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Axonal guidance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141181/axon-pathfinding-for-locomotion
#1
REVIEW
Dario Bonanomi
Motor neurons of the spinal cord are responsible for the assembly of neuromuscular connections indispensable for basic locomotion and skilled movements. A precise spatial relationship exists between the position of motor neuron cell bodies in the spinal cord and the course of their axonal projections to peripheral muscle targets. Motor neuron innervation of the vertebrate limb is a prime example of this topographic organization and by virtue of its accessibility and predictability has provided access to fundamental principles of motor system development and neuronal guidance...
November 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141180/motor-neuron-migration-and-positioning-mechanisms-new-roles-for-guidance-cues
#2
REVIEW
Minkyung Kim, Brielle Bjorke, Grant S Mastick
Motor neurons differentiate from progenitor cells and cluster as motor nuclei, settling next to the floor plate in the brain stem and spinal cord. Although precise positioning of motor neurons is critical for their functional input and output, the molecular mechanisms that guide motor neurons to their proper positions remain poorly understood. Here, we review recent evidence of motor neuron positioning mechanisms, highlighting situations in which motor neuron cell bodies can migrate, and experiments that show that their migration is regulated by axon guidance cues...
November 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141179/formation-of-longitudinal-axon-pathways-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#3
REVIEW
Harald Hutter
The small number of neurons and the simple architecture of the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) nervous system enables researchers to study axonal pathfinding at the level of individually identified axons. Axons in C. elegans extend predominantly along one of the two major body axes, the anterior-posterior axis and the dorso-ventral axis. This review will focus on axon navigation along the anterior-posterior axis, leading to the establishment of the longitudinal axon tracts, with a focus on the largest longitudinal axon tract, the ventral nerve cord (VNC)...
November 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133394/role-of-estrogen-receptor-beta-in-neural-differentiation-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#4
Mukesh K Varshney, José Inzunza, Diana Lupu, Vaidheeswaran Ganapathy, Per Antonson, Joëlle Rüegg, Ivan Nalvarte, Jan-Åke Gustafsson
The ability to propagate mature cells and tissue from pluripotent stem cells offers enormous promise for treating many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases. Before such cells can be used successfully in neurodegenerative diseases without causing unwanted cell growth and migration, genes regulating growth and migration of neural stem cells need to be well characterized. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is essential for migration of neurons and glial cells in the developing mouse brain. To examine whether ERβ influences differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) into neural lineages, we compared control and ERβ knockout (BERKO) mESCs at defined stages of neural development and examined the effects of an ERβ-selective ligand (LY3201) with a combination of global and targeted gene-expression profiling and the expression of key pluripotency markers...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133239/emerging-role-of-plexins-signaling-in-glioma-progression-and-therapy
#5
Efthalia Angelopoulou, Christina Piperi
Gliomas are highly invasive brain tumors with increased resistance to chemotherapy and high recurrence rate. Neoplastic cells commonly infiltrate into the surrounding tissue even at low grade tumors. Cell migration is often ceased at white and grey matter junctions indicating the involvement of tropic and axon guidance molecules in glioma growth and invasion. Emerging evidence implicates plexin-semaphorin signaling in the pathobiology of gliomas. Plexins are transmembrane receptors divided into four subfamilies (Plexins-A to -D) with differential specificity and functionality...
November 10, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132416/distinct-functional-consequences-of-ecel1-dine-missense-mutations-in-the-pathogenesis-of-congenital-contracture-disorders
#6
Kenichi Nagata, Mika Takahashi, Sumiko Kiryu-Seo, Hiroshi Kiyama, Takaomi C Saido
Endothelin-converting enzyme-like 1 (ECEL1, also termed DINE in rodents), a membrane-bound metalloprotease, has been identified as a gene responsible for distal arthrogryposis (DA). ECEL1-mutated DA is generally characterized by ocular phenotypes in addition to the congenital limb contractures that are common to all DA subtypes. Until now, the consequences of the identified pathogenic mutations have remained incompletely understood because of a lack of detailed phenotypic analyses in relevant mouse models. In this study, we generated a new knock-in mouse strain that carries an ECEL1/DINE pathogenic G607S missense mutation, based on a previous study reporting atypical DA hindlimb phenotypes in two siblings with the mutation...
