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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034376/exploring-the-pregnant-guinea-pig-as-a-model-for-group-b-streptococcus-intrauterine-infection
#1
Maria I Harrell, Kellie Burnside, Christopher Whidbey, Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Infection of the amniotic cavity remains a major cause of preterm birth, stillbirth, fetal injury and early onset, fulminant infections in newborns. Currently, there are no effective therapies to prevent in utero infection and consequent co-morbidities. This is in part due to the lack of feasible and appropriate animal models to understand mechanisms that lead to in utero infections. Use of mouse and rat models do not fully recapitulate human pregnancy, while pregnant nonhuman primate models are limited by ethical considerations, technical constraints, and cost...
September 2017: J Infect Dis Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031429/outbreak-of-group-a-streptococcus-emm94-0-affecting-people-who-inject-drugs-in-southwest-england-april-2017
#2
Rachel M Kwiatkowska, Petra Manley, Ben Sims, Theresa Lamagni, Derren Ready, Juliana Coelho, Layth Alsaffar, Charles R Beck, Fiona Neely
We report an outbreak of invasive and noninvasive group A Streptococcus during April 2017 among people who inject drugs in southwest England. To date we have identified 14 cases linked to a specific town, all confirmed as group A Streptococcus emm94.0, a strain type not previously reported in the area. We have yet to identify a source for this ongoing outbreak. Actions described here may help reduce the burden of infection in vulnerable populations.
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029763/serotype-virulence-profile-antimicrobial-resistance-and-macrolide-resistance-determinants-in-streptococcus-agalactiae-isolates-in-pregnant-women-and-neonates-in-catalonia-spain
#3
Yuly López, Elena Parra, Virginio Cepas, Isabel Sanfeliú, Teresa Juncosa, Antonia Andreu, Mariona Xercavins, Josefa Pérez, Sergi Sanz, Andrea Vergara, Jordi Bosch, Sara Maria Soto
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B streptococci (GBS), is the main aetiological agent of early neonatal sepsis in developed countries. This microorganism belongs to the gastrointestinal tract microbiota wherefrom it can colonize the vagina and be vertically transmitted to the child either before or at birth, and subsequently cause infection in the newborn. Approximately, 50% of newborns born to women with GBS become colonized, with 1-2% developing early neonatal infection if no preventive intervention is performed...
October 10, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029127/antibody-kinetics-and-response-to-routine-vaccinations-in-infants-born-to-women-who-received-an-investigational-trivalent-group-b-streptococcus-polysaccharide-crm197-conjugate-vaccine-during-pregnancy
#4
Shabir A Madhi, Anthonet Koen, Clare L Cutland, Lisa Jose, Niresha Govender, Frederick Wittke, Morounfolu Olugbosi, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Sherryl Baker, Peter M Dull, Vas Narasimhan, Karen Slobod
Background: Maternal vaccination against group B Streptococcus (GBS) might provide protection against invasive GBS disease in infants. We investigated the kinetics of transplacentally transferred GBS serotype-specific capsular antibodies in the infants and their immune response to diphtheria toxoid and pneumococcal vaccination. Methods: This phase 1b/2, observer-blind, single-center study (NCT01193920) enrolled infants born to women previously randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive either GBS vaccine at dosages of 0...
