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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090076/a-journey-into-the-brain-insight-into-how-bacterial-pathogens-cross-blood-brain-barriers
#1
Mathieu Coureuil, Hervé Lécuyer, Sandrine Bourdoulous, Xavier Nassif
The blood-brain barrier, which is one of the tightest barriers in the body, protects the brain from insults, such as infections. Indeed, only a few of the numerous blood-borne bacteria can cross the blood-brain barrier to cause meningitis. In this Review, we focus on invasive extracellular pathogens, such as Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, group B Streptococcus and Escherichia coli, to review the obstacles that bacteria have to overcome in order to invade the meninges from the bloodstream, and the specific skills they have developed to bypass the blood-brain barrier...
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089757/disorazoles-block-group-a-streptococcal-invasion-into-epithelial-cells-via-interference-with-the-host-factor-ezrin
#2
Katharina Rox, Manfred Rohde, Gursharan Singh Chhatwal, Rolf Müller
Bacterial pathogens use invasion into human cells as a strategy to escape not only the host's immune response, but also anti-bacterial treatment. This often leads to persistence and enables reinitiation of the infection process at a later time point. Here, we show that a family of myxobacterial metabolites, disorazoles, block invasion of group A Streptococcus (GAS) into human epithelial cells. Mechanistically, disorazoles target ezrin, a host protein involved in linking microfilaments to the membrane, and affect invasion most likely by interfering with dynamic phosphorylation of ezrin...
January 5, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074024/whole-genome-sequencing-of-invasion-resistant-cells-identifies-laminin-%C3%AE-2-as-a-host-factor-for-bacterial-invasion
#3
Xander M van Wijk, Simon Döhrmann, Björn M Hallström, Shangzhong Li, Bjørn G Voldborg, Brandon X Meng, Karen K McKee, Toin H van Kuppevelt, Peter D Yurchenco, Bernhard O Palsson, Nathan E Lewis, Victor Nizet, Jeffrey D Esko
: To understand the role of glycosaminoglycans in bacterial cellular invasion, xylosyltransferase-deficient mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were created using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated gene 9 (CRISPR-cas9) gene targeting. When these mutants were compared to the pgsA745 cell line, a CHO xylosyltransferase mutant generated previously using chemical mutagenesis, an unexpected result was obtained. Bacterial invasion of pgsA745 cells by group B Streptococcus (GBS), group A Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus was markedly reduced compared to the invasion of wild-type cells, but newly generated CRISPR-cas9 mutants were only resistant to GBS...
January 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062316/discovery-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serogroup-35-variants-in-australian-patients
#4
Megan Staples, Rikki M A Graham, Vicki Hicks, Janet Strachan, Anders Gonçalves da Silva, Jade Peverall, Veyatie Wicks, Amy V Jennison
OBJECTIVES: S. pneumoniae isolates from Australian invasive pneumococcal disease cases displaying an atypical 35B phenotype. Whole genome sequencing was used to analyse these strains and identify changes to the capsule gene regions. METHODS: Four atypical serogroup 35 isolates from Australian reference laboratories were unable to be assigned to one of the four known group 35 serotypes by the Quellung serotyping method. Genetic characterisation of the capsule locus was performed by bioinformatic analysis of whole genome sequencing data for all isolates RESULTS: Genetic analysis identified four independent disruptions to the wciG gene, which encodes an O-acetyltransferase responsible for the O-acetylation of the 6Galβ1 residue in the capsular polysaccharide repeat unit of serotype 35B...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060047/genotype-characterization-of-group-b-streptococcus-isolated-from-infants-with-invasive-diseases-in-south-korea
#5
Hyun Mi Kang, Hoan Jong Lee, Hyunju Lee, Dae Sun Jo, Hye Soo Lee, Taek Soo Kim, Jeong Hwan Shin, Ki Wook Yun, Bongjin Lee, Eun Hwa Choi
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is one of the leading causes of invasive infections in infants. This study aimed to investigate the genotypic diversity of GBS causing invasive infections in infants and to observe the prevalence of the highly virulent clone in South Korea. METHODS: Invasive strains of GBS were collected prospectively from infants admitted at four hospitals during 1995 to 2015. Serotype and multilocus sequence typing was determined. All isolates underwent PCR amplification to detect the presence of the hypervirulent surface adhesin (hvgA) gene...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030528/case-series-description-and-genomic-characterization-of-invasive-group-a-streptococcal-infections-in-pediatric-patients
#6
Jennifer Dien Bard, Kanokporn Mongkolrattanothai, Priyanka Kachroo, Stephen Beres, Randall J Olsen
We report an unusual cluster of invasive group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in six pediatric patients and demonstrate that the strains were derived from diverse genetic backgrounds, confirming the occurrence of a community cluster rather than a clonal outbreak. Whole genome sequencing provided a rapid and comprehensive view of GAS genotypes, and helped guide our institutional response and public health maneuvers.
