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invasive group a streptococcus

Sean W Ong, Timothy Barkham, Win Mar Kyaw, Hanley J Ho, Monica Chan
In 2015, an epidemic of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) serotype III sequence type 283 (ST283) disease was reported in Singapore, associated with consumption of raw freshwater fish. In this study, we further characterise the characteristics of bone and joint infections associated with ST283 GBS in adults and the differences between ST283 and non-ST283 manifestations. A retrospective study of 54 inpatients with invasive GBS disease involving bones and/or joints from 2010 to 2015 was performed. Archived isolates were identified as GBS serotype III and ST283 positive using PCR methods...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
David Roy, Daisuke Takamatsu, Masatoshi Okura, Guillaume Goyette-Desjardins, Marie-Rose Van Calsteren, Audrey Dumesnil, Marcelo Gottschalk, Mariela Segura
The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) represents a key virulence factor for most encapsulated streptococci. Streptococcus suis and Group B Streptococcus (GBS) are both well-encapsulated pathogens of clinical importance in veterinary and/or human medicine and responsible for invasive systemic diseases. S. suis and GBS are the only Gram-positive bacteria which express a sialylated CPS at their surface. An important difference between these two sialylated CPSs is the linkage between the side-chain terminal galactose and sialic acid, being α-2,6 for S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Giovanni Gherardi, Luca Agostino Vitali, Roberta Creti
Background: Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen responsible for a broad range of infections, from uncomplicated to more severe and invasive diseases with high mortality and morbidity. Epidemiological surveillance has been crucial to detect changes in the geographical and temporal variation of the disease pattern; for this purpose the M protein gene ( emm) gene typing is the most widely used genotyping method, with more than 200 emm types recognized...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Ji Hyen Lee, Han Wool Kim, Kyung Hyo Kim
BACKGROUND: Invasive Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) infection most commonly occurs in infants; however, cases of GBS infection in adults, particularly in the elderly with significant underlying diseases, are being increasingly reported. We analyzed the serotype specific opsonophagocytic antibodies (the major mechanism of protection against GBS) in infants, adults, and the elderly. METHODS: The opsonization indices (OIs) of antibodies against serotype Ia, Ib, II, III, and V GBS were studied in 89 infants, 35 adults (age, 30-50 years), and 62 elderly individuals (age, 65-85 years) according to the University of Alabama at Birmingham GBS opsonophagocytic killing assay protocol (www...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Maria-Cristina C Brandileone, Samanta C G Almeida, Ruth Minamisava, Ana-Lucia Andrade
BACKGROUND: In March 2010, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the routine immunization program in Brazil. We describe the pneumococcal serotypes that caused invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) before and after the introduction of PCV10 using data from a national laboratory-based surveillance system. METHOD: We compared the prevalence of vaccine types (VT) and non-vaccine types (NVT) of Streptococcus pneumoniae in three periods, pre-PCV10 (January/2005-December/2009), early post-PCV10 (January/2010-December/2013), and late post-PCV10 (January/2014-December/2015), by episode in meningitis and non-meningitis cases and by age group...
April 9, 2018: Vaccine
Dudley H McNitt, Soo Jeon Choi, Douglas R Keene, Livingston Van De Water, Flavia Squeglia, Rita Berisio, Slawomir Lukomski
Keratinized epidermis constitutes a powerful barrier of the mucosa and skin, effectively preventing bacterial invasion, unless it is wounded and no longer protective. Wound healing involves deposition of distinct extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins enriched in cellular fibronectin (cFn) isoforms containing extra domain A (EDA). The streptococcal collagen-like protein 1 (Scl1) is a surface adhesin of group A Streptococcus (GAS), which contains an N-terminal variable (V) domain and a C-terminally located collagen-like domain...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hui-Hsien Pan, Yhu-Chering Huang, Chih-Jung Chen, Fang-Liang Huang, Pei-Ju Ting, Jing-Yang Huang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Tzou-Yien Lin, Po-Yen Chen
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) causes diseases ranging from mild skin infections to invasive diseases. Carriage of S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a significant risk factor for subsequent staphylococcal infection. Several studies discussed MRSA colonization in Taiwan, but mostly in northern Taiwan. This is the first study that estimates the prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in healthy children and identifies the potential risk factors in central Taiwan...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Benfang Lei, Dylan Minor, Wenchao Feng, Mengyao Liu
Natural mutations of the two-component regulatory system CovRS are frequently associated with invasive Group A Streptococcus (GAS) isolates and lead to the enhancement in virulence gene expression, innate immune evasion, systemic dissemination, and virulence. How CovRS mutations enhance systemic dissemination is not well understood. A hypervirulent GAS isolate of the emm3 genotype, MGAS315, was characterized using a mouse model of pulmonary infection to understand systemic dissemination. This strain has a G1370T mutation in the sensor kinase covS gene of CovRS...
