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Axonal guidance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806446/sema3a-reduces-sprouting-of-adult-rod-photoreceptors-in-vitro
#1
Frank Kung, Weiwei Wang, Tracy S Tran, Ellen Townes-Anderson
Purpose: Rod photoreceptor terminals respond to retinal injury with retraction and sprouting. Since the guidance cue Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) is observed in the retina after injury, we asked whether Sema3A contributes to structural plasticity in rod photoreceptors. Methods: We used Western blots and alkaline phosphatase (AP)-tagged neuropilin-1 (NPN-1) to detect the expression of Sema3A in an organotypic model of porcine retinal detachment. We then examined Sema3A binding to cultured salamander rod photoreceptors using AP-tagged Sema3A...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804523/tri-methylation-of-h3k79-is-decreased-in-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-lung-cancer
#2
Emilie Evanno, Julie Godet, Nathalie Piccirilli, Joëlle Guilhot, Serge Milin, Jean Marc Gombert, Benoit Fouchaq, Joëlle Roche
BACKGROUND: The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables epithelial cancer cells to acquire mesenchymal features and contributes to metastasis and resistance to treatment. This process involves epigenetic reprogramming for gene expression. We explored global histone modifications during TGF-β1-induced EMT in two non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and tested different epigenetic treatment to modulate or partially reverse EMT. RESULTS: Loss of classical epithelial markers and gain of mesenchymal markers were verified in A549 and H358 cell lines during TGF-β1-induced EMT...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798665/maternal-diabetes-alters-expression-of-micrornas-that-regulate-genes-critical-for-neural-tube-development
#3
Seshadri Ramya, Sukanya Shyamasundar, Boon Huat Bay, S Thameem Dheen
Maternal diabetes is known to cause neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos and neuropsychological deficits in infants. Several metabolic pathways and a plethora of genes have been identified to be deregulated in developing brain of embryos by maternal diabetes, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Recently, miRNAs have been shown to regulate genes involved in brain development and maturation. Therefore, we hypothesized that maternal diabetes alters the expression of miRNAs that regulate genes involved in biological pathways critical for neural tube development and closure during embryogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792499/revisiting-chemoaffinity-theory-chemotactic-implementation-of-topographic-axonal-projection
#4
Honda Naoki
Neural circuits are wired by chemotactic migration of growth cones guided by extracellular guidance cue gradients. How growth cone chemotaxis builds the macroscopic structure of the neural circuit is a fundamental question in neuroscience. I addressed this issue in the case of the ordered axonal projections called topographic maps in the retinotectal system. In the retina and tectum, the erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular (Eph) receptors and their ligands, the ephrins, are expressed in gradients. According to Sperry's chemoaffinity theory, gradients in both the source and target areas enable projecting axons to recognize their proper terminals, but how axons chemotactically decode their destinations is largely unknown...
August 8, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790351/whole-transcriptome-profiling-of-taste-bud-cells
#5
Sunil K Sukumaran, Brian C Lewandowski, Yumei Qin, Ramana Kotha, Alexander A Bachmanov, Robert F Margolskee
Analysis of single-cell RNA-Seq data can provide insights into the specific functions of individual cell types that compose complex tissues. Here, we examined gene expression in two distinct subpopulations of mouse taste cells: Tas1r3-expressing type II cells and physiologically identified type III cells. Our RNA-Seq libraries met high quality control standards and accurately captured differential expression of marker genes for type II (e.g. the Tas1r genes, Plcb2, Trpm5) and type III (e.g. Pkd2l1, Ncam, Snap25) taste cells...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782170/short-and-long-gap-peripheral-nerve-repair-with-magnesium-metal-filaments
#6
Tracy M Hopkins, Kevin J Little, John J Vennemeyer, Jefferson L Triozzi, Michael T Turgeon, Alexander M Heilman, D Minteer, K Marra, David B Hom, Sarah K Pixley
A current clinical challenge is to replace autografts for repair of injury gaps in peripheral nerves, which can occur due to trauma or surgical interruption. Biodegradable metallic magnesium filaments, placed inside hollow nerve conduits, could support nerve repair by providing contact guidance support for axonal regeneration. This was tested by repairing sciatic nerves of adult rats with single magnesium filaments placed inside poly(caprolactone) nerve conduits. Controls were empty conduits, conduits containing titanium filaments and/or isografts from donor rats...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780049/netrin1-establishes-multiple-boundaries-for-axon-growth-in-the-developing-spinal-cord
#7
Supraja G Varadarajan, Samantha J Butler
The canonical model for netrin1 function proposed that it acted as a long-range chemotropic axon guidance cue. In the developing spinal cord, floor-plate (FP)-derived netrin1 was thought to act as a diffusible attractant to draw commissural axons to the ventral midline. However, our recent studies have shown that netrin1 is dispensable in the FP for axon guidance. We have rather found that netrin1 acts locally: netrin1 is produced by neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the ventricular zone (VZ), and deposited on the pial surface as a haptotactic adhesive substrate that guides Dcc(+) axon growth...
