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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934805/ratings-of-perceived-exertion-and-physiological-responses-in-children-during-exercise
#1
Jennifer M Erichsen, Brandon J Dykstra, Mary C Hidde, Anthony D Mahon
OMNI ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and physiological responses in children (n=7 boys, 8 girls, 11.1±1.0 years) were examined during estimation (graded exercise test [GXT] and steady-state) and production (steady-state) trials on a cycle ergometer. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) was determined via a GXT with RPE estimated every 30 s. Later, two 6-min trials were completed: Participants 1) estimated RPE at ~75% of VO2peak, 2) produced a level of exertion corresponding to their RPE at ~75% of VO2peak during the GXT...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934770/seasonal-influenza-and-vaccination-strategies-is-a-paradigm-shift-needed-a-synopsis-of-the-3rd-new-zealand-influenza-symposium-november-2016
#2
Nadia A Charania, Diana Murfitt, Nikki Turner
Influenza continues to be a global public health problem despite the availability of preventive vaccines and public health vaccination programmes. This paper presents a synopsis of the 3rd New Zealand Influenza Symposium (NZiS) that was hosted by the Immunisation Advisory Centre (IMAC) in November 2016. Experts and service providers convened to discuss current issues in the prevention and management of influenza. One of the key topics discussed was the use of novel vaccines, such as adjuvanted and high-dose vaccines, and antiviral prophylaxis to protect young children and the elderly...
September 22, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934767/family-planning-unmet-need-and-access-among-itaukei-women-in-new-zealand-and-fiji
#3
Radilaite Cammock, Peter Herbison, Sarah Lovell, Patricia Priest
AIM: The aim of the study was to identify unmet need and family planning access among indigenous Fijian or iTaukei women living in New Zealand and Fiji. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken between 2012-2013 in five major cities in New Zealand: Auckland, Hamilton, Wellington, Christchurch and Dunedin; and in three suburbs in Fiji. Women who did not want any (more) children but were not using any form of contraception were defined as having an unmet need...
September 22, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934745/association-between-body-composition-and-motor-performance-in-preschool-children
#4
Tanja H Kakebeeke, Stefano Lanzi, Annina E Zysset, Amar Arhab, Nadine Messerli-Bürgy, Kerstin Stuelb, Claudia S Leeger-Aschmann, Einat A Schmutz, Andrea H Meyer, Susi Kriemler, Simone Munsch, Oskar G Jenni, Jardena J Puder
OBJECTIVE: Being overweight makes physical movement more difficult. Our aim was to investigate the association between body composition and motor performance in preschool children. METHODS: A total of 476 predominantly normal-weight preschool children (age 3.9 ± 0.7 years; m/f: 251/225; BMI 16.0 ± 1.4 kg/m2) participated in the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY). Body composition assessments included skinfold thickness, waist circumference (WC), and BMI...
September 22, 2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934739/differential-pressure-shunt-for-simultaneous-diversion-of-ventricular-fluid-and-extracerebral-fluid
#5
Daniel Craig, Ken R Winston, Zach Folzenlogen, Kathryn A Beauchamp
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The management of extracerebral collections of fluid in patients with hydrocephalus can be problematic for either their simultaneous separate management or sequential management, each of which may require multiple surgeries and the management of external drains. The object of this report is to review the experience with a shunt configuration that simultaneously diverts ventricular fluid and extracerebral fluid, whether subdural or subarachnoid in location, through different outflow resistances...
September 22, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934720/prenatal-exposure-to-perfluoroalkyl-substances-and-cardiometabolic-risk-in-children-from-the-spanish-inma-birth-cohort-study
#6
Cyntia B Manzano-Salgado, Maribel Casas, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Ferran Ballester, Carmen Iñiguez, David Martinez, Dora Romaguera, Silvia Fernández-Barrés, Loreto Santa-Marina, Mikel Basterretxea, Thomas Schettgen, Damaskini Valvi, Jesus Vioque, Jordi Sunyer, Martine Vrijheid
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may affect body mass index (BMI) and other components of cardiometabolic (CM) risk during childhood, but evidence is scarce and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We estimated associations between prenatal PFAS exposures and outcomes relevant to cardiometabolic risk, including a composite CM-risk score. METHODS: We measured perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in maternal plasma (first trimester)...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934704/cyclical-unemployment-and-infant-health
#7
Erin K Kaplan, Courtney A Collins, Frances A Tylavsky
This study provides evidence on the effect of cyclical unemployment on infant health. We match individual-level data from a detailed survey of mothers and their children in Memphis, TN, with 5-year average census-tract unemployment rates from the American Community Survey. Our findings indicate that a one percentage point increase in the local unemployment rate is associated with a statistically significant increase in the probability of having a low birthweight baby (a baby weighing less than 2500 grams). We also find evidence of a statistically significant decrease in gestational age...