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999071/in-vitro-activity-of-gentamicin-as-an-adjunct-to-penicillin-against-biofilm-group-b-streptococcus
#7
Corinne Ruppen, Andrew Hemphill, Parham Sendi
OBJECTIVES: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) increasingly causes invasive disease in non-pregnant adults, particularly in elderly persons and those with underlying diseases. Combination therapy with penicillin plus gentamicin has been suggested for periprosthetic joint infection. The postulated synergism of this combination is based on experiments with planktonic bacteria. We aimed to assess the efficacy of this combination against sessile bacteria. METHODS: Four different GBS strains were used...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998266/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-pneumococcal-meningitis-cases-in-france-between-2001-and-2014-a-time-series-analysis
#8
Anna Alari, Hélène Chaussade, Matthieu Domenech De Cellès, Lénaig Le Fouler, Emmanuelle Varon, Lulla Opatowski, Didier Guillemot, Laurence Watier
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal meningitis (PM) is a major invasive pneumococcal disease. Two pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been introduced in France: PCV7 was recommended in 2003 and replaced in 2010 by PCV13, which has six additional serotypes. The impact of introducing those vaccines on the evolution of PM case numbers and serotype distributions in France from 2001 to 2014 is assessed herein. METHODS: Data on 5166 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid between 2001 and 2014 in the 22 regions of France were obtained from the National Reference Center for Pneumococci...
December 21, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996105/a-cluster-of-group-a-streptococcal-infections-in-a-skilled-nursing-facility-the-potential-role-of-healthcare-worker-presenteeism
#9
Miwako Kobayashi, Meghan M Lyman, Louise K Francois Watkins, Karrie-Ann Toews, Leon Bullard, Rachel A Radcliffe, Bernard Beall, Gayle Langley, Chris Van Beneden, Nimalie D Stone
OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent of a group A streptococcus (GAS) cluster (2 residents with invasive GAS (invasive case-patients), 2 carriers) caused by a single strain (T antigen type 2 and M protein gene subtype 2.0 (T2, emm 2.0)), evaluate factors contributing to transmission, and provide recommendations for disease control. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis and retrospective review. SETTING: Skilled nursing facility (SNF). PARTICIPANTS: SNF residents and staff...
December 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979783/culture-proven-early-onset-neonatal-sepsis-in-arab-states-in-the-gulf-region-two-year-prospective-study
#10
Majeda S Hammoud, Abdullah Al-Taiar, Sameer Y Al-Abdi, Hussain Bozaid, Anwar Khan, Laila M AlMuhairi, Moghis Ur Rehman
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and the pattern of causative organisms of culture-proven early-onset sepsis (EOS) in Arab states in the Gulf region. METHODS: Five neonatal care units participated in this 2-year prospective study in Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia. Data were collected prospectively using a standardized data collection form. EOS was defined as the growth of a single potentially pathogenic organism from blood or cerebrospinal fluid in infants within 72h of birth, with clinical and laboratory findings consistent with infection...
