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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087486/enhanced-articular-cartilage-by-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-enzymatically-mediated-transiently-rgds-functionalized-collagen-mimetic-hydrogels
#1
Paresh A Parmar, Jean-Philippe St-Pierre, Lesley W Chow, Christopher D Spicer, Violet Stoichevska, Yong Y Peng, Jerome A Werkmeister, John A M Ramshaw, Molly M Stevens
: Recapitulation of the articular cartilage microenvironment for regenerative medicine applications faces significant challenges due to the complex and dynamic biochemical and biomechanical nature of native tissue. Towards the goal of biomaterial designs that enable the temporal presentation of bioactive sequences, recombinant bacterial collagens such as Streptococcal collagen-like 2 (Scl2) proteins can be employed to incorporate multiple specific bioactive and biodegradable peptide motifs into a single construct...
January 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079984/medical-application-of-glycosaminoglycans-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Alexander Köwitsch, Guoying Zhou, Thomas Groth
The characteristic molecular composition of the different glycosaminoglycans (GAG) is related to their role as structural components and regulators of a multitude of functions of proteins, cells and tissues in the human body. Therefore, it is not surprising that GAG are widely used as coating materials for implants, components of 3D-constructs like tissue engineering scaffolds and hydrogels, but also as diagnostic devices like biosensors and in controlled release applications. Beside a physisorption or encapsulation of GAG, these applications often require their chemical modification to allow a stable covalent attachment on surfaces or cross-linking reactions with other molecules...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078500/effects-of-different-omega-3-sources-fish-oil-krill-oil-and-green-lipped-mussel-against-cytokine-mediated-canine-cartilage-degradation
#3
Kittisak Buddhachat, Puntita Siengdee, Siriwadee Chomdej, Kumpanart Soontornvipart, Korakot Nganvongpanit
Our purpose was to evaluate the protective effect of three marine omega-3 sources, fish oil (FO), krill oil (KO), and green-lipped mussel (GLM) against cartilage degradation. Canine cartilage explants were stimulated with either 10 ng/mL interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or IL-1β/oncostatin M (10 ng/mL each) and then treated with various concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 3 and 30 μg/mL), FO, KO, or GLM (250, 500, and 1000 μg/mL) for 28 days. Gene expression was then investigated in primary canine chondrocytes...
January 11, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074024/whole-genome-sequencing-of-invasion-resistant-cells-identifies-laminin-%C3%AE-2-as-a-host-factor-for-bacterial-invasion
#4
Xander M van Wijk, Simon Döhrmann, Björn M Hallström, Shangzhong Li, Bjørn G Voldborg, Brandon X Meng, Karen K McKee, Toin H van Kuppevelt, Peter D Yurchenco, Bernhard O Palsson, Nathan E Lewis, Victor Nizet, Jeffrey D Esko
: To understand the role of glycosaminoglycans in bacterial cellular invasion, xylosyltransferase-deficient mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were created using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated gene 9 (CRISPR-cas9) gene targeting. When these mutants were compared to the pgsA745 cell line, a CHO xylosyltransferase mutant generated previously using chemical mutagenesis, an unexpected result was obtained. Bacterial invasion of pgsA745 cells by group B Streptococcus (GBS), group A Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus was markedly reduced compared to the invasion of wild-type cells, but newly generated CRISPR-cas9 mutants were only resistant to GBS...
January 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071988/braided-and-stacked-electrospun-nanofibrous-scaffolds-for-tendon-and-ligament-tissue-engineering
#5
Benjamin B Rothrauff, Brian B Lauro, Guang Yang, Richard E Debski, Volker Musahl, Rocky Tuan
Tendon and ligament injuries are a persistent orthopaedic challenge given their poor innate healing capacity. Non-woven electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds composed of polyesters have been used to mimic the mechanics and topographical cues of native tendons and ligaments. However, non-woven nanofibers have several limitations that prevent broader clinical application, including poor cell infiltration as well as tensile and suture-retention strengths that are inferior to native tissues. In this study, multilayered scaffolds of aligned electrospun nanofibers of two designs - stacked or braided - were fabricated...
