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Kedong Song, Wenfang Li, Hai Wang, Yu Zhang, Liying Li, Yiwei Wang, Hong Wang, Ling Wang, Tianqing Liu
Biological treatment using engineered osteochondral composites has received growing attention for the repair of cartilage defects. Osteochondral composites combined with a dynamic culture provide great potential for improving the quality of constructs and cartilage regeneration as dynamic conditions mimic the in vivo condition where cells were constantly subjected to mechanical and chemical stimulation. In the present study, biophasic composites were produced in vitro consisting of cell-hydrogel (CH) and cell-cancellous bone (CB) constructs, followed by culturing in a dynamic system in a spinner flask...
October 21, 2016: Biomedical Materials
Nicolas Marinval, Pierre Saboural, Oualid Haddad, Murielle Maire, Kevin Bassand, Frederic Geinguenaud, Nadia Djaker, Khadija Ben Akrout, Marc Lamy de la Chapelle, Romain Robert, Olivier Oudar, Erwan Guyot, Christelle Laguillier-Morizot, Angela Sutton, Cedric Chauvierre, Frederic Chaubet, Nathalie Charnaux, Hanna Hlawaty
Herein we investigate the structure/function relationships of fucoidans from Ascophyllum nodosum to analyze their pro-angiogenic effect and cellular uptake in native and glycosaminoglycan-free (GAG-free) human endothelial cells (HUVECs). Fucoidans are marine sulfated polysaccharides, which act as glycosaminoglycans mimetics. We hypothesized that the size and sulfation rate of fucoidans influence their ability to induce pro-angiogenic processes independently of GAGs. We collected two fractions of fucoidans, Low and Medium Molecular Weight Fucoidan (LMWF and MMWF, respectively) by size exclusion chromatography and characterized their composition (sulfate, fucose and uronic acid) by colorimetric measurement and Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy...
October 17, 2016: Marine Drugs
Ana Marina Ferreira, Piergiorgio Gentile, Sotiria Toumpaniari, Gianluca Ciardelli, Mark A Birch
Bone cell interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment is of critical importance when engineering surface interfaces for bone regeneration. In this work layer-by-layer films of type I collagen (coll), the major constituent of bone ECM, and heparin (hep), a glycosaminoglycan, were assembled on poly(L-lactide acid) (PLLA) substrates to evaluate the impact of the biomacromolecular coating on cell activity. The surface modification of PLLA demonstrated that the hep/coll multi-layer is stable after 10 bilayers (confirmed by contact angle, infrared spectroscopy and morphological analysis)...
October 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shirin Masjedi, Ying Lei, Jenny Patel, Zannatul Ferdous
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a major cardiovascular disorder in the developed countries. Male is a known risk factor in this disease; unfortunately, how sex contributes to CAVD is mostly unknown. The objective of this study is to determine whether valvular interstitial cells (VICs) isolated from male versus female aortic valves demonstrate difference in osteogenic differentiation and/or extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. VICs were isolated from male and female rat or porcine aortic valves and cultured in osteogenic media for 10, 15 and 20 days...
October 19, 2016: Heart and Vessels
J Do Cao, A Wiedemann, T Quinaux, S F Battaglia-Hsu, L Mainard, R Froissart, C Bonnemains, S Ragot, B Leheup, P Journeau, F Feillet
: Patients under 5 years were not evaluated in the phase-3 study for enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in MPS IV A. Here we describe the evolution of a severe Morquio A pediatric patient who was diagnosed at 19 months old and treated by ERT at 21 months old for the next 30 months. Applying the standard ERT protocol on this very young patient appeared to reduce his urinary excretion of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs); the improvements in both the 6 minute-walk test (6MWT) and the stair climb test, however, were no different than those reported in the nature history study...
December 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
Kenji Murata, Naohiko Kanemura, Takanori Kokubun, Tsutomu Fujino, Yuri Morishita, Katsuya Onitsuka, Shuhei Fujiwara, Aya Nakashima, Daisuke Shimizu, Kiyomi Takayanagi
OBJECTIVE: Joint instability induced by anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) transection is commonly considered as a predisposing factor for osteoarthritis of the knee; however, the influence of re-stabilization on the protection of articular cartilage is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of joint re-stabilization on articular cartilage using an instability and re-stabilization ACL transection model. DESIGN: To induce different models of joint instability, our laboratory created a controlled abnormal joint movement (CAJM) group and an anterior cruciate ligament transection group (ACL-T)...
