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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080988/medical-mycology-and-fungal-immunology-new-research-perspectives-addressing-a-major-world-health-challenge
#1
REVIEW
Neil A R Gow, Mihai G Netea
Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066801/cell-assisted-lipotransfer-in-breast-augmentation-and-reconstruction-a-systematic-review-of-safety-efficacy-use%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-patient-reported-outcomes-and-study-quality
#2
Zeeshaan Arshad, Lindsey Karmen, Rajan Choudhary, James A Smith, Olivier A Branford, David A Brindley, David Pettitt, Benjamin M Davies
BACKGROUND: Cell assisted lipotransfer serves as a novel technique for both breast reconstruction and breast augmentation. This systematic review assesses the efficacy, safety and use of patient reported outcome measures in studies involving cell assisted lipotransfer. We also carry out an objective assessment of study quality focussing on recruitment, follow-up and provide an up-to-date clinical trial landscaping analysis. METHODS: Key electronic databases were searched according to PRISMA guidelines and pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria...
December 2016: JPRAS Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062963/does-demand-for-breast-augmentation-reflect-national-financial-trends
#3
L Kearney, R T Dolan, A J Clover, E J Kelly, E O'Broin, M O'Shaughnessy, S T O'Sullivan
: Aesthetic plastic surgery is a consumer-driven industry, subject to influence by financial forces. A changing economic environment may thus impact on the demand for surgery. The aim of this study was to explore trends in demand for bilateral breast augmentation (BBA) in consecutively presenting patients over an 11-year period and to examine if a correlation exists between these trends and changes in Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a key economic indicator. This study revealed a correlation between annual number of breast augmentation procedures performed and GDP values (r (2) = 0...
January 7, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061448/targeting-basal-like-breast-tumors-with-bromodomain-and-extraterminal-domain-bet-and-polo-like-kinase-inhibitors
#4
Cristina Nieto-Jiménez, Ana Alcaraz-Sanabria, Javier Pérez-Peña, Verónica Corrales-Sánchez, Gemma Serrano-Heras, Eva M Galán-Moya, Leticia Serrano-Oviedo, Juan Carlos Montero, Miguel Burgos, Juan Llopis, Atanasio Pandiella, Alberto Ocaña
Metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an incurable disease with limited therapeutic options, and no targeted therapies available. Triple negative tumors and the basal-like genomic subtype, are both characterized by a high proliferation rate and an increase in cell division. In this context, protein kinases involved in the mitotic formation have a relevant role in this tumor subtype. Recently, Bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) inhibitors have shown to be active in this disease by modulating the expression of several transcription factors...
January 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054302/microrna-761-induces-aggressive-phenotypes-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells-by-repressing-trim29-expression
#5
Guang-Cheng Guo, Jia-Xiang Wang, Ming-Li Han, Lian-Ping Zhang, Lin Li
PURPOSE: Despite advances that have been made in systemic chemotherapy, the prognosis of advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients is still poor. The identification of key factors governing TNBC development is considered imperative for the development of novel effective therapeutic approaches. Previously, it has been reported that microRNA (miR)-761 may act as either a tumor suppressor or as an oncogene in different types of cancer. Here, we aimed at assessing the biological role of this miRNA in TNBC...
January 4, 2017: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052005/bortezomib-augments-lymphocyte-stimulatory-cytokine-signaling-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-to-sustain-cd8-t-cell-antitumor-function
#6
Samuel T Pellom, Duafalia F Dudimah, Menaka C Thounaojam, Roman V Uzhachenko, Ashutosh Singhal, Ann Richmond, Anil Shanker
Tumor-induced immune tolerance poses a major challenge for therapeutic interventions aimed to manage cancer. We explored approaches to overcome T-cell suppression in murine breast and kidney adenocarcinomas, and lung fibrosarcoma expressing immunogenic antigens. We observed that treatment with a reversible proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (1 mg/kg body weight) in tumor-bearing mice significantly enhanced the expression of lymphocyte-stimulatory cytokines IL-2, IL-12, and IL-15. Notably, bortezomib administration reduced pulmonary nodules of mammary adenocarcinoma 4T1...
