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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914254/glycosaminoglycans-gags-and-gag-mimetics-regulate-the-behavior-of-stem-cell-differentiation
#1
REVIEW
Mengmeng Wang, Xiaoli Liu, Zhonglin Lyu, Hao Gu, Dan Li, Hong Chen
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear sulfated polysaccharides that exist in most mammalian cells. By undergoing conjugation with various proteins, GAGs play important roles in a variety of bioactivities, including promoting stem cell differentiation. However, they have their own intrinsic disadvantages that limit their further applications for cell therapy and tissue engineering. Therefore, more and more GAG-mimetic materials have been studied as natural GAG analogs for emerging applications. This review explains the mechanism of how GAGs regulate stem cell differentiation and elaborates on the current progress of the applications of GAG-based materials on regulating stem cell differentiation...
November 20, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910891/elevated-cerebral-spinal-fluid-biomarkers-in-children-with-mucopolysaccharidosis-i-h
#2
Gerald V Raymond, Marzia Pasquali, Lynda E Polgreen, Patricia I Dickson, Weston P Miller, Paul J Orchard, Troy C Lund
Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type-IH is a lysosomal storage disease that results from mutations in the IDUA gene causing the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Historically, children with the severe phenotype, MPS-IH (Hurler syndrome) develop progressive neurodegeneration with death in the first decade due to cardio-pulmonary complications. New data suggest that inflammation may play a role in MPS pathophysiology. To date there is almost no information on the pathophysiologic changes within the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of these patients...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910822/prolonged-in-vitro-precultivation-alleviates-post-implantation-inflammation-and-promotes-stable-subcutaneous-cartilage-formation-in-a-goat-model
#3
Yi Liu, Dan Li, Zongqi Yin, Xusong Luo, Wei Liu, Wenjie Zhang, Zhiyong Zhang, Yilin Cao, Yu Liu, Guangdong Zhou
Synthetic biodegradable scaffolds such as polylactic acid coated polyglycolic acid (PLA-PGA) are especially suitable for engineering shaped cartilage such as auricle, but they induce a serious inflammatory reaction particularly in the immunologically aggressive subcutaneous site, leading to resorption of the engineered autologous cartilage. Our previous study in a rabbit model has demonstrated 2 weeks of in vitro precultivation could significantly alleviate the post-implantation inflammation induced by PLA-PGA engineered cartilaginous grafts, but reproduction of this result failed in a preclinical goat model...
December 2, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909627/recurrence-of-childhood-nephrogenic-adenoma-in-urinary-bladder-developed-four-years-after-previous-surgery-despite-intravesical-sodium-hyaluronate-therapy
#4
Burak Özçift, Ayper Kaçar, Hüseyin Tuğrul Tiryaki
Nephrogenic adenoma (NA) is a rarely seen benign metaplastic lesion of the urinary tract. Its etiology is uncertain, but induced by chronic inflammation, irritation, and trauma. NA is located in the urinary tract, most commonly in the bladder. NA usually presents with hematuria and lower urinary tract symptoms. In the literature it is mostly seen in adults but about 30 cases of NA's have been reported in children. Treatment of intravesical lesions consists of transurethral resection (TUR) and fulguration and rarely partial or total cystectomy may be required in ineffective TUR...
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904047/protective-effect-of-deer-bone-oil-on-cartilage-destruction-in-rats-with-monosodium-iodoacetate-mia-induced-osteoarthritis
#5
Hyeon-Son Choi, Suji Im, Je Won Park, Hyung Joo Suh
The anti-osteoarthritic activity of the methanol fraction of deer bone oil extract (DBO-M) was evaluated in interleukin (IL)-1β-inflamed primary rabbit chondrocytes and in rats with monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis. The active compound in DBO-M was analyzed using a direct infusion liquid chromatography quadrupole (LCQ) ion-trap electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometer (MS). DBO-M significantly suppressed the IL-1β-induced sulfated-glycosaminoglycan (s-GAG) release from chondrocyte, and lowered mRNA levels of the collagen-degrading enzymes matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 in a dose-dependent manner...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903131/hypoxic-expansion-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-enhances-3d-maturation-of-tissue-engineered-intervertebral-discs
#6
Katherine Deline Hudson, Lawrence J Bonassar
Culture of three dimensional (3D) constructs in hypoxic conditions (1-5% O2) has been shown to increase production of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in primary intervertebral disc (IVD) cells, and drive chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Growing evidence that suggests that two dimensional (2D) expansion under hypoxic conditions may have an even greater influence on chondrogenesis in MSCs. This study aims to determine the effects of hypoxia during 2D expansion and subsequent 3D culture on the in vitro maturation of tissue engineering IVDs (TE-IVDs) made with human MSCs, using a previously developed TE-IVD system...
