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Acute infectious diarrhea

D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Peter Teunis, Maria J Figueras
Cases of Aeromonas diarrhea have been described all over the world. The genus Aeromonas includes ca. 30 species, of which 10 have been isolated in association with gastroenteritis. The dominating species that account for ca. 96% of the identified strains are Aeromonas caviae, A. veronii, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila. However, the role of Aeromonas as a true enteropathogen has been questioned on the basis of the lack of outbreaks, the non-fulfillment of Koch's postulates and the low numbers of acute illnesses in the only existing human challenge study...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
J T Richeson, J A Carroll, N C Burdick Sanchez, N D May, H D Hughes, S L Roberts, P R Broadway, K P Sharon, M A Ballou
Our objective was to examine immunosuppression induced by dexamethasone (DEX) administration in cattle on immunological responses to a multivalent respiratory vaccine containing replicating and nonreplicating agents. Steers ( = 32; 209 ± 8 kg) seronegative to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V) were stratified by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) acute immunosuppression (ACU; 0...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Bailey M Carignan, Kyle D Brumfield, Mike S Son
Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of the infectious disease cholera, which is characterized by vomiting and severe watery diarrhea. Recently, V. cholerae clinical isolates have demonstrated increased virulence capabilities, causing more severe symptoms with a much higher rate of disease progression than previously observed. We have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four virulence-regulatory genes (hapR, hns, luxO, and vieA) of a hypervirulent V. cholerae clinical isolate, MQ1795...
September 2016: MSphere
Korinna Ulbricht, Peter Layer, Viola Andresen
Chronic, non-infectious diarrhea can be caused by a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. In anamnesis, it is important to take accompanying warning symptoms and specific triggers into account. The fecal inflammatory marker calprotectin may help differentiating between organic and functional gastrointestinal disorders, but it is not specific. Among other options, gelling fibres, Loperamide and Cholestyramine as well as probiotics are available for the symptomatic treatment of chronic diarrhea. For long-term treatment of chronic diarrhea with the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril, which is approved for acute diarrhea, only limited data are available...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Zhuo-Teng Yu, N Nanda Nanthakumar, David S Newburg
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni causes diarrhea worldwide; young children are most susceptible. Binding of virulent C. jejuni to the intestinal mucosa is inhibited ex vivo by α1,2-fucosylated carbohydrate moieties, including human milk oligosaccharides (HMOSs). OBJECTIVE: The simplest α1,2-fucosylated HMOS structure, 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL), can be predominant at ≤5 g/L milk. Although 2'-FL inhibits C. jejuni binding ex vivo and in vivo, the effects of 2'FL on the cell invasion central to C...
October 2016: Journal of Nutrition
D Rosales-Martinez, L Gutierrez-Xicotencatl, O Badillo-Godinez, D Lopez-Guerrero, A Santana-Calderon, R Cortez-Gomez, O Ramirez-Pliego, F Esquivel-Guadarrama
Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute infectious diarrhea in human neonates and infants. However, the studies aimed at dissecting the anti-virus immune response have been mainly performed in adults. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in innate and acquired immune responses. Therefore, it is very important to determine the response of neonatal and infant DCs to rotavirus and to compare it to the response of adult DCs. Thus, we determined the response of monocyte-derived DCs from umbilical cord blood (UCB) and adult peripheral blood (PB) to rotavirus in vitro...
October 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Qing-yan Ye, Jian-jie Chen, Hua Zhou, Qi-hua Ling, Qian Wang, Jie Chen, Tao Yang, Ya-nan Dong, Hong Shen
OBJECTIVE: To observe syndrome types of Chinese medicine (CM) and distribution features of acute infectious diarrhea patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in 465 acute infectious diarrhea patients. The distribution of CM syndrome and syndrome types in different seasons and genders were analyzed. RESULTS: Lack of appetite [381 (81.94%)], fatigue [350 (75.27%)], abdominal pain [338 (72.69%)], tenesmus [325 (69.89%)], anal scorching hot [276 (59...
June 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
Nadim Cassir, Jean-Christophe Delarozière, Gregory Dubourg, Marion Delord, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Phillipe Brouqui, Florence Fenollar, Didier Raoult, Pierre Edouard Fournier
OBJECTIVE To describe and analyze a large outbreak of Clostridium difficile 027 (CD-027) infections. METHODS Confirmed CD-027 cases were defined as CD infection plus real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) positive for CD-027. Clinical and microbiological data on patients with CD-027 infection were collected from January 2013 to December 2015 in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region (southeastern France). RESULTS In total, 19 healthcare facilities reported 144 CD-027 infections (112 confirmed and 32 probable CD-027 infections) during a 22-month period outbreak...
