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Andrew C Doxey, Michael J Mansfield, Cesare Montecucco
Hundreds and hundreds of bacterial protein toxins are presently known. Traditionally, toxin identification begins with pathological studies of bacterial infectious disease. Following identification and cultivation of a bacterial pathogen, the protein toxin is purified from the culture medium and its pathogenic activity is studied using the methods of biochemistry and structural biology, cell biology, tissue and organ biology, and appropriate animal models, supplemented by bioimaging techniques. The ongoing and explosive development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic approaches have set in motion a revolution in many fields of biology, including microbiology...
June 1, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Mayank Jain, Joy Varghese, Tom Michael, Chandan Kumar Kedarishetty, Balajee G, Subramanian Swaminathan, Jayanthi Venkataraman
Background: End stage liver disease leads to immune dysfunction which predisposes to infection. There has been a rise in antibiotic resistant infections in these patients. There is scanty data f from India or idea regarding the same. Aim of the study: The present study was undertaken to determine the type of infection acquired and the prevalence of antibiotic resistant infections in cirrhotic patients at a tertiary referral center in South India. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, all consecutive cirrhotic patients hospitalized between 2011 and 2013 with a microbiologically-documented infection were enrolled...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Austin L LaGrow, Phillip S Coburn, Frederick C Miller, Craig Land, Salai Madhumathi Parkunan, Brian T Luk, Weiwei Gao, Liangfang Zhang, Michelle C Callegan
Intraocular infections are a potentially blinding complication of common ocular surgeries and traumatic eye injuries. Bacterial toxins synthesized in the eye can damage intraocular tissue, often resulting in poor visual outcomes. Enteroccocus faecalis causes blinding infections and is responsible for 8 to 17% of postoperative endophthalmitis cases. These infections are increasingly difficult to treat due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. Virulent E. faecalis isolates secrete a pore-forming bicomponent cytolysin that contributes to retinal tissue damage during endophthalmitis...
November 2017: MSphere
Natalia Masiera, Agnieszka Bojarska, Iwona Gawryszewska, Ewa Sadowy, Waleria Hryniewicz, Jacek Waluk
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) is one of the promising tools for bacteria inactivation, which can be considered as an alternative to the common ways of treatment in the era of growing resistance to antibiotics. Presently applied phototherapeutic agents are often based on porphyrins. Porphycenes, isomers of porphyrin, exhibit even better spectral and photophysical properties regarding PDT and have therefore been proposed as photosensitizers in such applications as anticancer and antimicrobial PDT...
September 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Claire Valotteau, Ibrahim M Banat, Christopher A Mitchell, Helen Lydon, Roger Marchant, Florence Babonneau, Claire-Marie Pradier, Niki Baccile, Vincent Humblot
Sophorolipids are bioderived glycolipids displaying interesting antimicrobial properties. We show that they can be used to develop biocidal monolayers against Listeria ivanovii, a Gram-positive bacterium. The present work points out the dependence between the surface density and the antibacterial activity of grafted sophorolipids. It also emphasizes the broad spectrum of activity of these coatings, demonstrating their potential against both Gram-positive strains (Enteroccocus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes) and Gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhymurium)...
September 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Jairo Amortegui, Alexander Rodríguez-López, Deicy Rodríguez, Ana K Carrascal, Carlos J Alméciga-Díaz, Adelina del P Melendez, Oscar F Sánchez
Bacteriocins are low molecular peptides with antimicrobial activity, which are of great interest as food bio-preservatives and for treating diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we present the characterization of bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus plantarum LE5 and LE27 isolated from ensiled corn. Bacteriocins were purified through ammonium sulfate precipitation and double dialysis by using 12- and 1-kDa membranes. Bacteriocins showed activity against Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enteroccocus faecalis...