November 13, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121420/obesity-during-pregnancy-in-the-mouse-alters-the-netrin-1-responsiveness-of-fetal-arcuate-nucleus-npy-neurons
#7
Tessa R Sanders, Kelly A Glendining, Christine L Jasoni
When individuals undergo gestation in an obese dam, they are at increased risk for impairments in the brain's ability to regulate body weight. In rodents, gestation in an obese dam leads to a number of changes to the development of the hypothalamic neurons that regulate body weight, including reduced neuronal connectivity at birth. Here, we sought to gain a clearer picture of how this neural circuitry develops normally, and to explore the mechanism underpinning the deficiency in connectivity seen in fetuses developing in obese dams...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113093/view-point-semaphorin-3e-an-emerging-modulator-of-natural-killer-cell-functions
#8
REVIEW
Abdulaziz Alamri, Abdelilah Soussi Gounni, Sam K P Kung
Semaphorin-3E (Sema-3E) is a member of a large family of proteins originally identified as axon guidance cues in neural development. It is expressed in different cell types, such as immune cells, cancer cells, neural cells, and epithelial cells. Subsequently, dys-regulation of Sema-3E expression has been reported in various biological processes that range from cancers to autoimmune and allergic diseases. Recent work in our laboratories revealed a critical immunoregulatory role of Sema-3E in experimental allergic asthma...
November 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109681/tenascins-in-retinal-and-optic-nerve-neurodegeneration
#9
REVIEW
Jacqueline Reinhard, Lars Roll, Andreas Faissner
Tenascins represent key constituents of the extracellular matrix (ECM) with major impact on central nervous system (CNS) development. In this regard, several studies indicate that they play a crucial role in axonal growth and guidance, synaptogenesis and boundary formation. These functions are not only important during development, but also for regeneration under several pathological conditions. Additionally, tenascin-C (Tnc) represents a key modulator of the immune system and inflammatory processes. In the present review article, we focus on the function of Tnc and tenascin-R (Tnr) in the diseased CNS, specifically after retinal and optic nerve damage and degeneration...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107805/neuronal-expression-patterns-of-the-plexina-family-during-zebrafish-development
#10
Sarah E Emerson, Sarah E Light, Alicia M Ebert
Plexins (Plxns) and Semaphorins (Semas) are key signaling molecules that regulate many aspects of development. Plxns are a family of transmembrane protein receptors that are activated upon extracellular binding by Semas. Activated Plxns trigger intracellular signaling cascades, which regulate a range of developmental processes, including axon guidance, neuronal positioning and vasculogenesis. Semas are a large family of both transmembrane and secreted signaling molecules, and show subtype specific binding to different Plxn family members...
October 28, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099309/the-autophagy-inducing-kinases-ulk1-and-ulk2-regulate-axon-guidance-in-the-developing-mouse-forebrain-via-a-noncanonical-pathway
#11
Bo Wang, Rekha Iyengar, Xiujie Li-Harms, Joung Hyuck Joo, Christopher Wright, Alfonso Lavado, Linda Horner, Mao Yang, Jun-Lin Guan, Sharon Frase, Douglas R Green, Xinwei Cao, Mondira Kundu
Mammalian ULK1 (unc-51 like kinase 1) and ULK2, Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-51, and Drosophila melanogaster Atg1 are serine/threonine kinases that regulate flux through the autophagy pathway in response to various types of cellular stress. C. elegans UNC-51 and D. melanogaster Atg1 also promote axonal growth and defasciculation; disruption of these genes results in defective axon guidance in invertebrates. Although disrupting ULK1/2 function impairs normal neurite outgrowth in vitro, the role of ULK1 and ULK2 in the developing brain remains poorly characterized...
