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Axonal guidance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913633/chemorepellent-semaphorin-3e-negatively-regulates-neutrophil-migration-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#1
Hesam Movassagh, Abeer Saati, Saravanan Nandagopal, Ashfaque Mohammed, Nazanin Tatari, Lianyu Shan, Jonathan S Duke-Cohan, Keith R Fowke, Francis Lin, Abdelilah S Gounni
Neutrophil migration is an essential step in leukocyte trafficking during inflammatory responses. Semaphorins, originally discovered as axon guidance cues in neural development, have been shown to regulate cell migration beyond the nervous system. However, the potential contribution of semaphorins in the regulation of neutrophil migration is not well understood. This study examines the possible role of a secreted chemorepellent, Semaphorin 3E (Sema3E), in neutrophil migration. In this study, we demonstrated that human neutrophils constitutively express Sema3E high-affinity receptor, PlexinD1...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913619/the-caenorhabditis-elegans-nf2-merlin-molecule-nfm-1-non-autonomously-regulates-neuroblast-migration-and-interacts-genetically-with-the-guidance-cue-slt-1-slit
#2
Matthew P Josephson, Rana Aliani, Megan L Norris, Matthew E Ochs, Mahekta Gujar, Erik A Lundquist
During nervous system development, neurons and their progenitors migrate to their final destinations. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the bilateral Q neuroblasts and their descendants migrate long distances in opposite directions, despite being born in the same posterior region. QR on the right migrates anteriorly and generates the AQR neuron positioned near the head, and QL on the left migrates posteriorly, giving rise to the PQR neuron positioned near the tail. In a screen for genes required for AQR and PQR migration, we identified an allele of nfm-1, which encodes a molecule similar to vertebrate NF2/Merlin, an important tumor suppressor in humans...
December 2, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912840/the-semaphorins-and-their-receptors-as-modulators-of-tumor-progression
#3
Gera Neufeld, Yelena Mumblat, Tanya Smolkin, Shira Toledano, Inbal Nir-Zvi, Keren Ziv, Ofra Kessler
The semaphorins were initially characterized as repulsive axon guidance factors. However, they are currently also recognized as important regulators of diverse biological processes which include regulation of immune responses, angiogenesis, organogenesis, and a variety of additional physiological and developmental functions. The semaphorin family consists of more than 20 genes divided into seven subfamilies, all of which contain the sema domain signature. They usually transduce signals by activation of receptors belonging to the plexin family, either directly, or indirectly following the binding of some semaphorins to receptors of the neuropilin family which subsequently associate with plexins...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911862/overexpression-of-semaphorin-3e-enhances-pancreatic-cancer-cell-growth-and-associates-with-poor-patient-survival
#4
Lin-Kin Yong, Syeling Lai, Zhengdong Liang, Ethan Poteet, Fengju Chen, George van Buren, William Fisher, Qianxing Mo, Changyi Chen, Qizhi Yao
Semaphorin-3E (Sema3E) is a member of an axon guidance gene family, and has recently been reported to contribute to tumor progression and metastasis. However, its role in pancreatic cancer is yet unknown and uncharacterized. In this study, we showed that Sema3E is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer, and that high Sema3E levels are associated with tumor progression and poor survival. Interestingly, we also observed Sema3E expression in the nucleus, even though Sema3E is reported to be a secreted protein...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908785/disco-interacting-protein-2-regulates-axonal-bifurcation-and-guidance-of-drosophila-mushroom-body-neurons
#5
Yohei Nitta, Daisuke Yamazaki, Atsushi Sugie, Makoto Hiroi, Tetsuya Tabata
Axonal branching is one of the key processes within the enormous complexity of the nervous system to enable a single neuron to send information to multiple targets. However, the molecular mechanisms that control branch formation are poorly understood. In particular, previous studies have rarely addressed the mechanisms underlying axonal bifurcation, in which axons form new branches via splitting of the growth cone. We demonstrate that DISCO Interacting Protein 2 (DIP2) is required for precise axonal bifurcation in Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons by suppressing ectopic bifurcation and regulating the guidance of sister axons...
