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Axonal guidance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330744/c-fos-downregulation-positively-regulates-epha5-expression-in-a-congenital-hypothyroidism-rat-model
#1
Honghua Song, Yuqin Zheng, Fuying Cai, Yanyan Ma, Jingyue Yang, Youjia Wu
The EphA5 receptor is well established as an axon guidance molecule during neural system development and plays an important role in dendritic spine formation and synaptogenesis. Our previous study has showed that EphA5 is decreased in the developing brain of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and the EphA5 promoter methylation modification participates in its decrease. c-Fos, a well-kown transcription factor, has been considered in association with brain development. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the EphA5 promoter region contained five putative c-fos binding sites...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322522/eye-specific-segregation-and-differential-fasciculation-of-developing-retinal-ganglion-cell-axons-in-the-mouse-visual-pathway
#2
Austen A Sitko, Takaaki Kuwajima, Carol Mason
Prior to forming and refining synaptic connections, axons of projection neurons navigate long distances to their targets. While much is known about guidance cues for axon navigation through intermediate choice points, whether and how axons are organized within tracts is less clear. Here we analyze the organization of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons in the developing mouse retinogeniculate pathway. RGC axons are organized by both eye-specificity and topography in the optic nerve and tract: ipsilateral RGC axons are segregated from contralateral axons and are offset laterally in the tract relative to contralateral axon topographic position...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315368/treatment-with-the-neutralizing-antibody-against-repulsive-guidance-molecule-a-promotes-recovery-from-impaired-manual-dexterity-in-a-primate-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Hiroshi Nakagawa, Taihei Ninomiya, Toshihide Yamashita, Masahiko Takada
Axons in the mature mammalian central nervous system have only a limited capacity to grow/regenerate after injury, and spontaneous recovery of motor functions is therefore not greatly expected in spinal cord injury (SCI). To promote functional recovery after SCI, it is critical that corticospinal tract (CST) fibers reconnect properly with target spinal neurons through enhanced axonal growth/regeneration. Here, we applied antibody treatment against repulsive guidance molecule-a (RGMa) to a monkey model of SCI...
January 5, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311561/inhibition-of-rgma-alleviates-symptoms-in-a-rat-model-of-neuromyelitis-optica
#4
Kana Harada, Yuki Fujita, Tatsusada Okuno, Shogo Tanabe, Yoshihisa Koyama, Hideki Mochizuki, Toshihide Yamashita
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disease associated with NMO immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG), an antibody that selectively binds to the aquaporin-4. Here, we established a localized NMO model by injecting NMO-IgG into the spinal cord, and assessed the efficacy of treating its NMO-like symptoms by blocking repulsive guidance molecule-a (RGMa), an axon growth inhibitor. The model showed pathological features consistent with NMO. Systemic administration of humanized monoclonal anti-RGMa antibody delayed the onset and attenuated the severity of clinical symptoms...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299985/vegf-a-stimulus-for-neuronal-development-and-regeneration-in-the-cns-and-pns
#5
Verena Theis, Carsten Theiss
The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a homodimeric disulfide bound glycoprotein that promotes endothelial growth, accompanied by higher vascular permeability, and therefore represents an important factor for angiogenesis and vascularization. In addition, VEGF also has a neurotrophic and neuroprotective impact on glial and neuronal cells within the CNS and PNS. Recently, we have shown that VEGF increases somato- and dendritogenesis in neonatal, but not in mature CNS neurons [1], and leads to axonal growth cone guidance during embryonic development of the PNS [2, 3]...
January 3, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286093/identifying-hub-genes-and-potential-mechanisms-associated-with-senescence-in-human-annulus-cells-by-gene-expression-profiling-and-bioinformatics-analysis
#6
Chao Liu, Nong Chen, Kai Huang, Minbo Jiang, He Liang, Zhongyi Sun, Jiwei Tian, Deguo Wang
The aim of the present study was to reveal the potential hub genes and regulatory mechanisms associated with senescence in human annulus cells by analyzing microarray data using bioinformatics. The gene expression dataset GSE17077, of senescent and non‑senescent annulus cells obtained from patients with disc degenerative diseases (DDD), was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Functional and pathway annotations were performed using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes terms, respectively...