September 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020313/trends-in-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-ipd-in-cancer-patients-after-the-introduction-of-7-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv7-a-20-year-longitudinal-study-at-a-major-urban-cancer-center
#5
Yeon Joo Lee, Yao-Ting Huang, Seong Jin Kim, Marina Kerpelev, Victoria Gonzalez, Anna Kaltsas, Genovefa Papanicolaou
Background: Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) declined since routine childhood immunization with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2000. We studied the impact of PCV7 on the incidence of IPD in cancer patients. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of adult and pediatric patients treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 1992 to 2012. Recovery of Streptococcus pneumoniae from a sterile site defined IPD. IPD incidence was calculated as cases per 1,000 unique patient-visits per year (UPV)...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969684/group-b-streptococcus-gbs-is-an-important-pathogen-in-human-disease-but-what-about-in-cystic-fibrosis
#6
Kate Skolnik, Austin Nguyen, Christina S Thornton, Barbara Waddell, Tyler Williamson, Harvey R Rabin, Michael D Parkins
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a common commensal capable of causing severe invasive infections. Most GBS infections occur in neonates (often as pneumonia). GBS can also cause infection in adults with diabetes and other immunological impairments but rarely leads to pneumonia in adults. GBS has occasionally been found in the sputum of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients, an inherited condition known for progressive lung disease. However, the epidemiology and clinical significance of GBS in CF are not understood...
October 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968016/-molecular-characterization-of-non-vaccine-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotypes-11a-15-b-c-and-23a-recovered-from-invasive-isolates-in-colombia
#7
Paola Andrea Palacios, Carolina Duarte, Olga Sanabria, Jaime Moreno
INTRODUCTION: A total of 192 invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, from serotypes 11A, 15B/C and 23A (not included in the conjugated vaccines), were collected in Colombia between 1994 and 2014 as part of the activities of the Network surveillance system for the causative agents of pneumonia and meningitis (SIREVA II). OBJECTIVE: To determine the molecular characteristics of invasive S. pneumoniae isolates from serotypes 11A, 15B/C and 23A in Colombia from 1994 to 2014...
September 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963207/full-sequencing-and-genomic-analysis-of-three-emm75-group-a-streptococcus-strains-recovered-in-the-course-of-an-epidemiological-shift-in-french-brittany
#8
Aude Rochefort, Sarrah Boukthir, Séverine Moullec, Alexandra Meygret, Yahia Adnani, Dominique Lavenier, Ahmad Faili, Samer Kayal
While the incidence and invasiveness of type emm75 group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections increased in French Brittany during 2013, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of three independent strains isolated in 2009, 2012, and 2014, respectively. In this short-term evolution, genomic analysis evidenced mainly the integration of new phages encoding virulence factors.
September 28, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961675/nasopharyngeal-pneumococcal-colonization-and-impact-of-a-single-dose-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-indian-children-with-hiv-and-their-unvaccinated-parents
#9
Bikas K Arya, Sangeeta Das Bhattacharya, Catherine G Sutcliffe, Feroze Ganaie, Arun Bhaskar, Subhasish Bhattacharyya, Swapan Kumar Niyogi, William J Moss, Samiran Panda, K L Ravikumar, Ranjan Saurav Das, Sutapa Mandal
BACKGROUND: HIV infection increases risk of invasive disease from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) prevent invasive disease and acquisition of vaccine type (VT) pneumococcus in the nasopharynx. OBJECTIVE: To look at the safety and impact of one dose of PCV13 on acquisition of VT pneumococcal carriage in Indian children with HIV. METHOD: We conducted a cohort study in families of HIV-infected children (CLH) and families of HIV-uninfected children (HUC) in West Bengal...
September 27, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953248/effect-of-simultaneous-exposure-of-pigs-to-streptococcus-suis-serotypes-2-and-9-on-their-colonization-and-transmission-and-on-mortality
#10
Niels Dekker, Annemarie Bouma, Ineke Daemen, Hans Vernooij, Leo van Leengoed, Jaap A Wagenaar, Arjan Stegeman
The distribution of Streptococcus suis serotypes isolated from clinically infected pigs differs between geographical areas, and varies over time. In several European countries, predomination of serotype 2 has changed to serotype 9. We hypothesize a relation, with one serotype affecting the other in colonization and invasion. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether simultaneous exposure of pigs to serotypes 2 and 9 affects colonization and transmission of each type, and mortality. Thirty-six caesarean-derived/colostrum-deprived piglets were randomly assigned to three groups, and there housed pair-wise...