August 26, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934698/visual-artificial-grammar-learning-in-dyslexia-a-meta-analysis
#8
Merel van Witteloostuijn, Paul Boersma, Frank Wijnen, Judith Rispens
BACKGROUND: Literacy impairments in dyslexia have been hypothesized to be (partly) due to an implicit learning deficit. However, studies of implicit visual artificial grammar learning (AGL) have often yielded null results. AIMS: The aim of this study is to weigh the evidence collected thus far by performing a meta-analysis of studies on implicit visual AGL in dyslexia. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Thirteen studies were selected through a systematic literature search, representing data from 255 participants with dyslexia and 292 control participants (mean age range: 8...
September 18, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934695/type-1-diabetes-and-viral-infections-what-is-the-relationship
#9
REVIEW
Nicola Principi, Maria Giulia Berioli, Sonia Bianchini, Susanna Esposito
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the most common chronic metabolic disorder in children. Epigenetic and environmental factors capable of altering the penetrance of major susceptibility genes or capable of increasing the penetrance of low-risk genes are currently thought to play a role in triggering autoimmunity and T1D development. This paper discusses the current knowledge of the role of viruses in T1D. Most studies that have evaluated the potential association between viral infections and T1D have indicated that it is highly likely that some of these infectious agents play a role in T1D development...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934665/venous-thromboembolism-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-retrospective-incidence-and-intrapopulation-risk-factors
#10
Jessica Knight-Perry, Brian R Branchford, Dianne Thornhill, Stacey L Martiniano, Scott D Sagel, Michael Wang
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a rare but serious medical condition. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a risk for recurrent pediatric VTE and has potential thrombophilic tendency. However, much remains unknown, including incidence and intrapopulation risk factors. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of pediatric CF patients followed at Children's Hospital Colorado from January 1st 2003 through May 20th 2016 was examined. Cases were identified by informatics and validated manually...
September 5, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934563/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis
#11
Hanny Al-Samkari, Nancy Berliner
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a life-threatening disorder characterized by unbridled activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages resulting in hypercytokinemia and immunemediated injury of multiple organ systems. It is seen in both children and adults and is recognized as primary (driven by underlying genetic mutations that abolish critical proteins required for normal function of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells) or secondary (resulting from a malignant, infectious, or autoimmune stimulus without an identifiable underlying genetic trigger)...
September 13, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934529/traveling-slow-oscillations-during-sleep-a-marker-of-brain-connectivity-in-childhood
#12
Salome Kurth, Brady A Riedner, Douglas C Dean, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, Reto Huber, Oskar G Jenni, Sean C L Deoni, Monique K LeBourgeois
Slow oscillations, a defining characteristic of the nonrapid eye movement sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), proliferate across the scalp in highly reproducible patterns. In adults, the propagation of slow oscillations is a recognized fingerprint of brain connectivity and excitability. In this study, we (1) describe for the first time maturational features of sleep slow oscillation propagation in children (n = 23; 2-13 years) using high-density (hd) EEG and (2) examine associations between sleep slow oscillatory propagation characteristics (ie, distance, traveling speed, cortical involvement) and white matter myelin microstructure as measured with multicomponent Driven Equilibrium Single Pulse Observation of T1 and T2-magnetic resonance imaging (mcDESPOT-MRI)...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934528/the-impact-of-altitude-on-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-children-dwelling-at-high-altitude-a-crossover-study
#13
Benjamin H Hughes, John T Brinton, David G Ingram, Ann C Halbower
Study Objectives: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is prevalent among children and is associated with adverse health outcomes. Worldwide, approximately 250 million individuals reside at altitudes higher than 2000 meters above sea level (masl). The effect of chronic high-altitude exposure on children with SDB is unknown. This study aims to determine the impact of altitude on sleep study outcomes in children with SDB dwelling at high altitude. Methods: A single-center crossover study was performed to compare results of high-altitude home polysomnography (H-PSG) with lower altitude laboratory polysomnography (L-PSG) in school-age children dwelling at high altitude with symptoms consistent with SDB...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934461/effect-of-priming-with-seasonal-influenza-a-h3n2-virus-on-the-prevalence-of-cross-reactive-hemagglutination-inhibition-antibodies-to-swine-origin-a-h3n2-variants
#14
Feng Liu, Vic Veguilla, F Liaini Gross, Eric Gillis, Thomas Rowe, Xiyan Xu, Terrence M Tumpey, Jacqueline M Katz, Min Z Levine, Xiuhua Lu