April 2014: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Britt Faucette, Fatima Cardoso, Walter Mulbry, Pat Millner
Urban storm water runoff poses a substantial threat of pollution to receiving surface waters. Green infrastructure, low impact development, green building ordinances, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) storm water permit compliance, and Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) implementation strategies have become national priorities; however, designers need more sustainable, low-cost solutions to meet these goals and guidelines. The objective of this study was to determine the multiple-event removal efficiency and capacity of compost filter socks (FS) and filter socks with natural sorbents (NS) to remove soluble phosphorus, ammonium-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, E...
September 2013: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
C M Ferrer-Luque, I Bejarano, M Ruiz-Linares, P Baca
AIM: To compare the chemomechanical reduction and regrowth of Enterococcus faecalis between rotary and reciprocating systems in root canal preparation. METHODOLOGY: Seventy-six single-rooted human mandibular premolars were selected and standardized to 15 mm in length. Root canals were enlarged up to a size 25 K-file and irrigated with distilled water and then were infected with E. faecalis for 4 weeks. The specimens were divided into 3 groups (n = 24) for instrumentation with Mtwo, Twisted File and WaveOne...
April 2014: International Endodontic Journal
Jonathan G Frye, Charlene R Jackson
The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR) in bacteria isolated from U.S. food animals has increased over the last several decades as have concerns of AR foodborne zoonotic human infections. Resistance mechanisms identified in U.S. animal isolates of Salmonella enterica included resistance to aminoglycosides (e.g., alleles of aacC, aadA, aadB, ant, aphA, and StrAB), β-lactams (e.g., bla CMY-2, TEM-1, PSE-1), chloramphenicol (e.g., floR, cmlA, cat1, cat2), folate pathway inhibitors (e.g., alleles of sul and dfr), and tetracycline [e...
2013: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nikolaus Goessweiner-Mohr, Lukas Grumet, Karsten Arends, Tea Pavkov-Keller, Christian C Gruber, Karl Gruber, Ruth Birner-Gruenberger, Andrea Kropec-Huebner, Johannes Huebner, Elisabeth Grohmann, Walter Keller
Conjugative plasmid transfer is the most important means of spreading antibiotic resistance and virulence genes among bacteria and therefore presents a serious threat to human health. The process requires direct cell-cell contact made possible by a multiprotein complex that spans cellular membranes and serves as a channel for macromolecular secretion. Thus far, well studied conjugative type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are of Gram-negative (G-) origin. Although many medically relevant pathogens (e.g., enterococci, staphylococci, and streptococci) are Gram-positive (G+), their conjugation systems have received little attention...
January 18, 2013: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Cirilo Nolasco-Hipolito, Octavio Carvajal Zarrabal, Rubena Malfia Kamaldin, Ling Teck-Yee, Samuel Lihan, Kopli Bin Bujang, Youji Nitta
Enterococcus faecium No. 78 (PNCM-BIOTECH 10375) isolated from puto, a type of fermented rice in the Philippines was used to produce lactic acid in repeated batch fermentation mode. Enzymatically liquefied sago starch was used as the sole carbon source, since sago (Metroxylon spp) is a sustainable crop for industrial exploitation. Liquefied sago starch was inoculated with E. faecium to perform the saccharification and fermentation processes simultaneously. Results demonstrated that E. faecium was reused for 11 fermentation cycles with an average lactic acid yield of 36...
2012: AMB Express
Silabat Melaku, Solomon Gebre-Selassie, Meku Damtie, Kassahun Alamrew
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infection is an important public health problem that contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hospital-acquired infections and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates in Felege-Hiwot referral hospital. METHODS: The study was conducted during April-August 2009. A total of 1383 patients admitted to Surgical and Gynecology/Obstetrics wards were followed throughout their stay in the hospital for development of infections...
April 2012: Ethiopian Medical Journal
Jack Y Ho, Nate J Cira, John A Crooks, Josue Baeza, Douglas B Weibel
This article describes Bacteria ID Chips ('BacChips'): an inexpensive, portable, and autonomous microfluidic platform for identifying pathogenic strains of bacteria. BacChips consist of a set of microchambers and channels molded in the elastomeric polymer, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Each microchamber is preloaded with mono-, di-, or trisaccharides and dried. Pressing the layer of PDMS into contact with a glass coverslip forms the device; the footprint of the device in this article is ∼6 cm(2). After assembly, BacChips are degased under large negative pressure and are stored in vacuum-sealed plastic bags...