December 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038446/heparanase-augments-insulin-receptor-signaling-in-breast-carcinoma
#7
Rachel Goldberg, Amir Sonnenblick, Esther Hermano, Tamar Hamburger, Amichay Meirovitz, Tamar Peretz, Michael Elkin
Recently, growing interest in the potential link between metabolic disorders (i.e., diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome) and breast cancer has mounted, including studies which indicate that diabetic/hyperinsulinemic women have a significantly higher risk of bearing breast tumors that are more aggressive and associated with higher death rates. Insulin signaling is regarded as a major contributor to this phenomenon; much less is known about the role of heparan sulfate-degrading enzyme heparanase in the link between metabolic disorders and cancer...
December 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027312/the-subclonal-architecture-of-metastatic-breast-cancer-results-from-a-prospective-community-based-rapid-autopsy-program-cascade
#8
Peter Savas, Zhi Ling Teo, Christophe Lefevre, Christoffer Flensburg, Franco Caramia, Kathryn Alsop, Mariam Mansour, Prudence A Francis, Heather A Thorne, Maria Joao Silva, Nnennaya Kanu, Michelle Dietzen, Andrew Rowan, Maik Kschischo, Stephen Fox, David D Bowtell, Sarah-Jane Dawson, Terence P Speed, Charles Swanton, Sherene Loi
BACKGROUND: Understanding the cancer genome is seen as a key step in improving outcomes for cancer patients. Genomic assays are emerging as a possible avenue to personalised medicine in breast cancer. However, evolution of the cancer genome during the natural history of breast cancer is largely unknown, as is the profile of disease at death. We sought to study in detail these aspects of advanced breast cancers that have resulted in lethal disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Three patients with oestrogen-receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer and one patient with triple negative breast cancer underwent rapid autopsy as part of an institutional prospective community-based rapid autopsy program (CASCADE)...
December 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012977/two-stage-implant-based-breast-reconstruction-compared-with-immediate-one-stage-implant-based-breast-reconstruction-augmented-with-an-acellular-dermal-matrix-an-open-label-phase-4-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Rieky E G Dikmans, Vera L Negenborn, Mark-Bram Bouman, Hay A H Winters, Jos W R Twisk, P Quinten Ruhé, Marc A M Mureau, Jan Maerten Smit, Stefania Tuinder, Yassir Eltahir, Nicole A Posch, Josephina M van Steveninck-Barends, Marleen A Meesters-Caberg, René R W J van der Hulst, Marco J P F Ritt, Margriet G Mullender
BACKGROUND: The evidence justifying the use of acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in implant-based breast reconstruction (IBBR) is limited. We did a prospective randomised trial to compare the safety of IBBR with an ADM immediately after mastectomy with that of two-stage IBBR. METHODS: We did an open-label, randomised, controlled trial in eight hospitals in the Netherlands. Eligible women were older than 18 years with breast carcinoma or a gene mutation linked with breast cancer who intended to undergo skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate IBBR...
December 21, 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010934/facilitating-shared-decision-making-with-breast-augmentation-patients-acceptability-of-the-pegasus-intervention
#10
Nicole Paraskeva, Alex Clarke, Rajiv Grover, Stephen Hamilton, Simon Withey, Diana Harcourt
BACKGROUND: PEGASUS is an intervention to facilitate shared decision-making by helping prospective patients consider their expectations of surgery, so that surgeons have a clear understanding of their individual goals. To date, shared decision-making interventions within aesthetic surgery are lacking. The present mixed methods study therefore explored the acceptability of implementing PEGASUS into routine private practice with breast augmentation patients and aesthetic providers. METHOD: Seventeen women presenting for breast augmentation surgery from three practices received the PEGASUS intervention pre-operatively and completed a process evaluation post-operatively...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004414/an-expectation-maximization-algorithm-for-fitting-the-generalized-odds-rate-model-to-interval-censored-data
#11
Jie Zhou, Jiajia Zhang, Wenbin Lu
The generalized odds-rate model is a class of semiparametric regression models, which includes the proportional hazards and proportional odds models as special cases. There are few works on estimation of the generalized odds-rate model with interval censored data because of the challenges in maximizing the complex likelihood function. In this paper, we propose a gamma-Poisson data augmentation approach to develop an Expectation Maximization algorithm, which can be used to fit the generalized odds-rate model to interval censored data...
