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Acute infectious diarrhea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017253/rapid-clearance-and-frequent-reinfection-with-enteric-pathogens-among-children-with-acute-diarrhea-in-zanzibar
#1
Maria Eva Andersson, Kristina Elfving, Deler Shakely, Staffan Nilsson, Mwinyi Msellem, Birger Trollfors, Andreas Mårtensson, Anders Björkman, Magnus Lindh
Background: Acute infectious gastroenteritis is an important cause of illness and death among children in low-income countries. In addition to rotavirus vaccination, actions to improve nutrition status, sanitation, and water quality are important to reduce enteric infections, which are frequent also among asymptomatic children. The aim of this study was to investigate if the high prevalence of these infections reflects that they often are not cleared properly by the immune response or rather is due to frequent pathogen exposure...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932313/serum-zinc-level-and-its-correlation-with-vesikari-system-scoring-in-acute-pediatric-diarrhea
#2
Ayman E Eskander, Lobna S Sherif, Mohammad Nabih, Nevine R El Baroudy, Ghobrial C Marcos, Ehsan A Badawy, Amira S El Refay
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea remains the most common infectious disease worldwide. Zinc has been studied extensively recently for its potential effect on prevention, control and treatment of acute diarrhoea. AIM: This study was designed to correlate the level of zinc with the severity of pediatric diarrhoea estimated by Vesikari Scoring System. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present study included 80 children aged two months to 30 months from those suffering from the acute diarrheal episode and admitted to Pediatric Hospital "Abo El Rish" Cairo University...
August 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912916/acute-liver-failure-in-a-patient-travelling-from-asia-the-other-face-of-the-coin-of-infectious-disease
#3
Balen Abdulrahman, Mohamed H Ahmed, John Ramage
We present a case of a 63-year-old male who had travelled from South India to United Kingdom (UK) visiting relatives. He had developed episodes of diarrhea, vomiting and fevers while travelling and on assessment in hospital, mild abdominal distension was noted with rapid deterioration to hypovolemic shock. Initial blood test showed a low platelet count with deranged liver function tests (LFTs). It was noted that during admission to intensive care unit (ICU), blood continued to ooze from a previous surgical laparoscopy wound, central and arterial line access sites...
August 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878816/a-child-with-anorexia-nervosa-presenting-with-severe-infection-with-cytopenia-and-hemophagocytosis-a-case-report
#4
Masao Suda, Shinichiro Nagamitsu, Masahiro Kinosita, Michiko Matsuoka, Shuichi Ozono, Yasushi Otsu, Yushiro Yamashita, Toyojiro Matsuishi
BACKGROUND: Patients with anorexia nervosa in the acute phase have physical complications, such as infectious disease. Although hemophagocytic syndrome due to infection is a rare complication in anorexia nervosa, early identification for hemophagocytosis is important for avoiding a life-threatening condition. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 12-year-old girl with anorexia nervosa presenting with infection with cytopenia and hemophagocytosis during initial nutritional therapy...
2017: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864657/recovery-optimization-and-survival-of-human-norovirus-surrogates-feline-calicivirus-and-murine-norovirus-on-carpet
#5
David Buckley, Angela Fraser, Guohui Huang, Xiuping Jiang
Carpet been attributed to prolonged and reoccurring outbreaks of human noroviruses (HuNoV), the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Viral recovery from environmental surfaces, such as carpet, remains undeveloped. Our aim was to determine survival of HuNoV surrogates on an understudied environmental surface, carpet. First, we measured the zeta potential and absorption capacity of wool and nylon carpet fibers, then developed a mini-spin column elution method (MSC), and lastly characterized the survival of HuNoV surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV), over 60 days under 30 and 70% relative humidity (RH) on two types of carpet and one glass surface...
September 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781945/profiling-of-virulence-associated-factors-in-shigella-species-isolated-from-acute-pediatric-diarrheal-samples-in-tehran-iran
#6
Sajad Yaghoubi, Reza Ranjbar, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Somayeh Yasliani Fard, Mohammad Hasan Shirazi, Mahmood Mahmoudi
OBJECTIVES: The genus Shigella comprises the most infectious and diarrheagenic bacteria causing severe diseases, mostly in children under five years of age. This study aimed to detect nine virulence genes (ipaBCD, VirA, sen, set1A, set1B, ial, ipaH, stx, and sat) in Shigella species (spp.) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) and to determine the relation of Shigella spp. from pediatric diarrheal samples with hospitalization and bloody diarrhea in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: Shigella spp...
