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R Ramesh, N Shaw, E K Miles, B Richard, I Colmenero, C Moss
The association of hypophosphataemic rickets with verrucous epidermal naevus (EN) and elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 levels is known as cutaneous-skeletal hypophosphataemia syndrome (CSHS), and can be caused by somatic activating mutations in RAS genes. We report a unique patient with CSHS associated with giant congenital melanocytic naevus (CMN), neurocutaneous melanosis and EN syndrome, manifesting as facial linear sebaceous naevus, developmental delay and ocular dermoids. An activating mutation Q61R in the NRAS gene was found in affected skin and ocular tissue but not blood, implying that the disparate manifestations are due to a multilineage activating mutation (mosaic RASopathy)...
November 30, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Regina M Zambrano, Michael Marble, Stuart A Chalew, Christian Lilje, Alfonso Vargas, Yves Lacassie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Elizabeth I Pierpont, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Mary Ella Pierpont
Mutations in MAP2K1, a gene expressed within the RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (RAS/MAPK) pathway, are generally associated with the clinical phenotype of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. Here we describe two male patients (ages 16 and 20 years) with mutations in MAP2K1 and heterogeneous clinical presentations. Both young men had short stature, some facial features suggesting a RASopathy and minimal cardiac involvement. Detailed medical and neuropsychological findings are presented alongside a comprehensive review of features of patients with MAP2K1 mutations reported in the literature...
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Alessandro Corsi, Cristina Remoli, Mara Riminucci, Ernesto Ippolito, John Dimitriou
Multiple non-ossifying fibromas (MNOFs) occur either isolated or in association with other anomalies, are usually localized in the long bones of the lower limbs, may be radiographically confused with other skeletal lesions, and tend to heal spontaneously with the completion of the skeletal growth. Segmental distribution, either monomelic or polymelic and ipsilateral, is rare and commonly observed in the context of developmental diseases known as "RASopathies", which are caused by mutations in genes that encode components or regulators within the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway...
November 8, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Elizabeth J Bhoj, Zhenming Yu, Qiaoning Guan, Rebecca Ahrens-Nicklas, Kajia Cao, Minjie Luo, Tanya Tischler, Matthew A Deardorff, Elaine Zackai, Avni B Santani
INTRODUCTION: RASopathies include disorders generally characterized by developmental delay, specific heart defects, short stature, cardiac hypertrophy, and facial dysmorphisms. Next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based panels have widespread acceptance as a diagnostic tool for RASopathies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The first 126 patients evaluated by clinical examination and the NGS RASopathy panel at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia were enrolled. We calculated diagnosis rate, correlated reported clinical findings with positive or negative test results, and identified final molecular diagnoses in 28/96 patients who tested negative for RASopathies...
October 20, 2016: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Keiko Shimojima, Yumiko Ondo, Mayumi Matsufuji, Nozomi Sano, Hisashi Tsuru, Tatsuki Oyoshi, Nayuta Higa, Hiroshi Tokimura, Kazunori Arita, Toshiyuki Yamamoto
A female patient presented with developmental delay, distinctive facial features, and congenital anomalies, including a heart defect and premature lambdoid synostosis. The patient showed a paternally inherited 16p13.11 microduplication and a de novo 19p13.3 microdeletion involving the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 gene (MAP2K2), in which mutations cause the cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome. Reports of patients with overlapping 19p13.3 microdeletions of this region describe similar clinical manifestations including distinctive facial features: prominent forehead, horizontal/down-slanting palpebral fissures, long midface, pointed chin/angular jaw, sparse eyebrows, and underdeveloped cheekbones...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Annie T G Chiu, Lixing Zhu, Gary T K Mok, Gordon K C Leung, C B Chow, Brian H Y Chung
Costello syndrome is a type of RASopathy mapped to HRAS gene in chromosome 11, characterized by prenatal overgrowth, postnatal failure to thrive, classic facial gestalt and multisystem involvement including cardiomyopathy and intellectual disability. We present a 7 months old child with severe failure to thrive whose "subtle" facial dysmorphism at the time eluded clinical recognition of the syndrome. It was only with optimization of his nutritional status that dysmorphic features became more apparent, which affirmed the molecular diagnosis of Costello syndrome from exome sequencing...
