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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098793/osteocyte-alterations-induce-osteoclastogenesis-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-gaucher-disease
#1
Constanza Bondar, Maximiliano Ormazabal, Andrea Crivaro, Malena Ferreyra-Compagnucci, María Victoria Delpino, Paula Adriana Rozenfeld, Juan Marcos Mucci
Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by mutations in the glucosylceramidase β (GBA 1) gene that confer a deficient level of activity of glucocerebrosidase (GCase). This deficiency leads to the accumulation of the glycolipid glucocerebroside in the lysosomes of cells, mainly in the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Its mildest form is Type I GD, characterized by non-neuronopathic involvement. Bone compromise is the most disabling aspect of the Gaucher disease. However, the pathophysiological aspects of skeletal alterations are not yet fully understood...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098348/impact-of-lysosomal-storage-disorders-on-biology-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-evidences-from-in-vitro-silencing-of-glucocerebrosidase-gba-and-alpha-galactosidase-a-gla-enzymes
#2
T Squillaro, I Antonucci, N Alessio, A Esposito, M Cipollaro, Mab Melone, G Peluso, L Stuppia, U Galderisi
Lysosomal storage disorders (LDS) comprise a group of rare multisystemic diseases resulting from inherited gene mutations that impair lysosomal homeostasis. The most common LSDs, Gaucher disease (GD) and Fabry disease (FD) are caused by deficiencies in the lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GBA) and alpha-galactosidase A (GLA) enzymes, respectively. Given the systemic nature of enzyme deficiency, we hypothesized that the stem cell compartment of GD and FD patients might be also affected. Among stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a commonly investigated population given their role in hematopoiesis and the homeostatic maintenance of many organs and tissues...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096089/tolerogenic-interactions-between-cd8-dendritic-cells-and-nkt-cells-prevent-rejection-of-bone-marrow-and-organ-grafts
#3
David Hongo, Xiaobin Tang, Xiangyue Zhang, Edgar G Engleman, Samuel Strober
The combination of total lymphoid irradiation and anti-T cell antibodies safely induces immune tolerance to combined hematopoietic cell and organ allografts in humans. Our mouse model required host natural killer T (NKT) cells to induce tolerance. Since NKT cells normally depend on signals from CD8+ dendritic cells (DCs) for their activation, we used the mouse model to test the hypothesis that after lymphoid irradiation host CD8+DCs play a requisite role in tolerance induction through interactions with NKT cells...
January 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092161/estimation-of-ellagic-acid-and-or-repaglinide-effects-on-insulin-signaling-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-mediators-of-liver-pancreas-adipose-tissue-and-brain-in-insulin-resistant-type-2-diabetic-rats
#4
Mohamed M Amin, Mahmoud S Arbid
Even though ellagic acid has previously been valued in many models of cancer, so far its full mechanistic effect as a natural antiapoptotic agent in the prevention of type 2 diabetes complications has not been completely elucidated, which was the goal of this study. We fed albino rats a high-fat fructose diet (HFFD) for 2 months to induce insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and then treated the rats with ellagic acid (10 mg/kg body weight, orally) and/or repaglinide (0.5 mg/kg body weight, orally) for 2 weeks...
October 21, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091925/changes-in-the-neurochemical-composition-of-motor-neurons-of-the-spinal-cord-in-mice-under-conditions-of-space-flight
#5
V V Porseva, V V Shilkin, A A Strelkov, I B Krasnov, P M Masliukov
Expression of choline acetyltransferase, 200-kDa neurofilament protein, 28-kDa calbindin, neuronal NO synthase, caspase 3, and Ki-67 in the motor neurons of spinal cord segments T3-T5 in male C57Bl/6 mice after 30-day space flight in the Bion-M1 biosatellite was studied by immunohistochemical methods. Under conditions space flight, the size of motoneurons increased, the number of neurons containing choline acetyltransferase and neurofilaments, decreased, and the number of calbindin-positive neurons increased; motoneurons, expressing neuronal NO synthase and caspase 3 appeared, while Ki-67 was not detected...
