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Axonal guidance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930688/the-heterochronic-gene-lin-14-controls-axonal-degeneration-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans-neurons
#1
Fiona K Ritchie, Rhianna Knable, Justin Chaplin, Rhiannon Gursanscky, Maria Gallegos, Brent Neumann, Massimo A Hilliard
The disproportionate length of an axon makes its structural and functional maintenance a major task for a neuron. The heterochronic gene lin-14 has previously been implicated in regulating the timing of key developmental events in the nematode C. elegans. Here, we report that LIN-14 is critical for maintaining neuronal integrity. Animals lacking lin-14 display axonal degeneration and guidance errors in both sensory and motor neurons. We demonstrate that LIN-14 functions both cell autonomously within the neuron and non-cell autonomously in the surrounding tissue, and we show that interaction between the axon and its surrounding tissue is essential for the preservation of axonal structure...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927918/the-safety-of-irreversible-electroporation-on-nerves-adjacent-to-treated-tumors
#2
Xiaomei Luo, Zilin Qin, Huimin Tao, Jian Shi, Gang Fang, Zhonghai Li, Xulong Zhou, Jibing Chen, Kecheng Xu, Jianying Zeng, Lizhi Niu
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the sciatic nerve after IRE ablation of adjacent tumor. METHODS: and analysis In this study, VX2 tumors were implanted adjacent to the sciatic nerves in 26 New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits were divided into three groups 10 days after implantation, with two treatment groups of ten rabbits each and a control group of six rabbits. In one of the treatment groups (IRE-S group), the rabbits underwent ablation with a single IRE application, and in the other group (IRE-D group) the rabbits underwent two IRE applications...
September 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927892/cd100-plexin-b2-promotes-the-inflammation-in-psoriasis-by-activating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-inflammasome-in-keratinocytes
#3
Chen Zhang, Chunying Xiao, Erle Dang, Jiao Cao, Zhenlai Zhu, Meng Fu, Xu Yao, Yufeng Liu, Boquan Jin, Gang Wang, Wei Li
Plexin-B2 (PlxnB2) and its ligand, CD100 (Semaphorin 4D), are originally identified as axon-guidance molecules that function during neuronal development; however, studies also showed that CD100-Plexins participate in various immune responses. In the present study, we found that the expression of PlxnB2 on keratinocytes was specifically increased in lesional skin of psoriasis patients, but not atopic dermatitis. Levels of soluble CD100 (sCD100) and membrane CD100 (mCD100) were elevated in sera of psoriasis patients and on keratinocytes of psoriatic skin, respectively...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927585/whole-genome-and-transcriptome-sequencing-of-prostate-cancer-identify-new-genetic-alterations-driving-disease-progression
#4
Shancheng Ren, Gong-Hong Wei, Dongbing Liu, Liguo Wang, Yong Hou, Shida Zhu, Lihua Peng, Qin Zhang, Yanbing Cheng, Hong Su, Xiuqing Zhou, Jibin Zhang, Fuqiang Li, Hancheng Zheng, Zhikun Zhao, Changjun Yin, Zengquan He, Xin Gao, Haiyen E Zhau, Chia-Yi Chu, Jason Boyang Wu, Colin Collins, Stanislav V Volik, Robert Bell, Jiaoti Huang, Kui Wu, Danfeng Xu, Dingwei Ye, Yongwei Yu, Lianhui Zhu, Meng Qiao, Hang-Mao Lee, Yuehong Yang, Yasheng Zhu, Xiaolei Shi, Rui Chen, Yang Wang, Weidong Xu, Yanqiong Cheng, Chuanliang Xu, Xu Gao, Tie Zhou, Bo Yang, Jianguo Hou, Li Liu, Zhensheng Zhang, Yao Zhu, Chao Qin, Pengfei Shao, Jun Pang, Leland W K Chung, Jianfeng Xu, Chin-Lee Wu, Weide Zhong, Xun Xu, Yingrui Li, Xiuqing Zhang, Jian Wang, Huanming Yang, Jun Wang, Haojie Huang, Yinghao Sun
BACKGROUND: Global disparities in prostate cancer (PCa) incidence highlight the urgent need to identify genomic abnormalities in prostate tumors in different ethnic populations including Asian men. OBJECTIVE: To systematically explore the genomic complexity and define disease-driven genetic alterations in PCa. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The study sequenced whole-genome and transcriptome of tumor-benign paired tissues from 65 treatment-naive Chinese PCa patients...
