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Urologic cancer

Anobel Y Odisho, Ruth Etzioni, John L Gore
BACKGROUND: Safety-net hospitals (SNHs) care for more patients of low socioeconomic status (SES) than non-SNHs and are disproportionately punished under SES-naive Medicare readmission risk-adjustment models. This study was designed to develop a risk-adjustment framework that incorporates SES and to assess the impact on readmission rates. METHODS: California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data from 2007 to 2011 were used to identify patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer (n = 3771) or partial nephrectomy (PN; n = 5556) or radical nephrectomy (RN; n = 13,136) for kidney cancer...
June 15, 2018: Cancer
Kejun Cheng, Xi Liu, Lu Chen, Jian-Min Lv, Fa-Jun Qu, Xiu-Wu Pan, Lin Li, Xin-Gang Cui, Yi Gao, Dan-Feng Xu
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed urological malignancies. However, there are limited therapies for PCa patients who develop biochemical recurrence after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of α-Viniferin (KCV), an oligostilbene of trimeric resveratrol, against human PCa cells and found that it markedly inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP, DU145, and PC-3 cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and had a strong cytotoxicity in non-androgen-dependent PCa cells...
June 15, 2018: Medical Oncology
Peng Wu, Guihao Zhang, Jie Zhao, Jiawei Chen, Yang Chen, Weina Huang, Jialei Zhong, Jiarong Zeng
Mounting evidence indicates that microbiome plays an important role in the development and progression of cancer. The dogma that urine in healthy individuals must be sterile has been overturned. Dysbiosis of the urinary microbiome has been revealed responsible for various urological disorders, including prostate cancer. The link between chronic inflammation, microbiome and solid tumors has been established for various neoplastic diseases. However, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of urinary microenvironment of bladder cancer has not been yet reported...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Yu G Alyaev, N K Dzeranov, S B Khokhlachev, V V Borisov, D N Fiev, Yu L Demidko, A V Proskura, M V Yurova
INTRODUCTION: Traditionally, evaluation of the split renal function is performed using nephroscintigraphy. However, as shown in several studies, there might be quite significant inaccuracy in the interpretation of dynamic nephroscintigraphy results. But due to the lack of alternative methods for evaluation of split renal function, nephroscintigraphy remains the method of choice. AIM: To investigate the feasibility of digital analysis of contrast-enhanced MSCT imaging for evaluation of the split renal function...
May 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Lianhua Zhang, Guoliang Yang, Ruiyun Zhang, Liang Dong, Haige Chen, Juanjie Bo, Wei Xue, Yiran Huang
Bladder cancer (BC) has become a serious health prob-lem and represents the second most commonly diagnosed urological tumor. Curcumin is a principal active natural component of turmeric and has long been used in Asia as a traditional herbal medicine. Curcumin suppresses cell growth in various types of cancer, including BC, by regulating numerous molecular signaling pathways. The human trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (Trop2) belongs to the tumor-associated calcium signal transducer gene family. Trop2 has been described as a cancer driver and is deregulated in various types of cancer...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Bradley A Erickson, Brennan A Tesdahl, Maria A Voznesensky, Benjamin N Breyer, Bryan B Voelzke, Nejd F Alsikafi, Alex J Vanni, Joshua A Broghammer, Jill C Buckley, Jeremy B Myers, William O Brant, Lee C Zhao, Thomas G Smith Iii, Brian L Swick, Laila Dahmoush
INTRODUCTION: Given the poor understanding of the pathophysiology of genital lichen sclerosus (GLS) and a lack of accepted definitive diagnostic criteria, we proposed to survey pathologists regarding their understanding of GLS. We hypothesized that significant disagreement about GLS will exist. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All urologists participating in the Trauma and Urologic Reconstruction Network of Surgeons identified genitourinary (GUP) and dermatopathologists (DP) at their respective institutions who were then invited to participate in an online survey regarding their experience with diagnosing GLS, GLS pathophysiology and its relationship to urethral stricture disease...
June 2018: Canadian Journal of Urology
Kanika Taneja, Sohrab Arora, Craig G Rogers, Nilesh S Gupta, Sean R Williamson
AIMS: Pathologic staging of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can be challenging compared to other cancer types, as invasion often manifests as finger-like protrusions into vascular spaces or renal sinus tissue. Although prior studies have shown larger tumour size to be highly correlated with renal sinus invasion, prospective data on evaluating pathologic stage are limited. We evaluated a large series reported by a single urologic pathologist. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three hundred consecutive specimens were reviewed...