October 15, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Bin Liu, Jiaojiao Lu, Chunqing Ai, Bao Zhang, Li Guo, Shuang Song, Beiwei Zhu
Uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) including well-known glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and some non-GAGs exist widely in animal kingdom. Although numerous methods have been established to analyze GAGs, few methods are available for non-GAG UACPs. In the present study, a protocol to identify all kinds of UACPs with repeating disaccharide units of hexosamine and uronic acid was demonstrated, and UACP components in five shellfishes, namely Turritella fortilirata Sowerby (GTF), Batillaria zonalis (GBZ), Nassarius variciferus (GNV), Monodonta labio Linnaeus (GML), and Argopecten irradians Lamarck (BAI) were primarily revealed...
October 11, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Emeline Puissant, Marielle Boonen
Osteoclasts are giant bone-resorbing cells originating from monocytes/macrophages. During their differentiation, they overexpress two lysosomal enzymes, cathepsin K and TRAP, which are secreted into the resorption lacuna, an acidified sealed area in contact with bone matrix where bone degradation takes place. Here we report that the acid hydrolase HYAL1, a hyaluronidase able to degrade the glycosaminoglycans hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate, is also upregulated upon osteoclastogenesis. The mRNA expression and protein level of HYAL1 are markedly increased in osteoclasts differentiated from RAW264...
2016: PloS One
Liffert Vogt
Excessive sodium intake is associated with both hypertension and an increased risk of cardiovascular events, presumably because of an increase in extracellular volume. The extent to which sodium intake affects extracellular volume and BP varies considerably among individuals, discriminating subjects who are salt-sensitive from those who are salt-resistant. Recent experiments have shown that, other than regulation by the kidney, sodium homeostasis is also regulated by negatively charged glycosaminoglycans in the skin interstitium, where sodium is bound to glycosaminoglycans without commensurate effects on extracellular volume...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yin Chen, Megan Reddy, Yanlei Yu, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were prepared from the muscular stomach or gizzard of the chicken. The content of GAGs on a dry weight basis contains 0.4 wt.% a typical value observed for a muscle tissue. The major GAG components were chondroitin-6-sulfate and chondroitin-4-sulfate (~64 %) of molecular weight 21-22 kDa. Hyaluronan (~24 %) had a molecular weight 120 kDa. Smaller amounts (12 %) of heparan sulfate was also present which was made of more highly sulfated chains of molecular weight of 21-22 kDa and a less sulfated low molecular weight (< 10 kDa) heterogeneous partially degraded heparan sulfate...
October 17, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
Jie Yang, Jiaojiao Mou, Dejun Ding, Xuedong Wang
In this study, the anticoagulant, hemorrhagic and antithrombotic effects of glycosaminoglycans from Apostichopus japonicus (AHG) and its depolymerized products (DAHGs) were firstly investigated and compared with that of low molecular weight heparin. AHG and DAHGs exhibited significant prolongation of APTT in vitro. In vivo antithrombus assays of AHG and DAHGs on mice further concluded that AHG and DAHGs could prevent the venous thrombus formation and platelet aggregation effectively. Moreover, AHG and DAHGs could markedly prevent the ex vivo and in vivo thrombus formation at their effective dosage on rats...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Giuseppe Orlando, Andrea Peloso, Riccardo Tamburrini, Ravi Katari, Jerome Duisit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Expert Review of Medical Devices
Songhui Zhai, Lijuan Hu, Lin Zhong, Yannan Guo, Liqun Dong, Ruizhen Jia, Zheng Wang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between renal injury and reinfection that is caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and to analyze the mechanism of renal injury. Rats were repeatedly infected with RSV on days 4, 8, 14, and 28, then sacrificed and examined on day 56 after the primary infection. Renal injury was examined by transmission electron microscopy and histopathology. The F protein of RSV was detected in the renal tissue by indirect immunofluorescence. Proteinuria and urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), serum levels of albumin, urea nitrogen, and creatinine, secretion of cytokines, T lymphocyte population and subsets, and dendritic cell (DC) activation state were examined...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Eleni Maniatopoulou, Stefanos Bonovas, Nikolaos Sitaras
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are present in the hair shaft within the follicle but there are no studies regarding GAGs isolation and measurement in the human hair shaft over the scalp surface, it means, in the free hair shaft. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our research was to isolate and measure the total GAGs from human free hair shaft. METHODS: Seventy-five healthy individuals participated in the study, 58 adults, men and women over the age of 50 and 17 children (aged 4~9)...