September 15, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918114/netrins-semaphorins-novel-regulators-of-the-immune-response
#5
REVIEW
Jordyn Feinstein, Bhama Ramkhelawon
Netrins and semaphorins, members of the neuronal guidance cue family, exhibit a rich biology with significant roles that extend beyond chemotactic guidance of the axons to build the neuronal patterns of the body. Screening of adult tissues and specific cellular subsets have illuminated that these proteins are also abundantly expressed under both steady state and pathological scenarios. This observation suggests that, in addition to their role in the development of the axonal tree, these proteins possess additional novel functions in adult physiopathology...
September 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915622/genomic-analysis-integrated-whole-exome-sequencing-of-neuroblastomas-identifies-genetic-mutations-in-axon-guidance-pathway
#6
Yuanyuan Li, Miki Ohira, Yong Zhou, Teng Xiong, Wen Luo, Chao Yang, Xiangchun Li, Zhibo Gao, Rui Zhou, Yohko Nakamura, Takehiko Kamijo, Yasuhiko Kaneko, Takeshi Taketani, Junichi Ueyama, Tatsuro Tajiri, Hongyan Zhang, Jian Wang, Huanming Yang, Ye Yin, Akira Nakagawara
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a childhood solid malignant tumor originating from precursor cells of the peripheral nervous system. We have previously established a risk classification system based on DNA copy number profiles. To further explore the pathogenesis of NBs in distinct risk groups, we performed whole-exome sequencing analysis of 57 primary and 7 recurrent/metastatic tumors with unique chromosomal aberration profiles as categorized by our genomic sub-grouping system. Overall, a low frequency of somatic mutations was found...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912692/calsyntenins-are-expressed-in-a-dynamic-and-partially-overlapping-manner-during-neural-development
#7
Gemma de Ramon Francàs, Tobias Alther, Esther T Stoeckli
Calsyntenins form a family of linker proteins between distinct populations of vesicles and kinesin motors for axonal transport. They were implicated in synapse formation and synaptic plasticity by findings in worms, mice and humans. These findings were in accordance with the postsynaptic localization of the Calsyntenins in the adult brain. However, they also affect the formation of neural circuits, as loss of Calsyntenin-1 (Clstn1) was shown to interfere with axonal branching and axon guidance. Despite the fact that Calsyntenins were discovered originally in embryonic chicken motoneurons, their distribution in the developing nervous system has not been analyzed in detail so far...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904364/acute-doses-of-caffeine-shift-nervous-system-cell-expression-profiles-toward-promotion-of-neuronal-projection-growth
#8
Nancy Y Yu, Andrea Bieder, Amitha Raman, Enrichetta Mileti, Shintaro Katayama, Elisabet Einarsdottir, Bertil B Fredholm, Anna Falk, Isabel Tapia-Páez, Carsten O Daub, Juha Kere
Caffeine is a widely consumed psychoactive substance, but little is known about the effects of caffeine stimulation on global gene expression changes in neurons. Here, we conducted gene expression profiling of human neuroepithelial stem cell-derived neurons, stimulated with normal consumption levels of caffeine (3 μM and 10 μM), over a period of 9 h. We found dosage-dependent activation of immediate early genes after 1 h. Neuronal projection development processes were up-regulated and negative regulation of axon extension processes were down-regulated at 3 h...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894005/varicose-and-cheerio-collaborate-with-pebble-to-mediate-semaphorin-1a-reverse-signaling-in-drosophila
#9
Sangyun Jeong, Da-Som Yang, Young Gi Hong, Sarah P Mitchell, Matthew P Brown, Alex L Kolodkin
The transmembrane semaphorin Sema-1a acts as both a ligand and a receptor to regulate axon-axon repulsion during neural development. Pebble (Pbl), a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor, mediates Sema-1a reverse signaling through association with the N-terminal region of the Sema-1a intracellular domain (ICD), resulting in cytoskeletal reorganization. Here, we uncover two additional Sema-1a interacting proteins, varicose (Vari) and cheerio (Cher), each with neuronal functions required for motor axon pathfinding...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885660/cortactin-and-phosphorylated-cortactin-tyr421-and-tyr466-expression-in-supraglottic-laryngeal-carcinomas-and-lymph-node-metastases
#10