June 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762696/probiotics-for-gastrointestinal-conditions-a-summary-of-the-evidence
#7
REVIEW
Thad Wilkins, Jacqueline Sequoia
Probiotics contain microorganisms, most of which are bacteria similar to the beneficial bacteria that occur naturally in the human gut. Probiotics have been widely studied in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. The most-studied species include Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces. However, a lack of clear guidelines on when to use probiotics and the most effective probiotic for different gastrointestinal conditions may be confusing for family physicians and their patients. Probiotics have an important role in the maintenance of immunologic equilibrium in the gastrointestinal tract through the direct interaction with immune cells...
August 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759468/the-evaluation-of-critically-ill-transplant-patients-with-infectious-diarrhea
#8
Diana F Florescu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review summarizes the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of the most important etiologic agents of infectious diarrhea in critically ill transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: Diarrhea, frequently caused by infectious pathogens, can cause significant morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. Diarrhea can lead to severe dehydration, acute renal failure, medication toxicity, rejection, graft-versus-host disease and impairs patients' quality of life...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737863/tendencia-de-los-egresos-hospitalarios-por-enfermedades-infecciosas-intestinales-en-ni%C3%A3-os-en-argentina-2005-2013
#9
Juan I Degiuseppe
INTRODUCTION: Acute diarrhea is one of the most serious public health problems in developing countries because it is generally associated with unfavorable living conditions. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in hospital discharges for intestinal infectious disease in children under age 5 recorded in official public hospitals from Argentina in the 2005-2013 period. POPULATION AND METHODS: This was an ecological, time-series study based on data provided by the Health Statistics and Information Department, at a national and regional level...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670241/beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-with-multiple-splenic-abscesses-in-a-child
#10
Kyung In Lim, Dong Hwa Yang, Eell Ryoo
We report the case of a 5-year-old male patient with multiple aseptic splenic abscesses associated with Behçet's disease. The patient visited Gachon University Gil Hospital with fever, abdominal pain, and acute watery and bloody diarrhea, and reported a 2-year history of chronic abdominal pain and intermittent watery diarrhea. He was treated with antibiotics at a local clinic for fever and cervical lymph node swelling. Additionally, he had recurrent stomatitis. A colonoscopy showed multiple well-demarcated ulcerations throughout the colon, and abdominal computed tomography showed multiple splenic abscesses...
July 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667036/clinical-evaluation-of-seeplex-%C3%A2-diarrhea-v-ace-detection-v2-0-kit-for-detection-of-rotavirus-in-stool-specimens-from-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis
#11
Jong Ho Lee, Yu Kyung Kim, Chae Hoon Lee
Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe infectious diarrhea worldwide in children under 5 years of age. We have evaluated the performance of multiplex PCR [Seeplex(®) Diarrhea-V ACE Detection (V2.0) Kit] (the version 2.0 kit) for detecting rotaviruses in human stool specimens, in a comparison with ELISA (RIDASCREEN(®)) and the older Seeplex kit, namely Seeplex® Diarrhea-V ACE Detection Kit (the original kit). A total of 173 stool specimens, previously tested for rotavirus infection by ELISA from May 2014 to March 2016, were subjected to the two Seeplex(®) kits...
May 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662103/high-prevalence-of-gii-norovirus-in-hospitalized-children-with-acute-diarrhea-in-beijing
#12
Liping Jia, You Zhang, Liying Liu, Huijin Dong, Linqing Zhao, Yuan Qian
This study was addressed to the relationship between norovirus and acute diarrhea in hospitalized children, including hospital-acquired infection (HAI) and community-acquired infection (CAI) in a children's hospital in Beijing. RT-PCR was used to detect norovirus in stool specimen, followed by sequence analysis for PCR products. From 2010 to 2013, a total of 1248 specimens, including 661 from the HAI group and 587 from the CAI group were tested for norovirus. Norovirus were detected in 380 of 1248 (30.4%) diarrheal specimens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570694/trends-of-vaccine-preventable-diseases-in-afghanistan-from-the-disease-early-warning-system-2009-2015
#13
Abram L Wagner, Mohammad Y Mubarak, Laura E Johnson, Julia M Porth, Jenna E Yousif, Matthew L Boulton
BACKGROUND: Afghanistan's public health system was neglected during decades of military and civil conflict, and trends in infectious disease occurrence remain poorly characterized. This study examines cyclical and long-term trends of six vaccine-preventable diseases: pneumonia, diarrhea, meningitis, typhoid, measles, and acute viral hepatitis. METHODS: Using weekly data collected between 2009 and 2015 through Afghanistan's Disease Early Warning System, we calculated monthly case counts, and fit a Poisson regression with a Fourier transformation for seasonal cycles and dummy variables for year...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559695/therapy-of-the-postinfectious-irritable-bowel-syndrome-an-update
#14
REVIEW
Teodora Iacob, Doina F Ţăţulescu, D L Dumitraşcu
After acute infectious gastroenteritis, up to thirty percent of patients present prolonged gastrointestinal symptoms and a part of those affected patients can have the diagnostic criteria for postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. Treatment is symptom directed rather than curative and includes agents prescribed for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in general. Prophylaxis or early treatment of acute bacterial diarrhea may reduce the risk of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome development by reducing the occurrence, duration, and severity of the chronic inflammation and mucosal alterations (all these believed to play an important role in disease persistence)...
