, Dongren Ren, Guo-Yun Chen
TLR4 signaling is critical for providing effective immune protection, but it must be tightly controlled to avoid inflammation-induced pathology. Previously, we reported extensive and direct interactions between TLR and Siglec families of pattern recognition receptors. In this study, we examined the biological significance of this interaction during infection. We show that Siglec-E is required for Escherichia coli-induced endocytosis of TLR4. Siglec-E-deficient dendritic cells infected with E. coli fail to internalize TLR4...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Imtiaz Iftakhar-E-Khuda, Ruth Fair-Mäkelä, Anu Kukkonen-Macchi, Kati Elima, Marika Karikoski, Pia Rantakari, Masayuki Miyasaka, Marko Salmi, Sirpa Jalkanen
Afferent lymphatic vessels bring antigens and diverse populations of leukocytes to draining lymph nodes, whereas efferent lymphatics allow only lymphocytes and antigens to leave the nodes. Despite the fundamental importance of afferent vs. efferent lymphatics in immune response and cancer spread, the molecular characteristics of these different arms of the lymphatic vasculature are largely unknown. The objective of this work was to explore molecular differences behind the distinct functions of afferent and efferent lymphatic vessels, and find possible molecules mediating lymphocyte traffic...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Richard Beatson, Virginia Tajadura-Ortega, Daniela Achkova, Gianfranco Picco, Theodora-Dorita Tsourouktsoglou, Sandra Klausing, Matthew Hillier, John Maher, Thomas Noll, Paul R Crocker, Joyce Taylor-Papadimitriou, Joy M Burchell
Siglec-9 is a sialic-acid-binding lectin expressed predominantly on myeloid cells. Aberrant glycosylation occurs in essentially all types of cancers and results in increased sialylation. Thus, when the mucin MUC1 is expressed on cancer cells, it is decorated by multiple short, sialylated O-linked glycans (MUC1-ST). Here we found that this cancer-specific MUC1 glycoform, through engagement of Siglec-9, 'educated' myeloid cells to release factors associated with determination of the tumor microenvironment and disease progression...
September 5, 2016: Nature Immunology
Anke Meyer, Federico Paroni, Kathrin Günther, Gitanjali Dharmadhikari, Wolfgang Ahrens, Sørge Kelm, Kathrin Maedler
AIMS: Prior to implementing gene expression analyses from blood to a larger cohort study, an evaluation to set up a reliable and reproducible method is mandatory but challenging due to the specific characteristics of the samples as well as their collection methods. In this pilot study we optimized a combination of blood sampling and RNA isolation methods and present reproducible gene expression results from human blood samples. METHODS: The established PAXgeneTM blood collection method (Qiagen) was compared with the more recent TempusTM collection and storing system...
2016: PloS One
Benoit Favier
Neutrophils are the most abundant subset of leukocytes and play a crucial role in the immune responses against the daily pathogen attacks faced by the host. Neutrophils exhibit several functions for fighting microbes, including the release of granules containing highly toxic molecules, the production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines as well as NETosis. Therefore, immune responses mediated by neutrophils must be tightly regulated to protect the host from pathogen assaults without inducing detrimental inflammation and tissue damage...
September 2016: Immunological Reviews
Han Xiao, Elliot C Woods, Petar Vukojicic, Carolyn R Bertozzi
Cell surface sialosides constitute a central axis of immune modulation that is exploited by tumors to evade both innate and adaptive immune destruction. Therapeutic strategies that target tumor-associated sialosides may therefore potentiate antitumor immunity. Here, we report the development of antibody-sialidase conjugates that enhance tumor cell susceptibility to antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by selective desialylation of the tumor cell glycocalyx. We chemically fused a recombinant sialidase to the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-specific antibody trastuzumab through a C-terminal aldehyde tag...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Claire Mesnil, Stéfanie Raulier, Geneviève Paulissen, Xue Xiao, Mark A Birrell, Dimitri Pirottin, Thibaut Janss, Philipp Starkl, Eve Ramery, Monique Henket, Florence N Schleich, Marc Radermecker, Kris Thielemans, Laurent Gillet, Marc Thiry, Maria G Belvisi, Renaud Louis, Christophe Desmet, Thomas Marichal, Fabrice Bureau
Increases in eosinophil numbers are associated with infection and allergic diseases, including asthma, but there is also evidence that eosinophils contribute to homeostatic immune processes. In mice, the normal lung contains resident eosinophils (rEos), but their function has not been characterized. Here, we have reported that steady-state pulmonary rEos are IL-5-independent parenchymal Siglec-FintCD62L+CD101lo cells with a ring-shaped nucleus. During house dust mite-induced airway allergy, rEos features remained unchanged, and rEos were accompanied by recruited inflammatory eosinophils (iEos), which were defined as IL-5-dependent peribronchial Siglec-FhiCD62L-CD101hi cells with a segmented nucleus...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Yuanyuan Ding, Zhenhong Guo, Yiqi Liu, Xia Li, Qian Zhang, Xiongfei Xu, Yan Gu, Yi Zhang, Dezhi Zhao, Xuetao Cao
CD8α(+) dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized at cross-presenting extracellular antigens on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules to initiate cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses; however, details of the mechanisms that regulate cross-presentation remain unknown. We found lower expression of the lectin family member Siglec-G in CD8α(+) DCs, and Siglec-G deficient (Siglecg(-/-)) mice generated more antigen-specific CTLs to inhibit intracellular bacterial infection and tumor growth. MHC class I-peptide complexes were more abundant on Siglecg(-/-) CD8α(+) DCs than on Siglecg(+/+) CD8α(+) DCs...
October 2016: Nature Immunology
Mitsumasa Saito, Sayo Yamamoto, Kinuyo Ozaki, Yukiko Tomioka, Haruka Suyama, Masami Morimatsu, Ken-Ichi Nishijima, Shin-Ichi Yoshida, Etsuro Ono
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in human newborns. A key GBS virulence factor is its capsular polysaccharide (CPS), possessing terminal sialic acid residues that suppress host immune response and provide a survival advantage to the pathogen. CPS binds to Siglec-9 expressed on neutrophils, which is expected to down-regulate the immune responsiveness of neutrophils. We hypothesized that a soluble form of Siglec-9 (sSiglec-9) competitively inhibits a binding of CPS to Siglec-9 on immune cells, leading to provide antibacterial benefit against GBS infection in the transgenic mouse line expressing sSiglec-9 (sSiglec-9 Tg)...
October 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Claire L Schofield, María J Marín, Martin Rejzek, Paul R Crocker, Robert A Field, David A Russell
Sialic acids are widespread in biology, fulfilling a wide range of functions. Their cognate lectin receptors - Siglecs - are equally diverse and widely distributed, with different Siglecs found within distinct populations of cells in the haemopoietic, immune and nervous systems. A convenient way to assay ligand recognition of soluble Siglecs would be useful, as would methods for the concomitant assessment of Siglec distribution on cell surfaces. Here we report the use of gold nanoparticles functionalised with a sialic acid ligand diluted with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) ligand for the plasmonic detection of a soluble form of murine Siglec-E (mSiglec-E-Fc fusion protein) and, importantly, for the specific detection of the same Siglec expressed on the surface of mammalian cells...
October 21, 2016: Analyst
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