December 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285225/the-protective-value-of-mir-204-5p-for-prognosis-and-its-potential-gene-network-in-various-malignancies-a-comprehensive-exploration-based-on-rna-seq-high-throughput-data-and-bioinformatics
#7
Zhi-Hua Ye, Dong-Yue Wen, Xiao-Yong Cai, Liang Liang, Pei-Rong Wu, Hui Qin, Hong Yang, Yun He, Gang Chen
Purpose: The prognostic role of miR-204-5p (previous ID: miR-204) is varied and inconclusive in diverse types of malignant neoplasm. Therefore, the purposes of the study comprehensively explore the overall prognostic role of miR-204-5p based on high-throughput microRNA sequencing data, and to investigate the potential role of miR-204-5p via bioinformatics approaches. Materials and Methods: The data of microRNA sequencing and survival were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the prognostic value of miR-204-5p was analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier and univariate cox regressions...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277684/commissural-axon-navigation-in-the-spinal-cord-a-repertoire-of-repulsive-forces-is-in-command
#8
REVIEW
Hugo Ducuing, Thibault Gardette, Aurora Pignata, Servane Tauszig-Delamasure, Valérie Castellani
The navigation of commissural axons in the developing spinal cord has attracted multiple studies over the years. Many important concepts emerged from these studies which have enlighten the general mechanisms of axon guidance. The navigation of commissural axons is regulated by a series of cellular territories which provides the diverse guidance information necessary to ensure the successive steps of their pathfinding towards, across, and away from the ventral midline. In this review, we discuss how repulsive forces, by propelling, channelling, and confining commissural axon navigation, bring key contributions to the formation of this neuronal projection...
December 22, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276694/an-optimized-immunohistochemistry-protocol-for-detecting-the-guidance-cue-netrin-1-in-neural-tissue
#9
Samer Salameh, Dominique Nouel, Cecilia Flores, Daniel Hoops
Netrin-1, an axon guidance protein, is difficult to detect using immunohistochemistry. We performed a multi-step, blinded, and controlled protocol optimization procedure to establish an efficient and effective fluorescent immunohistochemistry protocol for characterizing Netrin-1 expression. Coronal mouse brain sections were used to test numerous antigen retrieval methods and combinations thereof in order to optimize the stain quality of a commercially available Netrin-1 antibody. Stain quality was evaluated by experienced neuroanatomists for two criteria: signal intensity and signal-to-noise ratio...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274478/a-compound-scaffold-with-uniform-longitudinally-oriented-guidance-cues-and-a-porous-sheath-promotes-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-in-vivo
#10
Liangliang Huang, Lei Zhu, Xiaowei Shi, Bing Xia, Zhongyang Liu, Shu Zhu, Yafeng Yang, Teng Ma, Pengzhen Cheng, Kai Luo, Jinghui Huang, Zhuojing Luo
Scaffolds with inner fillers that convey directional guidance cues represent promising candidates for nerve repair. However, incorrect positioning or non-uniform distribution of intraluminal fillers might result in regeneration failure. In addition, proper porosity (to enhance nutrient and oxygen exchange but prevent fibroblast infiltration) and mechanical properties (to ensure fixation and to protect regenerating axons from compression) of the outer sheath are also highly important for constructing advanced nerve scaffolds...
December 20, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274387/common-cues-wire-the-spinal-cord-axon-guidance-molecules-in-spinal-neuron-migration
#11
REVIEW
Zhe Chen
Topographic arrangement of neuronal cell bodies and axonal tracts are crucial for proper wiring of the nervous system. This involves often-coordinated neuronal migration and axon guidance during development. Most neurons migrate from their birthplace to specific topographic coordinates as they adopt the final cell fates and extend axons. The axons follow temporospatial specific guidance cues to reach the appropriate targets. When neuronal or axonal migration or their coordination is disrupted, severe consequences including neurodevelopmental disorders and neurological diseases, can arise...
December 20, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261810/whole-genome-microarray-analysis-of-neural-progenitor-c17-2-cells-during-differentiation-and-validation-of-30-neural-mrna-biomarkers-for-estimation-of-developmental-neurotoxicity
#12
Kristina Attoff, Anda Gliga, Jessica Lundqvist, Ulf Norinder, Anna Forsby
Despite its high relevance, developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) is one of the least studied forms of toxicity. Current guidelines for DNT testing are based on in vivo testing and they require extensive resources. Transcriptomic approaches using relevant in vitro models have been suggested as a useful tool for identifying possible DNT-generating compounds. In this study, we performed whole genome microarray analysis on the murine progenitor cell line C17.2 following 5 and 10 days of differentiation. We identified 30 genes that are strongly associated with neural differentiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261324/designer-neural-networks-with-embedded-semiconductor-microtube-arrays
#13
Aune Koitmäe, Manuel Müller, Cornelius Sebastian Bausch, Jann Harberts, Wolfgang Hansen, Gabriele Loers, Robert H Blick
Here we present a designer's approach to building cellular neuronal networks based on a bio-compatible negative photo-resist with embedded coaxial feedthroughs made of semiconductor microtubes. The diameter of the microtubes is tailored and adjusted to the diemeter of the cerebellum axons having a diameter of 2-3 µm. The microtubes as well as the SU-8 layer serve as topographical cue to the axons. Apart from the topographical guidance we also employ chemical guidance cues enhancing neuron growth at designed spots...