August 3, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765520/semaphorin-4c-plexin-b2-signaling-in-peripheral-sensory-neurons-is-pronociceptive-in-a-model-of-inflammatory-pain
#8
Eszter Paldy, Manuela Simonetti, Thomas Worzfeld, Kiran Kumar Bali, Lucas Vicuña, Stefan Offermanns, Rohini Kuner
Semaphorins and their transmembrane receptors, Plexins, are key regulators of axon guidance and development of neuronal connectivity. B-type Plexins respond to Class IV semaphorins and mediate a variety of developmental functions. Here we report that the expression of Plexin-B2 and its high-affinity ligand, Sema4C, persists in peripheral sensory neurons in adult life and is markedly increased in states of persistent pain in mice. Genetic deletion of Sema4C as well as adult-onset loss of Plexin-B2 leads to impairment of the development and duration of inflammatory hypersensitivity...
August 2, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765051/how-does-calcium-interact-with-the-cytoskeleton-to-regulate-growth-cone-motility-during-axon-pathfinding
#9
REVIEW
Robert J Gasperini, Macarena Pavez, Adrian C Thompson, Camilla B Mitchell, Holly Hardy, Kaylene M Young, John K Chilton, Lisa Foa
The precision with which neurons form connections is crucial for the normal development and function of the nervous system. The development of neuronal circuitry in the nervous system is accomplished by axon pathfinding: a process where growth cones guide axons through the embryonic environment to connect with their appropriate synaptic partners to form functional circuits. Despite intense efforts over many years to understand how this process is regulated, the complete repertoire of molecular mechanisms that govern the growth cone cytoskeleton and hence motility, remain unresolved...
July 29, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761435/critical-signaling-pathways-during-wallerian-degeneration-of-peripheral-nerve
#10
Qiong Cheng, Ya-Xian Wang, Jun Yu, Sheng Yi
Wallerian degeneration is a critical biological process that occurs in distal nerve stumps after nerve injury. To systematically investigate molecular changes underlying Wallerian degeneration, we used a rat sciatic nerve transection model to examine microarray analysis outcomes and investigate significantly involved Kyoto Enrichment of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways in injured distal nerve stumps at 0, 0.5, 1, 6, 12, and 24 hours, 4 days, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after peripheral nerve injury. Bioinformatic analysis showed that only one KEGG pathway (cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction) was significantly enriched at an early time point (1 hour post-sciatic nerve transection)...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760865/dystroglycan-maintains-inner-limiting-membrane-integrity-to-coordinate-retinal-development
#11
Reena Clements, Rolf Turk, Kevin P Campbell, Kevin M Wright
Proper neural circuit formation requires the precise regulation of neuronal migration, axon guidance and dendritic arborization. Mutations affecting the function of the transmembrane glycoprotein dystroglycan cause a form of congenital muscular dystrophy that is frequently associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Despite its importance in brain development, the role for dystroglycan in regulating retinal development remains poorly understood. Using a mouse model of dystroglycanopathy (ISPD(L79*) ) and conditional dystroglycan mutants of both sexes, we show that dystroglycan is critical for the proper migration, axon guidance and dendritic stratification of neurons in the inner retina...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747385/spinal-racgap-%C3%AE-chimaerin-is-required-to-establish-the-midline-barrier-for-proper-corticospinal-axon-guidance
#12
Shota Katori, Yukiko Noguchi-Katori, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Takuji Iwasato
In the developing central nervous system, the midline barrier, which comprises guidance molecule-expressing midline glial somata and processes, plays a pivotal role in midline axon guidance. Accumulating evidence has revealed the molecular mechanisms by which the midline barrier ensures proper midline guidance for axons. In contrast, the mechanisms for establishing the midline barrier remain obscure. Here we report that RacGAP α-chimaerin (α-chimerin) is required for both axonal repulsion at and establishment of the midline barrier in the spinal cord...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743494/neural-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored-proteins-in-synaptic-specification
#13
REVIEW
Ji Won Um, Jaewon Ko
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are a specialized class of lipid-associated neuronal membrane proteins that perform diverse functions in the dynamic control of axon guidance, synaptic adhesion, cytoskeletal remodeling, and localized signal transduction, particularly at lipid raft domains. Recent studies have demonstrated that a subset of GPI-anchored proteins act as critical regulators of synapse development by modulating specific synaptic adhesion pathways via direct interactions with key synapse-organizing proteins...
