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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151130/layered-pegda-hydrogel-for-islet-of-langerhans-encapsulation-and-improvement-of-vascularization
#1
Giulia Marchioli, Lisa Zellner, Catarina Oliveira, Marten Engelse, Eelco de Koning, Joao Mano, Karperien, Aart van Apeldoorn, Lorenzo Moroni
Islets of Langerhans need to maintain their round morphology and to be fast revascularized after transplantation to preserve functional insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulation. For this purpose, a non-cell-adhesive environment is preferable for their embedding. Conversely, nutrient and oxygen supply to islets is guaranteed by capillary ingrowth within the construct and this can only be achieved in a matrix that provides adhesion cues for cells. In this study, two different approaches are explored, which are both based on a layered architecture, in order to combine these two opposite requirements...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150735/glycomics-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-and-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#2
REVIEW
Jun-Ichi Furukawa, Kazue Okada, Yasuro Shinohara
Most cells are coated by a dense glycocalyx composed of glycoconjugates such as glycosphingolipids, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans. The overall glycomic profile is believed to be crucial for the diverse roles of glycans, which are mediated by specific interactions that regulate cell-cell adhesion, the immune response, microbial pathogenesis, and other cellular events. Many cell surface markers were discovered and identified as glycoconjugates such as stage-specific embryonic antigen, Tra-1-60/81 and various other cell surface molecules (e...
November 18, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148104/neuregulin-1-promotes-remyelination-and-fosters-a-pro-regenerative-inflammatory-response-in-focal-demyelinating-lesions-of-the-spinal-cord
#3
Hardeep Kataria, Arsalan Alizadeh, Ghazaleh M Shahriary, Shekoofeh Saboktakin Rizi, Ryan Henrie, Kallivalappil T Santhosh, James A Thliveris, Soheila Karimi-Abdolrezaee
Oligodendroglial cell death and demyelination are hallmarks of neurotrauma and multiple sclerosis that cause axonal damage and functional impairments. Remyelination remains a challenge as the ability of endogenous precursor cells for oligodendrocyte replacement is hindered in the unfavorable milieu of demyelinating conditions. Here, in a rat model of lysolecithin lysophosphatidyl-choline (LPC)-induced focal demyelination, we report that Neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1), an important factor for oligodendrocytes and myelination, is dysregulated in demyelinating lesions and its bio-availability can promote oligodendrogenesis and remyelination...
November 17, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147820/cue-signal-response-analysis-in-3d-chondrocyte-scaffolds-with-anabolic-stimuli
#4
Michael Neidlin, Antonion Korcari, Giorgos Macheras, Leonidas G Alexopoulos
Articular cartilage is an avascular connective tissue responsible for bearing loads. Cell signaling plays a central role in cartilage homeostasis and tissue engineering by directing chondrocytes to synthesize/degrade the extracellular matrix or promote inflammatory responses. The aim of this paper was to investigate anabolic, catabolic and inflammatory pathways of well-known and underreported anabolic stimuli in 3D chondrocyte cultures and connect them to diverse cartilage responses including matrix regeneration and cell communication...
November 16, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137675/human-hyaluronic-acid-synthase-1-promotes-malignant-transformation-via-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-micronucleation-and-centrosome-abnormalities
#5
Nguyet Nguyen, Awanit Kumar, Simi Chacko, Rodney J Ouellette, Anirban Ghosh
BACKGROUND: Human hyaluronic acid (HA) molecules are synthesized by three membrane spanning Hyaluronic Acid Synthases (HAS1, HAS2 and HAS3). Of the three, HAS1 is found to be localized more into the cytoplasmic space where it synthesizes intracellular HA. HA is a ubiquitous glycosaminoglycan, mainly present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and on the cell surface, but are also detected intracellularly. Accumulation of HA in cancer cells, the cancer-surrounding stroma, and ECM is generally considered an independent prognostic factors for patients...