November 30, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900853/an-injectable-click-cross-linked-small-intestinal-submucosa-drug-depot-for-the-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
Kyungsook Kim, Ji Hoon Park, Seung Hun Park, Hye Yun Lee, Jae Ho Kim, Moon Suk Kim
Here, a click-cross-linked small intestine submucosa (SIS) drug depot is described for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To the best of the knowledge, there have been no studies related to the intra-articular injection of methotrexate (Met)-loaded click-cross-linkable SIS (Met-loaded Cx-SIS) for RA treatment. As the key objective of this work, injectable formulations of tetrazine-modified SIS (TE-SIS) and transcyclooctene-modified SIS (TC-SIS) are employed as drug depots. Within a few seconds, the simple mixing of equal amounts of TE-SIS and TC-SIS suspensions forms a gelatinous click-cross-linked SIS (Cx-SIS) drug depot in vitro and in vivo...
November 30, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900575/glycosaminoglycanomics-where-we-are
#8
Sylvie Ricard-Blum, Frédérique Lisacek
Glycosaminoglycans regulate numerous physiopathological processes such as development, angiogenesis, innate immunity, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Cell surface GAGs are involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, cell adhesion and signaling, and host-pathogen interactions. GAGs contribute to the assembly of the extracellular matrix and heparan sulfate chains are able to sequester growth factors in the ECM. Their biological activities are regulated by their interactions with proteins. The structural heterogeneity of GAGs, mostly due to chemical modifications occurring during and after their synthesis, makes the development of analytical techniques for their profiling in cells, tissues, and biological fluids, and of computational tools for mining GAG-protein interaction data very challenging...
November 30, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900574/mast-cell-glycosaminoglycans
#9
REVIEW
B Mulloy, R Lever, C P Page
Mast cells contain granules packed with a mixture of proteins that are released on degranulation. The proteoglycan serglycin carries an array of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains, sometimes heparin, sometimes chondroitin or dermatan sulphate. Tight packing of granule proteins is dependent on the presence of serglycin carrying these GAGs. The GAGs of mast cells were most intensively studied in the 1970s and 1980s, and though something is known about the fine structure of chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate in mast cells, little is understood about the composition of the heparin/heparan sulphate chains...
November 30, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899064/gdf5-mediated-enhancement-of-chondrocyte-phenotype-is-inhibited-by-heparin-implication-for-the-use-of-heparin-in-the-clinic-and-in-tissue-engineering-applications
#10
Bethanie Imogen Ayerst, Raymond A A Smith, Victor Nurcombe, Anthony J Day, Catherine L R Merry, Simon Cool
The highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) heparin is widely used in the clinic as an anticoagulant, and researchers are now using it to enhance stem cell expansion/ differentiation protocols, as well as to improve the delivery of growth factors for tissue engineering strategies. Growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) belongs to the bone morphogenetic protein family of proteins and is vital for skeletal formation, however, its interaction with heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) has not been studied. We identify GDF5 as a novel heparin/ HS-binding protein, and show that HS proteoglycans are vital in localizing GDF5 to the cell surface...
November 29, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898729/rna-contaminates-glycosaminoglycans-extracted-from-cells-and-tissues
#11
Jasper J van Gemst, Markus A Loeven, Mark J J de Graaf, Jo H M Berden, Ton J Rabelink, Cornelis H Smit, Johan van der Vlag
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear negatively charged polysaccharides and important components of extracellular matrices and cell surface glycan layers such as the endothelial glycocalyx. The GAG family includes sulfated heparin, heparan sulfate (HS), dermatan sulfate (DS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), keratan sulfate, and non-sulfated hyaluronan. Because relative expression of GAGs is dependent on cell-type and niche, isolating GAGs from cell cultures and tissues may provide insight into cell- and tissue-specific GAG structure and functions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895229/influence-of-pecam-1-ligand-interactions-on-pecam-1-dependent-cell-motility-and-filopodia-extension
#12
Valsamma Abraham, Andrew Parambath, Debria S Joe, Horace M DeLisser
Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) has been implicated in angiogenesis through processes that involve stimulation of endothelial cell motility. Previous studies suggest that PECAM-1 tyrosine phosphorylation mediates the recruitment and then activation of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, which in turn promotes the turnover of focal adhesions and the extension of filopodia, processes critical to cell motility. While these studies have implicated PECAM-1-dependent signaling in PECAM-1-mediated cell motility, the involvement of PECAM-1 ligand binding in cell migration is undefined...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895039/region-specific-effect-of-the-decellularized-meniscus-extracellular-matrix-on-mesenchymal-stem-cell-based-meniscus-tissue-engineering
#13
Kazunori Shimomura, Benjamin B Rothrauff, Rocky S Tuan
BACKGROUND: The meniscus is the most commonly injured knee structure, and surgical repair is often ineffective. Tissue engineering-based repair or regeneration may provide a needed solution. Decellularized, tissue-derived extracellular matrices (ECMs) have received attention for their potential use as tissue-engineered scaffolds. In considering meniscus-derived ECMs (mECMs) for meniscus tissue engineering, it is noteworthy that the inner and outer regions of the meniscus have different structural and biochemical features, potentially directing the differentiation of cells toward region-specific phenotypes...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891319/hyaluronic-acid-hope-of-light-to-black-triangles
#14
Jyotsana Tanwar, Shital A Hungund
Interdental papilla construction, especially in the esthetic area, is one of the most challenging tasks. Interdental papilla loss might occur due to several reasons as a consequence of periodontal surgery or trauma. The purpose of this study is to report the reconstruction of lost interdental papilla using hyaluronic acid gel. Hyaluronic acid is a glycosaminoglycan molecule with anti-inflammatory, anti-edematous properties on periodontal tissues invaded by submicrobial flora. It enhances wound healing and accelerates periodontal repair and regeneration...
