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potassium citrate

William G Robertson
A critical examination of data in the literature and in as yet unpublished laboratory records on the possible role of so-called inhibitors of crystallisation in preventing the formation of calcium-containing kidney stones leads to the following conclusions. So-called inhibitors of spontaneous "self-nucleation" are unlikely to play any role in the initiation of the crystallisation of CaOx or CaP in urine because excessive urinary supersaturation of urine with respect to these salts dominates the onset of "self-nucleation" within the normal time frame of the transit of tubular fluid through the nephron (3-4 min)...
November 29, 2016: Urolithiasis
H Cheng, F L Hu, J Q Sheng, H J An, L Xu, F X Liu, Y Li, Q Hao, P Y Zheng, G F Lu, Z Q Cao, Y P Wang
Objective: To explore the efficacy of Jinhuaweikang capsules plus furazolidone-based triple or quadruple therapy as the rescue treatment for Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection. Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled multicenter clinical trial. Patients with chronic gastritis from H. pylori infection in whom eradication treatment failed were recruited from 6 hospitals. All patients were divided into 4 groups using stratified randomization: group A1 (PAFJ), receiving pantoprazole 40 mg+ amoxicillin 1 000 mg+ furazolidone 100 mg+ Jinghuaweikang 3 capsules, twice a day for 10 d (d1-10); group A2, PAFJ therapy as in group A1, followed by Jinghuaweikang 3 capsules twice a day for 18 d (d11-28); group B1 (PAFB), receiving pantoprazole 40 mg+ amoxicillin 1 000 mg+ furazolidone 100 mg+ bismuth potassium citrate 220 mg, twice a day for 10 d (d1-10); group B2, PAFB therapy as in group B1, followed by Jinghuaweikang 3 capsules twice a day for 18 d (d11-28)...
November 1, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Viacheslav Liato, Steve Labrie, Mohammed Aïder
AIMS: To study the electro-activation of potassium acetate, potassium citrate and calcium lactate aqueous solutions and to evaluate their antimicrobial effect against E. coli O157:H7 at ambient temperature. METHODS AND RESULTS: Potassium acetate, potassium citrate and calcium lactate aqueous solutions were electrically excited in the anodic compartment of a four sectional electro-activation reactor. Different properties of the electro-activated solutions were measured such as: solutions acidity (pH and titratable), Redox potential and vibrational properties by Raman spectroscopy...
2016: SpringerPlus
Rei Unno, Kazumi Taguchi, Atsushi Okada, Ryosuke Ando, Shuzo Hamamoto, Yasue Kubota, Li Zuo, Keiichi Tozawa, Kenjiro Kohri, Takahiro Yasui
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of potassium-sodium citrate on the development of computed tomography-detected renal microcalculi into symptomatic stones in calcium stone-forming patients. METHODS: Patients (aged 20-80 years) with history of calcium component stones who visited Nagoya City Hospital, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan, between April 2009 and June 2014 were included. They were retrospectively divided into those who did not receive potassium-sodium citrate (non-citrate group, n = 157) and those who did (citrate group, n = 60)...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Toshiyuki Ueki, Kelly P Nevin, Trevor L Woodard, Derek R Lovley
Physiological studies and biotechnology applications of Geobacter species have been limited by a lack of genetic tools. Therefore, potential additional molecular strategies for controlling metabolism were explored. When the gene for citrate synthase, or acetyl-CoA transferase, was placed under the control of a LacI/IPTG regulator/inducer system, cells grew on acetate only in the presence of IPTG. The TetR/AT system could also be used to control citrate synthase gene expression and acetate metabolism. A strain that required IPTG for growth on D-lactate was constructed by placing the gene for D-lactate dehydrogenase under the control of the LacI/IPTG system...