December 21, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001351/proteoform-specific-protein-binding-of-small-molecules-in-complex-matrices
#12
Geuncheol Gil, Pan Mao, Bharathi Avula, Zulfiqar Ali, Amar G Chittiboyina, Ikhlas A Khan, Larry A Walker, Daojing Wang
Characterizing the specific binding between protein targets and small molecules is critically important for drug discovery. Conventional assays require isolation and purification of small molecules from complex matrices through multistep chromatographic fractionation, which may alter their original bioactivity. Most proteins undergo posttranslational modification, and only certain proteoforms have the right conformation with accessible domains and available residues for small molecule binding. We developed a top-down mass spectrometry (MS) centric workflow for rapid evaluation of the bioactivity of crude botanical extracts after a one-step reaction...
December 21, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994672/an-in-vitro-inverted-vertical-invasion-assay-to-avoid-manipulation-of-rare-or-sensitive-cell-types
#13
Tanner J McArdle, Brenda M Ogle, Felicite K Noubissi
The ability to quantify cell migration and invasion is critical in the study of cancer metastasis. Current invasion assays, such as the Boyden Chamber, present difficulties in the measurement of the invasion of cells that are few in number and are intrinsically tied to the cell microenvironment. There exists a need for a three-dimensional invasion assay that is easily reproduced, accessible for most laboratories, and requires no displacement of cells from their original microenvironment. Here we present a simple design for an inverted vertical invasion assay able to assess the invasion capabilities of cells in a three dimensional, extracellular matrix-based environment without displacement from the original culture location...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993599/cd73-specific-sirna-loaded-chitosan-lactate-nanoparticles-potentiate-the-antitumor-effect-of-a-dendritic-cell-vaccine-in-4t1-breast-cancer-bearing-mice
#14
Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Fatemeh Atyabi, Ali Rastegari, Nasim Kheshtchin, Samaneh Arab, Hadi Hassannia, Maryam Ajami, Zahra Mirsanei, Sima Habibi, Farimah Masoumi, Farshid Noorbakhsh, Fazel Shokri, Jamshid Hadjati
The efficacy of conventional anti-tumor immunotherapeutic approaches is markedly affected by the immunosuppressive microenvironment of tumor. Since adenosine is one of the main orchestra leaders in immunosuppression symphony of tumor, targeting its producing molecules such as CD73 can help to achieve a better clinical outcome following conventional cancer immunotherapeutic approaches. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of CD73-specific siRNA-loaded chitosan-lactate nanoparticles (ChLa NPs) in combination with tumor lysate pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) vaccine in treatment of 4T1 (murine derived) breast cancer bearing mice...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982029/galnt14-promotes-lung-specific-breast-cancer-metastasis-by-modulating-self-renewal-and-interaction-with-the-lung-microenvironment
#15
Ki-Hoon Song, Mi So Park, Tulip S Nandu, Shrikanth Gadad, Sang-Cheol Kim, Mi-Young Kim
Some polypeptide N-acetyl-galactosaminyltransferases (GALNTs) are associated with cancer, but their function in organ-specific metastasis remains unclear. Here, we report that GALNT14 promotes breast cancer metastasis to the lung by enhancing the initiation of metastatic colonies as well as their subsequent growth into overt metastases. Our results suggest that GALNT14 augments the self-renewal properties of breast cancer cells (BCCs). Furthermore, GALNT14 overcomes the inhibitory effect of lung-derived bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on self-renewal and therefore facilitates metastasis initiation within the lung microenvironment...
