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Acute infectious diarrhea

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921037/acute-kidney-injury-in-western-countries
#1
REVIEW
Josée Bouchard, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920706/ipilimumab-induced-enteritis-without-colitis-a-new-challenge
#2
Marcus Messmer, Sunita Upreti, Yaman Tarabishy, Nikhilesh Mazumder, Reezwana Chowdhury, Mark Yarchoan, Matthias Holdhoff
INTRODUCTION: Ipilimumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA4), approved to treat metastatic melanoma. It was the first therapy shown to prolong survival in a large, randomized clinical trial. However, immune-related adverse events are common and can be severe. Enterocolitis is a common adverse event with ipilimumab, but enteritis without colitis has not been previously described. CASE REPORT: An 83-year-old man presented to our hospital with grade 3 diarrhea for 5 days...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888815/acute-diarrhoea-induced-by-rotavirus-in-children-hospitalysed-in-provincial-hospital-for-infectious-diseases-in-bydgoszcz-in-2014-year
#3
Beata Smok, Katarzyna Zieniewicz-Cieślik, Ewa Smukalska, Małgorzata Pawłowska
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to describe the epidemiology and course of rotavirus infection in children hospitalized at the T. Browicz Provincial Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Bydgoszcz, Poland in 2014 year. INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus infection is responsible for over 2 millions hospitalizations per year among children under 5 year old. Rotavirus gastroenterocolitis is one of the most common cause of severe dehydration, electrolyte disturbances and metabolic acidosis, leading to 400-600 thousand deaths per year in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886032/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-different-pathogens-of-acute-diarrhea-in-adults-in-beijing-china
#4
Lei Jia, Changying Lin, Zhiyong Gao, Mei Qu, Junyong Yang, Jingyi Sun, He Chen, Quanyi Wang
INTRODUCTION: Only a small proportion of patients with diarrhea are diagnosed with laboratory tests in China, and most are diagnosed based on clinical symptoms. Therefore, understanding the prevalence of different diarrheal pathogens and their specific symptoms is important. METHODOLOGY: Data from a prospective study in Beijing of acute diarrhea and the related pathogens were used to study the association between different pathogen groups and the infected patients' characteristics...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852545/effects-of-zinc-or-synbiotic-on-the-duration-of-diarrhea-in-children-with-acute-infectious-diarrhea
#5
Ahmet Sami Yazar, Şirin Güven, Ener Çağrı Dinleyici
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Probiotic effects on acute infectious diarrhea are strain(s) specific, and all formulations should be evaluated by clinical trials. We aimed to evaluate the effect of a synbiotic preparation on the duration of diarrhea in children compared to a zinc suspension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a single-center, randomized, and controlled clinical trial in children with acute infectious diarrhea. The first group received a synbiotic preparation containing Lactobacillus casei, L...
November 2016: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803180/oral-administration-of-astrovirus-capsid-protein-is-sufficient-to-induce-acute-diarrhea-in-vivo
#6
Victoria A Meliopoulos, Shauna A Marvin, Pamela Freiden, Lindsey A Moser, Prashant Nighot, Rizwana Ali, Anthony Blikslager, Muralidhar Reddivari, Richard J Heath, Matthew D Koci, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
: The disease mechanisms associated with the onset of astrovirus diarrhea are unknown. Unlike other enteric virus infections, astrovirus infection is not associated with an inflammatory response or cellular damage. In vitro studies in differentiated Caco-2 cells demonstrated that human astrovirus serotype 1 (HAstV-1) capsid protein alone disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and tight junction complex, leading to increased epithelial barrier permeability. In this study, we show that oral administration of purified recombinant turkey astrovirus 2 (TAstV-2) capsid protein results in acute diarrhea in a dose- and time-dependent manner in turkey poults...