November 14, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131526/amniotic-mesenchymal-stem-cells-mitigate-osteoarthritis-progression-in-a-synovial-macrophage-mediated-in-vitro-explant-co-culture-model
#6
Natasha Topoluk, Kathleen Steckbeck, Sandra Siatkowski, Brian Burnikel, John Tokish, Jeremy Mercuri
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease of the synovial joint marked by chronic, low-grade inflammation leading to cartilage destruction. Regenerative medicine strategies for mitigating OA progression and/or promoting cartilage regeneration must be assessed using models that mimic the hallmarks of OA. More specifically, these models should maintain synovial macrophage phenotype in their native micro-environment. Herein, an in vitro co-culture model of patient-matched human OA cartilage and synovium was assessed for viability, macrophage phenotype, and progressive cartilage destruction in the presence of an inflammatory milieu...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131431/synthesis-of-fucosylated-chondroitin-sulfate-glycoclusters-a-robust-route-to-novel-anticoagulant-agents
#7
Xiao Zhang, Wang Yao, Xiaojiang Xu, Huifang Sun, Jinhua Zhao, Xiangbao Meng, Mingyi Wu, Zhongjun Li
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS) is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan with excellent anticoagulant activity. Studies show that FuCS and its depolymerized fragments exhibit different anticoagulant mechanism from heparin derivatives, with decreased risks of adverse effects and bleeding. However, further exploitation has been hindered by the scarcity of structurally defined oligosaccharides. Herein we report a facile method to synthesize the repeating trisaccharide unit of FuCS based on the degradation of chondroitin sulfate polymers...
November 13, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128675/regionally-variant-collagen-alignment-correlates-with-viscoelastic-properties-of-the-disc-of-the-human-temporomandibular-joint
#8
Shawn Gutman, Daniel Kim, Solaiman Tarafder, Sergio Velez, Julia Jeong, Chang H Lee
OBJECTIVE: To determine the regionally variant quality of collagen alignment in human TMJ discs and its statistical correlation with viscoelastic properties. DESIGN: For quantitative analysis of the quality of collagen alignment, horizontal sections of human TMJ discs with Pricrosirius Red staining were imaged under circularly polarized microscopy. Mean angle and angular deviation of collagen fibers in each region were analyzed using a well-established automated image-processing for angular gradient...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128538/hyaluronan-size-alters-chondrogenesis-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-via-the-cd44-erk-sox-9-pathway
#9
Shun-Cheng Wu, Chung-Hwan Chen, Jyun-Ya Wang, Yi-Shan Lin, Je-Ken Chang, Mei-Ling Ho
Hyaluronan (HA) is a natural linear polymer that is one of the main types of extracellular matrix during the early stage of chondrogenesis. We found that the chondrogenesis of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can be initiated and promoted by the application of HA to mimic the chondrogenic niche. The aim of this study is to investigate the optimal HA molecular weight (Mw) for chondrogenesis of ADSCs and the detailed mechanism. In this study, we investigated the relationships among HA Mw, CD44 clustering, and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/SOX-9 pathway during chondrogenesis of ADSCs...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128532/laponite-nanoparticle-associated-silated-hydroxypropylmethyl-cellulose-as-an-injectable-reinforced-interpenetrating-network-hydrogel-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#10
Cécile Boyer, Lara Figueiredo, Richard Pace, Julie Lesoeur, Thierry Rouillon, Catherine Le Visage, Jean-François Tassin, Pierre Weiss, Jérôme Guicheux, Gildas Rethore
Articular cartilage is a connective tissue which does not spontaneously heal. To address this issue, biomaterial-assisted cell therapy has been researched with promising advances. The lack of strong mechanical properties is still a concern despite significant progress in three-dimensional scaffolds. This article's objective was to develop a composite hydrogel using a small amount of nano-reinforcement clay known as laponites. These laponites were capable of self-setting within the gel structure of the silated hydroxylpropylmethyl cellulose (Si-HPMC) hydrogel...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128371/assessments-of-neurocognitive-and-behavioral-function-in-the-mucopolysaccharidoses
