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Acute infectious diarrhea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615247/evaluation-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-transmission-potential-to-na%C3%A3-ve-calves-by-direct-and-indirect-exposure-routes
#1
Shollie M Falkenberg, Rohana P Dassanayake, John D Neill, Julia F Ridpath
Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) can cause both acute and persistent infections in cattle. Exposure to BVDV persistently infected (PI) animals results in transmission of the virus to a naïve animal which causes a transient acute infection. While it is known that direct exposure to PI animals is a highly efficient means of transmission, less information is available regarding the potential for transmission from acutely infected either by direct or indirect exposure to naïve animals. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for spread of the virus from calves acutely infected, with typical virulence field viruses know to have minimal shedding and viremia, to naïve contact animals either by direct or indirect exposure...
April 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614595/-the-462nd-case-chronic-watery-diarrhea-and-acute-kidney-injury
#2
Y H Ni, J Li, W X Zhou, Y P Luo, Q W Jiang, Y Liu, C Yue, G Sun, J M Qian
A 60-year-old man presented with severe watery diarrhea for 2 months complicated with weight loss and acute kidney injury. He did not respond well to antidiarrheal medicines, empirical antibiotics and dietary exclusion of gluten or even complete bowel rest. The final diagnosis of autoimmune enteropathy (AIE) was made based on histopathologic findings of endoscopic biopsy from duodenal mucosa after excluding neoplastic disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and infectious diarrhea, etc. Chronic diarrhea and oliguria alleviated after the administration of corticosteroids...
April 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518497/bacterial-pathogen-spectrum-of-acute-diarrheal-outpatients-in-an-urbanized-rural-district-in-southwest-china
#3
Yongming Zhou, Jingyun Zhang, Shukun Wang, Wen Xu, Weili Liang, Meiying Yan, Duochun Wang, Baowei Diao, Bo Pang, Xin Lu, Fenxia Fan, Jie Li, Jing Lou, Li Zhang, Ruibai Wang, Xiaoying Cui, Meng Zhao, Rui Wu, Hongyan Cai, Xiaoli Du, Zhigang Cui, Wenpeng Gu, Rusong Yang, Biao Kan
OBJECTIVES: To conduct a one-year pathogen surveillance of acute diarrheal disease based on outpatient clinics in township hospitals in rural Hongta District of Yunnan Province, China. METHODS: Fecal specimens of acute diarrhea cases and relevant epidemiological information were collected. Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas shigelloides and diarrheogenic Escherichia coli (DEC) were examined. RESULTS: Among the 797 stool specimens sampled, 198 samples (24...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483125/treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-with-a-small-molecule-inhibitor-of-toxin-udp-glucose-hydrolysis-activity
#4
Ilana L Stroke, Jeffrey J Letourneau, Teresa E Miller, Yan Xu, Igor Pechik, Diana R Savoly, Linh Ma, Laurie J Sturzenbecker, Joan Sabalski, Philip D Stein, Maria L Webb, David W Hilbert
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of hospital-acquired infectious diarrhea, with significant morbidity, mortality and associated healthcare costs. The major risk factor for CDI is antimicrobial therapy, which disrupts the normal gut microbiota and allows C. difficile to flourish. Treatment of CDI with antimicrobials is generally effective in the short-term, but recurrent infections are frequent and problematic, indicating that improved treatment options are necessary. Symptoms of disease are largely due to two homologous toxins, TcdA and TcdB, which are glucosyltransferases that inhibit host Rho GTPases...