November 1, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785317/facing-terminal-ileitis-going-beyond-crohn-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Ricardo de Alvares Goulart, Sandra Maria Barbalho, Rodrigo Galhardi Gasparini, Antonely de Cassio Alves de Carvalho
Terminal ileitis (TI) is an inflammatory condition of the terminal portion of the ileum that may occur acutely with right lower quadrant pain followed or not by diarrhea, or exhibit chronic obstructive symptoms and bleeding and normally it is associated to Crohn's disease (CD) although it may be associated to other different conditions. This review intended to contribute to a better understanding of TI in order to help in the diagnosis, medical approach and patient care. This work was performed on a survey of articles collected in different databases and a retrospective search was carried out to identify relevant studies in the field...
February 2016: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735025/epidemiological-evaluation-of-acute-gastroenteritis-and-therapeutic-approaches-in-middle-east-countries
#8
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708621/reassessment-of-the-enteropathogenicity-of-mesophilic-aeromonas-species
#9
Peter Teunis, Maria J Figueras
Cases of Aeromonas diarrhea have been described all over the world. The genus Aeromonas includes ca. 30 species, of which 10 have been isolated in association with gastroenteritis. The dominating species that account for ca. 96% of the identified strains are Aeromonas caviae, A. veronii, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila. However, the role of Aeromonas as a true enteropathogen has been questioned on the basis of the lack of outbreaks, the non-fulfillment of Koch's postulates and the low numbers of acute illnesses in the only existing human challenge study...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695816/dexamethasone-treatment-differentially-alters-viral-shedding-and-the-antibody-and-acute-phase-protein-response-after-multivalent-respiratory-vaccination-in-beef-steers
#10
J T Richeson, J A Carroll, N C Burdick Sanchez, N D May, H D Hughes, S L Roberts, P R Broadway, K P Sharon, M A Ballou
Our objective was to examine immunosuppression induced by dexamethasone (DEX) administration in cattle on immunological responses to a multivalent respiratory vaccine containing replicating and nonreplicating agents. Steers ( = 32; 209 ± 8 kg) seronegative to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V) were stratified by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) acute immunosuppression (ACU; 0...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668288/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-regulator-encoding-genes-have-an-additive-effect-on-virulence-gene-expression-in-a-vibrio-cholerae-clinical-isolate
#11
Bailey M Carignan, Kyle D Brumfield, Mike S Son
Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of the infectious disease cholera, which is characterized by vomiting and severe watery diarrhea. Recently, V. cholerae clinical isolates have demonstrated increased virulence capabilities, causing more severe symptoms with a much higher rate of disease progression than previously observed. We have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four virulence-regulatory genes (hapR, hns, luxO, and vieA) of a hypervirulent V. cholerae clinical isolate, MQ1795...
September 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642742/-chronic-non-infectious-diarrhea-diagnostics-and-therapy
#12
Korinna Ulbricht, Peter Layer, Viola Andresen
Chronic, non-infectious diarrhea can be caused by a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. In anamnesis, it is important to take accompanying warning symptoms and specific triggers into account. The fecal inflammatory marker calprotectin may help differentiating between organic and functional gastrointestinal disorders, but it is not specific. Among other options, gelling fibres, Loperamide and Cholestyramine as well as probiotics are available for the symptomatic treatment of chronic diarrhea. For long-term treatment of chronic diarrhea with the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril, which is approved for acute diarrhea, only limited data are available...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629573/the-human-milk-oligosaccharide-2-fucosyllactose-quenches-campylobacter-jejuni-induced-inflammation-in-human-epithelial-cells-hep-2-and-ht-29-and-in-mouse-intestinal-mucosa
#13
Zhuo-Teng Yu, N Nanda Nanthakumar, David S Newburg
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni causes diarrhea worldwide; young children are most susceptible. Binding of virulent C. jejuni to the intestinal mucosa is inhibited ex vivo by α1,2-fucosylated carbohydrate moieties, including human milk oligosaccharides (HMOSs). OBJECTIVE: The simplest α1,2-fucosylated HMOS structure, 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL), can be predominant at ≤5 g/L milk. Although 2'-FL inhibits C. jejuni binding ex vivo and in vivo, the effects of 2'FL on the cell invasion central to C...
