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Apoptotic body

Gorjana Rackov, Noemi Garcia-Romero, Susana Esteban-Rubio, Josefa Carrión-Navarro, Cristobal Belda-Iniesta, Angel Ayuso-Sacido
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) - including exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies - have received much scientific attention last decade as mediators of a newly discovered cell-to-cell communication system, acting at short and long distances. EVs carry biologically active molecules, thus providing signals that influence a spectrum of functions in recipient cells during various physiological and pathological processes. Recent findings point to EVs as very attractive immunomodulatory therapeutic agents, vehicles for drug delivery and diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in liquid biopsies...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Feng-Lai Yuan, Qian-Yuan Wu, Zong-Ning Miao, Ming-Hui Xu, Rui-Sheng Xu, Dong-Lin Jiang, Jun-Xing Ye, Fei-Hu Chen, Ming-Dong Zhao, Hao-Jue Wang, Xia Li
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies, play an important role in cellular communication during skeletal growth and homeostasis. Bioactive molecules carried by EVs are transported to neighboring and distant cells to trigger a series of signaling cascades influencing bone homeostasis. The bioactive activities of osteoclast-derived EVs include regulation of osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast-osteoblast communication. As osteoclast-derived EVs have the potential to regulate osteoclasts and osteoblasts, their application in osteoporosis and other bone metabolic disorders is currently under investigation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mohammad Firoz Alam, Mohammed M Safhi, Tarique Anwer, Rahimullah Siddiqui, Gyas Khan, Sivakumar Sivagurunathan Moni
The aim of this research was to investigate the therapeutic potential of Vanillylacetone against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) induced hepatotoxicity in mice through understanding the serum marker, oxidative stress mechanism and cytokine networks. Carbon tetrachloride is highly hepatotoxic used as research based on animal model. The mice were classified into five groups and each had eight mice. Group-I was controlled and the vehicle was given orally. Group-II was toxic and carbon tetrachloride (1.5 ml/kg) twice a week for 15 days was administered by intra-peritoneal injections...
June 14, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Su-Juan Pei, Huai-Yuan Zhu, Jin-Hui Guo, Xin Zhang, Zhi-Jian Deng
Obesity and diabetes are associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, the pathogenesis of DCM is not fully understood. Cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) has been a drug target for the treatment of obesity. Here, we reported that CNR1 expression was increased in high fat diet (HFD)-induced heart of mice. Following, the wild type (CNR1+/+ ) and CNR1-knockout (CNR1-/- ) mice were employed and subjected to HFD treatments for 16 weeks to further investigate the effects of CNR1 on DCM. The results indicated that CNR1 knockout mice after HFD feeding exhibited a significant decrease of body weight and lipid accumulation in serum...
June 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Kpobari W Nkpaa, Godspower I Onyeso
Studies have shown that high exposure to fluoride (NaF) induces neurotoxicity. Rutin (RUT), a citrus flavonoid, has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective mechanism(s) of RUT on NaF - induced neurotoxicity. Rats were exposed to NaF alone in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone ad libitum or orally co-treated by gavage with RUT at 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for 31 consecutive days. A video-tracking software was used to monitor the motor and locomotive behavior during a 5 - min trial time in a novel environment...
June 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Chen Huang, Pei Wu, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Yun-Yun Zeng, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Lin Feng
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common mycotoxin contaminants of animal feed worldwide and brings significant threats to the animal production. However, studies concerning the effect of DON on fish intestine are scarce. This study explored the effects of DON on intestinal physical barrier in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1440 juvenile grass carp (12.17 ± 0.01 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of DON (27, 318, 636, 922, 1243 and 1515 μg/kg diet) for 60 days...
