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Acute infectious diarrhea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471465/effects-of-dietary-energy-level-and-intake-of-corn-by-product-based-diets-on-newly-received-growing-cattle-antibody-production-acute-phase-protein-response-stress-and-immunocompetency-of-healthy-and-morbid-animals
#1
T J Spore, S P Montgomery, E C Titgemeyer, G A Hanzlicek, C I Vahl, T G Nagaraja, K T Cavalli, W R Hollenbeck, R A Wahl, D A Blasi
Effects of dietary energy level and intake of corn by-product based diets on antibody production, acute phase protein response, stress, and immunocompetency of healthy and morbid newly received growing cattle were evaluated. Four dietary treatments were formulated to supply 0.99, 1.10, 1.21, and 1.32 Mcal NEg/ kg DM and were offered at 100%, 95%, 90%, and 85% of ad libitum based on 0.99/100 treatment intake, respectively. Thirty-two pens were utilized with approximately 12 animals/pen. Four animals from each pen (32/dietary treatment) were randomly selected and used to serve as a subset to monitor immune function and acute phase proteins following a split-plot design...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426709/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-undifferentiated-and-infectious-acute-diarrhea-in-the-adult-horse
#2
REVIEW
Sarah D Shaw, Henry Stämpfli
Acute, infectious, diarrhea in adult horses is a major cause of morbidity and is associated with numerous complications. Common causes include salmonellosis, clostridiosis, Coronavirus, and infection with Neorickettsia risticii (Potomac horse fever). Treatment is empirical and supportive until results of specific diagnostic tests are available. Supportive care is aimed at restoring hydration, correcting electrolyte imbalances, and limiting the systemic inflammatory response. The mainstays of therapy are intravenous fluid therapy, electrolyte supplementation where necessary, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and nutritional support...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404745/in-silico-analysis-of-the-ef-hand-proteins-in-the-genome-of-giardia-intestinalis-assembly-a
#3
Magda E Alvarado, Claudia Rubiano, Diana Velandia, Moisés Wasserman
Giardia intestinalis is a parasite that inhabits the small intestine of humans and other mammals, causing a disease that can manifest itself with acute diarrhea. This parasite is an early divergent eukaryote with a compact genome and a life cycle composed of two distinct cell types: the trophozoite, the replicative form, and the cyst, the infectious form. Signal transduction pathways implicated in differentiation processes of G. intestinalis are largely unknown. Calcium, considered an essential messenger in cell signaling, has been shown to regulate a myriad of key cell processes including metabolism, motility, and exocytosis, among other important functions, through calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs)...
February 5, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390982/characteristics-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-among-children-under-5-years-of-age-with-acute-diarrhea-a-hospital-based-study
#4
Yu Zhou, Xuhui Zhu, Hongyan Hou, Yanfang Lu, Jing Yu, Lie Mao, Liyan Mao, Ziyong Sun
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is the leading infectious cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Among bacterial agents, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is the major causal agent of childhood diarrhea in developing countries, particularly in children under the age of 5 years. Here, we performed a hospital-based prospective study to explore the pathotype distribution, epidemiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance patterns of DEC from < 5-year-old diarrheal children. METHODS: Between August 2015 and September 2016, 684 stool samples were collected from children (< 5 years old) with acute diarrhea...
February 1, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390512/venous-thromboembolism-related-to-cytomegalovirus-infection-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Amar H Kelkar, Kavitha S Jacob, Eman B Yousif, John J Farrell
RATIONALE: Herein, we present a case of seemingly unprovoked portal vein thrombosis (PVT) occurring in the context of an acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and prolonged debilitating fatigue. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old male airline pilot presented with a 2 week history of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea, and daily recurrent fevers. This was in the context of progressive, debilitating fatigue for 3 months forcing the patient to leave his job...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344912/capillary-leak-syndrome-as-a-complication-of-antibody-mediated-rejection-treatment-a-case-report
#6
Juan C Ramirez-Sandoval, Ricardo Varela-Jimenez, Luis E Morales-Buenrostro
We report a case of capillary leak that developed during treatment of antibody-mediated rejection in a kidney transplant recipient. A 53-year-old female transplant recipient experienced an increase in serum creatinine from 1.1 to 1.8 mg/dL. Antibody-mediated rejection was diagnosed by graft biopsy. She was treated with five plasmapheresis sessions (on alternate days with albumin replacement), five doses of immunoglobulin (5 g/dose at 100 mg/kg), a single dose of rituximab (500 mg), and four doses of bortezomib on days 1, 4, 7, and 10 (1...
