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Acute infectious diarrhea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427109/traveler-s-diarrhea-vision-abnormalities-and-unsteady-gait-in-a-young-woman
#1
Tobias Mühling, Felix Gundling, Thomas Helmberger, Wolfgang Schepp
We report on the course of disease in a young woman, originally admitted with suspected refractory infectious tropical traveler's diarrhea. However, symptoms did not resolve upon either symptomatic or subsequent antibiotic therapy. When neurologic deterioration was observed, imaging studies revealed a dramatic series of thromboembolic events, including intracranial hemorrhage caused by extensive sinus vein thrombosis as well as thrombi of the right cardiac ventricle. Colonic mucosal biopsy samples finally led to the histologic diagnosis of ulcerative colitis...
April 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400860/multiple-etiologies-of-infectious-diarrhea-and-concurrent-infections-in-a-pediatric-outpatient-based-screening-study-in-odisha-india
#2
Arpit Kumar Shrivastava, Subrat Kumar, Nirmal Kumar Mohakud, Mrutyunjay Suar, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu
BACKGROUND: There are multiple etiologies responsible for infectious gastroenteritis causing acute diarrhea which are often under diagnosed. Also acute diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children less than 5 years of age. METHODS: In our study, fecal samples (n = 130) were collected from children (<5 years) presenting with symptoms of acute diarrhea. Samples were screened for viral, bacterial, and parasitic etiologies. Rotavirus and Adenovirus were screened by immunochromatographic tests...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396090/executive-summary-of-imported-infectious-diseases-after-returning-from-foreign-travel-consensus-document-of-the-spanish-society-for-infectious-diseases-and-clinical-microbiology-seimc
#3
José Luis Pérez-Arellano, Miguel Górgolas-Hernández-Mora, Fernando Salvador, Cristina Carranza-Rodríguez, Germán Ramírez-Olivencia, Esteban Martín-Echeverría, Azucena Rodríguez-Guardado, Francesca Norman, Virginia Velasco-Tirado, Zuriñe Zubero-Sulibarría, Gerardo Rojo-Marcos, José Muñoz-Gutierrez, José Manuel Ramos-Rincón, M Paz Sánchez-Seco-Fariñas, María Velasco-Arribas, Moncef Belhassen-García, Mar Lago-Nuñez, Elías Cañas García-Otero, Rogelio López-Vélez
In a global world, knowledge of imported infectious diseases is essential in daily practice, both for the microbiologist-parasitologist and the clinician who diagnoses and treats infectious diseases in returned travelers. Tropical and subtropical countries where there is a greater risk of contracting an infectious disease are among the most frequently visited tourist destinations. The SEIMC considers it appropriate to produce a consensus document that will be useful to primary care physicians as well as specialists in internal medicine, infectious diseases and tropical medicine who help treat travelers returning from tropical and sub-tropical areas with infections...
