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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911391/a-murine-model-of-group-b-streptococcus-vaginal-colonization
#1
Kathryn A Patras, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS), is a Gram-positive, asymptomatic colonizer of the human gastrointestinal tract and vaginal tract of 10 - 30% of adults. In immune-compromised individuals, including neonates, pregnant women, and the elderly, GBS may switch to an invasive pathogen causing sepsis, arthritis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Because GBS is a leading bacterial pathogen of neonates, current prophylaxis is comprised of late gestation screening for GBS vaginal colonization and subsequent peripartum antibiotic treatment of GBS-positive mothers...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910939/real-time-pcr-based-serotyping-of-streptococcus-agalactiae
#2
Kathleen M Breeding, Bhavana Ragipani, Kun-Uk David Lee, Martin Malik, Tara M Randis, Adam J Ratner
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an encapsulated, gram-positive pathogen that is an important cause of neonatal invasive infections, including sepsis and meningitis. There are ten known GBS serotypes based on distinct capsule compositions (Ia, Ib, II-IX), and current candidate capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines target only a subset of these. Serotyping of GBS isolates is important for understanding local epidemiology and for monitoring for serotype replacement or capsular switching. However, serotyping generally requires either latex agglutination, multiplex PCR with analysis of band sizes, or analysis of whole genome sequences-all techniques that are either expensive or not widely available...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899925/increased-risk-of-group-b-streptococcus-invasive-infection-in-hiv-exposed-but-uninfected-infants-a-review-of-the-evidence-and-possible-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Nicolas Dauby, Mustapha Chamekh, Pierrette Melin, Amy L Slogrove, Tessa Goetghebuer
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (HUU). A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895845/a-trial-of-a-7-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-hiv-infected-adults
#4
Neil French, Stephen B Gordon, Thandie Mwalukomo, Sarah A White, Gershom Mwafulirwa, Herbert Longwe, Martin Mwaiponya, Eduard E Zijlstra, Malcolm E Molyneux, Charles F Gilks
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading and serious coinfection in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, particularly in Africa. Prevention of this disease by vaccination with the current 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine is suboptimal. Protein conjugate vaccines offer a further option for protection, but data on their clinical efficacy in adults are needed. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical efficacy trial, we studied the efficacy of a 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in predominantly HIV-infected Malawian adolescents and adults who had recovered from documented invasive pneumococcal disease...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868255/regulatory-gene-mutation-a-driving-force-behind-group-a-streptococcus-strain-and-serotype-specific-variation
#5
Poulomee Sarkar, Paul Sumby
Data from multiple bacterial pathogens are consistent with regulator-encoding genes having higher mutation frequencies than the genome average. Such mutations drive both strain- and type- (e.g. serotype, haplotype) specific phenotypic heterogeneity, and may challenge public health due to the potential of variants to circumvent established treatment and/or preventative regimes. Here, using the human bacterial pathogen the group A Streptococcus (GAS; S. pyogenes) as a model organism, we review the types and regulatory-, phenotypic-, and disease-specific consequences of naturally occurring regulatory gene mutations...
November 21, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852675/serotype-distribution-population-structure-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-group-b-streptococcus-strains-recovered-from-colonized-pregnant-women
#6
Sarah Teatero, Patricia Ferrieri, Irene Martin, Walter Demczuk, Allison McGeer, Nahuel Fittipaldi
Using serotyping, multilocus sequence typing and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of selected strains, we studied the population structure of 102 group B Streptococcus isolates prospectively sampled in 2014 from vaginal/rectal swabs of healthy pregnant women in metropolitan Toronto, Canada. We also determined the susceptibilities of all colonizing isolates to penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline and other antimicrobial agents. Overall, we observed a high rate of tetracycline resistance (89%) among colonizing GBS...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831912/challenges-in-reducing-group-b-streptococcus-disease-in-african-settings
#7
Yo Nishihara, Ziyaad Dangor, Neil French, Shabir Madhi, Robert Heyderman
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in high-income settings and is associated with high rates of neonatal mortality and morbidity. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that there is a high GBS disease burden in resource-limited countries, and it is therefore critically important to identify suitable and practical preventive strategies. In Europe and North America, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) has led to a dramatic reduction of early-onset GBS disease...
