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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792924/creation-of-an-acellular-vaginal-matrix-for-potential-vaginal-augmentation-and-cloacal-repair
#1
K V Greco, L G Jones, I Obiri-Yeboa, T Ansari
STUDY OBJECTIVE: our aim was to use porcine vagina to create a vaginal matrix and test its cellular biocompatibility. DESIGN: vagina was harvested from pigs and de-cellularised (DC) using a combination of detergents (Triton x-100 and sodium deoxycholate) and enzymes (DNAse/RNAse). INTERVENTIONS: the presence of cellular material, collagen structural integrity and basement membrane proteins were assessed histologically. To address cytocompatibility, porcine adipose derived-mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) were harvested from abdominal fat together with vaginal epithelial cells (VEC) and seeded onto the mucosal aspect of the vaginal scaffold...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790112/an-automated-high-throughput-method-for-interpreting-the-tandem-mass-spectra-of-glycosaminoglycans
#2
Jiana Duan, I Jonathan Amster
The biological interactions between glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and other biomolecules are heavily influenced by structural features of the glycan. The structure of GAGs can be assigned using tandem mass spectrometry (MS2 ), but analysis of these data, to date, requires manually interpretation, a slow process that presents a bottleneck to the broader deployment of this approach to solving biologically relevant problems. Automated interpretation remains a challenge, as GAG biosynthesis is not template-driven, and therefore, one cannot predict structures from genomic data, as is done with proteins...
May 22, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789921/intervertebral-disc-damage-models-in-organ-culture-a-comparison-of-annulus-fibrosus-cross-incision-versus-punch-model-under-complex-loading
#3
Daniela A Frauchiger, Samantha C W Chan, Lorin M Benneker, Benjamin Gantenbein
PURPOSE: Comparison of two annulus fibrosus injury models that mimic intervertebral disc (IVD) herniation, enabling the study of IVD behaviour under three loading regimes in a bovine organ culture model. METHODS: An injury was induced by custom-designed cross-incision tool or a 2-mm biopsy punch in IVDs. Discs were cultured for 14 days under (1) complex (compression and torsion), (2) static, and (3) no load. Disc height, mitochondrial activity, DNA and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) contents, and disc stiffness under complex load were determined...
May 22, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787913/modulating-the-degree-of-fucosylation-of-fucosylated-chondroitin-sulfate-enhances-heparin-cofactor-ii-dependent-thrombin-inhibition
#4
Li Xu, Na Gao, Chuang Xiao, Lisha Lin, Steven W Purcell, Mingyi Wu, Jinhua Zhao
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS), an unusual glycosaminoglycan with fucose side chains, is a promising anticoagulant agent. To assess the effect of its structure on anticoagulant activity, its derivatives with various degrees of fucosylation (DF), molecular weights (Mw) and sulfation patterns were prepared and characterized. Biological tests showed that their APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) prolonging activity and intrinsic factor Xase complex (factor IXa-VIIIa-Ca2+ -PL complex) inhibitory activity were both reduced in FCS derivatives with lower Mw and DF...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784539/revisiting-antithrombin-in-health-and-disease-congenital-deficiencies-and-genetic-variants-and-laboratory-studies-on-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-forms
#5
REVIEW
Jean Amiral, Jerard Seghatchian
Antithrombin [AT] is the main inhibitor for activated plasma coagulation serine esterases, inhibiting thrombin, Factors Xa and IXa, but also Factors XIIa, XIa, VIIa, kallicrein, and plasmin. Its activity is highly enhanced by heparin, through binding to the pentasaccharide sequences, for inhibition of all coagulation proteases, except thrombin, which inhibition requires its additional binding to the heparin polysaccharide chain. However, AT is the major inhibitor of thrombin in the blood circulation. Congenital or acquired deficiencies of AT expose affected patients to an increased risk of developing unprovoked and recurrent thrombo-embolic diseases...