April 7, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381569/group-a-rotaviruses-in-chinese-bats-genetic-composition-serology-and-evidence-for-bat-to-human-transmission-and-reassortment
#4
Biao He, Xiaohong Huang, Fuqiang Zhang, Weilong Tan, Jelle Matthijnssens, Shaomin Qin, Lin Xu, Zihan Zhao, Ling'en Yang, Quanxi Wang, Tingsong Hu, Xiaolei Bao, Jianmin Wu, Changchun Tu
Bats are natural reservoirs for many pathogenic viruses and increasing evidence supports that bats can also harbor group A rotaviruses (RVA), important causative agents of diarrhea in children and young animals. Currently, 8 RVA strains have been identified from African and Chinese bats, possessing completely novel genotype constellations or genotypes possibly originating from other mammals. However, all these data were mainly based on detection of RVA RNA, only present during acute infections, which does not permit assessment of the true exposure of a bat population to RVA...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352160/prospective-study-on-the-overuse-of-blood-test-guided-antibiotics-on-patients-with-acute-diarrhea-in-primary-hospitals-of-china
#5
Xinghui Liu, Xueke Tong, Liyin Jin, Minghao Ha, Feng Cao, Fengxia Xu, Yongbin Chi, Denghai Zhang, Limin Xu
BACKGROUND: Overuse with antibiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases has become a central focus of public health over the years. The aim of this study was to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the blood test-guided antibiotic use on patients with acute diarrhea in primary hospitals of China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 330 patients with acute diarrhea in Shanghai, People's Republic of China, from March 2013 to February 2016...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333760/antibiotic-associated-apoptotic-enterocolitis-in-the-absence-of-a-defined-pathogen-the-role-of-intestinal-microbiota-depletion
#6
Philipp Wurm, Walter Spindelboeck, Robert Krause, Johannes Plank, Gottfried Fuchs, Mina Bashir, Wolfgang Petritsch, Bettina Halwachs, Cord Langner, Christoph Högenauer, Gregor Gorkiewicz
OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic therapy is a major risk factor for the development of diarrhea and colitis with varying severity. Often the origin of antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal deterioration remains elusive and no specific infectious agents could be discerned. PATIENTS: We represent three cases of intractable high-volume diarrhea associated with combined antibiotic and steroid therapy in critically ill patients not fitting into established disease entities. Cases presented with severe apoptotic enterocolitis resembling acute intestinal graft-versus-host-disease...
March 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321826/the-role-of-probiotics-in-the-treatment-of-dysentery-a-randomized-double-blind-clinical-trial
#7
Alireza Sharif, Hamed Haddad Kashani, Elahe Nasri, Zahra Soleimani, Mohammad Reza Sharif
Diarrhea is considered as an important cause of morbidity and mortality, even though one of the main reasons of death following diarrhea is initiated by dysentery. In recent years, the consumption of probiotics has been proposed for the treatment of infectious diarrhea. Despite most of the studies on probiotics have focused on acute watery diarrhea, few studies in the field of dysentery have found beneficial effects of probiotics. This study is a randomized double-blind clinical trial. The patients were randomly placed into control and case groups...
March 21, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321350/shigellosis-caused-by-ctx-m-type-esbl-producing-shigella-flexneri-in-two-siblings-of-rural-nepal-first-case-report-from-the-country
#8
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Govardhan Joshi, Bashu Dev Pardhe, Jyotsna Shakya, Anjeela Bhetwal, Shreena Shakya, Roshan Pandit, Sumesh Shreekhanda Shrestha, Puspa Raj Khanal
Shigellosis is an acute infectious disease characterized as severe bloody diarrhea (dysentery) and is accountable for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality especially in children under the age of 5 years. Antimicrobial therapy is required in the cases of severe dysentery associated with Shigella. However, emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Shigella spp. over the last two decades has restricted the use of common therapeutic antimicrobials. In MDR strains, the third-generation cephalosporins have been used for the treatment, but, unfortunately, emerging reports of enzyme mediated β-lactam resistance among Shigella isolates from various parts of the world have greatly compromised the therapy of pediatric dysentery...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292642/quantitative-reverse-transcription-pcr-to-determine-the-inactivation-of-human-rotavirus-by-chlorine
#9
Bin Xue, Chenyu Li, Bin Zhang, Tianyu Zhao, Zhiqiang Shen, Zhigang Qiu, Min Jin, Jingfeng Wang, Junwen Li
Human rotaviruses (HRVs) are the major cause of acute diarrhea in infants and young children. Here, a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the rotaviral VP4 gene (VP4-RT-qPCR) was established to evaluate the inactivation of HRV upon chlorine disinfection, based on a previous report that damage to the 1227-2354bp region of the VP4 gene was associated with eliminated HRV infectivity by chlorine. In this study, inactivation of HRV by 0.6mg/L free chlorine was assessed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS; pH 7...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268075/vaccination-of-active-component-us-military-personnel-against-salmonella-typhi
#10
Chad K Porter, Tia Sorrell, Indrani Mitra, Mark S Riddle
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination against Salmonella Typhi is one of the leading public health interventions reducing the risk of typhoid fever. There are two available licensed vaccines, Vivotif, oral live-attenuated, and Typhim Vi, intramuscular Vi capsular polysaccharide. The US military is a high risk travel population commonly vaccinated for S. Typhi. We describe the use of S. Typhi vaccination in this population and the acute reactogenicity profile of these vaccines. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System and vaccination identified between 1998 and 2011 from vaccination codes...