November 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Matheus M Pereira, Rafaela A P Cruz, Mafalda R Almeida, Álvaro S Lima, João A P Coutinho, Mara G Freire
The ability of aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of polyethylene glycols of different molecular weights (PEG 400, 600 and 1000) and buffered aqueous solutions of potassium citrate/citric acid (pH = 5.0 - 8.0) to selectively extract ovalbumin from egg white was here investigated. Phase diagrams, tie-lines and tie-line lengths were determined at 25ºC and the partitioning of ovalbumin in these systems was then evaluated. Aiming at optimizing the selective extraction of ovalbumin in the studied ABS, factors such as pH, PEG molecular weight and amount of the phase-forming components were initially investigated with pure commercial ovalbumin...
June 2016: Process Biochemistry
Dean G Assimos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Urology
Alagappa Rammohan, James A Kaduk
The crystal structure of anhydrous tripotassium citrate, [K3(C6H5O7)] n , has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The three unique potassium cations are 6-, 8-, and 6-coordinate (all irregular). The [KO n ] coordination polyhedra share edges and corners to form a three-dimensional framework, with channels running parallel to the c axis. The only hydrogen bond is an intra-molecular one involving the hy-droxy group and the central carboxyl-ate group, with graph-set motif S(5)...
August 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Jasmijn Anna van Balveren, Mirelle Huijskens, Eugenie Gemen, Nathalie Pequeriaux, Ron Kusters
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomy for the purpose of blood analysis is often performed at remote locations and samples are usually temporarily stored before transport to a central laboratory for analysis. The circumstances during storage and shipment may not meet the necessary requirements. If analyzed anyway, false results may be generated. We therefore examined the influence of pre-centrifugation time and temperature of the most frequently requested tests in whole blood. METHODS: Healthy volunteers donated blood in which 48 analytes were tested...
August 5, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Nancy J Thiex
A previously validated method for the determination of both citrate-EDTA-soluble P and K and acid-soluble P and K in commercial inorganic fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry was submitted to the expert review panel (ERP) for fertilizers for consideration of First Action Official Method(SM) status. The ERP evaluated the single-laboratory validation results and recommended the method for First Action Official Method status and provided recommendations for achieving Final Action...
July 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Fredric L Coe, Elaine M Worcester, Andrew P Evan
The most common presentation of nephrolithiasis is idiopathic calcium stones in patients without systemic disease. Most stones are primarily composed of calcium oxalate and form on a base of interstitial apatite deposits, known as Randall's plaque. By contrast some stones are composed largely of calcium phosphate, as either hydroxyapatite or brushite (calcium monohydrogen phosphate), and are usually accompanied by deposits of calcium phosphate in the Bellini ducts. These deposits result in local tissue damage and might serve as a site of mineral overgrowth...
September 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Wanpen Vongpatanasin, Poghni Peri-Okonny, Alejandro Velasco, Debbie Arbique, Zhongyun Wang, Priya Ravikumar, Beverly Adams-Huet, Orson W Moe, Charles Y C Pak
Diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, known as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, is known to reduce blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients. More recently, the DASH diet was shown to reduce oxidative stress in hypertensive and nonhypertensive humans. However, the main nutritional components responsible for these beneficial effects of the DASH diet remain unknown. Because the DASH diet is rich in potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and alkali, we performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to compare effects of potassium magnesium citrate (KMgCit), potassium chloride (KCl), and potassium citrate (KCit) to allow dissociation of the three components of K, Mg, and citrate on 24-hour ambulatory BP and urinary 8-isoprostane in hypertensive and prehypertensive subjects, using a randomized crossover design...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Pietro Manuel Ferraro, Ernest I Mandel, Gary C Curhan, Giovanni Gambaro, Eric N Taylor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Protein and potassium intake and the resulting diet-dependent net acid load may affect kidney stone formation. It is not known whether protein type or net acid load is associated with risk of kidney stones. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We prospectively examined intakes of protein (dairy, nondairy animal, and vegetable), potassium, and animal protein-to-potassium ratio (an estimate of net acid load) and risk of incident kidney stones in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (n=42,919), the Nurses' Health Study I (n=60,128), and the Nurses' Health Study II (n=90,629)...
