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glycosaminoglycan

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636333/glycosaminoglycan-analysis-by-cryogenic-messenger-tagging-ir-spectroscopy-combined-with-ims-ms
#1
Neelam Khanal, Chiara Masellis, Michael Z Kamrath, David E Clemmer, Thomas R Rizzo
We combine ion mobility spectrometry with cryogenic, messenger-tagging, infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry to identify different isomeric disaccharides of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS), which are representatives of two major subclasses of glycosaminoglycans. Our analysis shows that while CS and HS disaccharide isomers have similar drift times, they can be uniquely distinguished by their vibrational spectrum between ~3200-3700 cm-1 due to their different OH hydrogen-bonding patterns...
June 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635544/heparin-new-life-for-an-old-drug
#2
Carlos Raúl Aláez-Versón, Elena Lantero, Xavier Fernàndez-Busquets
Heparin is one of the oldest drugs, which nevertheless remains in widespread clinical use as an inhibitor of blood coagulation. The history of its identification a century ago unfolded amid one of the most fascinating scientific controversies turning around the distribution of credit for its discovery. The composition, purification and structure-function relationship of this naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan regarding its classical role as anticoagulant will be dealt with before proceeding to discuss its therapeutic potential in, among other, inflammatory and infectious disease, cancer treatment, cystic fibrosis and Alzheimer's disease...
June 21, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634934/hydrogel-based-in-vitro-models-of-tumor-angiogenesis
#3
Laura J Bray, Marcus Binner, Uwe Freudenberg, Carsten Werner
In situ forming hydrogels prepared from multi-armed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and various peptides enable the development of advanced three dimensional (3D) culture models. Herein, we report methods for the PEG-GAG gel-based 3D co-cultivation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, mesenchymal stromal cells, and different cancer cell lines. The resulting constructs allow for the exploration of interactions between solid tumors with 3D vascular networks in vitro to study the mechanistic aspects of cancer development and to perform drug testing...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634774/learning-from-synthetic-models-of-extracellular-matrix-differential-binding-of-wild-type-and-amyloidogenic-human-apolipoprotein-a-i-to-hydrogels-formed-from-molecules-having-charges-similar-to-those-found-in-natural-gags
#4
Silvana A Rosú, Leandro Toledo, Bruno F Urbano, Susana A Sanchez, Graciela C Calabrese, M Alejandra Tricerri
Among other components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been strongly associated to the retention or misfolding of different proteins inducing the formation of deposits in amyloid diseases. The composition of these molecules is highly diverse and a key issue seems to be the equilibrium between physiological and pathological events. In order to have a model in which the composition of the matrix could be finely controlled, we designed and synthesized crosslinked hydrophilic polymers, the so-called hydrogels varying the amounts of negative charges and hydroxyl groups that are prevalent in GAGs...
June 20, 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634008/aging-associated-modifications-of-collagen-affect-its-degradation-by-matrix-metalloproteinases
#5
Preety Panwar, Georgina S Butler, Andrew Jamroz, Pouya Azizi, Christopher M Overall, Dieter Brömme
The natural aging process and various pathologies correlate with alterations in the composition and the structural and mechanical integrity of the connective tissue. Collagens represent the most abundant matrix proteins and provide for the overall stiffness and resilience of tissues. The structural changes of collagens and their susceptibility to degradation are associated with skin wrinkling, bone and cartilage deterioration, as well as cardiovascular and respiratory malfunctions. Here, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are major contributors to tissue remodeling and collagen degradation...
June 17, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630679/molecular-interactions-of-amyloid-nanofibrils-with-biological-aggregation-modifiers-implications-for-cytotoxicity-mechanisms-and-biomaterial-design
#6
REVIEW
Durga Dharmadana, Nicholas P Reynolds, Charlotte E Conn, Céline Valéry
Amyloid nanofibrils are ubiquitous biological protein fibrous aggregates, with a wide range of either toxic or beneficial activities that are relevant to human disease and normal biology. Protein amyloid fibrillization occurs via nucleated polymerization, through non-covalent interactions. As such, protein nanofibril formation is based on a complex interplay between kinetic and thermodynamic factors. The process entails metastable oligomeric species and a highly thermodynamically favoured end state. The kinetics, and the reaction pathway itself, can be influenced by third party moieties, either molecules or surfaces...