December 12, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978809/antibacterial-combination-of-oleoresin-from-copaifera-multijuga-hayne-and-biogenic-silver-nanoparticles-towards-streptococcus-agalactiae
#11
E S Otaguiri, Aeb Morguette, R P Biasi-Garbin, A T Morey, Cac Lancheros, D Kian, A G Oliveira, G Kerbauy, Mre Perugini, N Durán, C V Nakamura, V F Veiga Junior, G Nakazato, P Pinge-Filho, L M Yamauchi, S F Yamada-Ogatta
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus - GBS) remains a leading cause of neonatal infections and an important cause of invasive infections in adults with underlying conditions. METHODS: This study evaluated for the first time the effect of an oleoresin collected from Copaifera multijuga Hayne (copaiba oil) alone or in combination with silver nanoparticles produced by green synthesis using Fusarium oxysporum (AgNPbio) against planktonic and sessile cells of GBS isolated from colonized women...
December 13, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976706/novel-platform-technology-for-modular-mucosal-vaccine-that-protects-against-streptococcus
#12
Mehfuz Zaman, Victoria Ozberk, Emma L Langshaw, Virginia McPhun, Jessica L Powell, Zachary N Phillips, Mei Fong Ho, Ainslie Calcutt, Michael R Batzloff, Istvan Toth, Geoffrey R Hill, Manisha Pandey, Michael F Good
The upper respiratory tract (URT) is the major entry site for human pathogens and strategies to activate this network could lead to new vaccines capable of preventing infection with many pathogens. Group A streptococcus (GAS) infections, causing rheumatic fever, rheumatic heart disease, and invasive disease, are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality. We describe an innovative vaccine strategy to induce mucosal antibodies of significant magnitude against peptide antigens of GAS using a novel biocompatible liposomal platform technology...
December 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965655/repression-of-rgg-but-not-upregulation-of-lacd-1-in-emm1-type-covs-mutant-mediates-the-speb-repression-in-group-a-streptococcus
#13
Chuan Chiang-Ni, Teng-Ping Chu, Jiunn-Jong Wu, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
CovR/CovS is an important two-component regulatory system in human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS). Epidemiological studies have shown that inactivation of the sensor kinase CovS is correlated with invasive clinical manifestations. The phosphorylation level of response regulator CovR decreases dramatically in the absence of CovS, resulting in the derepression of virulence factor expression and an increase in bacterial invasiveness. Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB) is a cysteine protease and is negatively regulated by CovR; however, the expression of SpeB is almost completely repressed in the covS mutant...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956163/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-aged-younger-than-5-years-in-india-a-surveillance-study
#14
Anand Manoharan, Vikas Manchanda, Sundaram Balasubramanian, Sanjay Lalwani, Meera Modak, Sushama Bai, Ajith Vijayan, Anita Shet, Savitha Nagaraj, Sunil Karande, Gita Nataraj, Vijay N Yewale, Shrikrishna A Joshi, Ranganathan N Iyer, Mathuram Santosham, Geoffrey D Kahn, Maria Deloria Knoll
BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children younger than 5 years of age in India. We aimed to provide nationally representative data for the pattern of disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, trends in the serotype of invasive pneumococci, and invasive pneumococci antimicrobial resistance patterns, in India. METHODS: In this prospective hospital-based and retrospective laboratory-based surveillance study, we prospectively enrolled children aged younger than 5 years with suspected or proven invasive pneumococcal disease from 18 hospitals or institutional centres and retrospectively included laboratory-confirmed pneumococcal isolates from ten sentinel laboratories, together representing 11 states in India...
December 9, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941957/invasive-and-complicated-pneumococcal-infection-in-patients-with-cancer
#15
Sugehily Zarco-Márquez, Patricia Volkow-Fernández, Consuelo Velázquez-Acosta, Gabriela Echániz-Avilés, María Noemí Carnalla-Barajas, Araceli Soto-Noguerón, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez
BACKGROUND: In susceptible patients, Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause complicated pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and antimicrobial features of complicated and invasive pneumococcal disease in patients with cancer. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study including all S. pneumoniae isolates between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2015 in an oncology center. Capsular serotyping was done in isolates from sterile sites...