July 22, 2017: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742927/a-new-model-for-netrin1-in-commissural-axon-guidance
#14
REVIEW
Daniel Morales
Now-classic experiments characterized netrin1 as a major player in commissural axon guidance in the spinal cord. The data suggest a chemotactic model in which netrin1 expression in the floor plate forms a concentration gradient that attracts commissural axons. New research published independently in Neuron and in Nature tests this model by deleting netrin1 specifically in the floor plate. Surprisingly, these conditional mutant mice have no overt commissure defects. The authors report that netrin1 decorates the pial surface of the spinal cord and hindbrain, likely deposited by radial processes of progenitor cells in the ventricular zone...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739605/genetic-variation-in-the-gene-lrp2-increases-relapse-risk-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Yuan Zhou, Jennifer S Graves, Steve Simpson, Jac C Charlesworth, Ingrid van der Mei, Emmanuelle Waubant, Lisa F Barcellos, Anita Belman, Lauren Krupp, Robyn Lucas, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Bruce V Taylor
BACKGROUND: Due to the lack of prospective studies with longitudinal data on relapse, past genetic studies have not attempted to identify genetic factors that predict relapse risk (the primary endpoint of many pivotal clinical trials testing the efficacy of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying drugs) at a genome-wide scale. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) to identify genetic variants that predict MS relapse risk, using a three-stage approach...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736980/diverse-roles-for-glycosaminoglycans-in-neural-patterning
#16
REVIEW
Kristian Saied-Santiago, Hannes E Bülow
The nervous system coordinates the functions of most multicellular organisms and, their response to the surrounding environment. Its development involves concerted cellular interactions, including migration, axon guidance and synapse formation. These processes depend on the molecular constituents and structure of the extracellular matrices (ECM). An essential component of ECMs are proteoglycans, i.e. proteins containing unbranched glycan chains known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). A defining characteristic of GAGs is their enormous molecular diversity, created by extensive modifications of the glycans during their biosynthesis...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735747/a-requirement-for-mena-an-actin-regulator-in-local-mrna-translation-in-developing-neurons
#17
Marina Vidaki, Frauke Drees, Tanvi Saxena, Erwin Lanslots, Matthew J Taliaferro, Antonios Tatarakis, Christopher B Burge, Eric T Wang, Frank B Gertler
During neuronal development, local mRNA translation is required for axon guidance and synaptogenesis, and dysregulation of this process contributes to multiple neurodevelopmental and cognitive disorders. However, regulation of local protein synthesis in developing axons remains poorly understood. Here, we uncover a novel role for the actin-regulatory protein Mena in the formation of a ribonucleoprotein complex that involves the RNA-binding proteins HnrnpK and PCBP1 and regulates local translation of specific mRNAs in developing axons...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735706/amniotic-fluid-transcriptomics-reflects-novel-disease-mechanisms-in-fetuses-with-myelomeningocele
#18
Tomo Tarui, Aimee Kim, Alan Flake, Lauren McClain, John Stratigis, Inbar Fried, Rebecca Newman, Donna K Slonim, Diana W Bianchi
BACKGROUND: Cell-free RNA in amniotic fluid supernatant reflects developmental changes in gene expression in the living fetus, which includes genes that are specific to the central nervous system. Although it has been previously shown that central nervous system-specific transcripts are present in amniotic fluid supernatant, it is not known whether changes in the amniotic fluid supernatant transcriptome reflect the specific pathophysiologic condition of fetal central nervous system disorders...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731161/investigation-of-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-myotonic-dystrophy-types-1-and-2-cataracts-using-microrna%C3%A2-target-gene-networks
#19
Dewang Shao, Xiaoquan Zhu, Wei Sun, Lu Huo, Wei Chen, Hua Wang, Bing Liu, Peng Pan
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of myotonic dystrophy (DM) 1 and 2 cataracts using bioinformatics methods. A microarray dataset (E‑MEXP‑3365) downloaded from the Array Express database included lens epithelial samples of DM1 and DM2 cataract patients (n=3/group) and non‑DM lens epithelial samples as a control (n=4). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between DM1 and control samples, and between DM2 and control samples. Pathway enrichment analyses were performed for the DEGs...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731029/nrp2-is-sufficient-to-instruct-circuit-formation-of-mitral-cells-to-mediate-odour-induced-attractive-social-responses
#20
Kasumi Inokuchi, Fumiaki Imamura, Haruki Takeuchi, Ryang Kim, Hiroyuki Okuno, Hirofumi Nishizumi, Haruhiko Bito, Takefumi Kikusui, Hitoshi Sakano
Odour information induces various innate responses that are critical to the survival of the individual and for the species. An axon guidance molecule, Neuropilin 2 (Nrp2), is known to mediate targeting of olfactory sensory neurons (primary neurons), to the posteroventral main olfactory bulb (PV MOB) in mice. Here we report that Nrp2-positive (Nrp2(+)) mitral cells (MCs, second-order neurons) play crucial roles in transmitting attractive social signals from the PV MOB to the anterior part of medial amygdala (MeA)...
July 21, 2017: Nature Communications
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