November 28, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907266/retinal-axon-guidance-at-the-midline-chiasmatic-misrouting-and-consequences
#6
REVIEW
Delphine S Prieur, Alexandra Rebsam
The visual representation of the outside world relies on the appropriate connectivity between the eyes and the brain. Retinal ganglion cells are the sole neurons that send an axon from the retina to the brain, and thus the guidance decisions of retinal axons en route to their targets in the brain shape the neural circuitry that forms the basis of vision. Here, we focus on the choice made by retinal axons to cross or avoid the midline at the optic chiasm. This decision allows each brain hemisphere to receive inputs from both eyes corresponding to the same visual hemifield, and is thus crucial for binocular vision...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907191/trio-a-rho-family-gef-interacts-with-the-presynaptic-active-zone-proteins-piccolo-and-bassoon
#7
Ryan T Terry-Lorenzo, Viviana I Torres, Dhananjay Wagh, Jose Galaz, Selene K Swanson, Laurence Florens, Michael P Washburn, Clarissa L Waites, Eckart D Gundelfinger, Richard J Reimer, Craig C Garner
Synaptic vesicles (SVs) fuse with the plasma membrane at a precise location called the presynaptic active zone (AZ). This fusion is coordinated by proteins embedded within a cytoskeletal matrix assembled at the AZ (CAZ). In the present study, we have identified a novel binding partner for the CAZ proteins Piccolo and Bassoon. This interacting protein, Trio, is a member of the Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) known to regulate the dynamic assembly of actin and growth factor dependent axon guidance and synaptic growth...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901020/structural-decoding-of-netrin-4-reveals-a-regulatory-function-towards-mature-basement-membranes
#8
Raphael Reuten, Trushar R Patel, Matthew McDougall, Nicolas Rama, Denise Nikodemus, Benjamin Gibert, Jean-Guy Delcros, Carina Prein, Markus Meier, Stéphanie Metzger, Zhigang Zhou, Jennifer Kaltenberg, Karen K McKee, Tobias Bald, Thomas Tüting, Paola Zigrino, Valentin Djonov, Wilhelm Bloch, Hauke Clausen-Schaumann, Ernst Poschl, Peter D Yurchenco, Martin Ehrbar, Patrick Mehlen, Jörg Stetefeld, Manuel Koch
Netrins, a family of laminin-related molecules, have been proposed to act as guidance cues either during nervous system development or the establishment of the vascular system. This was clearly demonstrated for netrin-1 via its interaction with the receptors DCC and UNC5s. However, mainly based on shared homologies with netrin-1, netrin-4 was also proposed to play a role in neuronal outgrowth and developmental/pathological angiogenesis via interactions with netrin-1 receptors. Here, we present the high-resolution structure of netrin-4, which shows unique features in comparison with netrin-1, and show that it does not bind directly to any of the known netrin-1 receptors...
November 30, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899308/insight-gained-from-genome-wide-interaction-and-enrichment-analysis-on-weight-gain-during-citalopram-treatment
#9
Henrik Thyge Corfitsen, Antonio Drago
Weight gain is a possible side effect of the pharmacological antidepressant treatments. Defining antidepressant prescriptions based on personal genetic makeups would decrease the risk of weight gain and increase the quality of the current antidepressant pharmacological treatments. 643 depressed, citalopram treated individuals with available clinical and genome-wide genetic information were investigated to identify the molecular pathways associated with weight gain. 111 individuals experienced weight gain during citalopram treatment...