Background: Recent outbreaks of swine-origin influenza A(H3N2) variant (H3N2v) viruses have raised public health concerns. Previous studies indicated that older children and young adults had the highest levels of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibodies to 2010-2011 H3N2v viruses. However, newly emerging 2013 H3N2v have acquired antigenic mutations in the hemagglutinin at amino acid position 145 (N145K/R). We estimated the levels of serologic cross-reactivity among humans primed with seasonal influenza A(H3N2) (sH3N2), using postinfection ferret antisera...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934459/mild-respiratory-illness-among-young-children-caused-by-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h5n1-virus-infection-in-dhaka-bangladesh-2011
#15
Apurba Chakraborty, Mahmudur Rahman, M Jahangir Hossain, Salah Uddin Khan, M Sabbir Haider, Rebeca Sultana, Nadia Ali Rimi, M Saiful Islam, Najmul Haider, Ausraful Islam, Ireen Sultana Shanta, Tahmina Sultana, Abdullah Al Mamun, Nusrat Homaira, Doli Goswami, Kamrun Nahar, A S M Alamgir, Mustafizur Rahman, Khondokar Mahbuba Jamil, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Natosha Simpson, Bo Shu, Stephen Lindstrom, Nancy Gerloff, C Todd Davis, Jaqueline M Katz, Andrea Mikolon, Timothy M Uyeki, Stephen P Luby, Katharine Sturm-Ramirez
Background: In March 2011, a multidisciplinary team investigated 2 human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection, detected through population-based active surveillance for influenza in Bangladesh, to assess transmission and contain further spread. Methods: We collected clinical and exposure history of the case patients and monitored persons coming within 1 m of a case patient during their infectious period. Nasopharyngeal wash specimens from case patients and contacts were tested with real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and virus culture and isolates were characterized...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934438/placental-but-not-peripheral-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-during-pregnancy-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-malaria-in-infancy
#16
Sarah Boudová, Titus Divala, Randy Mungwira, Patricia Mawindo, Tamiwe Tomoka, Miriam K Laufer
Pregnancy-associated Plasmodium falciparum infection impacts the health of mothers and newborns, but little is known about the effects of these infections on infant susceptibility to malaria. We followed 473 mother-infant pairs during pregnancy and through 2 years of age. We observed that children born to mothers with placental malaria, but not those born to mothers with peripheral infection without evidence of placental sequestration, had increased risk of malaria during the first year of life compared with children born to mothers with no malaria during pregnancy...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934432/intestinal-damage-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-exposed-and-hiv-infected-zimbabwean-infants
#17
Andrew J Prendergast, Bernard Chasekwa, Sandra Rukobo, Margaret Govha, Kuda Mutasa, Robert Ntozini, Jean H Humphrey
Background: Disease progression is rapid in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected infants. Whether intestinal damage and inflammation underlie mortality is unknown. Methods: We measured plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) at 6 weeks and 6 months of age in 272 HIV-infected infants who either died (cases) or survived (controls), and in 194 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and 197 HIV-unexposed infants...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934430/epstein-barr-virus-type-2-infects-t-cells-in-healthy-kenyan-children
#18
Carrie B Coleman, Ibrahim I Daud, Sidney O Ogolla, Julie A Ritchie, Nicholas A Smith, Peter O Sumba, Arlene E Dent, Rosemary Rochford
Background: The 2 strains of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), EBV type 1 (EBV-1) and EBV-2, differ in latency genes, suggesting that they use distinct mechanisms to establish latency. We previously reported that EBV-2 infects T cells in vitro. In this study, we tested the possibility that EBV-2 infects T cells in vivo. Methods: Purified T-cell fractions isolated from children positive for EBV-1 or EBV-2 and their mothers were examined for the presence of EBV and for EBV type...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934429/gene-expression-analysis-reveals-genes-common-to-cerebral-malaria-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#19
Sandrine Cabantous, Ogobara Doumbo, Belco Poudiougou, Laurence Louis, Abdoulaye Barry, Aboubacar A Oumar, Abdoualye Traore, Sandrine Marquet, Alain Dessein
Cerebral malaria, a reversible encephalopathy affecting young children, is a medical emergency requiring urgent clinical assessment and treatment. We performed a whole-transcriptomic analysis of blood samples from Malian children with cerebral or uncomplicated malaria. We focused on transcripts from pathways for which dysfunction has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders. We found that SNCA, SIAH2, UBB, HSPA1A, TUBB2A, and PINK1 were upregulated (fold-increases, ≥2.6), whereas UBD and PSMC5 were downregulated (fold-decreases, ≤4...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934428/hiv-infected-children-have-elevated-levels-of-pd-1-memory-cd4-t-cells-with-low-proliferative-capacity-and-high-inflammatory-cytokine-effector-functions
#20
Julia Foldi, Lina Kozhaya, Bret McCarty, Mussa Mwamzuka, Fatma Marshed, Tiina Ilmet, Max Kilberg, Adam Kravietz, Aabid Ahmed, William Borkowsky, Derya Unutmaz, Alka Khaitan
Background: During human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, chronic immune activation leads to T-cell exhaustion. PD-1 identifies "exhausted" CD8 T cells with impaired HIV-specific effector functions, but its role on CD4 T cells and in HIV-infected children is poorly understood. Methods: In a Kenyan cohort of vertically HIV-infected children, we measured PD-1+ CD4 T-cell frequencies and phenotype by flow cytometry and their correlation with HIV disease progression and immune activation...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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