June 13, 2018: Histopathology
Edwin J Aslim, Min Hoe Chew, Ghee Kheng Chew, Lui Shiong Lee
BACKGROUND: Pelvic exenteration (PE) for locally advanced pelvic malignancy requires a multi-disciplinary approach and is associated with significant morbidity. Urinary reconstruction forms a major component of this procedure. The aim of the study is to review the urological outcomes following PE in a newly established pelvic oncology unit, to compare with those following radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer. METHODS: Patients were identified from prospectively maintained PE and bladder cancer databases, inclusive of all cases performed between January 2012 and December 2016...
June 12, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Zhiyong Wang, Hongyang Li, Qiang Chi, Yu Qiu, Xiuming Li, Lisheng Xin
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of the expression levels of bladder cancer-specific antigen-1 (BLCA-1) in the diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC). The study also determined the relationship between BLCA-1 expression levels and the clinical manifestation of BC. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patient samples were derived from 66 cases of BC that presented at the Department of Urology, Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical University, were recruited from April 2014 to May 2015, and 64 healthy control cases...
June 8, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Ercan Yilmaz, Fatih Oguz, Gorkem Tuncay, Rauf Melekoglu, Ali Beytur, Ebru Inci Coskun, Ali Gunes
Diagnosing cancer during pregnancy is uncommon. Although pregnancies with concomitant malignancies have been reported, urological tumours are possibly the most rarely identified tumours during pregnancy. Renal cell carcinoma appears to be the most common urological malignancy during pregnancy. In this case report, we discuss successful management of a patient who was diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma during the antenatal period.
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Noel Clarke, Pawel Wiechno, Boris Alekseev, Nuria Sala, Robert Jones, Ivo Kocak, Vincenzo Emanuele Chiuri, Jacek Jassem, Aude Fléchon, Charles Redfern, Carsten Goessl, Joseph Burgents, Robert Kozarski, Darren Hodgson, Maria Learoyd, Fred Saad
BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and homologous recombination repair (HRR) mutations have a better response to treatment with the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib than patients without HRR mutations. Preclinical data suggest synergy between olaparib and androgen pathway inhibitors. We aimed to assess the efficacy of olaparib plus the androgen pathway inhibitor abiraterone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer regardless of HRR mutation status...
June 4, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Sean R Williamson, Priya Rao, Ondrej Hes, Jonathan I Epstein, Steven C Smith, Maria M Picken, Ming Zhou, Maria S Tretiakova, Satish K Tickoo, Ying-Bei Chen, Victor E Reuter, Stewart Fleming, Fiona M Maclean, Nilesh S Gupta, Naoto Kuroda, Brett Delahunt, Rohit Mehra, Christopher G Przybycin, Liang Cheng, John N Eble, David J Grignon, Holger Moch, Jose I Lopez, Lakshmi P Kunju, Pheroze Tamboli, John R Srigley, Mahul B Amin, Guido Martignoni, Michelle S Hirsch, Stephen M Bonsib, Kiril Trpkov
Staging criteria for renal cell carcinoma differ from many other cancers, in that renal tumors are often spherical with subtle, finger-like extensions into veins, renal sinus, or perinephric tissue. We sought to study interobserver agreement in pathologic stage categories for challenging cases. An online survey was circulated to urologic pathologists interested in kidney tumors, yielding 89% response (31/35). Most questions included 1 to 4 images, focusing on: vascular and renal sinus invasion (n=24), perinephric invasion (n=9), and gross pathology/specimen handling (n=17)...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Carmit McMullen, Matthew Nielsen, Alison Firemark, Patricia Merino Price, Denise Nakatani, Jean Tuthill, Ruth McMyn, Anobel Odisho, Michael Meyers, David Shibata, Scott Gilbert
PURPOSE: Complex bladder and colorectal cancer surgeries are associated with significant patient morbidity, yet few resources exist to prepare patients for the high levels of distress and complications they may experience. After ethnographic research to identify design challenges, we held a user-centered design (UCD) workshop to begin to develop patient- and caregiver-centered interventions to support preparation for and recovery after complex cancer surgery. METHODS: Concepts that emerged from brainstorming sessions were visually represented on storyboards and rated...