September 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891127/regulation-of-chemokine-activity-a-focus-on-the-role-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-cd26
#15
REVIEW
Mieke Metzemaekers, Jo Van Damme, Anneleen Mortier, Paul Proost
Chemokines are small, chemotactic proteins that play a crucial role in leukocyte migration and are, therefore, essential for proper functioning of the immune system. Chemokines exert their chemotactic effect by activation of chemokine receptors, which are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and interaction with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Furthermore, the exact chemokine function is modulated at the level of posttranslational modifications. Among the different types of posttranslational modifications that were found to occur in vitro and in vivo, i...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888308/comparative-analysis-of-inlight%C3%A2-labeled-enzymatically-depolymerized-heparin-by-reverse-phase-chromatography-and-high-performance-mass-spectrometry
#16
John B Mangrum, Akul Y Mehta, Alhumaidi B Alabbas, Umesh R Desai, Adam M Hawkridge
Structural characterization of the microheterogeneity of heparin, heparan sulfate, and other glycosaminoglycans is a major analytical challenge. We present the use of a stable isotope-labeled hydrazide tag (INLIGHT™) with high-resolution/accurate mass (HRAM) reverse-phase LC-MS/MS, which was recently introduced for detailed study of N-glycan heterogeneity, to characterize heparinase-digested heparin (digHep) products without the use of semi-volatile ion pairing reagents. Using both full scan LC-MS and data-dependent LC-MS/MS, we identified 116 unique digHep species, a feat possible because of INLIGHT™ labeling...
November 25, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887732/expressions-of-pathologic-markers-in-prp-based-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#17
Arezou Pakfar, Shiva Irani, Hana Hanaee-Ahvaz
BACKGROUND: Optimization of the differentiation medium through using autologous factors such as PRP is of great consideration, but due to the complex, variable and undefined composition of PRP on one hand and lack of control over the absolute regulatory mechanisms in in vitro conditions or disrupted and different mechanisms in diseased tissue microenvironments in in vivo conditions on the other hand, it is complicated and rather unpredictable to get the desired effects of PRP making it inevitable to monitor the possible pathologic or undesired differentiation pathways and therapeutic effects of PRP...
November 12, 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886065/dual-function-of-glucosamine-in-gelatin-hyaluronic-acid-cryogel-to-modulate-scaffold-mechanical-properties-and-to-maintain-chondrogenic-phenotype-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#18
Chih-Hao Chen, Chang-Yi Kuo, Yan-Jie Wang, Jyh-Ping Chen
Glucosamine (GlcN) fulfills many of the requirements as an ideal component in scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering. The incorporation of GlcN in a gelatin/hyaluronic acid (GH) cryogel scaffold could provide biological cues in maintaining the phenotype of chondrocytes. Nonetheless, substituting gelatin with GlcN may also decrease the crosslinking density and modulate the mechanical properties of the cryogel scaffold, which may be beneficial as physical cues for chondrocytes in the scaffold. Thus, we prepared cryogel scaffolds containing 9% GlcN (GH-GlcN9) and 16% GlcN (GH-GlcN16) by carbodiimide-mediated crosslinking reactions at -16 °C...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885831/a-bioinspired-ultraporous-nanofiber-hydrogel-mimic-of-the-cartilage-extracellular-matrix
#19
Florian A Formica, Ece Öztürk, Samuel C Hess, Wendelin J Stark, Katharina Maniura-Weber, Markus Rottmar, Marcy Zenobi-Wong
A true biomimetic of the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) could greatly contribute to our ability to regenerate this tissue in a mechanically demanding, often inflamed environment. Articular cartilage is a composite tissue made of cells and fibrillar proteins embedded in a hydrophilic polymeric meshwork. Here, a polyanionic functionalized alginate is used to mimic the glycosaminoglycan component of the native ECM. To create the fibrillar component, cryoelectrospinning of poly(ε-caprolactone) on a -78 °C mandrel, subsequently treated by O2 plasma, is used to create a stable, ultraporous and hydrophillic nanofiber network...
November 25, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885573/poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-and-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-based-nanocomplexes-enhance-type-ii-collagen-production-in-intervertebral-disc
#20
Joana C Antunes, Catarina Leite Pereira, Graciosa Q Teixeira, Ricardo V Silva, Joana Caldeira, Sibylle Grad, Raquel M Gonçalves, Mário A Barbosa
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration often leads to low back pain, which is one of the major causes of disability worldwide, affecting more than 80% of the population. Although available treatments for degenerated IVD decrease symptoms' progression, they fail to address the underlying causes and to restore native IVD properties. Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) has recently been shown to support the production of chondrogenic matrix by mesenchymal stem/stromal cells. γ-PGA/chitosan (Ch) nanocomplexes (NCs) have been proposed for several biomedical applications, showing advantages compared with either polymer alone...
January 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
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