November 3, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081352/development-of-the-hyaloid-choroidal-and-retinal-vasculatures-in-the-fetal-human-eye
#12
REVIEW
Gerard A Lutty, D Scott McLeod
The development of the ocular vasculatures is perfectly synchronized to provide the nutritional and oxygen requirements of the forming human eye. The fetal vasculature of vitreous, which includes the hyaloid vasculature, vasa hyaloidea propria, and tunica vasculosa lentis, initially develops around 4-6 weeks gestation (WG) by hemo-vasculogenesis (development of blood and blood vessels from a common progenitor, the hemangioblast). This transient fetal vasculature expands around 12 WG by angiogenesis (budding from primordial vessels) and remains until a retinal vasculature begins to form...
November 1, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078722/local-translation-of-the-down-syndrome-cell-adhesion-molecule-dscam-mrna-in-the-vertebrate-central-nervous-system
#13
María Luz Montesinos
Local translation of synaptic mRNAs is an important process related to key aspects of central nervous system development and physiology, including dendritogenesis, axonal growth cone morphology and guidance and synaptic plasticity. Accordingly, local translation is compromised in several intellectual disabilities, including Fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis and Down syndrome. Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule (DSCAM) is a gene with ascribed functions in neuronal wiring that belongs to the Down Syndrome Critical Region (DSCR) of chromosome 21...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070875/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-neuroprotective-aspects-of-human-reactive-astrocytes-induced-by-interleukin-1%C3%AE
#14
Daniel Boon Loong Teh, Ankshita Prasad, Wenxuan Jiang, Mohd Zacky Ariffin, Sanjay Khanna, Abha Belorkar, Limsoon Wong, Xiaogang Liu, Angelo H All
Reactive astrogliosis is a critical process in neuropathological conditions and neurotrauma. Although it has been suggested that it confers neuroprotective effects, the exact genomic mechanism has not been explored. The prevailing dogma of the role of astrogliosis in inhibition of axonal regeneration has been challenged by recent findings in rodent model's spinal cord injury, demonstrating its neuroprotection and axonal regeneration properties. We examined whether their neuroprotective and axonal regeneration potentials can be identify in human spinal cord reactive astrocytes in vitro...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068161/dcc-mutation-update-congenital-mirror-movements-isolated-agenesis-of-the-corpus-callosum-and-developmental-split-brain-syndrome
#15
Ashley Pl Marsh, Timothy J Edwards, Charles Galea, Helen M Cooper, Elizabeth C Engle, Saumya S Jamuar, Aurélie Méneret, Marie-Laure Moutard, Caroline Nava, Agnès Rastetter, Gail Robinson, Guy Rouleau, Emmanuel Roze, Megan Spencer-Smith, Oriane Trouillard, Thierry Billette de Villemeur, Christopher A Walsh, Timothy W Yu, Delphine Heron, Elliott H Sherr, Linda J Richards, Christel Depienne, Richard J Leventer, Paul J Lockhart
The deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) gene encodes the netrin-1 receptor DCC, a transmembrane protein required for the guidance of commissural axons. Germline DCC mutations disrupt the development of predominantly commissural tracts in the central nervous system (CNS) and cause a spectrum of neurological disorders. Monoallelic, missense and predicted loss-of-function DCC mutations cause congenital mirror movements, isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum, or both. Biallelic, predicted loss-of-function DCC mutations cause developmental split brain syndrome...
October 25, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064472/genome-wide-association-studies-of-smooth-pursuit-and-antisaccade-eye-movements-in-psychotic-disorders-findings-from-the-b-snip-study
#16
R Lencer, L J Mills, N Alliey-Rodriguez, R Shafee, A M Lee, J L Reilly, A Sprenger, J E McDowell, S A McCarroll, M S Keshavan, G D Pearlson, C A Tamminga, B A Clementz, E S Gershon, J A Sweeney, J R Bishop
Eye movement deviations, particularly deficits of initial sensorimotor processing and sustained pursuit maintenance, and antisaccade inhibition errors, are established intermediate phenotypes for psychotic disorders. We here studied eye movement measures of 849 participants from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) study (schizophrenia N=230, schizoaffective disorder N=155, psychotic bipolar disorder N=206 and healthy controls N=258) as quantitative phenotypes in relation to genetic data, while controlling for genetically derived ancestry measures, age and sex...