June 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ji Won Kim, Jeong-Mi Kim, Seok-Ki Kim, Young-Mo Kim, Jeong-Seok Choi
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is a putative damage mechanism leading to salivary gland (SG) dysfunction following radioiodine (RI) therapy. Ginseng is an antioxidative herb. We examined the SG radioprotective effects of Korea red ginseng (KRG) administration prior to RI in a mouse model. METHODS: We divided four-week old mice (n = 60) into four groups; (1) normal control, (2) RI only treated (0.01 mCi/g, p.o), (3) KRG administered (0.2 mg/g, i.p) 0.5 and 6 hours before RI, and (4) amifostine treated (0...
June 15, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Malatee Tayeh, Sirinun Nilwarangkoon, Chantra Tanunyutthawongse, Wilawan Mahabusarakum, Ramida Watanapokasin
Rhodomyrtone is a bioactive compound extracted from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaves. It has been used as a traditional herb medicine for many years. Rhodomyrtone exhibits antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, the anticancer activity of rhodomyrtone has not been previously reported. The present study investigated the anticancer effect of rhomyrtone on human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. The cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects of rhodomyrtone on A431 cells were investigated by an MTT assay...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Sei Hwan You, Mee Yon Cho, Joon Hyung Sohn, Chang Geol Lee
Pancreatic radiation effect (PRE) can be a component of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) radiotoxicity. This inter-organ correlation between the GIT and the pancreas was assessed through a rat model. Separate local irradiation to the abdomen and the pelvis was applied concurrently for 8-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats. Abdominal irradiation was categorized into pancreatic shield (PS) and non-pancreatic shield (NPS) irradiation. After 5 Gy and 15 Gy irradiation, the rectal mucosa was analyzed at the first week (early phase, Ep) and the 14th week (late phase, Lp)...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Yanqin Sun, Jiali Long, Yuting Yin, Hongmei Li, Enping Jiang, Chao Zeng, Wei Zhu
We build the latent membrane protein gene LMP2A and GM-CSF gene fusion gene (CSF2A), and discuss how CSF2A fusion protein influenced proliferation and apoptosis of EBV+ tumor cells. RT-PCR method was used to amplify LMP2A gene and GM-CSF gene fragments respectively, according to the principle of overlap extension in the coding (Gly4Ser)3 polypeptide gene fragments of DNA restructured under the connection. CSF2A gene could be connected with pIRES2-eGFP vector by recombinant DNA technology, and identified by enzyme electrophoresis analysis and DNA sequencing...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Christopher P Hartley, Luis F Carrillo-Polanco, Daniel J Rowan, Catherine E Hagen
Histologic characterization of graft-vs.-host disease in autologous stem cell transplant patients has been limited. The aims of this study were to characterize colonic graft-vs.-host disease in autologous stem cell transplant patients and compare to a control group of allogeneic stem cell transplant patients, to determine whether graft-vs.-host disease can be diagnosed < 21 days post transplantation in autologous stem cell transplant recipients, and to quantify colonic T-cell populations in autologous stem cell transplant patients...
June 13, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Désirée Maßberg, Hanns Hatt
Olfactory receptors (ORs) are not exclusively expressed in the olfactory sensory neurons; they are also observed outside of the olfactory system in all other human tissues tested to date, including the testis, lung, intestine, skin, heart, and blood. Within these tissues, certain ORs have been determined to be exclusively expressed in only one tissue, whereas other ORs are more widely distributed in many different tissues throughout the human body. For most of the ectopically expressed ORs, limited data are available for their functional roles...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Ahmad Salimi, Jalal Pourahmad
Apoptosis is fundamental in several morphogenetic processes and ultimately determines the mass, shape, and function of the various tissues and organs that form the animal body. This process is a gene-regulated process that plays fundamental roles in several normal and pathological conditions. Apoptosis is most often detected during embryonic development. Although the nervous tissue is traditionally regarded as being fundamentally constituted by postmitotic nonproliferating cells, analysis of cell proliferation and apoptosis in vivo has recently gained an increasing importance mainly during embryonic development because there is large evidence that drug-induced apoptosis is the most likely candidate for the behavioral deficits...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yu Meng, Lizhuo Wang, Liefeng Ling
The SID1 transmembrane family member 2 (sidt2) deficient mouse model was used to investigate the function of sidt2 in lysosomal membrane permeabilization and lipid metabolism of liver tissue. The mouse model was established by Cre/LoxP technology. Enzymatic methods were used to analyze the sidt2-/- mouse serum lipids, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and serum bilirubin, compared with sidt2+/+ mice. Defective lipid metabolism and damaged liver functions were observed in the sidt2-/- mice. By using hematoxylin and eosin and Oil Red O staining, changes of morphology were observed in sidt2-/- mice with optical microscopy...