July 21, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
GholamHossein Naderi, Firouzeh Tabassomi, AmirHossein Latif, MohammadReza Ganji
Primary hyperoxaluria Type-1 (PH-1) is caused by a deficiency of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase manifesting as urolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Among treatment options, best outcomes have been achieved by sequential liver-kidney transplantation (Seq-LKT). Herein, we report a patient with PH-1 and ESRD who underwent Seq-LKT in Iran. Criteria for diagnosis included a history of recurring calcium oxalate renal stones and elevated urine oxalate level combined with liver biopsy and absent enzymatic activity at the age of 13 years...
July 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
M Courbebaisse, C Prot-Bertoye, J-P Bertocchio, S Baron, G Maruani, S Briand, M Daudon, P Houillier
Nephrolithiasis is a very common (prevalence around 10 to 12% in France) and recurrent disorder. Nephrolithiasis is associated to chronic kidney disease and is responsible for 2 to 3% of cases of end-stage renal disease, mainly if it is associated to nephrocalcinosis or to a monogenic disorder (1.6% of nephrolithiasis in adults, among them 1% of cystinuria). To understand the underlying pathophysiological processes, stone analysis (morphology and using infrared spectrophotometry) as well as minimal biological assessment including urine crystal research are required...
June 24, 2016: La Revue de Médecine Interne
T Katanec, M Majstorovic, D Negovetic Vranic, M Ivic Kardum, L A Marks
OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to evaluate a combined effect of active ingredients contained in new toothpaste in reducing dentine hypersensitivity. METHODS: The tested toothpaste contained active ingredients potassium nitrate (5.00%) and zinc citrate (0.50%). Pain to water stimulus and blowing air was reported on hypersensitive teeth and measured using the VAS (Visual Analogue Scale). The degree of pain to water stimulus was detected after each subject drank a few sips of water which was boiled to the room temperature...
June 14, 2016: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
Teng Li, Yanyan Wang, Lei Qin, Tian Han, You-Song Ding, Yue-Qiao Hu, Yan-Zhen Zheng
Three potassium(i)-nickel(ii)-citrate coordination polymers, [K4Ni6(cit)4(H2O)8]n (), [K14Ni17(cit)12(H2O)33]n·10nH2O () and [K8Ni12(cit)8(H2O)15]n·2nH2O (), have been self-assembled in a solvothermal synthesis. Interestingly, these three polymers share the common {Ni4(cit)4}(8-) cubane ({Ni4}-cit-cub) secondary building units. The diverse ways of linking the {Ni4}-cit-cubs and additional isolated octahedral Ni(ii) ions lead to disparate magnetic exchange-coupling interactions, namely ferromagnetic for and and antiferromagnetic for ...
June 28, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Katrin Conen, Roberto Scanni, Marie-Therese Gombert, Henry N Hulter, Reto Krapf
BACKGROUND: Experimental K(+) depletion reversibly inhibits insulin secretion, while chronic metabolic acidosis decreases insulin sensitivity. We aimed to investigate the effects of potassium supplementation and alkali supplementation in non-acidotic, normokalemic humans with combined glucose intolerance. STUDY DESIGN AND RESULTS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 11 subjects (7 male, 4 female, ages 47-63 years), 90meqs of oral KCl or Kcitrate per day for 2weeks each increased insulin production as measured by homeostasis model assessment Beta [KCl=86 (CI 81-91), Kcitrate=88 (82-94), placebo=78 (73-83)%, p<0...
August 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Gareth Trubl, Natalie Solonenko, Lauren Chittick, Sergei A Solonenko, Virginia I Rich, Matthew B Sullivan
Permafrost stores approximately 50% of global soil carbon (C) in a frozen form; it is thawing rapidly under climate change, and little is known about viral communities in these soils or their roles in C cycling. In permafrost soils, microorganisms contribute significantly to C cycling, and characterizing them has recently been shown to improve prediction of ecosystem function. In other ecosystems, viruses have broad ecosystem and community impacts ranging from host cell mortality and organic matter cycling to horizontal gene transfer and reprogramming of core microbial metabolisms...
2016: PeerJ
Sameh Mohamed Abouzeid, Hossam E ElHossary
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalinization medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient...
May 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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