2017: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539715/antiprotozoal-antibacterial-and-antidiarrheal-properties-from-the-flowers-of-chiranthodendron-pentadactylon-and-isolated-flavonoids
#15
Fernando Calzada, Teresa Juárez, Normand García-Hernández, Miguel Valdes, Oscar Ávila, Lilian Yepez Mulia, Claudia Velázquez
BACKGROUND: Chiranthodendron pentadactylon Larreat. (Sterculiaceae) is a Mexican plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of heart disease symptoms and infectious diarrhea. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vitro antiprotozoal and antibacterial activities and in vivo antidiarrheal activity from the flowers of C. pentadactylon using the extract, fractions, and major isolated flavonoids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of C...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537439/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characterization-of-clinical-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-shenzhen-china
#16
Yinghui Li, Qiang Luo, Xiaolu Shi, Yiman Lin, Yaqun Qiu, Dongyue Lv, Yixiang Jiang, Qiongcheng Chen, Min Jiang, Hanwu Ma, Jinquan Cheng, Qinghua Hu
BACKGROUND: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the major causes of infectious diarrhea in developing countries. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and phenotypic and genotypic features of ETEC isolates from Shenzhen, China. METHODS: ETEC isolates were obtained from acute diarrheal patients and evaluated for enterotoxin, classical colonization factors (CFs), serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility, and multilocus sequencing typing (MLST)...
June 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527248/-clinical-and-demographic-profile-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#17
Carlos Carvajal, Carlos Pacheco, Fabián Jaimes
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. The increasing incidence added to a lower rate of response to the initial treatment and higher rates of relapse has generated a higher burden of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with C. difficile infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We made a nested case-cohort study. We reviewed medical records of the patients with nosocomial diarrhea for whom an assay for toxin A-B of C...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494766/filmarray%C3%A2-gi-panel-performance-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-gastroenteritis-or-hemorragic-diarrhea
#18
Antonio Piralla, Giovanna Lunghi, Gianluigi Ardissino, Alessia Girello, Marta Premoli, Erika Bava, Milena Arghittu, Maria Rosaria Colombo, Alessandra Cognetto, Patrizia Bono, Giulia Campanini, Piero Marone, Fausto Baldanti
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. The rapid and specific identification of infectious agents is crucial for correct patient management. However, diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis is usually performed with diagnostic panels that include only a few pathogens. In the present bicentric study, the diagnostic value of FilmArray™ GI panels was assessed in unformed stool samples of patients with acute gastroenteritis and in a series of samples collected from pediatric patients with heamorragic diarrhea...
May 12, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475152/prevalence-of-rotavirus-genogroup-a-and-norovirus-genogroup-ii-in-bassaseachic-falls-national-park-surface-waters-in-chihuahua-mexico
#19
Ma Carmen E Delgado-Gardea, Patricia Tamez-Guerra, Ricardo Gomez-Flores, Aurora Mendieta-Mendoza, Francisco Javier Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Juan Francisco Contreras-Cordero, Gilberto Erosa-de la Vega, María Concepción Pérez-Recoder, Blanca Sánchez-Ramírez, Carmen González-Horta, Rocío Infante-Ramírez
In areas lacking potable water treatment, drinking contaminated water may represent a public health threat. In addition to enteropathogenic bacteria and parasites, fecal contamination in water environments is associated with the transmission of enteric viruses and other causal agents of infectious disease. Rotavirus and norovirus are the main enteric viral agents responsible for diarrheic outbreaks. The aim of the present study was to detect seasonal variation of rotavirus and norovirus in the surface water at Bassaseachic Falls National Park during 2013...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473308/sa%C3%A3%C2%BAde-na-copa-the-world-s-first-application-of-participatory-surveillance-for-a-mass-gathering-at-fifa-world-cup-2014-brazil
#20
Onicio Leal Neto, George Santiago Dimech, Marlo Libel, Wayner Vieira de Souza, Eduarda Cesse, Mark Smolinski, Wanderson Oliveira, Jones Albuquerque
BACKGROUND: The 2005 International Health Regulations (IHRs) established parameters for event assessments and notifications that may constitute public health emergencies of international concern. These requirements and parameters opened up space for the use of nonofficial mechanisms (such as websites, blogs, and social networks) and technological improvements of communication that can streamline the detection, monitoring, and response to health problems, and thus reduce damage caused by these problems...
May 4, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
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