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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241183/leptin-suppresses-glutamate-induced-apoptosis-through-regulation-of-erk1-2-signaling-pathways-in-rat-primary-astrocytes
#1
Hyunju Park, So-Hee Ahn, Yieun Jung, Joo Chun Yoon, Youn-Hee Choi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Leptin is a hormone expressed by adipose tissue that regulates body energy homeostasis and weight loss by activating leptin receptors in the hypothalamus. Leptin receptors are also expressed in astrocytes. An anti-apoptosis effect of leptin in brain has recently been reported. However, the anti-apoptosis mechanism of leptin in the brain is unknown. METHODS: To investigate whether leptin exerts protective effects against glutamate-induced apoptosis in astrocytes, we performed cell viability assays and apoptosis assays using rat primary astrocytes...
December 12, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234666/technical-advances-to-study-extracellular-vesicles
#2
REVIEW
Paula Carpintero-Fernández, Juan Fafián-Labora, Ana O'Loghlen
Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous and dynamic group of lipid bilayer membrane nanoparticles that can be classified into three different groups depending on their cellular origin: exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. They are produced by different cell types and can be isolated from almost all body fluids. EVs contain a variety of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and metabolites which regulate a number of biological and pathological scenarios both locally and systemically. Different techniques have been described in order to determine EV isolation, release, uptake, and cargo...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233884/revisiting-multimodal-activation-and-channel-properties-of-pannexin-1
#3
REVIEW
Yu-Hsin Chiu, Michael S Schappe, Bimal N Desai, Douglas A Bayliss
Pannexin 1 (Panx1) forms plasma membrane ion channels that are widely expressed throughout the body. Panx1 activation results in the release of nucleotides such as adenosine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate. Thus, these channels have been implicated in diverse physiological and pathological functions associated with purinergic signaling, such as apoptotic cell clearance, blood pressure regulation, neuropathic pain, and excitotoxicity. In light of this, substantial attention has been directed to understanding the mechanisms that regulate Panx1 channel expression and activation...
December 12, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233862/prolactin-releasing-peptide-improved-leptin-hypothalamic-signaling-in-obese-mice
#4
Martina Holubova, Lucie Hrubá, Barbora Neprašová, Zuzana Majercikova, Zdena Lacinova, Jaroslav Kunes, Lenka Maletinska, Blanka Zelezna
The situation following anti-obesity drug termination is rarely investigated, even though a decrease in body weight needs to be sustained. Therefore, this study examined the impact of twice-daily peripheral administration of 5 mg/kg [N-palm-γGlu-Lys11] prolactin-releasing peptide 31 (palm11-PrRP31) in mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO from consuming a high-fat diet) after 28 days of treatment (palm11-PrRP31 group) and after 14 days of peptide treatment followed by 14 days of discontinuation (palm11-PrRP31+saline group)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233618/nutritional-impact-on-gene-expression-and-competence-of-oocytes-used-to-support-embryo-development-and-livebirth-by-cloning-procedures-in-goats
#5
C C L Fernandes, L H Aguiar, C E M Calderón, A M Silva, J P M Alves, R Rossetto, L R Bertolini, M Bertolini, D Rondina
Changes in the nutritional plan have been shown to affect oocyte quality, crucial to oocyte donors animals used in cloning. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of diets with increasing nutritional levels (maintenance diet=M; 1.3M; 1.6M; 1.9M) fed to goats for four weeks on follicular fluid composition, gene expression and oocyte competence used to cloning in goats. Donor females were superovulated for the retrieval of matured oocytes and physical measurements reported. After four weeks, groups receiving diets above maintenance increased thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue and body weight, with higher values in 1...