June 6, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Zefu Liu, Shiyang Zheng, Xiangdong Li, Shengjie Guo, Yanjun Wang, Fangjian Zhou, Zhuo Wei Liu
BACKGROUND: Owing to the aggressive nature of radical nephroureterectomy (RNU), it is extremely important for the diagnostic modalities to be accurate. The European Association of Urology guidelines recommend that diagnostic ureteroscopy (URS) and biopsy be performed for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas (UUTCs). But that diagnostic URS adversely affects oncologic outcomes still exist. In the current systematic review and meta-analysis, we had attempted to evaluate oncologic outcome of diagnostic URS before RNU...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Yuexin Xia, Zhiyuan Liu, Weijian Yu, Shihang Zhou, Linnan Shao, Wenqian Song, Ming Liu
INTRODUCTION: Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common urologic malignancies and it is urgently needed to identify novel potential prognostic biomarkers for predicting prognosis and progression of patients with BC in clinical practice. Previous research has revealed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) played critical roles in BC, and may serve as novel potential prognostic biomarkers in patients with BC. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to clarify the prognostic potential of lncRNAs in BC patients...
2018: PloS One
Kym I E Snell, Douglas G Ward, Naheema S Gordon, James C Goldsmith, Andrew J Sutton, Prashant Patel, Nicholas D James, Maurice P Zeegers, K K Cheng, Richard T Bryan
Objectives: To investigate whether elevated urinary HAI-1, EpCAM and EGFR are independent prognostic biomarkers within non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients, and have utility for risk stratification to facilitate treatment decisions. Results: After accounting for EAU risk group in NMIBC patients, the risk of BC-specific death was 2.14 times higher (95% CI: 1.08 to 4.24) if HAI-1 was elevated and 2.04 times higher (95% CI: 1.02 to 4.07) if EpCAM was elevated...
May 18, 2018: Oncotarget
Siamak Daneshmand, Soroush T Bazargani, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Jeffrey M Holzbeierlein, Brian Willard, Jennifer M Taylor, Joseph C Liao, Kamal Pohar, James Tierney, Badrinath Konety
INTRODUCTION: Blue light cystoscopy (BLC) using hexaminolevulinate (HAL/Cysview/Hexvix) has been previously shown to improve detection of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Herein, we evaluated the detection of malignant lesions in a heterogenous group of patients in the real world setting and documented the change in risk category due to upstaging or upgrading. METHODS: Prospective enrollment during April 2014 to December 2016 of consecutive adult patients with suspected or known non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer based on prior cystoscopy or imaging, undergoing transurethral resection of bladder tumor at 9 different referral medical centers...
May 30, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Masahiro Ogasawara, Mamiko Miyashita, Shuichi Ota
The prognosis of metastatic or relapsed renal cell carcinoma (RCC) or bladder cancer (BC) remains poor despite the introduction of immune checkpoint blockade agents. We aimed to investigate the safety and the feasibility of a vaccination with WT1 peptide-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) and OK-432 adjuvant combined with molecular targeted therapy or conventional chemotherapy. Five eligible patients with metastatic or relapsed RCC and five eligible patients with BC were enrolled. No severe adverse events related to a vaccination were observed...
May 30, 2018: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
Ralf Böthig, Kai Fiebag, Birgitt Kowald, Sven Hirschfeld, Roland Thietje, Ines Kurze, Wolfgang Schöps, Holger Böhme, Albert Kaufmann, Michael Zellner, Thura Kadhum, Klaus Golka
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES:  Life expectancy for people with spinal cord injury/disease (SCI/D) is increasing, due to modern advances in treatment methods and in neuro-urology. However, with the increased life expectancy the risk of developing urinary bladder cancer is gaining importance. How is this patient group different from the general population? METHODS:  Single-centre retrospective evaluation of consecutive patient data with spinal cord injury and proven urinary bladder cancer...
May 29, 2018: Aktuelle Urologie
Xinyi Yu, Feng Liu, Liyi Zeng, Fang He, Ruyi Zhang, Shujuan Yan, Zongyue Zeng, Yi Shu, Chen Zhao, Xingye Wu, Jiayan Lei, Wenwen Zhang, Chao Yang, Ke Wu, Ying Wu, Liping An, Shifeng Huang, Xiaojuan Ji, Cheng Gong, Chengfu Yuan, Linghuan Zhang, Yixiao Feng, Bo Huang, Wei Liu, Bo Zhang, Zhengyu Dai, Xi Wang, Bo Liu, Rex C Haydon, Hue H Luu, Hua Gan, Tong-Chuan He, Liqun Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: As the most lethal urological cancers, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) comprises a heterogeneous group of cancer with diverse genetic and molecular alterations. There is an unmet clinical need to develop efficacious therapeutics for advanced, metastatic and/or relapsed RCC. Here, we investigate whether anthelmintic drug Niclosamide exhibits anticancer activity and synergizes with targeted therapy Sorafenib in suppressing RCC cell proliferation. METHODS: Cell proliferation and migration were assessed by Crystal violet staining, WST-1 assay, cell wounding and cell cycle analysis...
May 24, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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