Gino Marioni, Marco Lionello, Rosario Marchese-Ragona, Elena Fasanaro, Elisa Valentini, Elisabetta Zanoletti, Paola Stritoni, Giulia Ramacciotti, Vincenza Guzzardo, Luciano Giacomelli, Giovanni Ralli, Giancarlo Ottaviano, Stella Blandamura
BACKGROUND: The most important adverse prognostic factor for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is the presence of cervical lymph node metastases. The supraglottic area of the larynx is richly supplied with lymphatics, and 25%-75% of supraglottic carcinomas metastasize in neck lymph nodes. Cortactin is a multidomain protein related to actin cytoskeleton regulation, podosome and lamellipodia formation, integrin signaling, axon guidance and extracellular matrix degradation. Cortactin is involved in metastasis formation because of its role in cell mobility...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874746/rgma-inhibition-with-human-monoclonal-antibodies-promotes-regeneration-plasticity-and-repair-and-attenuates-neuropathic-pain-after-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Andrea J Mothe, Nardos G Tassew, Alirezha P Shabanzadeh, Romeo Penheiro, Robin J Vigouroux, Lili Huang, Christine Grinnell, Yi-Fang Cui, Emma Fung, Philippe P Monnier, Bernhard K Mueller, Charles H Tator
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a cascade of degenerative events including cell death, axonal damage, and the upregulation of inhibitory molecules which prevent regeneration and limit recovery. Repulsive guidance molecule A (RGMa) is a potent neurite growth inhibitor in the central nervous system, exerting its repulsive activity by binding the Neogenin receptor. Here, we show for the first time that inhibitory RGMa is markedly upregulated in multiple cell types after clinically relevant impact-compression SCI in rats, and importantly, also in the injured human spinal cord...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864883/transcriptional-regulation-of-crmp5-controls-neurite-outgrowth-through-sox5
#12
Nicolas Naudet, Aubin Moutal, Hong Nhung Vu, Naura Chounlamountri, Chantal Watrin, Sylvie Cavagna, Céline Malleval, Claire Benetollo, Claire Bardel, Marie-Aimée Dronne, Jérôme Honnorat, Claire Meissirel, Roger Besançon
Transcriptional regulation of proteins involved in neuronal polarity is a key process that underlies the ability of neurons to transfer information in the central nervous system. The Collapsin Response Mediator Protein (CRMP) family is best known for its role in neurite outgrowth regulation conducting to neuronal polarity and axonal guidance, including CRMP5 that drives dendrite differentiation. Although CRMP5 is able to control dendritic development, the regulation of its expression remains poorly understood...
September 1, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859089/flavin-monooxygenases-regulate-caenorhabditis-elegans-axon-guidance-and-growth-cone-protrusion-with-unc-6-netrin-signaling-and-rac-gtpases
#13
Mahekta R Gujar, Aubrie M Stricker, Erik A Lundquist
The guidance cue UNC-6/Netrin regulates both attractive and repulsive axon guidance. Our previous work showed that in C. elegans, the attractive UNC-6/Netrin receptor UNC-40/DCC stimulates growth cone protrusion, and that the repulsive receptor, an UNC-5:UNC-40 heterodimer, inhibits growth cone protrusion. We have also shown that inhibition of growth cone protrusion downstream of the UNC-5:UNC-40 repulsive receptor involves Rac GTPases, the Rac GTP exchange factor UNC-73/Trio, and the cytoskeletal regulator UNC-33/CRMP, which mediates Semaphorin-induced growth cone collapse in other systems...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859078/the-wagr-syndrome-gene-prrg4-is-a-functional-homologue-of-the-commissureless-axon-guidance-gene
#14
Elizabeth D Justice, Sarah J Barnum, Thomas Kidd
WAGR syndrome is characterized by Wilm's tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities and intellectual disabilities. WAGR is caused by a chromosomal deletion that includes the PAX6, WT1 and PRRG4 genes. PRRG4 is proposed to contribute to the autistic symptoms of WAGR syndrome, but the molecular function of PRRG4 genes remains unknown. The Drosophila commissureless (comm) gene encodes a short transmembrane protein characterized by PY motifs, features that are shared by the PRRG4 protein. Comm intercepts the Robo axon guidance receptor in the ER/Golgi and targets Robo for degradation, allowing commissural axons to cross the CNS midline...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856689/real-time-large-scale-in-vivo-observations-reveal-intrinsic-synchrony-plasticity-and-growth-cone-dynamics-of-midline-crossing-axons-during-neuronal-wiring-of-the-zebrafish-spinal-cord
#15
Søren S L Andersen