March 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216189/rotavirus-immunization-global-coverage-and-local-barriers-for-implementation
#11
Andrea Lo Vecchio, Ilaria Liguoro, Jorge Amil Dias, James A Berkley, Chris Boey, Mitchell B Cohen, Sylvia Cruchet, Eduardo Salazar-Lindo, Samir Podder, Bhupinder Sandhu, Philip M Sherman, Toshiaki Shimizu, Alfredo Guarino
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus (RV) is a major agent of gastroenteritis and an important cause of child death worldwide. Immunization (RVI) has been available since 2006, and the Federation of International Societies of Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (FISPGHAN) identified RVI as a top priority for the control of diarrheal illness. A FISPGHAN working group on acute diarrhea aimed at estimating the current RVI coverage worldwide and identifying barriers to implementation at local level...
February 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195066/successful-therapy-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-with-fecal-microbiota-transplantation
#12
P C Konturek, J Koziel, W Dieterich, D Haziri, S Wirtz, I Glowczyk, K Konturek, M F Neurath, Y Zopf
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea and represents an important burden for healthcare worldwide. Symptoms of severe CDI include watery, foul-smelling diarrhea, peripheral leucocytosis, increased C-reactive protein (CRP), acute renal failure, hypotension and pseudomembranous colitis. Recent studies indicate that the main cause of CDI is dysbiosis, an imbalance in the normal gut microbiota. The restoration of a healthy gut microbiota composition via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) recently became more popular...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147350/late-onset-of-acute-severe-ulcerative-colitis-clinical-case
#13
A E Dorofeyev, O A Rassokhina, A A Dorofeyeva
Ulcerative colitis (UC) in adult age requires more careful examination because more often it turns out to be a complication related to the precancer condition. The onset of colitis in older age is predicted to follow a more aggressive clinical course and requires more frequent hospitalizations and steroids prescription in contrast to its onset in young patients. Even as this remains unclear, we present here a clinical case of late onset of acute severe UC to represent interesting clinical peculiarities and response to the therapy...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104319/the-mexican-consensus-on-probiotics-in-gastroenterology
#14
M A Valdovinos, E Montijo, A T Abreu, S Heller, A González-Garay, D Bacarreza, M Bielsa-Fernández, M C Bojórquez-Ramos, F Bosques-Padilla, A I Burguete-García, R Carmona-Sánchez, A Consuelo-Sánchez, E Coss-Adame, J A Chávez-Barrera, M de Ariño, J Flores-Calderón, O Gómez-Escudero, M S González-Huezo, M E Icaza-Chávez, A Larrosa-Haro, M Morales-Arámbula, C Murata, J A Ramírez-Mayans, J M Remes-Troche, T Rizo-Robles, M Peláez-Luna, E M Toro-Monjaraz, A Torre, M E Urquidi-Rivera, R Vázquez, J K Yamamoto-Furusho, F Guarner
INTRODUCTION: Probiotics are frequently prescribed in clinical practice. Their efficacy in treating gastrointestinal disorders is supported by a significant number of clinical trials. However, the correct prescription of these agents is hampered due to a lack of knowledge of the scientific evidence and to the different presentations and microbial compositions of the probiotics that are currently available. AIM: To provide the clinician with a consensus review of probiotics and recommendations for their use in gastroenterology...
January 16, 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067684/diarrhea-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-beyond-graft-versus-host-disease
#15
Katarzyna Robak, Joanna Zambonelli, Jaroslaw Bilinski, Grzegorz W Basak
Diarrhea constitutes a frequent and often debilitating complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). Especially when accompanied by jaundice, skin rash, and symptoms of the upper gastrointestinal tract, diarrhea strongly suggests emergence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), which is a serious immune complication of the procedure, with possible fatal consequences. However, especially when diarrhea occurs as an isolated symptom, the other causes must be excluded before initiation of GvHD treatment with immune-suppressive drugs...