April 2, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Joanne K Hobbs, Benjamin Pluvinage, Alisdair B Boraston
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent colonizer of the upper airways; however, it is also an accomplished pathogen capable of causing life-threatening diseases. To colonize and cause invasive disease, this bacterium relies upon a complex array of factors to mediate the host-bacterium interaction. The respiratory tract is rich in functionally important glycoconjugates that display a vast range of glycans and, thus, a key component of the pneumococcus-host interaction involves an arsenal of bacterial carbohydrate-active enzymes to depolymerize these glycans and carbohydrate transporters to import the products...
April 2, 2018: FEBS Letters
Nikunj Mahida, Katie Prescott, Carl Yates, Fay Spencer, Vivienne Weston, Tim Boswell
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of group A streptococcus (GAS) infections can occur in healthcare settings. Transmission to patients is sometimes linked to colonised healthcare workers and/or a contaminated environment. AIM: This report describes the investigation and control of an outbreak of healthcare-associated GAS on an elderly care medical ward, over six months. METHODS: Four patients developed septicaemia due to GAS infection without a clinically obvious site of infection...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Farah Seedat, Colin Stewart Brown, Chris Stinton, Jacoby Patterson, Julia Geppert, Karoline Freeman, Bee Tan, Samantha Ann Johnson, Hannah Fraser, Olalekan A Uthman, Esther R Robinson, Noel Denis McCarthy, Aileen Clarke, Sian Taylor-Phillips
BACKGROUND: The natural history of neonatal group B Streptococcus (GBS) is poorly understood. Little is known about the bacterial factors influencing the transmission of GBS from mother to neonate, or the development of invasive early-onset GBS disease (EOGBS) in colonized neonates. We reviewed whether bacterial load and molecular markers are associated with GBS vertical transmission and progression to EOGBS. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane and Web of Science from inception to 10 October 2016 for observational studies in English...
March 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Anne Botteaux, Isolda Budnik, Pierre R Smeesters
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent findings have open new perspectives on group A Streptococcus (GAS) virulence understanding with special focus on the carrier stage and new hopes for an efficient vaccine against this important pathogen. RECENT FINDINGS: Understanding of carriage state, transmission and role of virulence factors in invasive infections have been recently active research fields questioning the link between carriage and infections and highlighting the potential to prevent invasive diseases...