January 10, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071912/insights-into-catalytic-mechanism-of-unsaturated-glucuronyl-hydrolase-of-bacillus-sp-gl1
#6
Jing Xiong, Dingguo Xu
Together with polysaccharide lyases, the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase of Bacillus sp. GL1 are responsible for the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans, which exhibits important role in various crucial physiological events. More importantly, the degradation mechanism of glycosaminoglycans often causes extracellular bacterial infection, and is thought to be one of virulence factors. We have previously studied the first degradation step catalyzed by polysaccharide lyases. In this work, we then focused the degradation of the unsaturated chondroitin disaccharide, products of chondroitin lyases...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071819/evidence-that-interfibrillar-load-transfer-in-tendon-is-supported-by-small-diameter-fibrils-and-not-extrafibrillar-tissue-components
#7
Spencer E Szczesny, Kristen L Fetchko, George R Dodge, Dawn M Elliott
Collagen fibrils in tendon are believed to be discontinuous and transfer tensile loads through shear forces generated during interfibrillar sliding. However, the structures that transmit these interfibrillar forces are unknown. Various extrafibrillar tissue components (e.g., glycosaminoglycans, collagens XII and XIV) have been suggested to transmit interfibrillar loads by bridging collagen fibrils. Alternatively, collagen fibrils may interact directly through physical fusions and interfibrillar branching. The objective of this study was to test whether extrafibrillar proteins are necessary to transmit load between collagen fibrils or if interfibrillar load transfer is accomplished directly by the fibrils themselves...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070903/myocardial-deformation-in-pediatric-patients-with-mucopolysaccharidoses-a-two-dimensional-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-study
#8
Francesco Borgia, Enrica Pezzullo, Vincenzo Schiano Lomoriello, Regina Sorrentino, Francesco Lo Iudice, Sara Cocozza, Roberto Della Casa, Giancarlo Parenti, Pietro Strisciuglio, Bruno Trimarco, Maurizio Galderisi
BACKGROUND: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are inherited lysosomal storage disorders caused by deficiency of required glycosaminoglycans breakdown enzymes, inducing cardiac involvement. Little is known about myocardial deformation involvement in MPS. Our aim was to assess biventricular structure and function in asymptomatic children with MPS using standard echo Doppler and 2D speckle tracking (STE). METHODS: Fifteen MPS children (one type I, six type II, three type III A, one III B, three IV A, one VI), asymptomatic for cardiac symptoms, and 15 age and sex-matched healthy controls underwent echo Doppler and STE...
January 10, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069510/species-specific-effects-of-aortic-valve-decellularization
#9
Mitchell C VeDepo, Eric E Buse, Rachael W Quinn, Todd Williams, Michael S Detamore, Richard A Hopkins, Gabriel L Converse
: Decellularized heart valves have great potential as a stand-alone valve replacement or as a scaffold for tissue engineering heart valves. Before decellularized valves can be widely used clinically, regulatory standards require pre-clinical testing in an animal model, often sheep. Numerous decellularization protocols have been applied to both human and ovine valves; however, the ways in which a specific process may affect valves of these species differently have not been reported. In the current study, the comparative effects of decellularization were evaluated for human and ovine aortic valves by measuring mechanical and biochemical properties...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068429/functional-requirements-for-heparan-sulfate-biosynthesis-in-morphogenesis-and-nervous-system-development-in-c-elegans
#10
Cassandra R Blanchette, Andrea Thackeray, Paola N Perrat, Siegfried Hekimi, Claire Y Bénard
The regulation of cell migration is essential to animal development and physiology. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans shape the interactions of morphogens and guidance cues with their respective receptors to elicit appropriate cellular responses. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans consist of a protein core with attached heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains, which are synthesized by glycosyltransferases of the exostosin (EXT) family. Abnormal HS chain synthesis results in pleiotropic consequences, including abnormal development and tumor formation...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067452/expanding-the-catalytic-promiscuity-of-heparinase-iii-from-pedobacter-heparinus
#11
Yayun Gu, Meiling Lu, Zongqiang Wang, Xuri Wu, Yijun Chen
Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) lyases are useful biocatalysts for the preparation of oligosaccharides, but their substrate spectra are limited to the same family. Thus, the degradation activity across-families of GAG lyases is advantageous and desirable for various applications. In this study, residue Lys130 at the substrate entrance of monomeric heparinase III from Pedobacter heparinus ATCC 13125 was replaced by cysteine, and the resulting mutant K130C showed novel catalytic activity of degrading hyaluronic acid without affecting its native activity toward heparin and heparan sulfate...
January 9, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065440/glycosaminoglycan-levels-in-dried-blood-spots-of-patients-with-mucopolysaccharidoses-and-mucolipidoses
#12
Francyne Kubaski, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Kenji Orii, Roberto Giugliani, Heather J Church, Robert W Mason, Vũ Chí Dũng, Can Thi Bich Ngoc, Seiji Yamaguchi, Hironori Kobayashi, Katta M Girisha, Toshiyuki Fukao, Tadao Orii, Shunji Tomatsu
: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) and mucolipidoses (ML) are groups of lysosomal storage disorders in which lysosomal hydrolases are deficient leading to accumulation of undegraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), throughout the body, subsequently resulting in progressive damage to multiple tissues and organs. Assays using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) have been established to measure GAGs in serum or plasma from MPS and ML patients, but few studies were performed to determine whether these assays are sufficiently robust to measure GAG levels in dried blood spots (DBS) of patients with MPS and ML...