October 19, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233151/suppression-of-ptpn6-exacerbates-aluminum-oxide-nanoparticle-induced-copd-like-lesions-in-mice-through-activation-of-stat-pathway
#6
Xiaobo Li, Hongbao Yang, Shenshen Wu, Qingtao Meng, Hao Sun, Runze Lu, Jian Cui, Yuxin Zheng, Wen Chen, Rong Zhang, Michael Aschner, Rui Chen
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nanoparticles can deposit in the deep lung where they interact with pulmonary cells. Despite numerous studies on pulmonary nanotoxicity, detailed molecular mechanisms of specific nanomaterial-induced lung injury have yet to be identified. RESULTS: Using whole-body dynamic inhalation model, we studied the interactions between aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) and the pulmonary system in vivo. We found that seven-day-exposure to Al2O3 NPs resulted in emphysema and small airway remodeling in murine lungs, accompanied by enhanced inflammation and apoptosis...
December 12, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232945/ultraviolet-rays-induced-sea-cucumber-stichopus-japonicus-melting-is-mediated-through-the-caspase-dependent-mitochondrial-apoptotic-pathway
#7
Li Su, Jing-Feng Yang, Xi Fu, Liang Dong, Da-Yong Zhou, Li-Ming Sun, Zhenwei Gong
Sea cucumber body wall melting occurs under certain circumstances. We have shown that apoptosis, but not autolysis, plays a critical role in the initial stage. However, it is still unclear how apoptosis is triggered in this process. In this study, we examined the reactive oxygen species (ROS), levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax) and the depolarization of mitochondria transmembrane potential and Cytochrome c (Cyt c) release during the sea cucumber melting induced by ultraviolet (UV) exposure...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222068/foetoplacental-communication-via-extracellular-vesicles-in-normal-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#8
REVIEW
Delia I Chiarello, Rocío Salsoso, Fernando Toledo, Alfonso Mate, Carmen M Vázquez, Luis Sobrevia
Intercellular communication is a critical process in biological mechanisms. During pregnancy foetoplacental tissues release a heterogeneous group of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that include exosomes, microvesicles, apoptotic bodies, and syncytial nuclear aggregates. These vesicles contain a complex cargo (proteins, DNA, mRNA transcripts, microRNAs, noncoding RNA, lipids, and other molecules) that actively participate in the maternal-foetal communication by modulating different processes during gestation for a successful foetal development...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221182/differential-modulation-of-bax-bcl-2-ratio-and-onset-of-caspase-3-7-activation-induced-by-derivatives-of-justicidin-b-in-human-melanoma-cells-a375
#9
Aljawharah Al-Qathama, Simon Gibbons, Jose M Prieto
Diphyllin and its derivatives are well known cytotoxic natural products structurally related to the anti-cancer drug podophyllotoxin. We here study their structure-activity relationship upon human melanoma cells for first time. To this end, human melanoma A375 cells were incubated with Justicidin B and its 4-methoxylated or 4-glycosylated derivatives to evaluate their selective cytotoxicity and study their effects on cell cycle distribution, caspase activation, apoptosis induction using Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, cell morphology and western blot analysis...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219950/exosomes-new-molecular-targets-of-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Saheli Samanta, Sheeja Rajasingh, Nicholas Drosos, Zhigang Zhou, Buddhadeb Dawn, Johnson Rajasingh
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) comprise apoptotic bodies, microvesicles and exosomes, and they perform as key regulators in cell-to-cell communication in normal as well as diseased states. EVs contain natural cargo molecules, such as miRNA, mRNA and proteins, and transfer these functional cargos to neighboring cells or more distant cells through circulation. These functionally active molecules then affect distinct signaling cascades. The message conveyed to the recipient cells is dependent upon the composition of the EV, which is determined by the parent cell and the EV biogenesis...
December 7, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217260/ontogenesis-of-the-pinealo-retinal-neuronal-connection-in-albino-rats
#11
Ágnes Csáki, Viktória Vereczki, Ákos Lukáts, Zsolt Boldogkői, Anna Sebestyén, Zita Puskár, Katalin Köves
It was accepted for a long time that in mammals there is only retinofugal neuronal connection between the eye and the pineal body (PB). In our previous paper we described that nerve cells were present in hamster PB and these neurons could establish a reverse connection with the retina through a transsynaptic pathway. In adult albino rats neuronal perikarya were not found. In this present experiment it was examined whether the lack of these nerve cells in the PB of adult rats is the result of an apoptotic phenomenon or the lack of migration during the fetal period...
