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Acute infectious diarrhea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067684/diarrhea-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-beyond-graft-versus-host-disease
#1
Katarzyna Robak, Joanna Zambonelli, Jaroslaw Bilinski, Grzegorz W Basak
Diarrhea constitutes a frequent and often debilitating complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). Especially when accompanied by jaundice, skin rash, and symptoms of the upper gastrointestinal tract, diarrhea strongly suggests emergence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), which is a serious immune complication of the procedure, with possible fatal consequences. However, especially when diarrhea occurs as an isolated symptom, the other causes must be excluded before initiation of GvHD treatment with immune-suppressive drugs...
January 6, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056276/-infection-status-clinical-symptoms-and-gene-type-transition-of-group-a-rotavirus-in-children-less-than-five-years-of-age-with-diarrhea-in-sentinel-hospitals-of-henan-province-china
#2
J Y Zhao, X J Shen, S L Xia, B F Zhang, Y J Mu, X Y Huang, B L Xu
Objective: To investigate the infectious status, gene type transition and epidemiological features of rotavirus A isolated from infants and children (<59 months-of-age) in sentinel hospitals from 2008 to 2015 in Henan province, China. Methods: In total, 2 541 stool samples (each 3- 5 ml) were collected from infants and children aged less than five years in two sentinel hospitals and group A rotavirus was detected by a double antibody sandwich ELISA. Viral RNA was extracted from positive samples and G/P gene typing was performed using a two-step nested multiplex RT-PCR...
January 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033143/probiotics-for-trauma-patients-should-we-be-taking-a-precautionary-approach
#3
Heather A Vitko, L Kathleen Sekula, Martin A Schreiber
The use of probiotics in the hospital setting is largely understudied and highly controversial. Probiotics are living organisms that, when taken internally, can produce an immunomodulating effect and improve the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal barrier. Although used for centuries by healthy individuals for GI health, their use in the hospital setting is now gaining wide attention for the prevention of infectious complications such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile infections, multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome, and ventilator-associated pneumonia...
January 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025783/idelalisib-induced-colitis-and-skin-eruption-mimicking-graft-versus-host-disease
#4
Muhammad Bader Hammami, Ahmad Al-Taee, Marshall Meeks, Mark Fesler, M Yadira Hurley, Dengfeng Cao, Jin-Ping Lai
INTRODUCTION: Idelalisib is a selective inhibitor of the delta isoform of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase which was approved by the United States Federal Drug Administration in 2014 for the treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia and indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Drug-induced injury of the gastrointestinal tract is a relatively frequent but usually under-recognized disease entity. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 56-year-old male with a history of relapsed follicular lymphoma status post allogenic bone marrow transplant who developed severe diarrhea with a skin eruption mimicking graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) 6 months after starting idelalisib...
December 26, 2016: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981530/relationship-between-deficiencies-in-vitamin-a-and-e-and-occurrence-of-infectious-diseases-among-children
#5
Y-J Qi, Q-L Niu, X-L Zhu, X-Z Zhao, W-W Yang, X-J Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between vitamin A deficiency (VAD), vitamin E deficiency (VED) and infectious diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We chose 684 cases of healthy children age 5 months-12 years from our hospital, measured their VA, VE from vein under the light proof condition with high-pressure liquid chromatography. Thereafter, the children who get the acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) or diarrhea two weeks later were registered. RESULTS: After the two weeks trial (N=684 cases), the VA level of children with ARI was lower than that of children without ARI (0...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965649/the-12-gastrointestinal-pathogens-spectrum-of-acute-infectious-diarrhea-in-a-sentinel-hospital-shenzhen-china
#6
Hongwei Shen, Jinjin Zhang, Yinghui Li, Sirou Xie, Yixiang Jiang, Yanjie Wu, Yuhui Ye, Hong Yang, Haolian Mo, Chaoman Situ, Qinghua Hu
Acute infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among all ages, particularly in developing countries. The pathogen spectrum may differ among different regions and seasons. To investigate the etiology of acute diarrhea in Shenzhen, a prospective study was conducted from August 2014 to September 2015. Stools from 412 patients with diarrhea (286 of whom were adults) including the general epidemiological information of the patients were collected. The 19 pathogens were detected by conventional culture method or multiplex PCR assay, which included five viruses (rotavirus, adenovirus, sapovirus, norovirus, and astrovirus), 11 bacterial pathogens (Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera, Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC); and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC)) and three parasites (Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928081/multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-detection-of-gastrointestinal-pathogens-in-migrant-workers-in-qatar