October 2, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
I Arroyo-Carrera, M Solo de Zaldivar-Tristancho, R Martin-Fernandez, M Vera-Torres, J F Gonzalez de Buitrago-Amigo, J Botet-Rodriguez
INTRODUCTION: Noonan syndrome is the most frequent of the congenital group of malformation syndromes caused by germline mutations that encode components of the RAS/MAPK pathway, termed RASopathies, one of the most frequent congenital genetic disorders in the clinical practice. Recently RIT1 mutations have been reported in patients with Noonan syndrome. CASE REPORT: A 7 years-old girl with a clinical diagnosis of Noonan syndrome, and with a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy included in her clinical manifestations, where a de novo heterozygous, probably pathogenic, novel mutation in RIT1, c...
October 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Frank Y Lin, Katie Bergstrom, Richard Person, Abhishek Bavle, Leomar Y Ballester, Sarah Scollon, Robin Raesz-Martinez, Andrew Jea, Sherri Birchansky, David A Wheeler, Stacey L Berg, Murali M Chintagumpala, Adekunle M Adesina, Christine Eng, Angshumoy Roy, Sharon E Plon, D Williams Parsons
The integration of genome-scale studies such as whole-exome sequencing (WES) into the clinical care of children with cancer has the potential to provide insight into the genetic basis of an individual's cancer with implications for clinical management. This report describes the results of clinical tumor and germline WES for a patient with a rare tumor diagnosis, rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle (RGNT). Three pathogenic gene alterations with implications for clinical care were identified: somatic activating hotspot mutations in FGFR1 (p...
September 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
Katherine M Robbins, Deborah L Stabley, Jennifer Holbrook, Rebecca Sahraoui, Alexa Sadreameli, Katrina Conard, Laura Baker, Karen W Gripp, Katia Sol-Church
Costello syndrome (CS) arises from a typically paternally derived germline mutation in the proto-oncogene HRAS, and is considered a rasopathy. CS results in failure-to-thrive, intellectual disabilities, short stature, coarse facial features, skeletal abnormalities, congenital heart disease, and a predisposition for cancer, most commonly embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS). The goal of this study was to characterize CS ERMS at the molecular level and to determine how divergent it is from sporadic ERMS. We characterized eleven ERMS tumors from eight unrelated CS patients, carrying paternally derived HRAS c...
December 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Alessandro Papale, Raffaele d'Isa, Elisabetta Menna, Milica Cerovic, Nicola Solari, Neil Hardingham, Marco Cambiaghi, Marco Cursi, Mariano Barbacid, Letizia Leocani, Stefania Fasano, Michela Matteoli, Riccardo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of Ras-extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling gives rise to RASopathies, a class of neurodevelopmental syndromes associated with intellectual disability. Recently, much attention has been directed at models bearing mild forms of RASopathies whose behavioral impairments can be attenuated by inhibiting the Ras-ERK cascade in the adult. Little is known about the brain mechanisms in severe forms of these disorders. METHODS: We performed an extensive characterization of a new brain-specific model of severe forms of RASopathies, the KRAS(12V) mutant mouse...
June 27, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Rebecca Josowitz, Sonia Mulero-Navarro, Nelson A Rodriguez, Christine Falce, Ninette Cohen, Erik M Ullian, Lauren A Weiss, Katherine A Rauen, Eric A Sobie, Bruce D Gelb
Germline mutations in BRAF cause cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFCS), whereby 40% of patients develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). As the role of the RAS/MAPK pathway in HCM pathogenesis is unclear, we generated a human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) model for CFCS from three patients with activating BRAF mutations. By cell sorting for SIRPα and CD90, we generated a method to examine hiPSC-derived cell type-specific phenotypes and cellular interactions underpinning HCM. BRAF-mutant SIRPα(+)/CD90(-) cardiomyocytes displayed cellular hypertrophy, pro-hypertrophic gene expression, and intrinsic calcium-handling defects...
September 13, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Florian Mainberger, Susanne Langer, Volker Mall, Nikolai H Jung
Synaptic plasticity in the form of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) is considered to be the neurophysiological correlate of learning and memory. Impairments are discussed to be one of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of developmental disorders. In so-called RASopathies [e.g., neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1)], neurocognitive impairments are frequent and are affected by components of the RAS pathway which lead to impairments in synaptic plasticity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) provides a non-invasive method to investigate synaptic plasticity in humans...