January 17, 2018: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290231/antimicrobial-treatment-of-diarrhea-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children
#7
R Cohen, J Raymond, D Gendrel
Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) are usually caused by viruses, especially Rotavirus and Norovirus. Among the bacterial causes, very few warrant antibiotic treatment, mainly Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter (only for severe cases, particularly in the initial phase) and severe cases of Salmonella infection. The antimicrobial treatments proposed in this guide follow the latest guidelines of the European Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249740/a-case-of-infectious-enterocolitis-with-hyperammonemia
#8
Ken Otsuji, Satoko Simizu, Takeru Endo, Ayako Kanazawa, Hideaki Arai, Keiji Nagata, Nobuya Harayama, Shunichi Nihei, Keiji Aibara, Mitsumasa Saito, Masayuki Kamochi
Case reports of hyperammonemia due to urease-producing bacteria are found occasionally, but most of them are associated with urinary tract infections. We experienced a case of infectious enterocolitis with hyperammonemia in which the causative bacteria was speculated to be urease-producing bacteria. A Japanese woman in her 70s had been diagnosed with microscopic polyangiitis in a nearby hospital and was transferred to our hospital. Although the microscopic polyangiitis was relatively under control after treatment with steroids and rituximab, frequent diarrhea with hyperammonemia (324 µg/dl) appeared and she became comatose...
2017: Journal of UOEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246821/late-gastrointestinal-complications-of-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-adults
#9
Anthony D Sung, Syed Hassan, Diana M Cardona, Daniel Wild, Krista Rowe Nichols, Hossein Mehdikhani, Bryan Balmadrid, Claire J Detweiler, Michael Shealy, Constance Cirrincione, Zhiguo Li, Martin Poleski, Tara E Dalton, Sharareh Siamakpour-Reihani, Nelson J Chao, Keith M Sullivan
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal (GI) complications including graft versus host disease (GVHD) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in allogenic stem transplant recipients. While several studies have previously looked into the acute gastrointestinal complications, fewer smaller studies have reported late complications. In this large study, we focus on the late (100 days post-transplant) gastrointestinal complications in allogenic stem transplant recipients METHODS: This is a single center, retrospective study, of all of the adult allogenic stem cell transplant recipients who had their transplant at Duke University over a six year period...
December 12, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216027/acute-malnutrition-among-children-mortality-and-humanitarian-interventions-in-conflict-affected-regions-nigeria-october-2016-march-2017
#10
Eva Leidman, Erin Tromble, Adamu Yermina, Robert Johnston, Chris Isokpunwu, Adeyemi Adeniran, Assaye Bulti
A public health emergency was declared by the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health in northeastern Nigeria in June 2016 and escalated by the United Nations to a Level 3 Emergency in August 2016, after confirmation of wild poliovirus and measles outbreaks and evidence that prevalence of acute malnutrition exceeded emergency thresholds in areas newly liberated from Boko Haram control (1,2). To monitor rates of mortality, acute malnutrition among children, infectious disease morbidity, and humanitarian interventions after the emergency declaration, a series of cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in fall 2016 and winter 2017 in the northeastern states of Borno and Yobe using a cluster methodology...
December 8, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189867/-metformin-associated-lactic-acidosis-report-of-one-case
#11
Felipe Quintana, María José Pezzani, Rodrigo Orozco, Jorge Dreyse, Leonardo Soto, Tomás Regueira
Metformin-associated lactic acidosis is a severe and infrequent adverse event. Early diagnosis is essential to start an early treatment, which often has favorable results. We report a 56 years old non-insulin-requiring type 2 diabetic female who developed a severe metabolic acidosis associated with metformin in relation to an acute renal failure secondary to infectious diarrhea. Early treatment with bicarbonate and continuous hemofiltration allowed a quick improvement of the patient. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis has an elevated mortality (50-80%) and has a specific and effective treatment...
August 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175449/multiplex-pcr-testing-for-travelers-diarrhea-friend-or-foe
#12
Bradley A Connor
With the advent of high throughput multiplex DNA extraction PCR diagnostic modalities for the diagnosis of infectious diseases, particularly gastrointestinal enteric infections, the increased sensitivity and specificity of this modality has been hailed by most as an advance in our ability to make specific etiologic diagnoses in acute and chronic gastroenteritis and travelers' diarrhea.(Platts-Mills et al., 2012; Raich and Powell, 2014) The potential advantages and drawbacks of this modality of testing are illustrated by the following case...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162064/effect-of-exclusive-breastfeeding-on-selected-adverse-health-and-nutritional-outcomes-a-nationally-representative-study
#13
Md Nuruzzaman Khan, M Mofizul Islam
BACKGROUND: Despite growing evidence in support of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among infants in the first 6 months of birth, the debate over the optimal duration of EBF continues. This study examines the effect of termination of EBF during the first 2, 4 and 6 months of birth on a set of adverse health and nutritional outcomes of infants. METHODS: Three waves of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data were analysed using multivariate regression. The adverse health outcomes were: an episode of diarrhea, fever or acute respiratory infection (ARI) during the 2 weeks prior to the survey...