September 27, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945063/-streptococcus-agalactiae-prevention-and-vaccine-development
#11
REVIEW
A Puertas-Prieto, A Lara-Oya, C Liébana Martos, J Rodríguez-Granger, F Cobo, A Sampedro, A Padilla, J Gutiérrez-Fernández, S Manzanares-Galán, M Cueto-López, M Rosa-Fraile, J M Navarro-Mari
Streptococcus agalactiae, group B Streptococcus (SGB), is the most important cause of morbi-mortality among newborn population, and an important pathogen among immunossupressed adult patients. Despite the advances in the treatment and prevention of neonatal infections as a consequence of implementation of national and international recommendations for prevention of infection, there are still some improvements for the final control of the disease. In this sense, the vaccination against SGB could be an effective measure for the prevention of disease in those cases where intrapartum prophylaxis is not useful and in adult patients with risk factors for invasive infection due to SGB...
September 25, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941358/rates-of-vaccination-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-cochlear-implant-patients
#12
Anna Piotrowska, Iwona Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Henryk Skarżyński
BACKGROUND Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause life-threatening illness, with invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) like meningitis, sepsis, bacteremic pneumonia, and bacteremia being major causes of morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown that patients who have had a cochlear implant, particularly children, have an increased risk of bacterial (pneumococcal) meningitis. Vaccination in patients with cochlear implants is important and recommended universally. The World Health Organization recommends the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in all countries and considers their use to be a priority in all national immunization programs...
September 23, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936424/acid-stress-response-mechanisms-of-group-b-streptococci
#13
REVIEW
Sarah Shabayek, Barbara Spellerberg
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the United States and Europe. It is part of the vaginal microbiota in up to 30% of pregnant women and can be passed on to the newborn through perinatal transmission. GBS has the ability to survive in multiple different host niches. The pathophysiology of this bacterium reveals an outstanding ability to withstand varying pH fluctuations of the surrounding environments inside the human host. GBS host pathogen interations include colonization of the acidic vaginal mucosa, invasion of the neutral human blood or amniotic fluid, breaching of the blood brain barrier as well as survival within the acidic phagolysosomal compartment of macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930023/familial-transmission-of-emm12-group-a-streptococcus
#14
Claire Duployez, Anne Vachée, Olivier Robineau, François Giraud, Anthony Deny, Eric Senneville, Frédéric Wallet, Caroline Loïez
Incidence and severity of invasive group A Streptococcus infections are of increasing concern in France and worldwide. The risk for secondary infection of close contacts is known but rarely described. We report a case of intrafamilial and life-threatening transmission of emm12 group A Streptococcus.
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928212/population-and-whole-genome-sequence-based-characterization-of-invasive-group-a-streptococci-recovered-in-the-united-states-during-2015
#15
Sopio Chochua, Ben J Metcalf, Zhongya Li, Joy Rivers, Saundra Mathis, Delois Jackson, Robert E Gertz, Velusamy Srinivasan, Ruth Lynfield, Chris Van Beneden, Lesley McGee, Bernard Beall
Group A streptococci (GAS) are genetically diverse. Determination of strain features can reveal associations with disease and resistance and assist in vaccine formulation. We employed whole-genome sequence (WGS)-based characterization of 1,454 invasive GAS isolates recovered in 2015 by Active Bacterial Core Surveillance and performed conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Predictions were made for genotype, GAS carbohydrate, antimicrobial resistance, surface proteins (M family, fibronectin binding, T, R28), secreted virulence proteins (Sda1, Sic, exotoxins), hyaluronate capsule, and an upregulated nga operon (encodes NADase and streptolysin O) promoter (Pnga3)...