March 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Sarah Shabayek, Barbara Spellerberg
Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of serious neonatal infections. GBS is an opportunistic commensal constituting a part of the intestinal and vaginal physiologic flora and maternal colonization is the principal route of GBS transmission. GBS is a pathobiont that converts from the asymptomatic mucosal carriage state to a major bacterial pathogen causing severe invasive infections. At present, as many as 10 serotypes (Ia, Ib, and II-IX) are recognized. The aim of the current review is to shed new light on the latest epidemiological data and clonal distribution of GBS in addition to discussing the most important colonization determinants at a molecular level...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Harriet Dickinson, Mark Reacher, Bernadette Nazareth, Heidi Eagle, Deirdre Fowler, Anthony Underwood, Meera Chand, Victoria Chalker, Juliana Coelho, Roger Daniel, Georgia Kapatai, Ali Al-Shabib, Richard Puleston
BACKGROUND: The clinical manifestations of Group A streptococcus (GAS) - (Streptococcus pyogenes) are diverse, ranging from asymptomatic colonisation to devastating invasive disease. Maternity related clusters of invasive Group A streptococcus (iGAS) infection are complex to investigate and control, especially if recurrent. AIM: We report on the investigation into three episodes of emm 75 GAS/iGAS infection in maternity patients at one hospital site over a 4 year period, two with monophyletic ancestry...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Cinthia Alves-Barroco, Catarina Roma-Rodrigues, Luís R Raposo, Catarina Brás, Mário Diniz, João Caço, Pedro M Costa, Ilda Santos-Sanches, Alexandra R Fernandes
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (SDSD) is a major cause of bovine mastitis and has been regarded as an animal-restricted pathogen, although rare infections have been described in humans. Previous studies revealed the presence of virulence genes encoded by phages of the human pathogen Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) in SDSD isolated from the milk of bovine udder with mastitis. The isolates SDSD VSD5 and VSD13 could adhere and internalize human primary keratinocyte cells, suggesting a possible human infection potential of bovine isolates...
March 25, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Jacek Dutkiewicz, Violetta Zając, Jacek Sroka, Bernard Wasiński, Ewa Cisak, Anna Sawczyn, Anna Kloc, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla
<i>Streptococcus suis</i> is a re-emerging zoonotic pathogen that may cause severe disease, mostly meningitis, in pigs and in humans having occupational contact with pigs and pork, such as farmers, slaughterhose workers and butchers. The first stage of the pathogenic process, similar in pigs and humans, is adherence to and colonisation of mucosal and/or epithelial surface(s) of the host. The second stage is invasion into deeper tissue and extracellular translocation of bacterium in the bloodstream, either free in circulation or attached to the surface of monocytes...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Francesca Micoli, Paolo Costantino, Roberto Adamo
Cell surface carbohydrates have been proven optimal targets for vaccine development. Conjugation of polysaccharides to a carrier protein triggers a T-cell dependent immune response to the glycan moiety. Licensed glycoconjugate vaccines are produced by chemical conjugation of capsular polysaccharides to prevent meningitis caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, other classes of carbohydrates (O-antigens, exopolysaccharides, wall/teichoic acids) represent attractive targets for developing vaccines...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Cinta Moraleda, Rachid Benmessaoud, Jessica Esteban, Yuly López, Hassan Alami, Amina Barkat, Tligui Houssain, Meryem Kabiri, Rachid Bezad, Saad Chaacho, Lola Madrid, Jordi Vila, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Jordi Bosch, Sara M Soto, Quique Bassat
PURPOSE: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of neonatal sepsis worldwide. Data on the prevalence of maternal GBS colonization, risk factors for carriage, antibiotic susceptibility and circulating serotypes are necessary to tailor adequate locally relevant public health policies. METHODOLOGY: A prospective study including pregnant women and their newborns was conducted between March and July 2013 in Morocco. We collected clinical data and vagino-rectal and urine samples from the recruited pregnant women, together with the clinical characteristics of, and body surface samples from, their newborns...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Carlos M Luna, Laura Pulido, Diego Burgos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As Streptococcus pneumoniae was considered the etiological agent of nearly all the cases of pneumonia at the beginning of the 20th century, and today is identified in fewer than 10-15% of cases, we analyze the possible causes of such a decline. RECENT FINDINGS: Extensive use of early empiric antimicrobial therapy, discovery of previously unrecognized pathogens, availability to newer diagnostic methods for the recognition of the pneumonia pathogens (PCR, urinary antigens, monoclonal antibodies etc...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Bernard Louizette Christophe, Mariana Mott, Gabriela da Cunha, Juliana Caierão, Pedro D Azevedo, Cícero Dias
PURPOSE: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the elderly is an important public health issue due to the increased proportion of this population in many countries including Brazil. We aimed to characterise pneumococci isolates in adults >50 years with IPD, following the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) as part of the National Childhood Immunisation Program for children ≤2 years in March 2010. METHODOLOGY: Between 2013 and 2015, pneumococcal isolates were collected and serotypes were determined using multiplex PCR and/or Quellung reaction...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
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