January 14, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081471/in-situ-morphological-assessment-of-apoptosis-induced-by-phaleria-macrocarpa-boerl-fruit-ethyl-acetate-fraction-pmeaf-in-mda-mb-231-cells-by-microscopy-observation
#6
Nowroji Kavitha, Yeng Chen, Jagat R Kanwar, Sreenivasan Sasidharan
Phaleria macrocarpa (Boerl.) is a well-known medicinal plant and have been extensively used as traditional medicine for ages in treatment of various diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the in situ cytotoxicity effect P. macrocarpa fruit ethyl acetate fraction (PMEAF) by using various conventional and modern microscopy techniques. The cytotoxicity of PMEAF treated MDA-MB-231 cells was determined through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay and CyQuant Cell Proliferation Assay after 24h of treatment...
January 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076382/deregulated-expression-of-mitochondrial-proteins-mfn2-and-bcnl3l-in-placentae-from-sheep-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-scnt-conceptuses
#7
Marta Czernik, Paola Toschi, Federica Zacchini, Domenico Iuso, Grażyna Ewa Ptak
In various animal species, the main cause of pregnancy loss in conceptuses obtained by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are placental abnormalities. Most abnormalities described in SCNT pregnancies (such as placentomegaly, reduced vascularisation, hypoplasia of trophoblastic epithelium) suggest that placental cell degeneration may be triggered by mitochondrial failure. We hypothesized that placental abnormalities of clones obtained by SCNT are related to mitochondrial dysfunction. To test this, early SCNT and control (CTR, from pregnancies obtained by in vitro fertilization) placentae were collected from pregnant ewes (at day 20 and 22 of gestation) and subjected to morphological, mRNA and protein analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075458/silencing-of-forkhead-box-d1-inhibits-proliferation-and-migration-in-glioma-cells
#8
Yuan-Feng Gao, Tao Zhu, Xiao-Yuan Mao, Chen-Xue Mao, Ling Li, Ji-Ye Yin, Hong-Hao Zhou, Zhao-Qian Liu
Despite the extensive role of Forkhead box transcription factors in the development and progression of various cancers, little is known about their role in glioma. We examined the expression and function of Forkhead box D1 (FOXD1) in glioma cell behavior and found that FOXD1 was upregulated and directly correlated with the glioma grade. Data analysis also revealed significant differences in FOXD1 expression for both gene expression profiles (GSE4290 and GSE7696) and the TCGA datasets. Additionally, decreased FOXD1 expression in U251 and U87 glioma cells caused a delay in cell growth and a disruption in colony formation...
February 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069354/bufadienolides-from-amphibians-a-promising-source-of-anticancer-prototypes-for-radical-innovation-apoptosis-triggering-and-na-k-atpase-inhibition
#9
REVIEW
Lívia Queiroz de Sousa, Kátia da Conceição Machado, Samara Ferreira de Carvalho Oliveira, Lidiane da Silva Araújo, Evaldo Dos Santos Monção-Filho, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Gerardo Magela Vieira-Júnior, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira
Amphibians present pharmacologically active aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic molecules in their skin as defense against microorganisms, predators and infections, such as steroids, alkaloids, biogenic amines, guanidine derivatives, proteins and peptides. Based on the discovered bioactive potential of bufadienolides, this work reviewed the contribution of amphibians, especially from members of Bufonidae family, as source of new cytotoxic and antitumor molecules, highlighting the mechanisms responsible for such amazing biological potentialities...