#11
REVIEW
Elsa G Shapiro, Maria L Escolar, Kathleen A Delaney, John J Mitchell
The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of rare, inherited lysosomal storage disorders in which accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) leads to progressive tissue and organ dysfunction. In addition to a variety of somatic signs and symptoms, patients with rapidly progressing MPS I (Hurler), II, III, and VII can present with significant neurological manifestations, including impaired cognitive abilities, difficulties in language and speech, behavioral abnormalities, sleep problems, and/or seizures. Neurological symptoms have a substantial impact on the quality of life of MPS patients and their families...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126604/zonal-variation-of-mri-measurable-parameters-classifies-cartilage-degradation
#12
Allison K M Fleck, Uwe Kruger, Kyrsten Carlson, Caitlin Waltz, Scott A McCallum, X Lucas Lu, Leo Q Wan
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease resulting in the deterioration of articular cartilage, a tissue with minimal ability to self-repair. Early diagnosis of OA with non-invasive imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could provide an opportunity to intervene and slow or reverse this degeneration process. This study examines the classification of degradation states using MRI measurements. Enzymatic degradation was used to specifically target proteoglycans alone, collagen alone and both cartilage components sequentially...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125590/novel-insights-into-antiviral-gene-regulation-of-red-swamp-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii-infected-with-white-spot-syndrome-virus
#13
Shaokui Yi, Yanhe Li, Linlin Shi, Long Zhang
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), one of the major pathogens of Procambarus clarkii, has caused severe disruption to the aquaculture industry of P. clarkii in China. To reveal the gene regulatory mechanisms underlying WSSV infection, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed among WSSV-infected susceptible individuals (GS), viral resistant individuals (GR), and a non-infected control group (GC). A total of 61,349 unigenes were assembled from nine libraries. Subsequently, 515 and 1033 unigenes exhibited significant differential expression in sensitive and resistant crayfish individuals compared to the control group (GC)...
November 10, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124565/glycosaminoglycans-from-fish-swim-bladder-isolation-structural-characterization-and-bioactive-potential
#14
Yongxi Pan, Peipei Wang, Fuming Zhang, Yanlei Yu, Xing Zhang, Lei Lin, Robert J Linhardt
The swim bladder of fish is an internal gas-filled organ that allows fish to control their buoyancy and swimming depth. Fish maws (the dried swim bladders of fish) have been used over many centuries as traditional medicines, tonics and a luxurious gourmet food in China and Southeast Asia. Little is known about the structural information of polysaccharides comprising this important functional material of fish tissue. In the present study, the total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) from fish maw was characterized. Two GAGs were identified, chondroitin sulfate (CS, having a molecular weight of 18-40 kDa) and heparan sulfate (HS), corresponding to 95% and 5% of the total GAG, respectively...
November 10, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123919/t2-mapping-and-post-contrast-t1-dgemric-of-the-patellar-cartilage-12-year-follow-up-after-patellar-stabilizing-surgery-in-childhood
#15
Eva Bengtsson Moström, Eveliina Lammentausta, Thröstur Finnbogason, Lars Weidenhielm, Per-Mats Janarv, Carl Johan Tiderius
Background: Cartilage degeneration has been reported after recurrent patellar dislocation. However, effects of surgical stabilization in childhood have not yet been described. Purpose: To examine the cartilage quality in very young adults operated with a patellar stabilizing procedure due to recurrent patellar dislocation in childhood, and evaluate if cartilage quality correlates with clinical parameters and patient-reported outcomes. Material and Methods: Seventeen patients were investigated ≥ 5 years (mean = 11...