December 4, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210648/vitamins-for-cancer-prevention-and-treatment-an-insight
#12
A Jain, A Tiwari, A Verma, S K Jain
Over a few decades a strong interlink between oxidative damage and cancer has been investigated by various scientists across the world on the basis of epidemiological observations of the effects of fruits and vegetables used in the diet for cancer patients. Primarily, Vitamin C, Vitamin D and Vitamin E are reported to be involved in the amelioration of side effects which occur in chemotherapy and radiation therapy of lungs, stomach, prostate, colorectal, gastric head and neck cancers. The vitamins acting as antioxidant adjuvants are found to have apoptotic and anti-angiogenesis potential as well as inhibitory effects against metastasis in cancer cells...
December 4, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207182/antitumor-activity-of-the-synthetic-retinoid-st1926-on-primary-effusion-lymphoma-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models
#13
Louna Karam, Bilal Houshaymi, Rana Abdel-Samad, Mariam Jaafar, Iman Halloum, Claudio Pisano, Frank Neipel, Nadine Darwiche, Raghida Abou Merhi
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare B-cell neoplasm, associated with Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus/human herpes virus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8), arising as malignant effusions in body cavities. PEL cells do not harbor conventional genetic cancer mutations; however, their oncogenesis is mainly attributed to HHV-8 latent genes. Treatment strategies are inefficient resulting in poor prognosis of PEL patients, stressing the need for new effective therapy. ST1926 is a synthetic retinoid with favorable antitumor properties and no cross-resistance with the natural retinoid, all-trans retinoic acid...
December 5, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207130/ethanol-extract-from-cnidium-monnieri-l-cusson-induces-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis-via-regulation-of-the-p53%C3%A2-independent-pathway-in-hepg2-and-hep3b-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#14
Eun Gyeong Lim, Guen Tae Kim, Bo Min Kim, Eun Ji Kim, Sang-Yong Kim, Young Min Kim
Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson is a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine that treats gynecological diseases and carbuncles. However, the mechanism of action of C. monnieri remains to be fully elucidated. The present study examined the cell cycle arrest and apoptotic effects resulting from ethanol extract of C. monnieri (CME) in HepG2 (wild‑type p53) and Hep3B (p53‑null) hepatocellular carcinoma cells. An MTT assay was used to confirm the anti‑proliferative effect of CME. The cells were stained with Hoechst 33342 or propidium iodide...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205898/effects-of-oral-glucosamine-hydrochloride-and-mucopolysaccharide-protein-in-a-rabbit-model-of-osteoarthritis
#15
Da-Hee Jeong, H M Arif Ullah, Moon-Jung Goo, Soong-Gu Ghim, Il-Hwa Hong, Ah-Young Kim, Sun-Min Jeon, Myung-Sook Choi, Ahmed K Elfadl, Myung-Jin Chung, Eun-Joo Lee, Yong D Kim, Jun-Hyung Kim, Shin-Yoon Kim, Kyu-Shik Jeong
AIM: The aim was to study whether oral glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN.HCl) or mucopolysaccharide protein (MucoP) has a structure-modifying effect on an anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) rabbit model of osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: OA was surgically induced in the right knees of rabbits by transection of the ACLT. The left knees served as a sham-operated control. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 6 each): negative control (phosphate buffered saline, orally), positive control (oral celecoxib 10 mg/kg body weight/day), GlcN...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203893/phase-ii-prospective-randomized-trial-of-weight-loss-prior-to-radical-prostatectomy
#16
Susanne M Henning, Colette Galet, Kiran Gollapudi, Joshua B Byrd, Pei Liang, Zhaoping Li, Tristan Grogan, David Elashoff, Clara E Magyar, Jonathan Said, Pinchas Cohen, William J Aronson
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with poorly differentiated and advanced prostate cancer and increased mortality. In preclinical models, caloric restriction delays prostate cancer progression and prolongs survival. We sought to determine if weight loss (WL) in men with prostate cancer prior to radical prostatectomy affects tumor apoptosis and proliferation, and if WL effects other metabolic biomarkers. METHODS: In this Phase II prospective trial, overweight and obese men scheduled for radical prostatectomy were randomized to a 5-8 week WL program consisting of standard structured energy-restricted meal plans (1200-1500 Kcal/day) and physical activity or to a control group...