December 16, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965859/the-ibra-implant-breast-reconstruction-evaluation-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-multi-centre-cohort-study-to-inform-the-feasibility-design-and-conduct-of-a-pragmatic-randomised-clinical-trial-comparing-new-techniques-of-implant-based-breast-reconstruction
#16
Shelley Potter, Elizabeth J Conroy, Paula R Williamson, Steven Thrush, Lisa J Whisker, Joanna M Skillman, Nicola L P Barnes, Ramsey I Cutress, Elizabeth M Teasdale, Nicola Mills, Senthurun Mylvaganam, Olivier A Branford, Katherina McEvoy, Abhilash Jain, Matthew D Gardiner, Jane M Blazeby, Christopher Holcombe
BACKGROUND: Implant-based breast reconstruction (IBBR) is the most commonly performed reconstructive procedure in the UK. The introduction of techniques to augment the subpectoral pocket has revolutionised the procedure, but there is a lack of high-quality outcome data to describe the safety or effectiveness of these techniques. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are the best way of comparing treatments, but surgical RCTs are challenging. The iBRA (implant breast reconstruction evaluation) study aims to determine the feasibility, design and conduct of a pragmatic RCT to examine the effectiveness of approaches to IBBR...
2016: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964843/tumour-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-advanced-her2-positive-breast-cancer-treated-with-pertuzumab-or-placebo-in-addition-to-trastuzumab-and-docetaxel-a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-cleopatra-study
#17
Stephen J Luen, Roberto Salgado, Stephen Fox, Peter Savas, Jennifer Eng-Wong, Emma Clark, Astrid Kiermaier, Sandra M Swain, Jose Baselga, Stefan Michiels, Sherene Loi
BACKGROUND: High quantities of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in primary HER2-positive breast cancer are associated with improved prognosis and response to therapy. We aimed to investigate the prognostic role of host antitumour immunity as represented by baseline quantities of TILs in patients with advanced HER2-positive breast cancer treated with either pertuzumab or placebo in addition to trastuzumab and docetaxel. METHODS: CLEOPATRA was a randomised phase 3 study comparing the addition of either pertuzumab or placebo to first-line therapy with trastuzumab and docetaxel for patients with locally recurrent, unresectable, or metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer...
January 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960235/modern-therapies-and-iatrogenic-changes-in-breast-pathology
#18
REVIEW
Elena Provenzano, Sarah E Pinder
Iatrogenic changes within the breast can provide challenges for the histopathologist in routine practice. Diagnostic procedures, such as core biopsies, result in reactive changes and can cause displacement of benign and malignant cells, the interpretation of which may cause difficulties in the resection specimen. Breast augmentation surgery with implants or injection of fillers, performed for cosmetic reasons or as part of a reconstructive process following removal of breast cancer, also produces reactive changes locally and at distant sites that may mimic cancer...
January 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940906/unraveling-factors-influencing-early-seroma-formation-in-breast-augmentation-surgery
#19
Marcos Sforza, Rodwan Husein, Connor Atkinson, Renato Zaccheddu
BACKGROUND: It is often assumed that seroma formation trails closely behind with incidence rates reported at 1 to 2%. Seroma is highly problematic for both the surgeon and patient and results in both patient anxiety and discomfort, succeeded by frequent outpatient visits, follow-up treatment, increased costs, and potentially hampered aesthetic outcomes. Consequently, it is now more important than ever to study seroma and to assess its pathophysiology and mechanisms of prevention. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to isolate and identify risk factors that may be associated with early seroma formation...
December 9, 2016: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930592/self-reported-psychological-development-in-cosmetic-breast-surgery-patients
#20
María Ángeles Pérez-San-Gregorio, Agustín Martín-Rodríguez, María Jesús Arias-Moreno, María Esther Rincón-Fernández, José Ignacio Ortega-Martínez
Cosmetic breast surgery is the only therapeutic alternative for psychological and physical complications associated with micromasty, breast ptosis, and macromasty. We analyzed the effects of 2 variables, time, and type of cosmetic breast surgery, on anxiety symptomatology and quality of life.Following a mixed 3 × 4 design, 3 groups of women with breast augmentation (n = 63), mastopexy (n = 42), and breast reduction (n = 30) were selected and evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey at 4 different times, the preoperative stage, and at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperative...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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