#7
John M Humphrey, Sanjay Ranbhise, Emad Ibrahim, Hamad E Al-Romaihi, Elmoubasher Farag, Laith J Abu-Raddad, Marshall J Glesby
The causes of infectious diarrhea among the migrant worker population in Qatar are not well understood. We conducted a prospective observational study to understand the demographic and clinical characteristics and infectious causes of diarrhea among migrant workers in Doha, Qatar. A total of 126 male workers presenting to the Qatar Red Crescent Worker's Health Center outpatient clinic or emergency department were studied over a 5-month period in 2015-2016. Epidemiologic surveys were administered to all subjects and the prevalence of 22 different stool pathogens was determined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (FilmArray(®) Gastrointestinal PCR)...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921037/acute-kidney-injury-in-western-countries
#8
REVIEW
Josée Bouchard, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920706/ipilimumab-induced-enteritis-without-colitis-a-new-challenge
#9
Marcus Messmer, Sunita Upreti, Yaman Tarabishy, Nikhilesh Mazumder, Reezwana Chowdhury, Mark Yarchoan, Matthias Holdhoff
INTRODUCTION: Ipilimumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA4), approved to treat metastatic melanoma. It was the first therapy shown to prolong survival in a large, randomized clinical trial. However, immune-related adverse events are common and can be severe. Enterocolitis is a common adverse event with ipilimumab, but enteritis without colitis has not been previously described. CASE REPORT: An 83-year-old man presented to our hospital with grade 3 diarrhea for 5 days...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888815/acute-diarrhoea-induced-by-rotavirus-in-children-hospitalysed-in-provincial-hospital-for-infectious-diseases-in-bydgoszcz-in-2014-year
#10
Beata Smok, Katarzyna Zieniewicz-Cieślik, Ewa Smukalska, Małgorzata Pawłowska
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to describe the epidemiology and course of rotavirus infection in children hospitalized at the T. Browicz Provincial Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Bydgoszcz, Poland in 2014 year. INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus infection is responsible for over 2 millions hospitalizations per year among children under 5 year old. Rotavirus gastroenterocolitis is one of the most common cause of severe dehydration, electrolyte disturbances and metabolic acidosis, leading to 400-600 thousand deaths per year in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886032/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-different-pathogens-of-acute-diarrhea-in-adults-in-beijing-china
#11
Lei Jia, Changying Lin, Zhiyong Gao, Mei Qu, Junyong Yang, Jingyi Sun, He Chen, Quanyi Wang
INTRODUCTION: Only a small proportion of patients with diarrhea are diagnosed with laboratory tests in China, and most are diagnosed based on clinical symptoms. Therefore, understanding the prevalence of different diarrheal pathogens and their specific symptoms is important. METHODOLOGY: Data from a prospective study in Beijing of acute diarrhea and the related pathogens were used to study the association between different pathogen groups and the infected patients' characteristics...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852545/effects-of-zinc-or-synbiotic-on-the-duration-of-diarrhea-in-children-with-acute-infectious-diarrhea
#12
Ahmet Sami Yazar, Şirin Güven, Ener Çağrı Dinleyici
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Probiotic effects on acute infectious diarrhea are strain(s) specific, and all formulations should be evaluated by clinical trials. We aimed to evaluate the effect of a synbiotic preparation on the duration of diarrhea in children compared to a zinc suspension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a single-center, randomized, and controlled clinical trial in children with acute infectious diarrhea. The first group received a synbiotic preparation containing Lactobacillus casei, L...
November 2016: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803180/oral-administration-of-astrovirus-capsid-protein-is-sufficient-to-induce-acute-diarrhea-in-vivo
#13
Victoria A Meliopoulos, Shauna A Marvin, Pamela Freiden, Lindsey A Moser, Prashant Nighot, Rizwana Ali, Anthony Blikslager, Muralidhar Reddivari, Richard J Heath, Matthew D Koci, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
: The disease mechanisms associated with the onset of astrovirus diarrhea are unknown. Unlike other enteric virus infections, astrovirus infection is not associated with an inflammatory response or cellular damage. In vitro studies in differentiated Caco-2 cells demonstrated that human astrovirus serotype 1 (HAstV-1) capsid protein alone disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and tight junction complex, leading to increased epithelial barrier permeability. In this study, we show that oral administration of purified recombinant turkey astrovirus 2 (TAstV-2) capsid protein results in acute diarrhea in a dose- and time-dependent manner in turkey poults...