October 24, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063958/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-chemically-induced-allele-at-the-planar-cell-polarity-gene-vangl2
#17
Abdul-Rahman El-Hassan, Vicki Leung, Fares Kharfallah, Marie-Claude Guyot, Redouane Allache, Philippe Gros, Zoha Kibar
Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling controls a number of morphogenetic processes including convergent extension during gastrulation and neural tube formation. Defects in this pathway cause neural tube defects (NTD), the most common malformations of the central nervous system. The Looptail (Lp) mutant mouse was the first mammalian mutant implicating a PCP gene (Vangl2) in the pathogenesis of NTD. We report on a novel chemically induced mutant allele at Vangl2 called Curly Bob that causes a missense mutation p...
October 24, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062064/desulfation-of-heparan-sulfate-by-sulf1-and-sulf2-is-required-for-corticospinal-tract-formation
#18
Takuya Okada, Kazuko Keino-Masu, Satoshi Nagamine, Fuyuki Kametani, Tatsuyuki Ohto, Masato Hasegawa, Toin H van Kuppevelt, Satoshi Kunita, Satoru Takahashi, Masayuki Masu
Heparan sulfate (HS) has been implicated in a wide range of cell signaling. Here we report a novel mechanism in which extracellular removal of 6-O-sulfate groups from HS by the endosulfatases, Sulf1 and Sulf2, is essential for axon guidance during development. In Sulf1/2 double knockout (DKO) mice, the corticospinal tract (CST) was dorsally displaced on the midbrain surface. In utero electroporation of Sulf1/2 into radial glial cells along the third ventricle, where Sulf1/2 mRNAs are normally expressed, rescued the CST defects in the DKO mice...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059224/netrin-1-is-a-novel-regulator-of-vascular-endothelial-function-in-diabetes
#19
Haroldo A Toque, Aracely Fernandez-Flores, Riyaz Mohamed, Ruth B Caldwell, Ganesan Ramesh, R William Caldwell
BACKGROUND: Netrin-1, a secreted laminin-like protein identified as an axon guidance molecule, has been shown to be of critical importance in the cardiovascular system. Recent studies have revealed pro-angiogenic, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties of netrin-1 as well as cardioprotective actions against myocardial injury in diabetic mice. AIM: To examine the role of netrin-1 in diabetes-and high glucose (HG)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) using netrin-1 transgenic mice (Tg3) and cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059194/role-of-neuropilin-1-semaphorin-3a-signaling-in-the-functional-and-morphological-integrity-of-the-cochlea
#20
Pezhman Salehi, Marshall X Ge, Usha Gundimeda, Leah Michelle Baum, Homero Lael Cantu, Joel Lavinsky, Litao Tao, Anthony Myint, Charlene Cruz, Juemei Wang, Angeliki Maria Nikolakopoulou, Carolina Abdala, Matthew William Kelley, Takahiro Ohyama, Thomas Matthew Coate, Rick A Friedman
Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) encodes the transmembrane cellular receptor neuropilin-1, which is associated with cardiovascular and neuronal development and was within the peak SNP interval on chromosome 8 in our prior GWAS study on age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in mice. In this study, we generated and characterized an inner ear-specific Nrp1 conditional knockout (CKO) mouse line because Nrp1 constitutive knockouts are embryonic lethal. In situ hybridization demonstrated weak Nrp1 mRNA expression late in embryonic cochlear development, but increased expression in early postnatal stages when cochlear hair cell innervation patterns have been shown to mature...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
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