August 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630303/how-members-of-the-human-gut-microbiota-overcome-the-sulfation-problem-posed-by-glycosaminoglycans
#7
Alan Cartmell, Elisabeth C Lowe, Arnaud Baslé, Susan J Firbank, Didier A Ndeh, Heath Murray, Nicolas Terrapon, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat, Jeremy E Turnbull, Mirjam Czjzek, Harry J Gilbert, David N Bolam
The human microbiota, which plays an important role in health and disease, uses complex carbohydrates as a major source of nutrients. Utilization hierarchy indicates that the host glycosaminoglycans heparin (Hep) and heparan sulfate (HS) are high-priority carbohydrates for Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent member of the human microbiota. The sulfation patterns of these glycosaminoglycans are highly variable, which presents a significant enzymatic challenge to the polysaccharide lyases and sulfatases that mediate degradation...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629128/interactions-between-a-heparin-trisaccharide-library-and-fgf-1-analyzed-by-nmr-methods
#8
María José García-Jiménez, Sergio Gil-Caballero, Ángeles Canales, Jesús Jiménez-Barbero, José L de Paz, Pedro M Nieto
FGF-1 is a potent mitogen that, by interacting simultaneously with Heparan Sulfate Glycosaminoglycan HSGAG and the extracellular domains of its membrane receptor (FGFR), generates an intracellular signal that finally leads to cell division. The overall structure of the ternary complex Heparin:FGF-1:FGFR has been finally elucidated after some controversy and the interactions within the ternary complex have been deeply described. However, since the structure of the ternary complex was described, not much attention has been given to the molecular basis of the interaction between FGF-1 and the HSGAG...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629082/influence-of-residual-composition-on-the-structure-and-properties-of-extracellular-matrix-derived-hydrogels
#9
Jesús A Claudio-Rizo, Magdalena Rangel-Argote, Laura E Castellano, Jorge Delgado, José L Mata-Mata, Birzabith Mendoza-Novelo
In this work, hydrolysates of extracellular matrix (hECM) were obtained from rat tail tendon (TR), bovine Achilles tendon (TAB), porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) and bovine pericardium (PB), and they were polymerized to generate ECM hydrogels. The composition of hECM was evaluated by quantifying the content of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG), fibronectin and laminin. The polymerization process, structure, physicochemical properties, in vitro degradation and biocompatibility were studied and related to their composition...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629066/glucosamine-modified-polyethylene-glycol-hydrogel-mediated-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Hang Yao, Jingchen Xue, Qunfang Wang, Renjian Xie, Weichang Li, Sa Liu, Jinglei Cai, Dajiang Qin, Dong-An Wang, Li Ren
Glucosamine (GA) is an important cartilage matrix precursor for the glycosaminoglycan biochemical synthesis, and has positive effects on cartilage regeneration, particularly in osteoarthritis therapy. However, it has not been used as a bioactive group in scaffolds for cartilage repair widely. In this study, we synthesized modified polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel with glucosamine and then encapsulated human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) in the hydrogel to induce the differentiation of hBMSCs into chondrocytes in three-dimensional culture...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629001/biomimetic-electrospun-scaffolds-from-main-extracellular-matrix-components-for-skin-tissue-engineering-application-the-role-of-chondroitin-sulfate-and-sulfated-hyaluronan
#11
Sirsendu Bhowmick, Sandra Rother, Heike Zimmermann, Poh S Lee, Stephanie Moeller, Matthias Schnabelrauch, Veena Koul, Rainer Jordan, Vera Hintze, Dieter Scharnweber
Incorporation of bioactive components like glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) into tissue engineering scaffolds, is a promising approach towards developing new generation functional biomaterial. Here, we have designed electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds made of gelatin and different concentrations of chemically sulfated or non-sulfated hyaluronan (sHA or HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). Evenly distributed fiber morphology was observed with no differences between varying concentrations and types of GAGs. In vitro release kinetics revealed that GAGs release is driven by diffusion...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627582/mir%C3%A2-27-inhibits-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-by-targeting-leptin-in-osteoarthritic-chondrocytes
#12
Bin Zhou, Hongwei Li, Jide Shi
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease. An increasing number of studies point to the role of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) in the pathogenesis of OA. An earlier study suggested that miR‑27b was associated with OA; however, the precise mechanisms regarding the involvement of the miR‑27 in the progression of OA remain unclear. In the present study, we first analyzed the effects of miR‑27 on OA. In vitro, the degree of miR‑27 expression was decreased in chondrocytes obtained from patients with OA...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625420/formation-and-remodeling-of-the-brain-extracellular-matrix-in-neural-plasticity-roles-of-chondroitin-sulfate-and-hyaluronan
#13
REVIEW
Shinji Miyata, Hiroshi Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the brain is rich in glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronan. These glycosaminoglycans are organized into either diffuse or condensed ECM. Diffuse ECM is distributed throughout the brain and fills perisynaptic spaces, whereas condensed ECM selectively surrounds parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (PV cells) in mesh-like structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). The brain ECM acts as a non-specific physical barrier that modulates neural plasticity and axon regeneration...