February 26, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479336/acute-motor-axonal-neuropathy-in-association-with-hepatitis-e
#5
Araz Al-Saffar, Bassam Al-Fatly
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute peripheral neuropathy that develops as a result of post-infectious immune-mediated nerve injury. It can be classified into classic and variant GBS. Acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) is a subtype of GBS with the key clinical features of pure motor weakness, areflexia, absence of sensory symptoms, and lack of neurophysiologic evidence of demyelination. We reported a case of acute motor axonal neuropathy in association with hepatitis E infection. A young woman was referred to us after a period of nausea, fever, and diarrhea...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471465/effects-of-dietary-energy-level-and-intake-of-corn-by-product-based-diets-on-newly-received-growing-cattle-antibody-production-acute-phase-protein-response-stress-and-immunocompetency-of-healthy-and-morbid-animals
#6
T J Spore, S P Montgomery, E C Titgemeyer, G A Hanzlicek, C I Vahl, T G Nagaraja, K T Cavalli, W R Hollenbeck, R A Wahl, D A Blasi
Effects of dietary energy level and intake of corn by-product based diets on antibody production, acute phase protein response, stress, and immunocompetency of healthy and morbid newly received growing cattle were evaluated. Four dietary treatments were formulated to supply 0.99, 1.10, 1.21, and 1.32 Mcal NEg/ kg DM and were offered at 100%, 95%, 90%, and 85% of ad libitum based on 0.99/100 treatment intake, respectively. Thirty-two pens were utilized with approximately 12 animals/pen. Four animals from each pen (32/dietary treatment) were randomly selected and used to serve as a subset to monitor immune function and acute phase proteins following a split-plot design...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426709/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-undifferentiated-and-infectious-acute-diarrhea-in-the-adult-horse
#7
REVIEW
Sarah D Shaw, Henry Stämpfli
Acute, infectious, diarrhea in adult horses is a major cause of morbidity and is associated with numerous complications. Common causes include salmonellosis, clostridiosis, Coronavirus, and infection with Neorickettsia risticii (Potomac horse fever). Treatment is empirical and supportive until results of specific diagnostic tests are available. Supportive care is aimed at restoring hydration, correcting electrolyte imbalances, and limiting the systemic inflammatory response. The mainstays of therapy are intravenous fluid therapy, electrolyte supplementation where necessary, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and nutritional support...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404745/in-silico-analysis-of-the-ef-hand-proteins-in-the-genome-of-giardia-intestinalis-assembly-a
#8
Magda E Alvarado, Claudia Rubiano, Diana Velandia, Moisés Wasserman
Giardia intestinalis is a parasite that inhabits the small intestine of humans and other mammals, causing a disease that can manifest itself with acute diarrhea. This parasite is an early divergent eukaryote with a compact genome and a life cycle composed of two distinct cell types: the trophozoite, the replicative form, and the cyst, the infectious form. Signal transduction pathways implicated in differentiation processes of G. intestinalis are largely unknown. Calcium, considered an essential messenger in cell signaling, has been shown to regulate a myriad of key cell processes including metabolism, motility, and exocytosis, among other important functions, through calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs)...
February 5, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390982/characteristics-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-among-children-under-5-years-of-age-with-acute-diarrhea-a-hospital-based-study
#9
Yu Zhou, Xuhui Zhu, Hongyan Hou, Yanfang Lu, Jing Yu, Lie Mao, Liyan Mao, Ziyong Sun
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is the leading infectious cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Among bacterial agents, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is the major causal agent of childhood diarrhea in developing countries, particularly in children under the age of 5 years. Here, we performed a hospital-based prospective study to explore the pathotype distribution, epidemiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance patterns of DEC from < 5-year-old diarrheal children. METHODS: Between August 2015 and September 2016, 684 stool samples were collected from children (< 5 years old) with acute diarrhea...
February 1, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390512/venous-thromboembolism-related-to-cytomegalovirus-infection-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Amar H Kelkar, Kavitha S Jacob, Eman B Yousif, John J Farrell
RATIONALE: Herein, we present a case of seemingly unprovoked portal vein thrombosis (PVT) occurring in the context of an acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and prolonged debilitating fatigue. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old male airline pilot presented with a 2 week history of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea, and daily recurrent fevers. This was in the context of progressive, debilitating fatigue for 3 months forcing the patient to leave his job...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344912/capillary-leak-syndrome-as-a-complication-of-antibody-mediated-rejection-treatment-a-case-report
#11
Juan C Ramirez-Sandoval, Ricardo Varela-Jimenez, Luis E Morales-Buenrostro
We report a case of capillary leak that developed during treatment of antibody-mediated rejection in a kidney transplant recipient. A 53-year-old female transplant recipient experienced an increase in serum creatinine from 1.1 to 1.8 mg/dL. Antibody-mediated rejection was diagnosed by graft biopsy. She was treated with five plasmapheresis sessions (on alternate days with albumin replacement), five doses of immunoglobulin (5 g/dose at 100 mg/kg), a single dose of rituximab (500 mg), and four doses of bortezomib on days 1, 4, 7, and 10 (1...
January 17, 2018: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290231/antimicrobial-treatment-of-diarrhea-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children
#12
R Cohen, J Raymond, D Gendrel
Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) are usually caused by viruses, especially Rotavirus and Norovirus. Among the bacterial causes, very few warrant antibiotic treatment, mainly Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter (only for severe cases, particularly in the initial phase) and severe cases of Salmonella infection. The antimicrobial treatments proposed in this guide follow the latest guidelines of the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249740/a-case-of-infectious-enterocolitis-with-hyperammonemia
#13
Ken Otsuji, Satoko Simizu, Takeru Endo, Ayako Kanazawa, Hideaki Arai, Keiji Nagata, Nobuya Harayama, Shunichi Nihei, Keiji Aibara, Mitsumasa Saito, Masayuki Kamochi
Case reports of hyperammonemia due to urease-producing bacteria are found occasionally, but most of them are associated with urinary tract infections. We experienced a case of infectious enterocolitis with hyperammonemia in which the causative bacteria was speculated to be urease-producing bacteria. A Japanese woman in her 70s had been diagnosed with microscopic polyangiitis in a nearby hospital and was transferred to our hospital. Although the microscopic polyangiitis was relatively under control after treatment with steroids and rituximab, frequent diarrhea with hyperammonemia (324 µg/dl) appeared and she became comatose...
