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Tokiko Watanabe, Kiyoko Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Maki Kiso, Noriko Nakajima, Kenta Takahashi, Tiago Jose da Silva Lopes, Mutsumi Ito, Satoshi Fukuyama, Hideki Hasegawa, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Several animal models are used to study influenza viruses. Intranasal inoculation of animals with a liquid inoculum is one of the main methods used to experimentally infect animals with influenza virus; however, this method does not reflect the natural infection with influenza virus by contact or aerosol route. Aerosol inhalation methods have been established with several influenza viruses for mouse and ferret models, but few studies have evaluated inoculation routes in a nonhuman primates (NHP) model. Here, we performed the experimental infection of NHPs with a highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus via the aerosol route and demonstrated that aerosol infection had no effect on clinical outcome, but caused broader infection throughout all of the lobes of the lung compared with a non-aerosolized approach...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Corrine K Lutz, Tara A Brown
Effective environmental enrichment is used by animals, promotes species-typical behavior, and decreases abnormal behavior. Porches attached to the front of an animal's cage provide additional space, perching opportunities, and a better view of the surroundings. Here we assessed the effectiveness of porches as a form of enrichment and identified characteristics of the animals most likely to use the porches. We videorecorded and scored the behavior of 18 (9 male, 9 female) singly housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) during 3 observation intervals (15 min each) the week before, during, and after exposure to the porches...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Takuma Iguchi, Noriyo Niino, Satoshi Tamai, Ken Sakurai, Kazuhiko Mori
RT-qPCR is one of the most common methods to assess individual target miRNAs. MiRNAs levels are generally measured relative to a reference sample. This approach is appropriate for examining physiological changes in target gene expression levels. However, absolute quantification using better statistical analysis is preferable for a comprehensive assessment of gene expression levels. Absolute quantification is still not in common use. This report describes a protocol for measuring the absolute levels of plasma miRNA, using RT-qPCR with or without pre-amplification...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jae-Il Lee, Yun-Jung Choi, Hi-Jung Park, Kyeong Cheon Jung, Seong Hoe Park
Antibody formation against therapeutic agents, such as tumor necrosis factor inhibitors and Factor VIII, that leads to treatment failure has become a major challenge in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and hemophilia. It is well known that anti-CD154 antibodies have the highest potential to inhibit these types of adverse immune responses. Nevertheless, the formation of thromboemboli is the major hurdle in the clinical application of these anti-CD154 blocking antibodies. For this, we attempted to derive an idea as to how this major complication can be eliminated...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Buyun Chen, Pingping Lu, Dugan Freeman, Yang Gao, Edna Choo, Kevin DeMent, Scott Savage, Kelly Zhang, Dennis Milanwoski, Lichuan Liu, Brian Dean, Yuzhong Deng
The pH labile metabolite, hydrophobicity, high oral dose and systematic exposure of GDC-0810 posed tremendous challenges to develop a LC-MS method for a stable isotope labeled aBA study. In this study, we explored practical solutions to balance stability and sensitivity and to cope with the impact of high Cp.o. to Ci.v. ratio on the labeling selection and assay dynamic range. A [13 C9 ] GDC-0810 was synthesized to minimize the isotopic interference between PO dose, internal standard and I.V. microtracer. A highly sensitive LC-MS assay was validated for quantitation of [13 C9 ] GDC-0810 from 5 to 1250 pg/mL...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Yan Weng, Tetsuya Ishino, Annette Sievers, Saswata Talukdar, Jeffrey R Chabot, Amy Tam, Weili Duan, Kelvin Kerns, Eric Sousa, Tao He, Alison Logan, Darwin Lee, Dongmei Li, Yingjiang Zhou, Barbara Bernardo, Alison Joyce, Mania Kavosi, Denise M O'Hara, Tracey Clark, Jie Guo, Craig Giragossian, Mark Stahl, Roberto A Calle, Ron Kriz, Will Somers, Laura Lin
Pharmacological administration of FGF21 analogues has shown robust body weight reduction and lipid profile improvement in both dysmetabolic animal models and metabolic disease patients. Here we report the design, optimization, and characterization of a long acting glyco-variant of FGF21. Using a combination of N-glycan engineering for enhanced protease resistance and improved solubility, Fc fusion for further half-life extension, and a single point mutation for improving manufacturability in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, we created a novel FGF21 analogue, Fc-FGF21[R19V][N171] or PF-06645849, with substantially improved solubility and stability profile that is compatible with subcutaneous (SC) administration...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stephanie A Harris, Andrew White, Lisa Stockdale, Rachel Tanner, Laura Sibley, Charlotte Sarfas, Joel Meyer, Jonathan Peter, Matthew K O'Shea, Zita-Rose Manjaly Thomas, Ali Hamidi, Iman Satti, Mike J Dennis, Helen McShane, Sally Sharpe
The lack of validated immunological correlates of protection makes tuberculosis vaccine development difficult and expensive. Using intradermal bacille Calmette-Guréin (BCG) as a surrogate for aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) in a controlled human infection model could facilitate vaccine development, but such a model requires preclinical validation. Non-human primates (NHPs) may provide the best model in which to do this. Cynomolgus and rhesus macaques were infected with BCG by intradermal injection...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Nagarajan Muthukaman, Sanjay Deshmukh, Macchindra Tambe, Dnyandeo Pisal, Shital Tondlekar, Mahamadhanif Shaikh, Neelam Sarode, Vidya G Kattige, Pooja Sawant, Monali Pisat, Vikas Karande, Srinivasa Honnegowda, Abhay Kulkarni, Dayanidhi Behera, Satyawan B Jadhav, Ramchandra R Sangana, Girish S Gudi, Neelima Khairatkar-Joshi, Laxmikant A Gharat
In an effort to identify CYP and hERG clean mPGES-1 inhibitors from the dihydrofuran-fused tricyclic benzo[d]imidazole series lead 7, an extensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies were performed. Optimization of A, D and E-rings in 7 afforded many potent compounds with human whole blood potency in the range of 160-950 nM. Selected inhibitors 21d, 21j, 21m, 21n, 21p and 22b provided selectivity against COX-enzymes and mPGES-1 isoforms (mPGES-2 and cPGES) along with sufficient selectivity against prostanoid synthases...