November 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143638/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-interventions-for-acute-childhood-diarrhea-a-systematic-review-to-provide-estimates-for-the-lives-saved-tool
#14
Nazia Darvesh, Jai K Das, Tyler Vaivada, Michelle F Gaffey, Kumanan Rasanathan, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: In the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) era, there is growing recognition of the responsibilities of non-health sectors in improving the health of children. Interventions to improve access to clean water, sanitation facilities, and hygiene behaviours (WASH) represent key opportunities to improve child health and well-being by preventing the spread of infectious diseases and improving nutritional status. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating the effects of WASH interventions on childhood diarrhea in children 0-5 years old...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103266/high-frequency-of-enteric-protozoan-viral-and-bacterial-potential-pathogens-in-community-acquired-acute-diarrheal-episodes-evidence-based-on-results-of-luminex-gastrointestinal-pathogen-panel-assay
#15
Yousry A Hawash, Khadiga A Ismail, Mazen Almehmadi
Infectious diarrhea is endemic in most developing countries. We aimed to investigate the protozoan, viral, and bacterial causes of acute diarrhea in Taif, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional prospective 1-year study was conducted on 163 diarrheal patients of various ages. Stool samples were collected, 1 per patient, and tested for 3 protozoa, 3 viruses, and 9 bacteria with the Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel. Overall, 53.4% (87/163) of samples were positives (20.8% protozoa, 19.6% viruses, 2.8% bacteria, and 9...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099868/evaluation-of-a-multiplex-panel-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-infectious-diarrhea-in-immunocompromised-hematologic-patients
#16
Izaskun Alejo-Cancho, Francesc Fernández Avilés, Alicia Capón, Cristina Rodríguez, Josep Barrachina, Pilar Salvador, Mª Eugenia Valls, Miriam J Álvarez-Martínez, Yuliya Zboromyrska, Jordi Vila, Mª Ángeles Marcos
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhea is a frequent complication in hematologic patients, being an infectious cause frequently suspected. Rapid and accurate detection of gastrointestinal pathogens is vital in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this study was to compare routine diagnostic methods versus a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the diagnosis of infectious diarrhea in immunocompromised hematologic patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study from March 2015 to January 2016 to compare conventional methods for the diagnosis of infectious diarrhea with FIlmArray GI Panel (BioFire-bioMérieux, France)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098099/life-threatening-irinotecan-induced-toxicity-in-an-adult-patient-with-alveolar-rhabdomyosarcoma-the-role-of-a-ugt1a1-polymorphism
#17
Arnaud Jannin, Benjamin Hennart, Antoine Adenis, Bruno Chauffert, Nicolas Penel
Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (AR) in adult patients is an exceptional malignancy. Management of AR is based on (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy combining ifosfamide, vincristine, and actinomycin D and local curative-intent surgery/radiotherapy. In cases of relapsing AR, the combination of temozolomide/irinotecan is regarded as a possible option. Here we describe life-threatening long-lasting toxicity related to the 1st cycle of irinotecan-based chemotherapy in a 56-year-old woman suffering from locally advanced and metastatic head and neck AR...
2017: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017253/rapid-clearance-and-frequent-reinfection-with-enteric-pathogens-among-children-with-acute-diarrhea-in-zanzibar
#18
Maria Eva Andersson, Kristina Elfving, Deler Shakely, Staffan Nilsson, Mwinyi Msellem, Birger Trollfors, Andreas Mårtensson, Anders Björkman, Magnus Lindh
Background: Acute infectious gastroenteritis is an important cause of illness and death among children in low-income countries. In addition to rotavirus vaccination, actions to improve nutrition status, sanitation, and water quality are important to reduce enteric infections, which are frequent also among asymptomatic children. The aim of this study was to investigate if the high prevalence of these infections reflects that they often are not cleared properly by the immune response or rather is due to frequent pathogen exposure...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932313/serum-zinc-level-and-its-correlation-with-vesikari-system-scoring-in-acute-pediatric-diarrhea
#19
Ayman E Eskander, Lobna S Sherif, Mohammad Nabih, Nevine R El Baroudy, Ghobrial C Marcos, Ehsan A Badawy, Amira S El Refay
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea remains the most common infectious disease worldwide. Zinc has been studied extensively recently for its potential effect on prevention, control and treatment of acute diarrhoea. AIM: This study was designed to correlate the level of zinc with the severity of pediatric diarrhoea estimated by Vesikari Scoring System. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present study included 80 children aged two months to 30 months from those suffering from the acute diarrheal episode and admitted to Pediatric Hospital "Abo El Rish" Cairo University...
August 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912916/acute-liver-failure-in-a-patient-travelling-from-asia-the-other-face-of-the-coin-of-infectious-disease
#20
Balen Abdulrahman, Mohamed H Ahmed, John Ramage
We present a case of a 63-year-old male who had travelled from South India to United Kingdom (UK) visiting relatives. He had developed episodes of diarrhea, vomiting and fevers while travelling and on assessment in hospital, mild abdominal distension was noted with rapid deterioration to hypovolemic shock. Initial blood test showed a low platelet count with deranged liver function tests (LFTs). It was noted that during admission to intensive care unit (ICU), blood continued to ooze from a previous surgical laparoscopy wound, central and arterial line access sites...
August 2017: Gastroenterology Research
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