July 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ana I Duarte, Marie Sjögren, Maria S Santos, Catarina R Oliveira, Paula I Moreira, Maria Björkqvist
Neuronal loss alongside altered energy metabolism, are key features of Huntington's disease (HD) pathology. The orexigenic gut-peptide hormone ghrelin is known to stimulate appetite and affect whole body energy metabolism. Liraglutide is an efficient anti-type 2 diabetes incretin drug, with neuroprotective effects alongside anorectic properties. Combining liraglutide with the orexigenic peptide ghrelin may potentially promote brain/cognitive function in HD. The R6/2 mouse model of HD exhibits progressive central pathology, weight loss, deranged glucose metabolism, skeletal muscle atrophy and altered body composition...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dan Zhang, Linlin Wu, Yanna Du, Yuting Zhu, Bingting Pan, Xindong Xue, Jianhua Fu
AIM: Autophagy is a common process during development. Abnormal autophagy can impact cell apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that apoptosis is present during bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, there is no consensus on the level of coexisting autophagy. This study was designed to investigate the role of autophagy and the effects of autophagy inducers in a BPD model. METHOD: A total of 100 newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to model and control groups...
June 12, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Hai-Zhen Wang, Dan-Chun Cai, Dan-Dan Liao, Mei Zhong, Yun-Fei Gao, Chao Sheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-induced trophoblast apoptosis in the development of intrahepatic cholestasis during pregnancy (ICP). METHODS: Twenty pregnant women with ICP and 20 normal pregnant women undergoing cesarean section were enrolled in this study. The number of placenta syncytial knots in these women was determined using HE staining. The mRNA expressions of GRP78, CHOP, caspase-3, and caspase-7 were detected using RT-PCR in the placental tissues of the women and also in HTR-8/SVneo cells treated with different doses of deoxycholic acid (DCA)...
May 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Giti Kalantarian, Nasrin Ziamajidi, Reza Mahjoub, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Massoud Saidijam, Sara Soleimani Asl, Roghayeh Abbasalipourkabir
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous injection of insulin can lead to problems such as hypoglycemia and edema. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of oral insulin-coated trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles on control of glycemic status, IGF-1 and IGF-2 levels, and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Insulin-coated trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by the complex polyelectrolyte (PEC) method...
June 6, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Yu Ran Lee, Myoung Soo Park, Hee Kyoung Joo, Ki Mo Kim, Jeryong Kim, Byeong Hwa Jeon, Sunga Choi
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents a relatively small proportion of all BCs but a relatively large proportion of BC-related death. Thus, more effective therapeutic strategies are needed for the management of TNBC. We demonstrated that the stimulation of apoptosis by the binding of secreted acetylated-apurinic apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (Ac-APE1/Ref-1) to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) was essential for TNBC cell death in response to hyperacetylation. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential therapeutic efficacy of secretory Ac-APE1/Ref-1 in orthotopic TNBC xenografts in vivo...
June 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Héloïse Cardinal, Mélanie Dieudé, Marie-Josée Hébert
Kidney transplantation entails a high likelihood of endothelial injury. The endothelium is a target of choice for injury by ischemia-reperfusion, alloantibodies, and autoantibodies. A certain degree of ischemia-reperfusion injury inevitably occurs in the immediate posttransplant setting and can manifest as delayed graft function. Acute rejection episodes, whether T-cell or antibody-mediated, can involve the graft micro- and macrovasculature, leading to endothelial injury and adverse long-term consequences on graft function and survival...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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