October 2016: Annals of Dermatology
Francyne Kubaski, Harumi Osago, Robert W Mason, Seiji Yamaguchi, Hironori Kobayashi, Mikako Tsuchiya, Tadao Orii, Shunji Tomatsu
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are long blocks of negatively charged polysaccharides. They are one of the major components of the extracellular matrix and play multiple roles in different tissues and organs. The accumulation of undegraded GAGs causes mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS). GAGs are associated with other pathological conditions such as osteoarthritis, inflammation, diabetes mellitus, spinal cord injury, and cancer. The need for further understanding of GAG functions and mechanisms of action boosted the development of qualitative and quantitative (alcian blue, toluidine blue, paper and thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue, enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay, mass spectrometry) techniques...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Manuela Viola, Kathrin Brüggemann, Evgenia Karousou, Ilaria Caon, Elena Caravà, Davide Vigetti, Burkhard Greve, Christian Stock, Giancarlo De Luca, Alberto Passi, Martin Götte
Proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans modulate numerous cellular processes relevant to tumour progression, including cell proliferation, cell-matrix interactions, cell motility and invasive growth. Among the glycosaminoglycans with a well-documented role in tumour progression are heparan sulphate, chondroitin/dermatan sulphate and hyaluronic acid/hyaluronan. While the mode of biosynthesis differs for sulphated glycosaminoglycans, which are synthesised in the ER and Golgi compartments, and hyaluronan, which is synthesized at the plasma membrane, these polysaccharides partially compete for common substrates...
October 15, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
Yanlei Yu, Yin Chen, Paiyz Mikael, Fuming Zhang, Apryll M Stalcup, Rebecca German, Francois Gould, Jocelyn Ohlemacher, Hong Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
Heparin, a member of a family of molecules called glycosaminoglycans, is biosynthesized in mucosal mast cells. This important anticoagulant polysaccharide is primarily produced by extraction of the mast cell-rich intestinal mucosa of hogs. There is concern about our continued ability to supply sufficient heparin to support the worldwide growth of advanced medical procedures from the static population of adult hogs used as food animals. While the intestinal mucosa of adult pigs is rich in anticoagulant heparin (containing a few hundred milligrams per animal), little is known about how the content of heparin changes with animal age...
October 15, 2016: Glycobiology
Li Ou, Michael J Przybilla, Chester B Whitley
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is due to deficiency of α-l-iduronidase (IDUA) and subsequent storage of undegraded glycosaminoglycans (GAG). The severe form of the disease, known as Hurler syndrome, is characterized by mental retardation and neurodegeneration of unknown etiology. To identify potential biomarkers and unveil the neuropathology mechanism of MPS I disease, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) were applied to compare proteome profiling of brains from MPS I and control mice (5-month old)...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Mirko Nowak, Uwe Freudenberg, Mikhail V Tsurkan, Carsten Werner, Kandice R Levental
Matrix systems used to study complex three-dimensional (3D) cellular processes like mammary epithelial tissue morphogenesis and tumorigenesis ex vivo often require ill-defined biological components, which lead to poor reproducibility and a lack of control over physical parameters. In this study, a well-defined, tunable synthetic biohybrid hydrogel composed of the glycosaminoglycan heparin, star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol) (starPEG), and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) cleavable crosslinkers was applied to dissect the biophysical and biochemical signals promoting human mammary epithelial cell (MEC) morphogenesis...
October 6, 2016: Biomaterials
Francesca Maccari, Fabio Galeotti, Lucia Zampini, Lucia Padella, Rosella Tomanin, Daniela Concolino, Agata Fiumara, Tiziana Galeazzi, Giovanni Coppa, Orazio Gabrielli, Nicola Volpi
BACKGROUND: Urine are easily accessible and relatively simple to process and uronic acid-bearing glycosaminoglycans (UA-GAGs) may serve as biomarkers for several diseases, like for mucopolysaccharidosis. METHODS: We report a study from a large cohort of healthy newborns of 2-3days to have a basic profile of total content of urinary UA-GAGs, their composition and structural signatures utilizing a rapid extractive method and sensitive separation of enzymatic released disaccharides by capillary electrophoresis-light induced fluorescence...
October 11, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
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