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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054476/extracellular-vesicles-as-emerging-targets-in-cancer-recent-development-from-bench-to-bedside
#1
REVIEW
Kerui Wu, Fei Xing, Shih-Ying Wu, Kounosuke Watabe
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as important players of cancer initiation and progression through cell-cell communication. They have been recognized as critical mediators of extracellular communications, which promote transformation, growth invasion, and drug-resistance of cancer cells. Interestingly, the secretion and uptake of EVs are regulated in a more controlled manner than previously anticipated. EVs are classified into three groups, (i) exosomes, (ii) microvesicles (MVs), and (iii) apoptotic bodies (ABs), based on their sizes and origins, and novel technologies to isolate and distinguish these EVs are evolving...
October 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054323/human-kidney-stone-matrix-latent-potential-to-restrain-com-induced-cytotoxicity-and-inflammatory-response
#2
Shifa Narula, Simran Tandon, Prakash Baligar, Shrawan Kumar Singh, Chanderdeep Tandon
Kidney stone disease is a multi-factorial disorder resulting from the interplay of various risk factors including lifestyle, environment and genetics along with metabolic activities inside the body. However, it is difficult to determine how these factors converge to promote stone disease. Extensive investigations of kidney stone composition at the molecular level have been carried out however; its impact on the complex mechanism of stone formation is still obscure. Hence, an in vitro study was designed to investigate the attenuation of calcium oxalate toxicity by human kidney stone matrix proteins on NRK-52E cells using flowcytometry, Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence assays...
October 17, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048633/in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-anti-primary-effusion-lymphoma-activities-of-fucoidan-extracted-from-cladosiphon-okamuranus-tokida
#3
Chie Ishikawa, Naoki Mori
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is characterized by lymphomatous effusion in body cavities and poor prognosis. There is still no effective treatment for PEL. Fucoidan, a major sulfated polysaccharide isolated from brown seaweeds, has an attractive array of bioactivities such as cancer inhibition. However, the effects of fucoidan on PEL cells remain unclear. We investigated the anti-PEL effects of fucoidan obtained from Cladosiphon okamuranus Tokida cultivated in Okinawa...
September 20, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045486/thiamine-deficiency-activates-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-to-facilitate-pro-apoptotic-responses-in-mouse-primary-astrocytes
#4
Kristy Zera, Jason Zastre
Thiamine is an essential enzyme cofactor required for proper metabolic function and maintenance of metabolism and energy production in the brain. In developed countries, thiamine deficiency (TD) is most often manifested following chronic alcohol consumption leading to impaired mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, inflammation and excitotoxicity. These biochemical lesions result in apoptotic cell death in both neurons and astrocytes. Comparable histological injuries in patients with hypoxia/ischemia and TD have been described in the thalamus and mammillary bodies, suggesting a congruency between the cellular responses to these stresses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044621/protective-roles-of-hepatic-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-signaling-in-acute-ethanol-exposure-induced-liver-injury
#5
Shuanglian Wang, Shaofeng Sui, Zhiyan Liu, Cheng Peng, Jia Liu, Dan Luo, Xinhuan Fan, Chuanyong Liu, Wei-Yang Lu
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a consequence of heavy and prolonged alcohol consumptions. We previously demonstrated a hepatic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling system that protects the liver from toxic injury. The present study was designed to investigate the role of the hepatic GABA signaling system in the process of acute ethanol exposure-induced liver injury. Our results showed that the expression of GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase and type A GABA receptor (GABAA R) subunits was upregulated in ethanol-treated mice compared with saline-treated controls...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042994/immunological-mechanism-of-low-dose-priming-radiation-resistance-in-walker-256-tumor-model-mice
#6
Li Feng, Ling Qin, Dan Guo, Daping Deng, Feng Lu, Hailiang Li, Narisu Bao, Xiting Yang, Hongyu Ding, Jianguo Li
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low-dose priming radiation induces antitumor immunity that can be augmented by the modulation of natural killer (NK) cell and cytokine activity using a mouse tumor model. Walker-256 cells were injected into the right flank of male BALB/c mice. At 7 days after inoculation, mice were divided into three groups, including group 1,2,3. In group 1 the mice were without radiation, in group 2 the mice were received 2 Gy radiation only, and in group 3 the mice were radiated with a priming dose of 75 mGy followed by 2 Gy radiation after 24 h...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036705/chalcogenozidovudine-derivatives-with-antitumor-activity-comparative-toxicities-in-cultured-human-mononuclear-cells
#7
Assis Ecker, Pauline Christ Ledur, Rafael S da Silva, Daniela Bitencourt Rosa Leal, Oscar E D Rodrigues, Daniel Ardisson-Araújo, Emily Pansera Waczuk, João Batista Teixeira da Rocha, Nilda Vargas Barbosa
Considering a novel series of zidovudine (AZT) derivatives encompassing selenoaryl moieties promising candidates as therapeutics, we examined the toxicities elicited by AZT and derivatives 5'-(4-Chlorophenylseleno)zidovudine (SZ1); 5'-(Phenylseleno)zidovudine (SZ2); and 5'-(4-Methylphenylseleno)zidovudine (SZ3) in healthy cells and in mice. Resting and stimulated cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated with the compounds at concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 µM for 24 and/or 72 h...