February 28, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Madelon Q Wentink, Henk M W Verheul, Arjan W Griffioen, Kenneth A Schafer, Susan McPherson, Richard J Early, Hans J van der Vliet, Tanja D de Gruijl
INTRODUCTION: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is pivotal in tumor angiogenesis and therapies targeting the VEGF axis are widely used in the clinic for the treatment of cancer. We have developed a therapeutic vaccine targeting human (h)VEGF165 . hVEGF26-104 /RFASE is based on the truncated protein hVEGF26-104 as antigen formulated in an oil-in-water emulsion containing the sulpholipopolysaccharide RFASE as adjuvant. Here we describe the toxicity and immunogenicity of this therapeutic vaccine in cynomolgus monkeys...
March 5, 2018: Vaccine
Andrew J Gall, June E Olds, Arno Wünschmann, Laura E Selmic, James Rasmussen, Anne D Lewis
Reproductive lesions have been described in various nonhuman primate species, including rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta), cynomolgus macaques ( Macaca fascicularis), baboons ( Papio spp.), squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus), and chimpanzees ( Pan spp.); however, there are few publications describing reproductive disease and pathology in Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata). A retrospective evaluation of postmortem reports for two captive M. fuscata populations housed within zoos from 1982 through 2015 was completed, comparing reproductive diseases diagnosed by gross pathology and histopathology...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Amanda J King-Ahmad, Amit S Kalgutkar, Mark Niosi, Heather Eng, Christopher Holliman
AIM: An LC-MS/MS assay for the quantitation of liraglutide, a peptide-based injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, has been developed as a convenient alternative to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and used to characterize liraglutide pharmacokinetics in cynomolgus monkeys. RESULTS: Assay calibration curves exhibited a linear dynamic range of 10-5000 ng/ml and correlation coefficient ≥0.98. Following a 30 μg/kg intravenous dose, liraglutide demonstrated low plasma clearance and distribution volume, which led to a terminal half-life of 6...
March 8, 2018: Bioanalysis
Takeru Ehara, Christopher M Adams, Doug Bevan, Nan Ji, Erik L Meredith, David B Belanger, James Powers, Mitsunori Kato, Catherine Solovay, Donglei Liu, Michael Capparelli, Philippe Bolduc, Jonathan E Grob, Matthew H Daniels, Luciana Ferrara, Louis Yang, Byron Li, Christopher S Towler, Rebecca C Stacy, Ganesh Prasanna, Muneto Mogi
Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), the endogenous receptor for nitric oxide (NO), has been implicated in several diseases associated with oxidative stress. In a pathological oxidative environment, the heme group of sGC can be oxidized becoming unresponsive to NO leading to a loss in the ability to catalyze the production of cGMP. Recently a dysfunctional sGC/NO/cGMP pathway has been implicated in contributing to elevated intraocular pressure associated with glaucoma. Herein we describe the discovery of molecules specifically designed for topical ocular administration, which can activate oxidized sGC restoring the ability to catalyze the production of cGMP...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Dong Ho Woo, Eun Ha Koh, Seung-Hyuk Shin, Young-Su Yang, Jae Chun Choe, C Justin Lee, Su-Cheol Han
Cortisol is a well-known endogenous glucocorticoid that serves as a stress indicator. It is normally released under stressful condition to warn about imminent danger and thus is critical for survival of the species. However, it is unclear how cortisol relates to cognitive process under physiological condition in high-order primates such as non-human primates (NHP). Here, we report that a slight but significant increase in blood cortisol level by mild stress is positively correlated with the cognitive function in cynomolgus monkey...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shizuka Konishi, Takashi Kotera, Masaaki Koga, Makoto Ueda
The term cardiomyopathy is used to describe heart disease resulting from an abnormality in the myocardium. It is rare in cynomolgus macaques ( Macaca fascicularis ). Here, we report a case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in an 11-year-old male cynomolgus macaque. Macroscopically, the interventricular septum (IVS) and the left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) walls of the heart were thickened. Histologically, cardiomyocytes showed hypertrophy and disarray with interstitial fibrosis, and some myocytes showed karyomegaly and vacuoles...