October 18, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819066/group-b-streptococcus-circumvents-neutrophils-and-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-during-amniotic-cavity-invasion-and-preterm-labor
#8
Erica Boldenow, Claire Gendrin, Lisa Ngo, Craig Bierle, Jay Vornhagen, Michelle Coleman, Sean Merillat, Blair Armistead, Christopher Whidbey, Varchita Alishetti, Veronica Santana-Ufret, Jason Ogle, Michael Gough, Sengkeo Srinouanprachanh, James W MacDonald, Theo K Bammler, Aasthaa Bansal, H Denny Liggitt, Lakshmi Rajagopal, Kristina M Adams Waldorf
Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Although microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) is associated with the majority of early preterm births, the temporal events that occur during MIAC and preterm labor are not known. Group B Streptococci (GBS) are β-hemolytic, gram-positive bacteria, which commonly colonize the vagina but have been recovered from the amniotic fluid in preterm birth cases. To understand temporal events that occur during MIAC, we utilized a unique chronically catheterized nonhuman primate model that closely emulates human pregnancy...
October 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818657/is-penicillin-plus-gentamicin-synergistic-against-clinical-group-b-streptococcus-isolates-an-in-vitro-study
#9
Corinne Ruppen, Agnese Lupo, Laurent Decosterd, Parham Sendi
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is increasingly causing invasive infections in non-pregnant adults. Elderly patients and those with comorbidities are at increased risk. On the basis of previous studies focusing on neonatal infections, penicillin plus gentamicin is recommended for infective endocarditis (IE) and periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a synergism with penicillin and gentamicin is present in GBS isolates that caused IE and PJI. We used 5 GBS isolates, two clinical strains and three control strains, including one displaying high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808261/community-acquired-bacterial-meningitis
#10
Diederik van de Beek, Matthijs Brouwer, Rodrigo Hasbun, Uwe Koedel, Cynthia G Whitney, Eelco Wijdicks
Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space that can also involve the brain cortex and parenchyma. It can be acquired spontaneously in the community - community-acquired bacterial meningitis - or in the hospital as a complication of invasive procedures or head trauma (nosocomial bacterial meningitis). Despite advances in treatment and vaccinations, community-acquired bacterial meningitis remains one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the most common causative bacteria and are associated with high mortality and morbidity; vaccines targeting these organisms, which have designs similar to the successful vaccine that targets Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis, are now being used in many routine vaccination programmes...
November 3, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802865/contralateral-compartment-syndrome-inoculated-by-invasive-group-a-streptococcus
#11
Huiwen Chen, Sean Thomas Mcphillips, Vishnu Chundi
Compartment syndrome is a rare but a well-documented complication in patients with trauma-induced group A streptococcus infection. Here, we present a case of a male who developed compartment syndrome on the left lower extremity after an injury inoculated by group A streptococcus on the right lower extremity. The patient was resuscitated with antibiotics, urgent fasciotomy, and immunoglobulin. The patient was eventually transferred to a burn center for further care.
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798013/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-new-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-versus-a-licensed-7-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-a-study-protocol-of-a-randomised-non-inferiority-trial-in-china
#12
Jing Jing Chen, Lin Yuan, Zhen Huang, Nian Min Shi, Yu Liang Zhao, Sheng Li Xia, Guo Hua Li, Rong Cheng Li, Yan Ping Li, Shu Yuan Yang, Jie Lai Xia
INTRODUCTION: The invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae pose an enormous threat to children under 5 years of age. However, routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines could aid in reducing the incidence of IPDs. The purpose of this clinical trial is to assess the non-inferiority of the investigational 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) to the currently licensed 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 1040 infants will receive a three-dose series of either PCV13 or PCV7 at ages 3, 4 and 5 months, respectively, and a booster dose at 12-15 months...
October 19, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795364/null-mutations-of-group-a-streptococcus-orphan-kinase-roca-selection-in-mouse-infection-and-comparison-with-covs-mutations-in-alteration-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-protease-speb-expression-and-virulence
#13
Wenchao Feng, Dylan Minor, Mengyao Liu, Jinquan Li, Suzanne L Ishaq, Carl Yeoman, Benfang Lei
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) acquires mutations of virulence regulator CovRS in human and mouse infections that upregulate virulence genes and downregulate protease SpeB. To identify in vivo mutants with novel phenotype, GAS isolates from mouse infection were screened by enzymatic assays for SpeB and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase Sse, identifying a new type of variants that had enhanced Sse expression and normal SpeB production (Sse(A+)SpeB(A+)). Sse(A+)SpeB(A+) variants have transcripts levels of CovRS-controlled virulence genes comparable to those of a covS mutant but had no covRS mutations...