April 19, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783732/hyaluronic-acid-influence-on-normal-and-osteoarthritic-tissue-engineered-cartilage
#6
Shabnam Hemmati-Sadeghi, Jochen Ringe, Tilo Dehne, Rainer Haag, Michael Sittinger
The aim of this study is to identify gene expression profiles associated with hyaluronic acid (HA) treatment of normal and osteoarthritis (OA)-like tissue-engineered cartilage. 3D cartilage micromasses were treated with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (OA-inducer) and/or HA for 7 days. Viability was examined by PI/FDA staining. To document extracellular matrix (ECM) formation, glycosaminoglycans (GAG) were stained with Safranin-O and cartilage-specific type II collagen was detected immunohistochemically...
May 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783688/isolation-and-composition-analysis-of-bioactive-glycosaminoglycans-from-whelk
#7
Chrow Khurshid, David Alexander Pye
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are found covalently attached to proteins, which create conjugates known as proteoglycans. GAGs have remarkable biological activity as co-receptors for a variety of growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines. The present study identifies the key compositional differences between the GAGs isolated from whelk and mammalian GAGs. This polysaccharide represents a new, previously undescribed GAG with cytotoxic activity on cancer cells. Disaccharides were obtained by sample digestion with heparinases I, II, and III and chondroitinase ABC...
May 18, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783635/glycosaminoglycans-from-a-sea-snake-lapemis-curtus-extraction-structural-characterization-and-antioxidant-activity
#8
Mingyue Bai, Wenwei Han, Xia Zhao, Qingchi Wang, Yanyun Gao, Shiming Deng
Sea snakes have wide application prospects in medicine, health food and other fields. Several novel polysaccharides were successfully obtained from the skin and the meat of a sea snake ( Lapemis curtus ). The structures of polysaccharides LSP3 and LMP3, which were extracted and purified from Lapemis curtus , were determined to be new and highly heterogenic glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) by means of FT-IR, ESI-MS/MS and NMR. LSP3 is a hybrid dermatan sulfate (DS) and composed of 48% 4-sulfated disaccharides (Di4S), 42% 6-sulfated disaccharides (Di6S) and 5% disulfated disaccharides (Di2,6S), while LMP3 is a hybrid chondroitin sulfate (CS) and composed of 70% Di4S, 20% Di6S, and 8% Di2,6S...
May 18, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782018/novel-method-of-plasmid-dna-delivery-to-mouse-bladder-urothelium-by-electroporation
#9
Chuan Yu, Ofir Stefanson, Yueli Liu, Zhu A Wang
Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) are extremely valuable in revealing novel biological insights into the initiation and progression mechanisms of human diseases such as cancer. Transgenic and conditional knockout mice have been frequently used for gene overexpression or ablation in specific tissues or cell types in vivo. However, generating germline mouse models can be time-consuming and costly. Recent advancements in gene editing technologies and the feasibility of delivering DNA plasmids by viral infection have enabled rapid generation of non-germline autochthonous mouse cancer models for several organs...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779903/glycosaminoglycans-analysis-in-blood-and-urine-of-patients-with-mucopolysaccharidosis
#10
Shaukat A Khan, Robert W Mason, Roberto Giugliani, Kenji Orii, Toshiyuki Fukao, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Seiji Yamaguchi, Hironori Kobayashi, Tadao Orii, Shunji Tomatsu
To explore the correlation between glycosaminoglycan (GAG) levels and mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type, we have evaluated the GAG levels in blood of MPS II, III, IVA, and IVB and urine of MPS IVA, IVB, and VI by tandem mass spectrometry. Dermatan sulfate (DS), heparan sulfate (HS), keratan sulfate (KS; mono-sulfated KS, di-sulfated KS), and the ratio of di-sulfated KS in total KS were measured. Patients with untreated MPS II had higher levels of DS and HS in blood while untreated MPS III had higher levels of HS in blood than age-matched controls...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779902/molecular-genetics-and-metabolism-special-edition-diagnosis-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-mucopolysaccharidosis-iva