October 2017: Acta Radiologica Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123031/structure-function-characterization-of-three-human-antibodies-targeting-the-vaccinia-virus-adhesion-molecule-d8
#16
Michael H Matho, Andrew Schlossman, Iuliia M Gilchuk, Greg Miller, Zbigniew Mikulski, Matthias Hupfer, Jing Wang, Aruna Bitra, Xianghzi Meng, Yan Xiang, Tom Kaever, Tzanko Doukov, Klaus Ley, Shane Crotty, Bjoern Peters, Linda C Hsieh-Wilson, James E Crowe, Dirk M Zajonc
Vaccinia virus (VACV) envelope protein D8 is one of three glycosaminoglycan adhesion molecules and binds to the linear polysaccharide chondroitin sulfate (CS). D8 is also a target for neutralizing antibody responses that are elicited by the smallpox vaccine, which has enabled the first eradication of a human viral pathogen and is a useful model for studying antibody responses. However, to date, VACV epitopes targeted by human antibodies have not been characterized at atomic resolution. Here, we characterized the binding properties of several human anti-D8 antibodies and determined the crystal structures of three VACV-MAb variants, VACV-66, VACV-138, and VACV-304, separately bound to D8...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121102/histopathologic-and-immunohistochemical-features-of-capsular-tissue-around-failed-ahmed-glaucoma-valves
#17
Alka Mahale, Fatma Fikri, Khitam Al Hati, Sami Al Shahwan, Ibrahim Al Jadaan, Hind Al Katan, Rajiv Khandekar, Azza Maktabi, Deepak P Edward
Impervious encapsulation around Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) results in surgical failure raising intraocular pressure (IOP). Dysregulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and cellular factors might contribute to increased hydraulic resistance to aqueous drainage. Therefore, we examined these molecules in failed AGV capsular tissue. Immunostaining for ECM molecules (collagen I, collagen III, decorin, lumican, chondroitin sulfate, aggrecan and keratan sulfate) and cellular factors (αSMA and TGFβ) was performed on excised capsules from failed AGVs and control tenon's tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118271/heparin-bound-chemokine-cxcl8-monomer-and-dimer-are-impaired-for-cxcr1-and-cxcr2-activation-implications-for-gradients-and-neutrophil-trafficking
#18
Prem Raj B Joseph, Kirti V Sawant, Krishna Rajarathnam
Chemokine CXCL8 plays a pivotal role in host immune response by recruiting neutrophils to the infection site. CXCL8 exists as monomers and dimers, and mediates recruitment by interacting with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and activating CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors. How CXCL8 monomer and dimer interactions with both receptors and GAGs mediate trafficking is poorly understood. In particular, both haptotactic (mediated by GAG-bound chemokine) and chemotactic (mediated by soluble chemokine) gradients have been implicated, and whether it is the free or the GAG-bound CXCL8 monomer and/or dimer that activates the receptor remains unknown...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117254/link-n-the-missing-link-towards-intervertebral-disc-repair-is-species-specific
#19
Frances C Bach, Lisanne T Laagland, Michael P Grant, Laura B Creemers, Keita Ito, Björn P Meij, Fackson Mwale, Marianna A Tryfonidou
INTRODUCTION: Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is a frequent cause for back pain in humans and dogs. Link-N stabilizes proteoglycan aggregates in cartilaginous tissues and exerts growth factor-like effects. The human variant of Link-N facilitates IVD regeneration in several species in vitro by inducing Smad1 signaling, but it is not clear whether this is species specific. Dogs with IVD disease could possibly benefit from Link-N treatment, but Link-N has not been tested on canine IVD cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116360/role-of-the-extracellular-matrix-in-the-genesis-of-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#20
REVIEW
F F Cruz, P R M Rocco, P Pelosi
The extracellular matrix represents the three-dimensional scaffold of the alveolar wall, which is composed of a layer of epithelial and endothelial cells, their basal membrane, and a thin interstitial layer containing fibrous proteins, glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans, and proteoglycans. Mechanical ventilation with low and high tidal volumes can induce proteoglycan fragmentation, which may cause activation of the inflammatory cascade, leading to the main features of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI): alveolar edema and collagen deposition...
November 7, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
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