How axons are wired in the vertebrate spinal cord has been studied mostly using fixed samples or looking at individually growing axons. Using light-sheet microscopy, early neural development is here followed in vivo in real time at high resolution along several hundred micrometers of the zebrafish spinal cord. The dynamics and time course of cellular development and axonal wiring of interneurons expressing GFP under control of the dmrt3 promotor are analyzed. Following neurulation, commissural axons are observed crossing the ventral floor plate midline perpendicularly at about 20 microns/h and in a manner dependent on the Robo3 but not the EphA4 receptors...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856010/serum-netrin-1-in-relation-to-gadolinium-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-early-multiple-sclerosis
#16
M M Voortman, T Pekar, D Bachmayer, J-J Archelos, T Stojakovic, H Scharnagl, S Ropele, A Pichler, C Enzinger, S Fuchs, F Fazekas, T Seifert-Held, M Khalil
BACKGROUND: Netrin-1, a secreted laminin-related protein, is known to regulate not only axonal guidance and neuronal cell migration, but also blood-brain barrier integrity and inflammation. Two preliminary studies reported altered serum netrin-1 levels in multiple sclerosis; however, associations with longitudinal clinical and magnetic resonance imaging activity have not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess serum netrin-1 in multiple sclerosis and controls with respect to disease activity and its temporal dynamics...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852381/soxc-transcription-factors-in-retinal-development-and-regeneration
#17
REVIEW
Kun-Che Chang, Jonathan Hertz
Glaucoma and other optic neuropathies result in optic nerve degeneration and the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) through complex signaling pathways. Although the mechanisms that regulate RGC development remain unclear, uncovering novel developmental pathways may support new strategies to regenerate the optic nerve or replace RGCs. Here we review recent studies that provide strong evidence that the Sry-related high-mobility-group C (SoxC) subfamily of transcription factors (TFs) are necessary and sufficient for axon guidance and RGC fate specification...
July 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852378/rack1-regulates-neural-development
#18
REVIEW
Leah Kershner, Kristy Welshhans
Receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) is an evolutionarily conserved scaffolding protein within the tryptophan-aspartate (WD) repeat family of proteins. RACK1 can bind multiple signaling molecules concurrently, as well as stabilize and anchor proteins. RACK1 also plays an important role at focal adhesions, where it acts to regulate cell migration. In addition, RACK1 is a ribosomal binding protein and thus, regulates translation. Despite these numerous functions, little is known about how RACK1 regulates nervous system development...
July 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851405/the-erm-protein-moesin-is-essential-for-neuronal-morphogenesis-and-long-term-memory-in-drosophila
#19
Patrick S Freymuth, Helen L Fitzsimons
Moesin is a cytoskeletal adaptor protein that plays an important role in modification of the actin cytoskeleton. Rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton drives both neuronal morphogenesis and the structural changes in neurons that are required for long-term memory formation. Moesin has been identified as a candidate memory gene in Drosophila, however, whether it is required for memory formation has not been evaluated. Here, we investigate the role of Moesin in neuronal morphogenesis and in short- and long-term memory formation in the courtship suppression assay, a model of associative memory...
August 29, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846083/glia-initiate-brain-assembly-through-noncanonical-chimaerin-furin-axon-guidance-in-c-elegans
#20
Georgia Rapti, Chang Li, Alan Shan, Yun Lu, Shai Shaham
Brain assembly is hypothesized to begin when pioneer axons extend over non-neuronal cells, forming tracts guiding follower axons. Yet pioneer-neuron identities, their guidance substrates, and their interactions are not well understood. Here, using time-lapse embryonic imaging, genetics, protein-interaction, and functional studies, we uncover the early events of C. elegans brain assembly. We demonstrate that C. elegans glia are key for assembly initiation, guiding pioneer and follower axons using distinct signals...
August 28, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
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