January 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Takuma Iguchi, Ken Sakurai, Satoshi Tamai, Kazuhiko Mori
Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) can potentially be used as sensitive and specific biomarkers for tissue injury. However, the usefulness of circulating miRNAs as safety biomarkers in nonclinical toxicological studies using nonhuman primates is debatable owing to the limited information on organ-specific miRNAs. Therefore, a systematic investigation was performed to address this point. We identified organ-specific miRNAs from cynomolgus monkeys by next-generation sequencing analysis, which revealed that miR-122 was only abundant in the liver, whereas miR-192 was abundant in the liver, stomach, intestines, and kidney...
January 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Jochen Woicke, Solomon Haile, Jagannatha Mysore, W Michael Peden, Typhaine Lejeune, Thomas Sanderson, Thomas Brodie
Spontaneous findings noted in the eyes of Mauritian cynomolgus monkeys are described and descriptions are supplemented with illustrations. Findings observed after extensive histopathologic examinations (20 to 44 sections per eye) from 20 control, 17 treatment-naive stock monkeys, and 2 findings noted in drug-treated monkeys that were considered to be spontaneous are included. Also included are findings from 361 control monkeys of routine toxicity studies performed at our laboratories, for most of which a standard histopathological examination of 1 section per eye was conducted...
January 1, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
Mehabaw G Derebe, Rupesh K Nanjunda, Gary L Gilliland, Eilyn R Lacy, Mark L Chiu
In therapeutic antibody discovery and early development, mice and cynomolgus monkey are used as animal models to assess toxicity, efficacy and other properties of candidate molecules. As more candidate antibodies are based on human immunoglobulin (IgG) subtypes, many strategies are pursued to simulate the human system in the test animal. However, translation rate from a successful preclinical trial to an approved drug is extremely low. This may partly be due to differences in interaction of human IgG based candidate molecules to endogenous Fcγ receptors of model animals in comparison to those of human Fcγ receptors...
February 21, 2018: Immunology Letters
Dmitry Tarasov, Dmitry Tovbin, Dmitry Malakhov, Arseniy Aybush, Natalia Tserkovnikova, Marina Savelyeva, Dmitry Sychev, Natalia Drozd, Alla Savchenko
BACKGROUND: Factor Xa (FXa) is known to play a central role in a blood coagulation cascade and considered to be one of the most attractive targets for oral anticoagulants of new generation. OBJECTIVE: Our approach for the development of directly acting oral anticoagulants (DOAC), FXa inhibitors was demonstrated in this work. METHOD: Chemical synthesis is the base of our approach for the development of potential inhibitors. In this work, the substances like R1-(CONH)-R2-(CONH)-R3 are being developed, using previously described docking and screening methods, where R1, R2, R3 are some chemical groups, (CONH) are amid bonds connecting R1, R2 and R3...
February 14, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Yasuhiro Uno, Shotaro Uehara, Hiroshi Yamazaki
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme and is expressed in liver. Although human CYP2B6 variants account for variable enzyme properties among individuals and populations, CYP2B6 genetic variants have not been investigated in cynomolgus macaques, widely used in drug metabolism studies. METHODS: CYP2B6 was resequenced in 120 cynomolgus macaques and 23 rhesus macaques by direct sequencing. RESULTS: Twenty-three non-synonymous variants were found, of which 12 and 3 were unique to cynomolgus macaques and rhesus macaques, respectively...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Primatology
Alynne da Silva Barbosa, Matheus Lessa Cardozo, Laís Verdan Dib, Ana Beatriz Monteiro Fonseca, Claudia Maria Antunes Uchôa, Otilio Machado Pereira Bastos, Maria Regina Reis Amendoeira
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the growth rate of Balantidium coli in three xenic media cultures. Between 2013 and 2015, 10 B. coli isolates obtained from feces of Cynomolgus macaques, and 30 isolates from feces of pigs were studied. An inoculum of 500 trophozoites was transferred to tubes containing LES, TYSGM-9 and Pavlova media. These cultures were evaluated at incubation times of 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. In most of strains analyzed wasn't showed significant difference in the growth rate comparing TYSGM-9 and Pavlova media (Wilcoxon p>0...
February 19, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
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