October 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Won Kyoung Jhang, Jin-Ho Choi, Beom Hee Lee, Gu-Hwan Kim, Han-Wook Yoo
RASopathies are a group of syndromes caused by germline mutations of the RAS/MAPK pathway. They include Noonan syndrome, cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome, Costello syndrome, and Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, which share many characteristic features including cardiac abnormalities. Here, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical manifestations and evaluated the genotype-phenotype associations with special focus on cardiac lesions of the patients with RASopathies. Cardiac symptoms were the most common initial presentation (27 %), except for admission to neonatal intensive care...
December 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
Elina Siljamäki, Daniel Abankwa
The Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is tightly controlled by negative feedback regulators, such as the tumor suppressor SPRED1. The SPRED1 gene also carries loss-of-function mutations in the RASopathy Legius syndrome. Growth factor stimulation translocates SPRED1 to the plasma membrane, triggering its inhibitory activity. However, it remains unclear whether SPRED1 there acts at the level of Ras or Raf. We show that pharmacological or galectin-1 (Gal-1)-mediated induction of B- and C-Raf-containing dimers translocates SPRED1 to the plasma membrane...
October 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Jia Zhang, Jinwen Shen, Ruhong Cheng, Cheng Ni, Jianying Liang, Ming Li, Zhirong Yao
LEOPARD syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder primarily caused by mutations in the PTPN11, RAF1 and BRAF genes. Characteristic features include lentigines, craniofacial dysmorphism, myocardium or valve abnormalities, eletrocardiographic conduction defects and deafness. LS, neurofibromatosis type 1, Noonan syndrome and Legius syndrome are a group of highly overlapped disorders termed 'RASopathies'. Therefore, clinical discrimination between these syndromes represents a huge challenge. The present study reports a young child diagnosed with LS via identification of a common p...
September 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Marialetizia Motta, Giovanni Chillemi, Valentina Fodale, Serena Cecchetti, Simona Coppola, Silvia Stipo, Viviana Cordeddu, Pompeo Macioce, Bruce D Gelb, Marco Tartaglia
SHOC2 is a scaffold protein composed almost entirely by leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and having an N-terminal region enriched in alternating lysine and glutamate/aspartate residues (KEKE motifs). SHOC2 acts as positive modulator of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling cascade by favoring stable RAF1 interaction with RAS. We previously reported that the p.Ser2Gly substitution in SHOC2 underlies Mazzanti syndrome, a RASopathy clinically overlapping Noonan syndrome, promoting N-myristoylation and constitutive targeting of the mutant to the plasma membrane...
July 27, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Young H Lim, Diana Ovejero, Kristina M Derrick, Michael T Collins, Keith A Choate
BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated multilineage somatic mosaicism in cutaneous skeletal hypophosphatemia syndrome (CSHS), which features epidermal or melanocytic nevi, elevated fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, and hypophosphatemia, finding identical RAS mutations in affected skin and bone. OBJECTIVE: We sought to: (1) provide an updated overview of CSHS; (2) review its pathobiology; (3) present a new patient with CSHS; and (4) discuss treatment modalities. METHODS: We searched PubMed for "nevus AND rickets," and "nevus AND hypophosphatemia," identifying cases of nevi with hypophosphatemic rickets or elevated serum FGF-23...
August 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Josipa Raguz, Ines Jeric, Theodora Niault, Joanna Daniela Nowacka, Sanya Eduarda Kuzet, Christian Rupp, Irmgard Fischer, Silvia Biggi, Tiziana Borsello, Manuela Baccarini
The RAS pathway is central to epidermal homeostasis, and its activation in tumors or in Rasopathies correlates with hyperproliferation. Downstream of RAS, RAF kinases are actionable targets regulating keratinocyte turnover; however, chemical RAF inhibitors paradoxically activate the pathway, promoting epidermal proliferation. We generated mice with compound epidermis-restricted BRAF/RAF1 ablation. In these animals, transient barrier defects and production of chemokines and Th2-type cytokines by keratinocytes cause a disease akin to human atopic dermatitis, characterized by IgE responses and local and systemic inflammation...
2016: ELife
William E Tidyman, Katherine A Rauen
The RASopathies are defined as a group of medical genetics syndromes that are caused by germ-line mutations in genes that encode components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Taken together, the RASopathies represent one of the most prevalent groups of malformation syndromes affecting greater than 1 in 1,000 individuals. The Ras/MAPK pathway has been well studied in the context of cancer as it plays essential roles in growth, differentiation, cell cycle, senescence and apoptosis, all of which are also critical to normal development...
July 12, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
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