January 6, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059455/acetoacetate-induces-hepatocytes-apoptosis-by-the-ros-mediated-mapks-pathway-in-ketotic-cows
#10
Xiliang Du, Zhen Shi, Zhicheng Peng, Chenxu Zhao, Yuming Zhang, Zhe Wang, Xiaobing Li, Guowen Liu, Xinwei Li
Dairy cows with ketosis are characterized by oxidative stress, hepatic damage and hyperketonemia. Acetoacetate (AA) is the main component of ketone bodies in ketotic cows, and is associated with the above pathological process. However, the potential mechanism was not illuminated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of AA-induced hepatic oxidative damage in ketotic cows. Compared with healthy cows, ketotic cows exhibited severe oxidative stress and hepatic damage. Moreover, the extent of hepatic damage and oxidative stress had a positive relationship with the AA levels...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059125/neuronal-apoptosis-inhibitory-protein-naip-localizes-to-the-cytokinetic-machinery-during-cell-division
#11
Francisco Abadía-Molina, Virginia Morón-Calvente, Stephen D Baird, Fahad Shamim, Francisco Martín, Alex MacKenzie
The neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) is a constituent of the inflammasome and a key component of the innate immune system. Here we use immunofluorescence to position NAIP within the cytokinetic apparatus, contiguous to chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), Centralspindlin, PRC1 and KIF4A. During metaphase, NAIP accumulates in the mitotic spindle poles and is shown in spindle microtubules; in anaphase NAIP is detected in the middle of the central spindle. At the end of cytokinesis, NAIP is localized in the outlying region of the stem body, the center of the intercellular bridge formed between daughter cells prior to cellular abscission...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057919/isolation-of-cell-type-specific-apoptotic-bodies-by-fluorescence-activated-cell-sorting
#12
Georgia K Atkin-Smith, Stephanie Paone, Damien J Zanker, Mubing Duan, Than K Phan, Weisan Chen, Mark D Hulett, Ivan K H Poon
Apoptotic bodies (ApoBDs) are membrane-bound extracellular vesicles that can mediate intercellular communication in physiological and pathological settings. By combining recently developed analytical strategies with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), we have developed a method that enables the isolation of ApoBDs from cultured cells to 99% purity. In addition, this approach also enables the identification and isolation of cell type-specific ApoBDs from tissue, bodily fluid and blood-derived samples...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054226/picroside-ii-exerts-a-neuroprotective-effect-by-inhibiting-the-mitochondria-cytochrome-c-signal-pathway-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#13
Hongyan Zhang, Li Zhai, Tingting Wang, Shan Li, Yunliang Guo
Stroke is a common neurodegenerative disease in the wide world, and mitochondrial defects underlie the pathogenesis of ischemia, especially during reperfusion. Picroside II, the principal active component of Picrorhiza, is a traditional Chinese medicine. Our previous study demonstrated that the best therapeutic dose and time window were injection of picroside II at a dose of 10-20 mg/kg body weight following cerebral ischemia by 1.5-2.0 h. In this paper, the neuroprotective effect and the mechanism of picroside II were investigated, as well as its involvement in antioxidant and mitochondria cytochrome C (CytC) signal pathway following ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053001/cancer-cachexia-differentially-regulates-visceral-adipose-tissue-turnover
#14
Felipe de Oliveira Franco, Magno Alves Lopes, Felipe dos Santos Henriques, Rodrigo X Neves, Cesário Bianchi Filho, Miguel Luiz Batista
Cancer cachexia (CC) is a progressive metabolic syndrome that is marked by severe body weight loss. Metabolic disarrangement of fat tissues is a very early event in CC, followed by adipose tissue (AT) atrophy and remodelling. However, there is little information regarding the possible involvement of cellular turnover in this process. Thus, we evaluated the effect of CC on AT turnover of mesenteric (ME) and retroperitoneal (RP) AT depots as possible factors that contribute to AT atrophy. CC was induced by a subcutaneous injection of Walker tumour cells (2x10(7)) in Wistar rats...
4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052347/apoptotic-effects-of-bovine-apo-lactoferrin-on-hela-tumor-cells
#15
Carla Luzi, Fabrizia Brisdelli, Roberto Iorio, Argante Bozzi, Veronica Carnicelli, Antonio Di Giulio, Anna Rita Lizzi
Lactoferrin (Lf), a cationic iron-binding glycoprotein of 80 kDa present in body secretions, is known as a compound with marked antimicrobial activity. In the present study, the apoptotic effect of iron-free bovine lactoferrin (apo-bLf) on human epithelial cancer (HeLa) cells was examined in association with reactive oxygen species and glutathione (GSH) levels. Apoptotic effect of iron-free bovine lactoferrin inhibited the growth of HeLa cells after 48 hours of treatment while the diferric-bLf was ineffective in the concentration range tested (from 1 to 12...