December 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259705/the-roles-of-rgma-neogenin-signaling-in-inflammation-and-angiogenesis
#14
REVIEW
Yuki Fujita, Toshihide Yamashita
Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein that has diverse functions in the developing and pathological central nervous system (CNS). The binding of RGM to its receptor neogenin regulates axon guidance, neuronal differentiation, and survival during the development of the CNS. In the pathological state, RGM expression is induced after spinal cord injury, and the inhibition of RGM promotes axon growth and functional recovery. Furthermore, RGM expression is also observed in immune cells, and RGM regulates inflammation and neurodegeneration in autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
2017: Inflammation and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246630/expression-of-rgmb-in-brain-tissue-of-mcao-rats-and-its-relationship-with-axonal-regeneration
#15
Xiao Wang, Jing-Liang Cheng, Yun-Cai Ran, Yong Zhang, Lu Yang, Ya-Nan Lin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in the expression of repulsive guidance molecule b (RGMb) in brain tissue of rats with ischemic cerebral infarction and determine its relationship with axonal regeneration, synapse remodeling and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters with magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging as the dynamic continuous monitoring method in vivo, so as to explore the pathophysiological mechanism of the occurrence, development and prognosis of cerebral infarction...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242274/sema4d-plexinb1-inhibition-ameliorates-blood-brain-barrier-damage-and-improves-outcome-after-stroke-in-rats
#16
Yi-Fan Zhou, Ya-Nan Li, Hui-Juan Jin, Jie-Hong Wu, Quan-Wei He, Xu-Xia Wang, Hao Lei, Bo Hu
The inflammatory process in stroke is the major contributor to blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. Previous studies indicated that semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), an axon guidance molecule, initiated inflammatory microglial activation and disrupted endothelial function in the CNS. However, whether Sema4D disrupts BBB integrity after stroke remains unclear. To study the effect of Sema4D on BBB disruption in stroke, rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and targeted injection of lentivirus-mediated clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 gene disruption of PlexinB1...
December 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232713/long-disordered-regions-of-the-c-terminal-domain-of-abelson-tyrosine-kinase-have-specific-and-additive-functions-in-regulation-and-axon-localization
#17
Han S J Cheong, Mark F A VanBerkum
Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl) is a key regulator of actin-related morphogenetic processes including axon guidance, where it functions downstream of several guidance receptors. While the long C-terminal domain (CTD) of Abl is required for function, its role is poorly understood. Here, a battery of mutants of Drosophila Abl was created that systematically deleted large segments of the CTD from Abl or added them back to the N-terminus alone. The functionality of these Abl transgenes was assessed through rescue of axon guidance defects and adult lethality in Abl loss-of-function, as well as through gain-of-function effects in sensitized slit or frazzled backgrounds that perturb midline guidance in the Drosophila embryonic nerve cord...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229841/predicting-glycosaminoglycan-surface-protein-interactions-and-implications-for-studying-axonal-growth
#18
Adam R Griffith, Claude J Rogers, Gregory M Miller, Ravinder Abrol, Linda C Hsieh-Wilson, William A Goddard
Cell-surface carbohydrates play important roles in numerous biological processes through their interactions with various protein-binding partners. These interactions are made possible by the vast structural diversity of carbohydrates and the diverse array of carbohydrate presentations on the cell surface. Among the most complex and important carbohydrates are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which display varied stereochemistry, chain lengths, and patterns of sulfation. GAG-protein interactions participate in neuronal development, angiogenesis, spinal cord injury, viral invasion, and immune response...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229154/morphofunctional-evaluation-of-end-to-side-neurorrhaphy-through-video-system-magnification
#19
Rui Sergio Monteiro de Barros, Marcus Vinicius Henriques Brito, Marcelo Houat de Brito, Jean Vitor de Aguiar Lédo Coutinho, Renan Kleber Costa Teixeira, Vitor Nagai Yamaki, Felipe Lobato da Silva Costa, Danusa Neves Somensi
BACKGROUND: The surgical microscope is an essential tool for microsurgery. Nonetheless, several promising alternatives are being developed, including endoscopes and laparoscopes with video systems. However, these alternatives have only been used for arterial anastomoses so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a low-cost video-assisted magnification system in end-to-side neurorrhaphy in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty rats were randomly divided into four matched groups: (1) normality (sciatic nerve was exposed but was kept intact); (2) denervation (fibular nerve was sectioned, and the proximal and distal stumps were sutured-transection without repair); (3) microscope; and (4) video system (fibular nerve was sectioned; the proximal stump was buried inside the adjacent musculature, and the distal stump was sutured to the tibial nerve)...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226467/axon-guidance-pathways-and-the-control-of-gene-expression
#20
REVIEW
Samantha A Russell, Greg J Bashaw
Axons need to be properly guided to their targets to form synaptic connections, and this requires interactions between highly conserved extracellular and transmembrane ligands and their cell surface receptors. The majority of studies on axon guidance signaling pathways have focused on the role of these pathways in rearranging the local cytoskeleton and plasma membrane in growth cones and axons. However, a smaller body of work has demonstrated that axon guidance signaling pathways also control gene expression via local translation and transcription...
December 11, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
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