July 28, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036189/inhibition-of-cug-binding-protein-1-and-activation-of-caspases-are-critically-involved-in-piperazine-derivative-bk10007s-induced-apoptosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#8
Ju-Ha Kim, Hee Young Kwon, Dong Hoon Ryu, Min-Ho Nam, Bum Sang Shim, Jin Han Kim, Jae Yeol Lee, Sung-Hoon Kim
Though piperazine derivative BK10007S was known to induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer xenograft model as a T-type CaV3.1 a1G isoform calcium channel blocker, its underlying antitumor mechanism still remains unclear so far. Thus, in the present study, the antitumor mechanism of BK10007S was elucidated in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCCs). Herein, BK10007S showed significant cytotoxicity by 3-[4,5-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetra-zolium bromide (MTT) assay and anti-proliferative effects by colony formation assay in HepG2 and SK-Hep1 cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035676/the-molecular-mechanism-and-neuroprotective-effect-of-dihydrocapsaicin-induced-mild-hypothermia-after-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-rats
#9
Xiaopeng Zhong, Xiujuan Wang, Fei Fei, ManCui Zhang, Po Ding, Shiwu Zhang
To investigate the molecular mechanism of dihydrocapsaicin (DHC)-induced mild hypothermia in rats, and to compare its protective effect on the central nervous system with that of a conventional method of inducing hypothermia, 24 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups based on the following conditions: control group, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) group, body surface cooling group, and DHC group. Tracheal clipping was used to mimic asphyxia arrest. Rats were assessed for their neurological deficit scores...
October 16, 2017: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032684/effect-of-boron-on-thymic-cytokine-expression-hormone-secretion-antioxidant-functions-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis-potential-via-the-erk1-2-signaling-pathway
#10
Erhui Jin, Man Ren, Wenwen Liu, Shuang Liang, Qianqian Hu, Youfang Gu, Shenghe Li
Boron is an essential trace element in animals. Appropriate boron supplementation can promote thymus development; however, a high dose of boron can lead to adverse effects and cause toxicity. The influencing mechanism of boron on the animal body remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of boron on cytokine expression, thymosin and thymopoietin secretion, antioxidant function, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and the ERK1/2 pathway in the thymus of rats. We found that supplementation with 10 and 20 mg/L of boron to the drinking water significantly elevated levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and thymosin α1 in the thymus of rats (P < 0...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030433/dysregulation-of-the-mitochondrial-unfolded-protein-response-induces-non-apoptotic-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration-in-c-elegans-models-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Bryan A Martinez, Daniel A Petersen, Anthony L Gaeta, Samuel P Stanley, Guy A Caldwell, Kim A Caldwell
Due to environmental insult or innate genetic deficiency, protein folding environments of the mitochondrial matrix are prone to dysregulation, prompting the activation of a specific organellar stress-response mechanism the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(MT)). In Caenorhabditis elegans, mitochondrial damage leads to nuclear translocation of the ATFS-1 transcription factor to activate the UPR(MT) After short-term acute stress has been mitigated, the UPR(MT) is eventually suppressed to restore homeostasis to C...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027450/-cloning-and-expression-of-scavenger-receptor-class-b-bmscrb8-in-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#12
Yuzu Zhao, Kui Zhang, Mei Tang, Man Xu, Chongyang Li, Guangzhao Pan, Li Shen, Hongjuan Cui, Liqun Yang
Scavenger receptor class B is involved in various indispensable physiological processes, like the formation and inhibition of atherosclerosis or other cardiovascular diseases, innate immune defense and the removal of apoptotic cells. Here, we cloned BmSCRB8, a member of scavenger receptor class B in silkworm. We obtained the full-length cDNA sequence of BmSCRB8 by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), including 2 668 bp. The ORF of BmSCRB8 is 1 704 bp, encoding 567 amino acids. Online software prediction indicated that the molecular weight of BmSCRB8 is 63...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027056/curcumin-affords-neuroprotection-and-inhibits-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregation-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-parkinson-s-disease-model
#13
Neha Sharma, Bimla Nehru
Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology is characterized by the abnormal accumulation and aggregation of the pre-synaptic protein α-synuclein in the dopaminergic neurons as Lewy bodies (LBs). Curcumin, which plays a neuroprotective role in various animal models of PD, was found to directly modulate the aggregation of α-synuclein in in vitro as well as in in vivo studies. While curcumin has been shown to exhibit strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, there are a number of other possible mechanisms by which curcumin may alter α-synuclein aggregation which still remains obscure...