June 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623370/rho-kinase-inhibitor-y-27632-and-hypoxia-synergistically-enhance-chondrocytic-phenotype-and-modify-s100-protein-profiles-in-human-chondrosarcoma-cells
#14
Juha Piltti, Joakim Bygdell, Cecilia Fernández-Echevarría, Daniel Marcellino, Mikko J Lammi
Articular chondrocytes are slowly dividing cells that tend to lose their cell type-specific phenotype and ability to produce structurally and functionally correct cartilage tissue when cultured. Thus, culture conditions, which enhance the maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype would be very useful for cartilage research. Here we show that Rho-kinase inhibition by Y-27632 under hypoxic conditions efficiently maintains and even enhances chondrocyte-specific extracellular matrix production by chondrocytic cells...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622396/mutant-fibulin-3-causes-proteoglycan-accumulation-and-impaired-diffusion-across-bruch-s-membrane
#15
Astrid Zayas-Santiago, Samuel D Cross, James B Stanton, Alan D Marmorstein, Lihua Y Marmorstein
Purpose: The mutation R345W in EFEMP1 (fibulin-3) causes macular degeneration. This study sought to determine whether proteoglycan content and diffusion across Bruch's membrane are altered in Efemp1ki/ki mice carrying this mutation or in Efemp1-/- mice. Methods: Proteoglycans in mouse Bruch's membranes were stained with Cupromeronic Blue (CB). Heparan sulfated proteoglycan (HSPG) and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan (C/DSPG) distributions were visualized following treatments with chondroitinase ABC (C-ABC) or nitrous acid...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621916/construction-of-anterior-hemi-corneal-equivalents-using-nontransfected-human-corneal-cells-and-transplantation-in-dog-models
#16
Bin Xu, Zhan Song, Tingjun Fan
Tissue-engineered human anterior hemi-cornea (TE-aHC) is a promising equivalent for treating anterior lamellar keratopathy to surmount the severe shortage of donated corneas. This study was intended to construct a functional TE-aHC with nontransfected human corneal stromal (ntHCS) and epithelial (ntHCEP) cells using acellular porcine corneal stromata (aPCS) as a carrier scaffold, and evaluate its biological functions in a dog model. To construct a TE-aHC, ntHCS cells were injected into an aPCS scaffold and cultured for 3 days; then, ntHCEP cells were inoculated onto the Bowman's membrane of the scaffold and cultured for 5 days under air-liquid interface condition...
June 16, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621483/glycodendrimers-as-chondroitin-sulfate-mimetics-synthesis-and-binding-to-growth-factor-midkine
#17
Pedro Domínguez-Rodríguez, José J Reina, Sergio Gil-Caballero, Pedro M Nieto, Jose L De Paz, Javier Rojo
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a member of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) family, a class of polysaccharides implicated in relevant biological functions. The structural complexity of these carbohydrates demands the development of simple glycomimetics as useful tools to study the biological processes where GAGs are involved. In this work we described the synthesis of the disaccharide unit of the CS-E (GlcA-GalNAc(4,6-di-OSO3)), in a multivalent presentation. Using a fluorescence polarization competition assay we have demonstrated that a hexavalent dendrimer of this disaccharide interact with midkine, in the low micromolar range...
June 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621207/glycosaminoglycan-based-resorbable-polymer-composites-in-tissue-refurbishment
#18
Khushboo Gulati, Mukesh Kumar Meher, Krishna Mohan Poluri
Regeneration of tissue structure with the aid of bioactive polymer matrices/composites and scaffolds for respective applications is one of the emerging areas of biomedical engineering. Recent advances in conjugated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) hybrids using natural and synthetic polymers have opened new avenues for producing a wide variety of resorbable polymer matrices. These hybrid scaffolds are low-immunogenic, highly biocompatible and biodegradable with incredible mechanical and tensile properties. GAG-based resorbable polymeric matrices are being exploited in migration of stem cells, cartilage and bone replacement/regeneration and production of scaffolds for various tissue engineering applications...
June 16, 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620442/efficacy-of-nanoceria-for-periodontal-tissues-alteration-in-glutamate-induced-obese-rats-multidisciplinary-considerations-for-personalized-dentistry-and-prevention
#19
Tetyana V Beregova, Karine S Neporada, Maksym Skrypnyk, Tetyana M Falalyeyeva, Nadiya M Zholobak, Oleksandr B Shcherbakov, Mykola Ya Spivak, Rostyslav V Bubnov
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, we face the global epidemic of obesity, that is known to contribute to the development of many diseases, such as the oral cavity pathologies. Dental and oral pathologies are frequently caused by and overlapped with systemic multifactorial diseases such as obesity being its early indicators and risk factors. The aim was to study the influence of nanoceria on periodontal tissues alteration in glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. METHODS: We included 52 Wistar rats of both genders and divided into four groups: newborn rats in group 1 (control) received subcutaneously 8 μl/g saline...
March 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618870/molecular-validation-of-chondrogenic-differentiation-and-hypoxia-responsiveness-of-platelet-lysate-expanded-adipose-tissue-derived-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#20
Catalina Galeano-Garces, Emily T Camilleri, Scott M Riester, Amel Dudakovic, Dirk R Larson, Wenchun Qu, Jay Smith, Allan B Dietz, Hee-Jeong Im, Aaron J Krych, A Noelle Larson, Marcel Karperien, Andre J van Wijnen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal environmental conditions for chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (AMSCs). In this investigation we specifically investigate the role of oxygen tension and 3-dimensional (3D) culture systems. DESIGN: Both AMSCs and primary human chondrocytes were cultured for 21 days in chondrogenic media under normoxic (21% oxygen) or hypoxic (2% oxygen) conditions using 2 distinct 3D culture methods (high-density pellets and poly-ε-caprolactone [PCL] scaffolds)...
July 2017: Cartilage
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