#11
REVIEW
Hira Peracha, Kazuki Sawamoto, Lauren Averill, Heidi Kecskemethy, Mary Theroux, Mihir Thacker, Kyoko Nagao, Christian Pizarro, William Mackenzie, Hironori Kobayashi, Seiji Yamaguchi, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Kenji Orii, Tadao Orii, Toshiyuki Fukao, Shunji Tomatsu
Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA, Morquio A syndrome) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of specific glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) and keratan sulfate (KS), which are mainly synthesized in the cartilage. Therefore, the substrates are stored primarily in the cartilage and its extracellular matrix (ECM), leading to a direct impact on bone development and successive systemic skeletal spondylepiphyseal dysplasia...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777813/polyphenolic-polysaccharide-conjugates-from-flowers-and-fruits-of-single-seeded-hawthorn-crataegus-monogyna-jacq-chemical-profiles-and-mechanisms-of-anticoagulant-activity
#12
Izabela Pawlaczyk-Graja
The polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates were isolated from flowers and fruits of medicinal plant Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (Lindm.) by the alkaline extraction, followed by neutralization, partitioning with organic solvents and dialysis against water. The isolates from flowers as well as from fruits were homogenous macromolecular compounds, with a molecular weight over 760 × 103  g/mol and 970 × 103  g/mol, respectively, what was assessed in HPGPC analysis. Both products were characterized spectrophotometrically, and by GLC-MS, FT-IR and NMR techniques...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777314/improved-recovery-from-limb-ischaemia-by-delivery-of-an-affinity-isolated-heparan-sulphate
#13
Selina Poon, Xiaohua Lu, Raymond A A Smith, Pei Ho, Kishore Bhakoo, Victor Nurcombe, Simon M Cool
Peripheral arterial disease is a major cause of limb loss and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. As most standard-of-care therapies yield only unsatisfactory outcomes, more options are needed. Recent cell- and molecular-based therapies that have aimed to modulate vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF165 ) levels have not yet been approved for clinical use due to their uncertain side effects. We have previously reported a heparan sulphate (termed HS7) tuned to avidly bind VEGF165 . Here, we investigated the ability of HS7 to promote vascular recovery in a murine hindlimb vascular ischaemia model...
May 18, 2018: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775231/dna-methylation-and-foxo3a-regulate-phlpp1-expression-in-chondrocytes
#14
Clara M Castillejo Becerra, Anna M Mattson, David H H Molstad, Ian M Lorang, Jennifer J Westendorf, Elizabeth W Bradley
The protein phosphatase Phlpp1 is an essential enzyme for proper chondrocyte function. Altered Phlpp1 levels are associated with cancer and degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis. While much is known about the post-transcriptional mechanisms controlling Phlpp1 levels, transcriptional regulation of the Phlpp1 gene locus is underexplored. We previously showed that CpG methylation of the PHLPP1 promoter is lower in osteoarthritic cartilage than in normal cartilage, and indirectly correlates with gene expression...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774506/therapeutic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-in-the-treatment-of-eye-diseases
#15
C Randall Harrell, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Crissy Fellabaum, Aleksandar Arsenijevic, Valentin Djonov, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Vladislav Volarevic
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were, due to their immunomodulatory and pro-angiogenic characteristics, extensively explored as new therapeutic agents in cell-based therapy of uveitis, glaucoma, retinal and ocular surface diseases.Since it was recently revealed that exosomes play an important role in biological functions of MSCs, herewith we summarized current knowledge about the morphology, structure, phenotype and functional characteristics of MSC-derived exosomes emphasizing their therapeutic potential in the treatment of eye diseases...