October 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554279/rotavirus-activates-dendritic-cells-derived-from-umbilical-cord-blood-monocytes
#14
D Rosales-Martinez, L Gutierrez-Xicotencatl, O Badillo-Godinez, D Lopez-Guerrero, A Santana-Calderon, R Cortez-Gomez, O Ramirez-Pliego, F Esquivel-Guadarrama
Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute infectious diarrhea in human neonates and infants. However, the studies aimed at dissecting the anti-virus immune response have been mainly performed in adults. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in innate and acquired immune responses. Therefore, it is very important to determine the response of neonatal and infant DCs to rotavirus and to compare it to the response of adult DCs. Thus, we determined the response of monocyte-derived DCs from umbilical cord blood (UCB) and adult peripheral blood (PB) to rotavirus in vitro...
October 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491225/-distribution-of-syndrome-types-of-chinese-medicine-in-acute-infectious-diarrhea
#15
Qing-yan Ye, Jian-jie Chen, Hua Zhou, Qi-hua Ling, Qian Wang, Jie Chen, Tao Yang, Ya-nan Dong, Hong Shen
OBJECTIVE: To observe syndrome types of Chinese medicine (CM) and distribution features of acute infectious diarrhea patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in 465 acute infectious diarrhea patients. The distribution of CM syndrome and syndrome types in different seasons and genders were analyzed. RESULTS: Lack of appetite [381 (81.94%)], fatigue [350 (75.27%)], abdominal pain [338 (72.69%)], tenesmus [325 (69.89%)], anal scorching hot [276 (59...
June 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484769/a-regional-outbreak-of-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotype-027-infections-in-southeastern-france-from-a-single-long-term-care-facility
#16
Nadim Cassir, Jean-Christophe Delarozière, Gregory Dubourg, Marion Delord, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Phillipe Brouqui, Florence Fenollar, Didier Raoult, Pierre Edouard Fournier
OBJECTIVE To describe and analyze a large outbreak of Clostridium difficile 027 (CD-027) infections. METHODS Confirmed CD-027 cases were defined as CD infection plus real-time polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) positive for CD-027. Clinical and microbiological data on patients with CD-027 infection were collected from January 2013 to December 2015 in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region (southeastern France). RESULTS In total, 19 healthcare facilities reported 144 CD-027 infections (112 confirmed and 32 probable CD-027 infections) during a 22-month period outbreak...
November 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449359/-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-presenting-as-an-acute-urinary-febrile-retention
#17
J Guison, M Groza, O Stoica, G Blaison
INTRODUCTION: MRI should be performed in the presence of an acute febrile urinary retention, when septic and obstructive causes are eliminated. We report a case of post-infectious probable acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) with a mostly spinal cord tropism of involving Campylobacter. CASE REPORT: A 32-year-old man with no medical history was admitted for an acute febrile urinary retention. He reported severe diarrhea 3 days before. Clinical course was then complicated by a progressive tetraparesis predominating in the lower limbs...
July 20, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412736/-practice-guideline-for-acute-infectious-diarrhea-in-chinese-children
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412735/-inproving-the-knowledge-of-acute-infectious-diarrhea-in-children
#19
S T Gong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27394020/infectious-diarrhea-norovirus-and-clostridium-difficile-in-older-adults
#20
REVIEW
Mary B White, Shobita Rajagopalan, Thomas T Yoshikawa
Norovirus infection usually results in acute gastroenteritis, often with incapacitating nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is highly contagious and resistant to eradication with alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Appropriate preventative and infection control measures can mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with norovirus infection. Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of health care-associated diarrhea in the United States. Antibiotic use is by far the most common risk factor for C difficile colonization and infection...
August 2016: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
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