May 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056276/-infection-status-clinical-symptoms-and-gene-type-transition-of-group-a-rotavirus-in-children-less-than-five-years-of-age-with-diarrhea-in-sentinel-hospitals-of-henan-province-china
#16
J Y Zhao, X J Shen, S L Xia, B F Zhang, Y J Mu, X Y Huang, B L Xu
Objective: To investigate the infectious status, gene type transition and epidemiological features of rotavirus A isolated from infants and children (<59 months-of-age) in sentinel hospitals from 2008 to 2015 in Henan province, China. Methods: In total, 2 541 stool samples (each 3- 5 ml) were collected from infants and children aged less than five years in two sentinel hospitals and group A rotavirus was detected by a double antibody sandwich ELISA. Viral RNA was extracted from positive samples and G/P gene typing was performed using a two-step nested multiplex RT-PCR...
January 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033143/probiotics-for-trauma-patients-should-we-be-taking-a-precautionary-approach
#17
Heather A Vitko, L Kathleen Sekula, Martin A Schreiber
The use of probiotics in the hospital setting is largely understudied and highly controversial. Probiotics are living organisms that, when taken internally, can produce an immunomodulating effect and improve the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal barrier. Although used for centuries by healthy individuals for GI health, their use in the hospital setting is now gaining wide attention for the prevention of infectious complications such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile infections, multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome, and ventilator-associated pneumonia...
January 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025783/idelalisib-induced-colitis-and-skin-eruption-mimicking-graft-versus-host-disease
#18
Muhammad Bader Hammami, Ahmad Al-Taee, Marshall Meeks, Mark Fesler, M Yadira Hurley, Dengfeng Cao, Jin-Ping Lai
INTRODUCTION: Idelalisib is a selective inhibitor of the delta isoform of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase which was approved by the United States Federal Drug Administration in 2014 for the treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia and indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Drug-induced injury of the gastrointestinal tract is a relatively frequent but usually under-recognized disease entity. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 56-year-old male with a history of relapsed follicular lymphoma status post allogenic bone marrow transplant who developed severe diarrhea with a skin eruption mimicking graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) 6 months after starting idelalisib...
April 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981530/relationship-between-deficiencies-in-vitamin-a-and-e-and-occurrence-of-infectious-diseases-among-children
#19
Y-J Qi, Q-L Niu, X-L Zhu, X-Z Zhao, W-W Yang, X-J Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between vitamin A deficiency (VAD), vitamin E deficiency (VED) and infectious diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We chose 684 cases of healthy children age 5 months-12 years from our hospital, measured their VA, VE from vein under the light proof condition with high-pressure liquid chromatography. Thereafter, the children who get the acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) or diarrhea two weeks later were registered. RESULTS: After the two weeks trial (N=684 cases), the VA level of children with ARI was lower than that of children without ARI (0...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965649/the-12-gastrointestinal-pathogens-spectrum-of-acute-infectious-diarrhea-in-a-sentinel-hospital-shenzhen-china
#20
Hongwei Shen, Jinjin Zhang, Yinghui Li, Sirou Xie, Yixiang Jiang, Yanjie Wu, Yuhui Ye, Hong Yang, Haolian Mo, Chaoman Situ, Qinghua Hu
Acute infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among all ages, particularly in developing countries. The pathogen spectrum may differ among different regions and seasons. To investigate the etiology of acute diarrhea in Shenzhen, a prospective study was conducted from August 2014 to September 2015. Stools from 412 patients with diarrhea (286 of whom were adults) including the general epidemiological information of the patients were collected. The 19 pathogens were detected by conventional culture method or multiplex PCR assay, which included five viruses (rotavirus, adenovirus, sapovirus, norovirus, and astrovirus), 11 bacterial pathogens (Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera, Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC); and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC)) and three parasites (Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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