October 12, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024380/cell-to-cell-communication-micrornas-as-hormones
#14
REVIEW
Recep Bayraktar, Katrien Van Roosbroeck, George A Calin
Mammalian cells can release different types of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. Accumulating evidence suggests that EVs play a role in cell-to-cell communication within the tumor microenvironment. EVs' components, such as proteins, non-coding RNAs [microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs)], messenger RNAs (mRNAs), DNA, and lipids, can mediate paracrine signaling in the tumor microenvironment. Recently, miRNAs encapsulated in secreted EVs have been identified in the extracellular space...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022891/escin-induces-caspase-dependent-apoptosis-and-autophagy-through-the-ros-p38-mapk-signalling-pathway-in-human-osteosarcoma-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
Jian Zhu, Wei Yu, Bing Liu, Yitian Wang, Jianlin Shao, Junjie Wang, Kaishun Xia, Chengzhen Liang, Weijing Fang, Chenhe Zhou, Huimin Tao
Osteosarcoma is one of the most malignant neoplasms in adolescents, and it generally develops multidrug resistance. Escin, a natural mixture of triterpene saponins isolated from Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut), has demonstrated potent anti-tumour potential in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we found that escin inhibited osteosarcoma proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, escin-induced apoptosis was evidenced by the increased expression of caspase-related proteins and the formation of apoptotic bodies...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991196/phaseolus-acutifolius-lectin-fractions-exhibit-apoptotic-effects-on-colon-cancer-preclinical-studies-using-dimethilhydrazine-or-azoxi-methane-as-cancer-induction-agents
#16
Ulisses Moreno-Celis, Josué López-Martínez, Alejandro Blanco-Labra, Ricardo Cervantes-Jiménez, Laura Elena Estrada-Martínez, Alejandro Eduardo García-Pascalin, María De Jesús Guerrero-Carrillo, Adriana Jheny Rodríguez-Méndez, Carmen Mejía, Roberto Augusto Ferríz-Martínez, Teresa García-Gasca
Phaseolus acutifolius (Tepary bean) lectins have been studied as cytotoxic molecules on colon cancer cells. The toxicological profile of a Tepary bean lectin fraction (TBLF) has shown low toxicity in experimental animals; exhibiting anti-nutritional effects such as a reduction in body weight gain and a decrease in food intake when using a dose of 50 mg/kg on alternate days for six weeks. Taking this information into account, the focus of this work was to evaluate the effect of the TBLF on colon cancer using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) or azoxy-methane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS) as colon cancer inductors...
October 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990413/nadph-oxidases-and-their-roles-in-skin-homeostasis-and-carcinogenesis
#17
Jana Rudolf, Houssam Raad, Alain Taieb, Hamid Reza Rezvani
SIGNIFICANCE: Skin protects the body from dehydration, pathogens and external mutagens. NADPH oxidases are central components for regulating the cellular redox balance. There is increasing evidence indicating that reactive oxygen species generated by members of this enzyme family play important roles in the physiology and pathophysiology of the skin. Recent Advances: NADPH oxidases are active producers of reactive oxygen species such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Different isoforms are found in virtually all tissues...
October 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987828/acute-response-of-neurons-an-early-event-of-neuronal-cell-death-after-facial-nerve-injury
#18
Haitao Huang, Zhigang Sun, Huawei Liu, Juntao Ma, Min Hu
OBJECTIVE: This study was to research the early acute response events of facial nerve injury. METHODS: A total of 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups. For rats in study group, facial nerve anastomosis was performed. Rats in control group were undergone the same surgical procedure, but without cutting off the facial nerve. Before nerve anastomosis and at day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 after nerve anastomosis, 5 rats of each group were selected and right side brainstem tissue samples containing the facial nerve nucleus were obtained...
October 4, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987624/toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-pathway-participated-in-salmonella-lipopolysaccharide-induced-spleen-injury-in-young-chicks
#19
Ningya Li, Abdur Rahman Ansari, Zhijian Sun, Haibo Huang, Lei Cui, Yafang Hu, Xing Zhao, Juming Zhong, El-Sayed Mahfouz Abdel-Kafy, Huazhen Liu
Spleen is one of the crucial sites for cellular and humoral immunity but it easily damaged during pathogenic infections resulting in immunosuppression. The current study was therefore performed to explore the mechanism of acute spleen injury induced by salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in young chicks. Healthy one-day-old Cobb strain broiler chicks were intra-peritoneally injected with saline or LPS. LPS treatment caused significant decreases in body and spleen weights at 36 and 72 h. Histological analysis showed the changes of ellipsoid structures with beginning of nuclear pyknosis and karyolysis similar to steatosis at 12 h, maximum histopathological lesions were seen at 36 h, however these were disappeared at 72 h post LPS stimulation...
October 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987362/the-stimulating-effects-of-polyphenol-and-protein-fractions-from-jelly-fig-ficus-awkeotsang-makino-achenes-against-proliferation-of-leukemia-cells
#20
Yi-Zhen Shih, Ai-Jun Huang, Chih-Yao Hou, Chii-Ming Jiang, Ming-Chang Wu
This study aimed to investigate the direct and immune-stimulated antiproliferative activities of jelly fig achenes fractions including pectinesterase inhibitors, crude polyphenols extract, and purified polyphenols extract (PP). Beside the measurement of cell viability of U937, the quantity of cytokines in conditioned medium and morphologic changes in leukemia were observed. After surveying all fractions in jelly fig, the obtained fractions of polyphenol exhibited the highest stimulating effects and directly cytotoxic effects against leukemia with the lowest effect found in protein fractions...
October 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
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