November 26, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895757/expression-of-semaphorin-6d-and-its-receptor-plexin-a1-in-gastric-cancer-and-their-association-with-tumor-angiogenesis
#10
Yanjie Lu, Qian Xu, Lei Chen, Yanzhen Zuo, Shaochen Liu, Yatao Hu, Xiaoru Li, Yuhong Li, Xiangyang Zhao
The semaphorin and plexin family of ligands and receptor proteins provides important axon growth and guidance cues required for development. In recent years, studies have expanded their role in the regulation of cardiac morphogenesis and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism responsible for their role in regulating cancer development and progression has not been clarified. In the present study, semaphorin 6D (Sema6D) and its receptor plexin-A1 were identified to be expressed at high levels in vascular epithelial cells within gastric cancer, and were positively correlated with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890825/the-expression-of-chemorepulsive-guidance-receptors-and-the-regenerative-abilities-of-spinal-projecting-neurons-after-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Jie Chen, Cindy Laramore, Michael I Shifman
Spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals leads to permanent loss of function because axons do not regenerate in the central nervous system (CNS). To date, treatments based on neutralizing inhibitory environmental cues, such as the myelin-associated growth inhibitors and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, or on adding neurotrophic factors, have had limited success in enhancing regeneration. Published studies suggested that multiple axon guidance cues (repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, semaphorins, ephrins, and netrins) persist in adult animals, and that their expression is upregulated after CNS injury...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881703/semaphorin-4c-protects-against-allergic-inflammation-requirement-of-regulatory-cd138-plasma-cells
#12
Di Xue, Gabriel N Kaufman, Marieme Dembele, Marianne Beland, Amir H Massoud, Barbara C Mindt, Ryan Fiter, Elizabeth D Fixman, James G Martin, Roland H Friedel, Maziar Divangahi, Jörg H Fritz, Bruce D Mazer
The regulatory properties of B cells have been studied in autoimmune diseases; however, their role in allergic diseases is poorly understood. We demonstrate that Semaphorin 4C (Sema4C), an axonal guidance molecule, plays a crucial role in B cell regulatory function. Mice deficient in Sema4C exhibited increased airway inflammation after allergen exposure, with massive eosinophilic lung infiltrates and increased Th2 cytokines. This phenotype was reproduced by mixed bone marrow chimeric mice with Sema4C deficient only in B cells, indicating that B lymphocytes were the key cells affected by the absence of Sema4C expression in allergic inflammation...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871935/a-sonic-hedgehog-coreceptor-boc-regulates-neuronal-differentiation-and-neurite-outgrowth-via-interaction-with-abl-and-jnk-activation
#13
Tuan Anh Vuong, Young-Eun Leem, Bok-Geon Kim, Hana Cho, Sang-Jin Lee, Gyu-Un Bae, Jong-Sun Kang
Neurite outgrowth is a critical step for neurogenesis and remodeling synaptic circuitry during neuronal development and regeneration. An immunoglobulin superfamily member, BOC functions as Sonic hedgehog (Shh) coreceptor in canonical and noncanonical Shh signaling in neuronal development and axon outgrowth/guidance. However signaling mechanisms responsible for BOC action during these processes remain unknown. In our previous studies, a multiprotein complex containing BOC and a closely related protein CDO promotes myogenic differentiation through activation of multiple signaling pathways, including non-receptor tyrosine kinase ABL...
November 18, 2016: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867665/dose-dependent-differential-effect-of-neurotrophic-factors-on-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-regeneration-of-motor-and-sensory-neurons
#14
Daniel Santos, Francisco Gonzalez-Perez, Xavier Navarro, Jaume Del Valle
Although peripheral axons can regenerate after nerve transection and repair, functional recovery is usually poor due to inaccurate reinnervation. Neurotrophic factors promote directional guidance to regenerating axons and their selective application may help to improve functional recovery. Hence, we have characterized in organotypic cultures of spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia the effect of GDNF, FGF-2, NGF, NT-3, and BDNF at different concentrations on motor and sensory neurite outgrowth. In vitro results show that GDNF and FGF-2 enhanced both motor and sensory neurite outgrowth, NGF and NT-3 were the most selective to enhance sensory neurite outgrowth, and high doses of BDNF selectively enhanced motor neurite outgrowth...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865962/pharmacologically-active-microcarriers-delivering-bdnf-within-a-hydrogel-novel-strategy-for-human-bone-marrow-derived-stem-cells-neural-neuronal-differentiation-guidance-and-therapeutic-secretome-enhancement
#15
Saikrishna Kandalam, Laurence Sindji, Gaëtan J-R Delcroix, Fabien Violet, Xavier Garric, Emilie M André, Paul C Schiller, Marie-Claire Venier-Julienne, Anne des Rieux, Jérôme Guicheux, Claudia N Montero-Menei
: Stem cells combined with biodegradable injectable scaffolds releasing growth factors hold great promises in regenerative medicine, particularly in the treatment of neurological disorders. We here integrated human marrow-isolated adult multilineage-inducible (MIAMI) stem cells and pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs) into an injectable non-toxic silanized-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Si-HPMC) hydrogel. The goal is to obtain an injectable non-toxic cell and growth factor delivery device...