September 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925912/epidemiologic-features-of-invasive-group-a-streptococcus-infection-in-a-rural-hospital-6-year-retrospective-report-and-literature-review
#16
Kassandra Loewen, Natalie Bocking, Cai-Lei Matsumoto, Mike Kirlew, Len Kelly
INTRODUCTION: High rates of invasive group A Streptococcus disease were suspected by clinicians in northwestern Ontario. Patients with sepsis were being encountered with bacteremia positive for group A Streptococcus. This study was designed to assess the incidence of invasive group A Streptococcus infection in the region and provide best-practice treatment information. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review at the Sioux Lookout Meno Ya Win Health Centre (SLMHC) from 2009 to 2014 to examine rates of infection due to invasive group A Streptococcus and outcomes...
2017: Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924140/linoleic-and-palmitoleic-acid-block-streptokinase-mediated-plasminogen-activation-and-reduce-severity-of-invasive-group-a-streptococcal-infection
#17
Katharina Rox, Rolf Jansen, Torsten G Loof, Christine M Gillen, Steffen Bernecker, Mark J Walker, Gursharan Singh Chhatwal, Rolf Müller
In contrast to mild infections of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) invasive infections of GAS still pose a serious health hazard: GAS disseminates from sterile sites into the blood stream or deep tissues and causes sepsis or necrotizing fasciitis. In this case antibiotics do not provide an effective cure as the bacteria are capable to hide from them very quickly. Therefore, new remedies are urgently needed. Starting from a myxobacterial natural products screening campaign, we identified two fatty acids isolated from myxobacteria, linoleic and palmitoleic acid, specifically blocking streptokinase-mediated activation of plasminogen and thereby preventing streptococci from hijacking the host's plasminogen/plasmin system...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923133/genetic-evidence-for-a-novel-variant-of-the-pilus-island-1-backbone-protein-in-group-b-streptococcus
#18
Sarah Teatero, Alefiya Neemuchwala, Kunlin Yang, Janice Gomes, Taryn B T Athey, Irene Martin, Walter Demczuk, Allison McGeer, Nahuel Fittipaldi
PURPOSE: Pili contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of infection of group B Streptococcus (GBS) by facilitating adhesion and invasion of host cells. GBS pilin subunits (the backbone pilin protein, BP, and the ancillary pilin proteins, AP) as well as the specific enzymes required for pilus assembly are encoded by genes located in two separate genomic regions, known as pilus island 1 (PI-1) and PI-2. Our aim was to characterize the pilus profile of a collection of GBS isolates from metropolitan Toronto, Canada...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917068/group-a-streptococcal-bacteraemia-experience-at-king-fahad-medical-city-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia
#19
Fawzyh J Al-Khadidi, Mohammed A AlSheheri, Tariq S AlFawaz, Mushira A Enani, Abdulaziz A AlAqeel, Dayel A AlShahrani
To identify clinical presentation, predisposing factors, and the outcome in patients with Group A Streptococcal bacteremia. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 33 pediatric and adult patients with Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia, admitted at King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 2007 to 2015. Results: Thirty-three patient records, documenting bacteremia with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, were reviewed. Approximately 51.5% were pediatric and 48.5% were adult patients, with a male to female ratio of 2:1...
October 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910402/nasopharyngeal-bacterial-load-as-a-marker-for-rapid-and-easy-diagnosis-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-from-mozambique
#20
Pedro Brotons, Quique Bassat, Miguel Lanaspa, Desiree Henares, Amaresh Perez-Arguello, Lola Madrid, Reyes Balcells, Sozinho Acacio, Maria Andres-Franch, Maria Angeles Marcos, Ana Valero-Rello, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro
BACKGROUND: Current diagnostic methods for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with suspected invasive pneumococcal disease have limitations of accuracy, timeliness, and patient convenience. This study aimed to determine the performance of pneumococcal load quantified with a real-time polymerase-chain reaction in nasopharyngeal samples to diagnose invasive pneumococcal disease in children. METHODS: Matched case-control study of patients <5 years of age with invasive pneumococcal disease admitted to the Manhiça District Hospital (Mozambique) and asymptomatic controls recruited in different periods between 2006 and 2014...
2017: PloS One
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