September 2016: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935839/capsular-polysaccharide-expression-in-commensal-streptococcus-species-genetic-and-antigenic-similarities-to-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#16
Uffe B Skov Sørensen, Kaihu Yao, Yonghong Yang, Hervé Tettelin, Mogens Kilian
: Expression of a capsular polysaccharide is considered a hallmark of most invasive species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which the capsule is among the principal virulence factors and is the basis for successful vaccines. Consequently, it was previously assumed that capsule production distinguishes S. pneumoniae from closely related commensals of the mitis group streptococci. Based on antigenic and genetic analyses of 187 mitis group streptococci, including 90 recognized serotypes of S...
November 15, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932617/reduced-trans-placental-transfer-of-group-b-streptococcus-surface-protein-antibodies-in-hiv-infected-mother-newborn-dyads
#17
Sonwabile Dzanibe, Peter V Adrian, Sheila Z Kimaro Mlacha, Ziyaad Dangor, Gaurav Kwatra, Shabir A Madhi
We evaluated the effect of maternal HIV infection on trans-placental antibody transfer specific to eight group B Streptococcus (GBS) surface protein among 81 HIV-uninfected and 83 HIV-infected mother-newborn pairs using a multiplex immunoassay. Significantly lower antibody titres were detected in HIV-infected mothers and HIV-exposed uninfected newborns compared to HIV-uninfected mother-newborn dyads. Maternal HIV infection was also associated with reduced trans-placental transfer of antibodies for Sip (25.8%), Foldase (30...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920985/the-first-case-of-recurrent-ultra-late-onset-group-b-streptococcal-sepsis-in-a-3-year-old-child
#18
Ai Hosoda, Ryohei Gatayama, Shiori Moriyama, Noriyuki Ishii, Kenichiro Yamada, Youhei Matsuzaki, Masayoshi Shinjoh
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a commonly recognized cause of sepsis and meningitis in neonatal and young infants. Invasive GBS infection is classified into early onset GBS disease (EOD, day 0-6), late onset GBS disease (LOD, day 7-89) and ultra late onset GBS disease (ULOD, after 3 months of age). ULOD is uncommon and recurrence is especially rare. We present the first recurrent case of ULOD GBS sepsis in 3-year-old girl with a past medical history of hydrops fetalis and thoracic congenital lymphatic dysplasia...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917323/development-and-evaluation-of-a-novel-vaccine-against-prevalent-invasive-multi-drug-resistant-strains-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#19
Rehab H Bahy, Hayam M Hamouda, Amal S Shahat, Aymen S Yassin, Magdy A Amin
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogen that causes serious invasive infections, such as septicemia, meningitis and pneumonia in addition to mild upper respiratory tract infections. Protection from pneumococcal diseases is thought to be mediated mainly by serotype-specific antibodies to capsular antigens. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine consists of sugars (polysaccharides) from the capsule of the bacterium S. pneumoniae that are conjugated to a carrier protein. Three pneumococcal conjugated vaccines, each directed against a group of serotypes, are registered in Egypt; however, local vaccine production is required to cover the most prevalent serotypes...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911391/a-murine-model-of-group-b-streptococcus-vaginal-colonization
#20
Kathryn A Patras, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS), is a Gram-positive, asymptomatic colonizer of the human gastrointestinal tract and vaginal tract of 10 - 30% of adults. In immune-compromised individuals, including neonates, pregnant women, and the elderly, GBS may switch to an invasive pathogen causing sepsis, arthritis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Because GBS is a leading bacterial pathogen of neonates, current prophylaxis is comprised of late gestation screening for GBS vaginal colonization and subsequent peripartum antibiotic treatment of GBS-positive mothers...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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