2017: Journal of UOEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246821/late-gastrointestinal-complications-of-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-adults
#14
Anthony D Sung, Syed Hassan, Diana M Cardona, Daniel Wild, Krista Rowe Nichols, Hossein Mehdikhani, Bryan Balmadrid, Claire J Detweiler, Michael Shealy, Constance Cirrincione, Zhiguo Li, Martin Poleski, Tara E Dalton, Sharareh Siamakpour-Reihani, Nelson J Chao, Keith M Sullivan
Gastrointestinal (GI) complications including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in allogenic stem transplant recipients. Although several studies have previously looked into the acute GI complications, fewer smaller studies have reported late complications. In this large study we focus on the late (100 days post-transplant) GI complications in allogenic stem transplant recipients. In this single-center, retrospective study of all adult allogenic stem cell transplant recipients who had their transplant at Duke University over a 6-year period, 479 patients underwent allogenic stem cell transplant, of whom 392 recipients survived for at least 100 days post-transplant...
December 12, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216027/acute-malnutrition-among-children-mortality-and-humanitarian-interventions-in-conflict-affected-regions-nigeria-october-2016-march-2017
#15
Eva Leidman, Erin Tromble, Adamu Yermina, Robert Johnston, Chris Isokpunwu, Adeyemi Adeniran, Assaye Bulti
A public health emergency was declared by the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health in northeastern Nigeria in June 2016 and escalated by the United Nations to a Level 3 Emergency in August 2016, after confirmation of wild poliovirus and measles outbreaks and evidence that prevalence of acute malnutrition exceeded emergency thresholds in areas newly liberated from Boko Haram control (1,2). To monitor rates of mortality, acute malnutrition among children, infectious disease morbidity, and humanitarian interventions after the emergency declaration, a series of cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in fall 2016 and winter 2017 in the northeastern states of Borno and Yobe using a cluster methodology...
December 8, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189867/-metformin-associated-lactic-acidosis-report-of-one-case
#16
Felipe Quintana, María José Pezzani, Rodrigo Orozco, Jorge Dreyse, Leonardo Soto, Tomás Regueira
Metformin-associated lactic acidosis is a severe and infrequent adverse event. Early diagnosis is essential to start an early treatment, which often has favorable results. We report a 56 years old non-insulin-requiring type 2 diabetic female who developed a severe metabolic acidosis associated with metformin in relation to an acute renal failure secondary to infectious diarrhea. Early treatment with bicarbonate and continuous hemofiltration allowed a quick improvement of the patient. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis has an elevated mortality (50-80%) and has a specific and effective treatment...
August 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175449/multiplex-pcr-testing-for-travelers-diarrhea-friend-or-foe
#17
Bradley A Connor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162064/effect-of-exclusive-breastfeeding-on-selected-adverse-health-and-nutritional-outcomes-a-nationally-representative-study
#18
Md Nuruzzaman Khan, M Mofizul Islam
BACKGROUND: Despite growing evidence in support of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among infants in the first 6 months of birth, the debate over the optimal duration of EBF continues. This study examines the effect of termination of EBF during the first 2, 4 and 6 months of birth on a set of adverse health and nutritional outcomes of infants. METHODS: Three waves of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data were analysed using multivariate regression. The adverse health outcomes were: an episode of diarrhea, fever or acute respiratory infection (ARI) during the 2 weeks prior to the survey...
November 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143638/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-interventions-for-acute-childhood-diarrhea-a-systematic-review-to-provide-estimates-for-the-lives-saved-tool
#19
Nazia Darvesh, Jai K Das, Tyler Vaivada, Michelle F Gaffey, Kumanan Rasanathan, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: In the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) era, there is growing recognition of the responsibilities of non-health sectors in improving the health of children. Interventions to improve access to clean water, sanitation facilities, and hygiene behaviours (WASH) represent key opportunities to improve child health and well-being by preventing the spread of infectious diseases and improving nutritional status. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating the effects of WASH interventions on childhood diarrhea in children 0-5 years old...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103266/high-frequency-of-enteric-protozoan-viral-and-bacterial-potential-pathogens-in-community-acquired-acute-diarrheal-episodes-evidence-based-on-results-of-luminex-gastrointestinal-pathogen-panel-assay
#20
Yousry A Hawash, Khadiga A Ismail, Mazen Almehmadi
Infectious diarrhea is endemic in most developing countries. We aimed to investigate the protozoan, viral, and bacterial causes of acute diarrhea in Taif, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional prospective 1-year study was conducted on 163 diarrheal patients of various ages. Stool samples were collected, 1 per patient, and tested for 3 protozoa, 3 viruses, and 9 bacteria with the Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel. Overall, 53.4% (87/163) of samples were positives (20.8% protozoa, 19.6% viruses, 2.8% bacteria, and 9...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
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