October 24, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790410/spyb-a-small-heme-binding-protein-affects-the-composition-of-the-cell-wall-in-streptococcus-pyogenes
#14
Rebecca J Edgar, Jing Chen, Sashi Kant, Elena Rechkina, Jeffrey S Rush, Lennart S Forsberg, Bernhard Jaehrig, Parastoo Azadi, Veronika Tchesnokova, Evgeni V Sokurenko, Haining Zhu, Konstantin V Korotkov, Vijay Pancholi, Natalia Korotkova
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus or GAS) is a hemolytic human pathogen associated with a wide variety of infections ranging from minor skin and throat infections to life-threatening invasive diseases. The cell wall of GAS consists of peptidoglycan sacculus decorated with a carbohydrate comprising a polyrhamnose backbone with immunodominant N-acetylglucosamine side-chains. All GAS genomes contain the spyBA operon, which encodes a 35-amino-acid membrane protein SpyB, and a membrane-bound C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferase SpyA...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779831/infectious-diseases-in-poland-in-2014
#15
Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P Czarkowski
PURPOSE of the STUDY: The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767925/capsular-switching-and-other-large-scale-recombination-events-in-invasive-sequence-type-1-group-b-streptococcus
#16
Alefiya Neemuchwala, Sarah Teatero, Taryn B T Athey, Allison McGeer, Nahuel Fittipaldi
We report several cases of recombination events leading to capsular switching among sequence type (ST) 1 group B Streptococcus strains. These strains otherwise shared a common genome backbone with serotype V ST1 strains. However, the genomes of ST1 serotype V strains and those of serotypes VI, VII, and VIII strains differed substantially.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767922/serotype-iv-sequence-type-468-group-b-streptococcus-neonatal-invasive-disease-minnesota-usa
#17
Sarah Teatero, Patricia Ferrieri, Nahuel Fittipaldi
To further understand the emergence of serotype IV group B Streptococcus (GBS) invasive disease, we used whole-genome sequencing to characterize 3 sequence type 468 strains isolated from neonates in Minnesota, USA. We found that strains of tetracycline-resistant sequence type 468 GBS have acquired virulence genes from a putative clonal complex 17 GBS donor by recombination.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767905/group-b-streptococcus-sequence-type-283-disease-linked-to-consumption-of-raw-fish-singapore
#18
Priyanka Rajendram, Win Mar Kyaw, Yee Sin Leo, Hanley Ho, Wen Kai Chen, Raymond Lin, De Partha Pratim, Hishamuddin Badaruddin, Brenda Ang, Timothy Barkham, Angela Chow
An outbreak of invasive group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease occurred in Singapore in mid-2015. We conducted a case-control study of 22 adults with invasive GBS infections during June 21-November 21, 2015. Consumption of raw fish was strongly associated with invasive sequence type 283 infections, but not with non-sequence type 283 infections.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767008/immune-responses-to-invasive-group-b-streptococcal-disease-in-adults
#19
Morven S Edwards, Marcia A Rench, C Daniela Rinaudo, Monica Fabbrini, Giovanna Tuscano, Giada Buffi, Erika Bartolini, Stefano Bonacci, Carol J Baker, Immaculada Margarit
Immunization of nonpregnant adults could help prevent invasive group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections, but adult immune responses have not been investigated. We defined capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and pilus island (PI) surface antigen distribution and expression and immune responses to GBS infection in nonpregnant adults. Prospective surveillance from 7 hospitals in Houston, Texas, USA, identified 102 adults with GBS bacteremia; 43% had skin/soft tissue infection, 16% bacteremia without focus, and 12% osteomyelitis...
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766712/effect-of-the-addition-of-chlorhexidine-and-miswak-extract-on-the-clinical-performance-and-antibacterial-properties-of-conventional-glass-ionomer-an-in-vivo-study
#20
Noha Samir Kabil, Amira Saad Badran, Mariem Osama Wassel
BACKGROUND: Antibacterial restorations can increase the success rate of minimum invasive dentistry especially in young permanent molars with deep carious lesions as an attempt to preserve maximum dental structure and avoid pulp exposure. Further research is warranted to evaluate different antibacterial agents. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of adding chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) or aqueous miswak (Salvadora persica) extract on the clinical performance and in vivo antibacterial activity of conventional anhydrous glass ionomer cement (GIC)...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
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