November 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
J Guison, M Groza, O Stoica, G Blaison
INTRODUCTION: MRI should be performed in the presence of an acute febrile urinary retention, when septic and obstructive causes are eliminated. We report a case of post-infectious probable acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) with a mostly spinal cord tropism of involving Campylobacter. CASE REPORT: A 32-year-old man with no medical history was admitted for an acute febrile urinary retention. He reported severe diarrhea 3 days before. Clinical course was then complicated by a progressive tetraparesis predominating in the lower limbs...
July 20, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
S T Gong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Mary B White, Shobita Rajagopalan, Thomas T Yoshikawa
Norovirus infection usually results in acute gastroenteritis, often with incapacitating nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is highly contagious and resistant to eradication with alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Appropriate preventative and infection control measures can mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with norovirus infection. Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of health care-associated diarrhea in the United States. Antibiotic use is by far the most common risk factor for C difficile colonization and infection...
August 2016: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
Ceri Evans, Jean H Humphrey, Robert Ntozini, Andrew J Prendergast
The ZVITAMBO trial recruited 14,110 mother-infant pairs to a randomized controlled trial of vitamin A between 1997 and 2000, before the availability of antiretroviral therapy for HIV prophylaxis or treatment in Zimbabwe. The HIV status of mothers and infants was well characterized through 1-2 years of follow-up, leading to the largest cohort to date of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants (n = 3135), with a suitable comparison group of HIV-unexposed infants (n = 9510). Here, we draw on 10 years of published findings from the ZVITAMBO trial...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Herbert L DuPont
IMPORTANCE: Diarrheal disease is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Persistent diarrhea (≥14 days) can be caused by pathogens that differ from those commonly seen in acute illness; proper etiologic diagnosis is important for appropriate therapeutic management. This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of persistent diarrhea caused by infectious agents in immunocompetent individuals worldwide. OBSERVATIONS: Much of the data on persistent diarrhea comes from studies of residents in or expatriates of developing countries and travelers to these regions where follow-up studies have been performed...
June 28, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Navneet Sharma, Manisha Biswal, Abhay Kumar, Kamran Zaman, Sanjay Jain, Ashish Bhalla
Scrub typhus, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, has become endemic in many parts of India. We studied the clinical profile of this infection in 228 patients that reported to this tertiary care center from July 2013 to December 2014. The median age of patients was 35 years (interquartile range = 24.5-48.5 years), and 111 were males and 117 females. A high-grade fever occurred in 85%, breathlessness in 42%, jaundice in 32%, abdominal pain in 28%, renal failure in 11%, diarrhea in 10%, rashes in 9%, and seizures in 7%...
August 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Shin Fukudo
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is defined as a representative functional gastrointestinal disorder which is characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain and/or abdominal discomfort associated with abnormal bowel movement. Gut microbiota are related to the pathophysiology of IBS. In the field of IBS, post-infectious etiology, stress-induced alteration of microbiota, increased mucosal permeability, bacterial overgrowth, disease-specific microbiota, microbial products, and brain-gut interactions are being investigated...
June 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
N G Malysh, N D Chemych, A M Zaritsky
Using data of the branch statistical reporting of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service in Sumy region and Sumy Regional State Laboratory of Veterinary Medicine, the incidence rate, modern risk factors for the development and spreading of acute infectious diarrheas were determined in the North-Eastern region of Ukraine. Under the current conditions incidence rate indices of acute intestinal infections and food toxicoinfections are within the range of 159.8-193.6 per 100 thousands. pop. Seasonal and epidemical rises are associated with a species of the agent...
2016: Gigiena i Sanitariia
Alexander G Glotov, Tatyana I Glotova, Svetlana V Koteneva, Olga V Semenova, Alexander A Sergeev, Ksenya A Titova, Anastasia A Morozova, Artemiy A Sergeev
The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d) have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4-6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtypes 1d and 1b, respectively...
2016: Scientifica
Emily A Leven, Patrick Maffucci, Hans D Ochs, Paul R Scholl, Rebecca H Buckley, Ramsay L Fuleihan, Raif S Geha, Coleen K Cunningham, Francisco A Bonilla, Mary Ellen Conley, Ronald M Ferdman, Vivian Hernandez-Trujillo, Jennifer M Puck, Kathleen Sullivan, Elizabeth A Secord, Manish Ramesh, Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles
PURPOSE: The United States Immunodeficiency Network (USIDNET) patient registry was used to characterize the presentation, genetics, phenotypes, and treatment of patients with Hyper IgM Syndrome (HIGM). METHODS: The USIDNET Registry was queried for HIGM patient data collected from October 1992 to July 2015. Data fields included demographics, criteria for diagnosis, pedigree analysis, mutations, clinical features, treatment and transplant records, laboratory findings, and mortality...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
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