November 1, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785317/facing-terminal-ileitis-going-beyond-crohn-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Ricardo de Alvares Goulart, Sandra Maria Barbalho, Rodrigo Galhardi Gasparini, Antonely de Cassio Alves de Carvalho
Terminal ileitis (TI) is an inflammatory condition of the terminal portion of the ileum that may occur acutely with right lower quadrant pain followed or not by diarrhea, or exhibit chronic obstructive symptoms and bleeding and normally it is associated to Crohn's disease (CD) although it may be associated to other different conditions. This review intended to contribute to a better understanding of TI in order to help in the diagnosis, medical approach and patient care. This work was performed on a survey of articles collected in different databases and a retrospective search was carried out to identify relevant studies in the field...
February 2016: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735025/epidemiological-evaluation-of-acute-gastroenteritis-and-therapeutic-approaches-in-middle-east-countries
#15
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708621/reassessment-of-the-enteropathogenicity-of-mesophilic-aeromonas-species
#16
Peter Teunis, Maria J Figueras
Cases of Aeromonas diarrhea have been described all over the world. The genus Aeromonas includes ca. 30 species, of which 10 have been isolated in association with gastroenteritis. The dominating species that account for ca. 96% of the identified strains are Aeromonas caviae, A. veronii, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila. However, the role of Aeromonas as a true enteropathogen has been questioned on the basis of the lack of outbreaks, the non-fulfillment of Koch's postulates and the low numbers of acute illnesses in the only existing human challenge study...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695816/dexamethasone-treatment-differentially-alters-viral-shedding-and-the-antibody-and-acute-phase-protein-response-after-multivalent-respiratory-vaccination-in-beef-steers
#17
J T Richeson, J A Carroll, N C Burdick Sanchez, N D May, H D Hughes, S L Roberts, P R Broadway, K P Sharon, M A Ballou
Our objective was to examine immunosuppression induced by dexamethasone (DEX) administration in cattle on immunological responses to a multivalent respiratory vaccine containing replicating and nonreplicating agents. Steers ( = 32; 209 ± 8 kg) seronegative to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V) were stratified by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) acute immunosuppression (ACU; 0...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668288/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-regulator-encoding-genes-have-an-additive-effect-on-virulence-gene-expression-in-a-vibrio-cholerae-clinical-isolate
#18
Bailey M Carignan, Kyle D Brumfield, Mike S Son
Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of the infectious disease cholera, which is characterized by vomiting and severe watery diarrhea. Recently, V. cholerae clinical isolates have demonstrated increased virulence capabilities, causing more severe symptoms with a much higher rate of disease progression than previously observed. We have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four virulence-regulatory genes (hapR, hns, luxO, and vieA) of a hypervirulent V. cholerae clinical isolate, MQ1795...
September 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642742/-chronic-non-infectious-diarrhea-diagnostics-and-therapy
#19
Korinna Ulbricht, Peter Layer, Viola Andresen
Chronic, non-infectious diarrhea can be caused by a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. In anamnesis, it is important to take accompanying warning symptoms and specific triggers into account. The fecal inflammatory marker calprotectin may help differentiating between organic and functional gastrointestinal disorders, but it is not specific. Among other options, gelling fibres, Loperamide and Cholestyramine as well as probiotics are available for the symptomatic treatment of chronic diarrhea. For long-term treatment of chronic diarrhea with the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril, which is approved for acute diarrhea, only limited data are available...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629573/the-human-milk-oligosaccharide-2-fucosyllactose-quenches-campylobacter-jejuni-induced-inflammation-in-human-epithelial-cells-hep-2-and-ht-29-and-in-mouse-intestinal-mucosa
#20
Zhuo-Teng Yu, N Nanda Nanthakumar, David S Newburg
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni causes diarrhea worldwide; young children are most susceptible. Binding of virulent C. jejuni to the intestinal mucosa is inhibited ex vivo by α1,2-fucosylated carbohydrate moieties, including human milk oligosaccharides (HMOSs). OBJECTIVE: The simplest α1,2-fucosylated HMOS structure, 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL), can be predominant at ≤5 g/L milk. Although 2'-FL inhibits C. jejuni binding ex vivo and in vivo, the effects of 2'FL on the cell invasion central to C...
October 2016: Journal of Nutrition
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