May 18, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773674/deep-sequencing-of-complex-proteoglycans-a-novel-strategy-for-high-coverage-and-site-specific-identification-of-glycosaminoglycan-linked-peptides
#16
Joshua A Klein, Le Meng, Joseph Zaia
Proteoglycans are distributed in all animal tissues and play critical, multifaceted, physiological roles.  Expressed in a spatially- and temporally-regulated manner, these molecules regulate interactions among growth factors and cell surface receptors and play key roles in basement membranes and other extracellular matrices.  Due to the high degree of glycosylation by glycosaminoglycan (GAG), N-glycan and mucin-type O-glycan classes, the peptide sequence coverage of complex proteoglycans is revealed poorly by standard mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods...
May 17, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773673/lysosomal-proteome-and-secretome-analysis-identifies-missorted-enzymes-and-their-non-degraded-substrates-in-mucolipidosis-iii-mouse-cells
#17
Giorgia Di Lorenzo, Renata Voltolini Velho, Dominic Winter, Melanie Thelen, Shiva Ahmadi, Michaela Schweizer, Raffaella De Pace, Kerstin Cornils, Timur Alexander Yorgan, Saskia Grüb, Irm Hermans-Borgmeyer, Thorsten Schinke, Sven Müller-Loennies, Thomas Braulke, Sandra Pohl
Targeting of soluble lysosomal enzymes requires mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) signals whose formation is initiated by the hexameric N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-1-phosphotransferase complex (α2β2γ2). Upon proteolytic cleavage by site-1 protease, the α/β-subunit precursor is catalytically activated but the functions of γ-subunits (Gnptg) in M6P modification of lysosomal enzymes are unknown. To investigate this, we analyzed the Gnptg expression in mouse tissues, primary cultured cells, and in Gnptg reporter mice in vivo, and found high amounts in the brain, eye, kidney, femur, vertebra and fibroblasts...
May 17, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773398/sulfated-polysaccharide-mediated-tgf-%C3%AE-1-presentation-in-pre-formed-injectable-scaffolds-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#18
Neha Ashok Waghmare, Aditya Arora, Arijit Bhattacharjee, Dhirendra S Katti
In this work, a plant-derived polysaccharide carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was chemically modified to incorporate sulfate groups to facilitate binding of cationic growth factors. The sulfated CMC (heparin mimic) was then used with CMC (glycosaminoglycan mimic) and gelatin (collagen mimic) to fabricate injectable pre-formed, macroporous scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. These scaffolds demonstrated high resilience and shape memory, thereby making them injectable through a 14G needle for up to 4-6 aspiration and injection cycles...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769337/entry-of-herpes-simplex-virus-1-into-epidermis-and-dermal-fibroblasts-is-independent-of-the-scavenger-receptor-marco
#19
Katharina Thier, Maureen Möckel, Katja Palitzsch, Katinka Döhner, Beate Sodeik, Dagmar Knebel-Mörsdorf
To enter host cells, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) initially attaches to cell surface glycosaminoglycans followed by requisite binding to one of several cellular receptors leading to viral internalization. Although virus-receptor interactions have been studied in various cell lines, the contributions of individual receptors to uptake into target tissues such as mucosa, skin or cornea are not well understood. We demonstrated that nectin-1 acts as major receptor for HSV-1 entry into murine epidermis, while HVEM can serve as alternative receptor...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768676/ccl19-with-ccl21-tail-displays-enhanced-glycosaminoglycan-binding-with-retained-chemotactic-potency-in-dendritic-cells
#20
Astrid S Jørgensen, Pontian E Adogamhe, Julia M Laufer, Daniel F Legler, Christopher T Veldkamp, Mette M Rosenkilde, Gertrud M Hjortø
CCL19 is more potent than CCL21 in inducing chemotaxis of human dendritic cells (DC). This difference is attributed to 1) a stronger interaction of the basic C-terminal tail of CCL21 with acidic glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the environment and 2) an autoinhibitory function of this C-terminal tail. Moreover, different receptor docking modes and tissue expression patterns of CCL19 and CCL21 contribute to fine-tuned control of CCR7 signaling. Here, we investigate the effect of the tail of CCL21 on chemokine binding to GAGs and on CCR7 activation...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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