2012: PloS One
Archana Nath, Prajwal Raghunatha, S R Joshi
In the present study, an attempt to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of fungal endophytes inhabiting Emblica officinalis has been made keeping in view the medicinal importance of the selected host plant in Indian traditional practices. A total of four endophytic fungi belonging to Phylum Ascomycetes were isolated from different parts of the plant which were characterized morphologically and by using rDNA-internal transcribed spacer. The most frequently isolated endophyte was Phomopsis sp...
March 2012: Mycobiology
M Muñoz, A Mosquera, C J Alméciga-Díaz, A P Melendez, O F Sánchez
Fructo- (FOS) and galacto-oligosaccharides have been used to promote the growth of probiotics, mainly those from Lactobacillus genus. However, only few reports have evaluated the effect of prebiotics on bacteriocins activity and production. In this work, we characterized the effect of FOS supplementation on the growth, lactic and acetic acids production, and antimicrobial activity of crude extracts obtained from Lactobacillus strains isolated from ensiled corn and molasses. Seven out of 28 isolated Lactobacillus, belonging to Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis, showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria innocua...
June 2012: Anaerobe
Florian Thevenon, Nicole Regier, Cinzia Benagli, Mauro Tonolla, Thierry Adatte, Walter Wildi, John Poté
This study characterized the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enteroccocus (ENT), disseminated over time in the Bay of Vidy, which is the most contaminated area of Lake Geneva. Sediments were collected from a site located at ∼500 m from the present waste water treatment plant (WWTP) outlet pipe, in front of the former WWTP outlet pipe, which was located at only 300 m from the coastal recreational area (before 2001). E. coli and ENT were enumerated in sediment suspension using the membrane filter method...
April 2012: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
D A Popov, T Iu Vostrikova
The results comparison is made between PCR polymerase chain reaction techniques in real-time mode and cultural techniques of analysis of blood samples in patients with suspicion of bacteriemia during early postoperational period. From September to December 2009 43 blood samples from 37 adult patients aged 59+9.2 years were analyzed on suspicion of bacteriemia. The blood samples for PCR analysis (SeptiFast technique Roche diagnostics, Switzerland) were taken parallel to the inoculation. Among 43 samples 20 (46...
August 2011: Klinicheskaia Laboratornaia Diagnostika
E Anago, L Lagnika, J Gbenou, F Loko, M Moudachirou, A Sanni
The ethanol extracts obtained from Psidium guajava, Flacourtia flavescens Boswellia dalzielii, Ficus exasperata, Pavetta corymbosa and Hybanthus enneaspermus, six species traditionally used in Benin to treat several infectious diseases, were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Enteroccocus feacalis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts was determinate using the microplate dilution method. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively...
April 1, 2011: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Steven Z Kassakian, Leonard A Mermel, Julie A Jefferson, Stephen L Parenteau, Jason T Machan
BACKGROUND: A paucity of data exists regarding the effectiveness of daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing in non-intensive care unit (ICU) settings. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of daily CHG bathing in a non-ICU setting to reduce methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enteroccocus (VRE) hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), compared with daily bathing with soap and water. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study design; the primary outcome was the composite incidence of MRSA and VRE HAIs...
March 2011: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Ricardo Martínez-Bistrain, Verónica Robles García, Ivonne Cornejo-Morales
We present the case of a patient with a history of a massive left hemithorax crushing injury in 1985; the exact management of the lesion is unknown. Twenty years later he had a thoracic fistula with a culture that was reported as positive for Enteroccocus faecalis and Staphyloccocus epidermidis. The patient was referred by the chest surgery service with the diagnosis of rib osteomyelitis once complementary imaging tests were performed (plain X-rays, CAT scan and MRI). The patient underwent surgery at our service; a granulomatous reaction secondary to a foreign body (methyl methacrylate and Ethibon) was reported...
January 2010: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
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