January 3, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050757/implication-of-nrf2-ho-1-pathway-in-the-coloprotective-effect-of-coenzyme-q10-against-experimentally-induced-ulcerative-colitis
#16
Ahmed E Khodir, Hoda Atef, Eman Said, Hassan A ElKashef, Hatem A Salem
PURPOSE: Given the increased incidence of ulcerative colitis worldwide, the current study was designed to investigate the coloprotective potential of CoQ10 against experimentally induced ulcerative colitis (UC) and specify the implicated mechanisms. METHODS: Ulcerative colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of [2 ml, 3% v/v acetic acid (AA)]. Rats in the different experimental groups received CoQ10 (10 or 30 and 100 mg/kg, orally) for eight consecutive days, either in a protective or curative regimen...
January 3, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045099/cleavage-of-dfna5-by-caspase-3-during-apoptosis-mediates-progression-to-secondary-necrotic-pyroptotic-cell-death
#17
Corey Rogers, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Lindsey Mayes, Diana Alnemri, Gino Cingolani, Emad S Alnemri
Apoptosis is a genetically regulated cell suicide programme mediated by activation of the effector caspases 3, 6 and 7. If apoptotic cells are not scavenged, they progress to a lytic and inflammatory phase called secondary necrosis. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we show that caspase-3 cleaves the GSDMD-related protein DFNA5 after Asp270 to generate a necrotic DFNA5-N fragment that targets the plasma membrane to induce secondary necrosis/pyroptosis. Cells that express DFNA5 progress to secondary necrosis, when stimulated with apoptotic triggers such as etoposide or vesicular stomatitis virus infection, but disassemble into small apoptotic bodies when DFNA5 is deleted...
January 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042534/effect-of-food-additive-citric-acid-on-the-growth-of-human-esophageal-carcinoma-cell-line-ec109
#18
Xiaoguang Chen, Qiongxia Lv, Yumei Liu, Wen Deng
OBJECTIVE: Today, esophageal cancer (EC) has become one of the most common cancer types in China. Therefore, new drug and therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to improve postoperative survival rate of patients with EC. As a food additive, several lines of evidence have shown that citric acid can be served as glycolysis suppressor to inhibit growth of some tumor cells. However, little is known about the effect of this organic acid on the growth of human esophageal carcinoma cell line, EC109...
2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040552/chemoprotective-role-of-quercetin-in-manganese-induced-toxicity-along-the-brain-pituitary-testicular-axis-in-rats
#19
Isaac A Adedara, Temitayo I Subair, Valerie C Ego, Oluwasetemi Oyediran, Ebenezer O Farombi
Reproductive dysfunction in response to manganese exposure has been reported in humans and animals. Quercetin, a bioflavonoid widely distributed in fruits, vegetables and beverages has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities in different experimental model systems. However, there is dearth of scientific information on the influence of quercetin on manganese-induced reproductive toxicity. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of quercetin on manganese-induced functional alterations along the brain-pituitary- testicular axis in rats...
December 28, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035763/circulating-milk-fat-globule-epidermal-growth-factor-8-levels-are-increased-in-pregnancy-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Yuanyuan Li, Wenzhuo Ran, Jiaqiang Zhang, Shi Chen, Yihang Li, Deng Luo, Chen Wang, Weiping Jia
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is the key mediator in anti-inflammatory responses that facilitate phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and play an essential role in type 2 diabetes and pregnancy, both of which are under a low-grade inflammatory state. However, the action of MFG-E8 in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unclear. We measured for the first time plasma MFG-E8 levels in pregnancy and GDM, and elucidated possible relationships between its plasma levels and various metabolic parameters...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
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