November 16, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864151/gelatin-nanoceria-nanocomposite-fibers-as-antioxidant-scaffolds-for-neuronal-regeneration
#16
Attilio Marino, Chiara Tonda-Turo, Daniele De Pasquale, Francesca Ruini, Giada Genchi, Simone Nitti, Valentina Cappello, Mauro Gemmi, Virgilio Mattoli, Gianluca Ciardelli, Gianni Ciofani
BACKGROUND: The design of efficient nerve conduits able to sustain the axonal outgrowth and its guidance towards appropriate targets is of paramount importance in nerve tissue engineering. METHODS: In this work, we propose the preparation of highly aligned nanocomposite fibers of gelatin/cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria), prepared by electrospinning. Nanoceria are powerful self-regenerative antioxidant nanomaterials, that behave as strong reactive oxygen species scavengers, and among various beneficial effects, they have been proven to inhibit the cell senescence and to promote the neurite sprouting...
November 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864010/differentially-expressed-genes-in-the-testicular-tissues-of-adenylyl-cyclase-3-knockout-mice
#17
Jing Zhang, Yuan Yuan, Qingxiu Liu, Dong Yang, Mingshen Liu, Limin Shen, Yanfen Zhou, Zhenshan Wang
Adenylate cyclase 3 (AC3) is an important component of the cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway and converts adenosine triphosphate into cAMP. Male mice with AC3 deletion (AC3(-/-)) are sterile. However, the mechanical mechanism remains unclear. By TUNEL staining, we found that cell apoptosis in the testicular tissues of AC3(-/-) mice increased significantly compared with that in the wild-type (AC3(+/+)) mice. Differentially expressed genes regulated by AC3 in the testicular tissues were identified by gene chip hybridization...
November 15, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863093/potential-effect-of-mechano-growth-factor-e-domain-peptide-on-axonal-guidance-growth-in-primary-cultured-cortical-neurons-of-rats
#18
Meili Liu, Xufeng Niu, Gang Zhou, Zhengtai Jia, Ping Li, Yubo Fan
Establishing appropriate synaptic connections and plasticity is a critical need in neuronal regeneration and development. Mechano growth factor (MGF) and its C-terminal E-domain peptide with 24 amino acids, MGF-Ct24E, are potential neuroprotective agents. Our preliminary study indicates that Netrin-1 can guide axonal growth and its expression is sensitive to MGF, but how MGF regulates the expression of Netrin-1 and its receptor DCC is still unclear. Here, we investigate the effect of MGF-Ct24E on the expression of Netrin-1 and DCC in primary cultured cortical neurons in vitro and the adult rat brain in vivo...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858721/axon-guidance-molecule-expression-after-cell-therapy-in-a-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Joanna Kalaani, Rochea Joëlle, Eva Hamade, Bassam Badran, Mohamed Jaber, Afsaneh Gaillard, Laetitia Prestoz
BACKGROUND: Cell therapy is a promising approach for Parkinson's disease (PD). Others and we have previously shown that transplantation of ventral mesencephalic fetal cells into substantia nigra (SN) in an animal model of PD enables anatomical and functional repair of the degenerated pathway. However, the molecular basis of this repair is still largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: In this work, we studied the expression of several axon guidance molecules that may be implicated in the repair of the degenerated nigrostriatal pathway...
November 16, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856613/dorsal-horn-interneuron-derived-netrin-4-contributes-to-spinal-sensitization-in-chronic-pain-via-unc5b
#20
Yasufumi Hayano, Keiko Takasu, Yoshihisa Koyama, Moe Yamada, Koichi Ogawa, Kazuhisa Minami, Toshiyuki Asaki, Kazuhiro Kitada, Satoshi Kuwabara, Toshihide Yamashita
Because of the incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie chronic pain, the currently available treatments for this type of pain remain inefficient. In this study, we show that Netrin-4, a member of the axon guidance molecule family, was expressed in dorsal horn inner lamina II excitatory interneurons in the rat spinal cord. A similar expression pattern for Netrin-4 was also observed in human spinal cord. Behavioral analysis revealed that tactile and heat hyperalgesia after peripheral nerve injury or inflammation were abolished in Netrin-4-mutant rats...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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