December 4, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202471/apoptosis-induced-cxcl5-accelerates-inflammation-and-growth-of-prostate-tumor-metastases-in-bone
#17
Hernan Roca, Jacqueline D Jones, Marta C Purica, Savannah Weidner, Amy J Koh, Robert Kuo, John E Wilkinson, Yugang Wang, Stephanie Daignault-Newton, Kenneth J Pienta, Todd M Morgan, Evan T Keller, Jacques E Nör, Lonnie D Shea, Laurie K McCauley
During tumor progression, immune system phagocytes continually clear apoptotic cancer cells in a process known as efferocytosis. However, the impact of efferocytosis in metastatic tumor growth is unknown. In this study, we observed that macrophage-driven efferocytosis of prostate cancer cells in vitro induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as CXCL5 by activating Stat3 and NF-κB(p65) signaling. Administration of a dimerizer ligand (AP20187) triggered apoptosis in 2 in vivo syngeneic models of bone tumor growth in which apoptosis-inducible prostate cancer cells were either coimplanted with vertebral bodies, or inoculated in the tibiae of immunocompetent mice...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202402/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-a-series-of-resorcinol-based-n-benzyl-benzamide-derivatives-as-potent-hsp90-inhibitors
#18
Sun You Park, Yong Jin Oh, Yunmee Lho, Ju Hui Jeong, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Jaeyoung Song, Soong-Hyun Kim, Eunyoung Ha, Young Ho Seo
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a ubiquitous molecular chaperone that is responsible for the stabilization and maturation of many oncogenic proteins. Therefore, Hsp90 has emerged as an attractive target in the field of cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of Hsp90 inhibitors. In particular, compound 30f shows a significant Hsp90α inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 5.3 nM and an excellent growth inhibition with GI50 value of 0.42 μM against non-small cell lung cancer cells, H1975...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197355/extract-of-ginkgo-biloba-exacerbates-liver-metastasis-in-a-mouse-colon-cancer-xenograft-model
#19
Huan Wang, Xia Wu, Stephane Lezmi, Qian Li, William G Helferich, Yueqing Xu, Hong Chen
BACKGROUND: Metastasis refers to the spread of a primary tumor cell from the primary site to other locations in the body and it is generally associated with the severity of a tumor. Extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) contains various bioactive compounds and it exerts beneficial effects including improvements in brain function and reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, increased risk of thyroid and liver cancers by EGb have been reported in animals. METHODS: A colon cancer metastasis model was established using intrasplenic injection of a human colon cancer cell line, SW620-luc in athymic mice to investigate the potential impact of EGb on colon cancer progression...
December 2, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192845/systematic-alteration-of-apoptosis-a-review-with-ultrastructural-observations-on-leukemia-cells-in-vivo
#20
Yong-Xin Ru, Shi-Xuan Zhao, Shu-Xu Dong, Hao-Yue Liang, Ying Wang
The ultrastructural characteristics of apoptosis have been described microscopically for four decades. Alterations of nuclei, apoptotic bodies, cytoplasm, and some organelles have been illustrated and investigated during apoptosis. The successive changes of cellular components corresponding with differentiation of apoptotic cells are illustrated in the present review, based on ultrastructural observation of leukemia cells of patients in our routine clinic work by transmission electron microscopy. Most electron micrographs demonstrated that membranous components of nuclear envelop, rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, and mitochondria were degenerated step by step during apoptosis...
December 1, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
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