December 22, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064322/-zinc-induced-interactions-of-the-metal-binding-domain-of-beta-amyloid-with-nucleic-acids-and-glycosaminoglycans
#13
S A Khmeleva, S A Kozin, Y Y Kiseleva, V A Mitkevich, A A Makarov, S P Radko
Zinc ions form complexes with β-amyloid peptides and play an important role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. It has been demonstrated by turbidimetry and correlation spectroscopy that synthetic peptide Aβ16 representing the metal-binding domain of β-amyloid is able to interact with nucleic acids, chondroitin polysulfate, and dextran sulfates in the presence of zinc ions. The amino acid D7H substitution enhanced the peptide binding to polyanions, whereas the H6R and H6A-H13A substitutions abolished this interaction...
November 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060847/enhanced-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-human-umbilical-cord-wharton-s-jelly-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-gsk-3-inhibitors
#14
Prapot Tanthaisong, Sumeth Imsoonthornruksa, Apichart Ngernsoungnern, Piyada Ngernsoungnern, Mariena Ketudat-Cairns, Rangsun Parnpai
Articular cartilage is an avascular, alymphatic, and aneural system with very low regeneration potential because of its limited capacity for self-repair. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the preferred choice for cell-based therapies. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) inhibitors are compounds that can induce the Wnt signaling pathway, which is involved in chondrogenesis and cartilage development. Here, we investigated the influence of lithium chloride (LiCl) and SB216763 synergistically with TGF-β3 on chondrogenic differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wharton's jelly tissue (hWJ-MSCs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058277/raman-spectroscopy-reveals-new-insights-into-the-zonal-organization-of-native-and-tissue-engineered-articular-cartilage
#15
Mads S Bergholt, Jean-Philippe St-Pierre, Giovanni S Offeddu, Paresh A Parmar, Michael B Albro, Jennifer L Puetzer, Michelle L Oyen, Molly M Stevens
Tissue architecture is intimately linked with its functions, and loss of tissue organization is often associated with pathologies. The intricate depth-dependent extracellular matrix (ECM) arrangement in articular cartilage is critical to its biomechanical functions. In this study, we developed a Raman spectroscopic imaging approach to gain new insight into the depth-dependent arrangement of native and tissue-engineered articular cartilage using bovine tissues and cells. Our results revealed previously unreported tissue complexity into at least six zones above the tidemark based on a principal component analysis and k-means clustering analysis of the distribution and orientation of the main ECM components...
December 28, 2016: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056722/hyaluronic-acid-coating-enhances-biocompatibility-of-pga-unwoven-fiber-scaffold-and-cartilage-formation
#16
Xunxun Lin, Wenbo Wang, Wen Jie Zhang, Zhi-Yong Zhang, Guangdong Zhou, Yilin Cao, Wei Liu
Synthetic polymers such as polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers are the traditional tissue engineering scaffolds that are widely used for engineering a variety of soft tissues. However, the major disadvantage of this polymer material is its released acidic degradation products that trigger inflammatory response and fibrotic process, which affects the biocompatibility and the quality of the engineered tissues. In this study, the effect of hyaluronic acid (HA) coating on improving PGA biocompatibility was explored...
January 5, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055182/arylsulfatase-k-is-the-lysosomal-2-sulfoglucuronate-sulfatase
#17
Omkar P Dhamale, Roger Lawrence, Elena M Wiegmann, Bhahwal A Shah, Kanar Al-Mafraji, William C Lamanna, Torben Lübke, Thomas Dierks, Geert-Jan Boons, Jeffrey D Esko
The degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) involves a series of exolytic glycosidases and sulfatases that act sequentially on the non-reducing end of the polysaccharide chain. Enzymes have been cloned that catalyze all of the known linkages with the exception of the removal of the 2-O-sulfate group from 2-sulfoglucuronate, which is found in heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Here we show using synthetic disaccharide substrates that arylsulfatase K is the glucuronate-2-sulfatase. Arylsulfatase K acts selectively on 2-sulfoglucuronate and lacks activity against 2-sulfoiduronate, whereas iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) desulfates synthetic disaccharides containing 2-sulfoiduronate but not 2-sulfoglucuronate...
January 5, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053142/differences-in-the-secretion-and-transport-of-wnt-proteins
#18
Shinji Takada, Sayumi Fujimori, Takuma Shinozuka, Ritsuko Takada, Yusuke Mii
During the last three decades, our understanding about Wnt signaling has progressed greatly, especially with regards to the molecular mechanism of intracellular transmission of this signaling, as well as its physiological roles. In parallel, the molecular nature of Wnt proteins has gradually but surely been clarified. Wnt proteins are post-translationaly modified with fatty acid and glycosaminoglycans, resulting in constraint of the 3D structure and behavior of the proteins. Specific binding proteins or extracellular vesicles, which appear to shield the lipid moiety from the aquatic environment, enable Wnt proteins to be transported in the extracellular space...
January 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050459/cardiovascular-abnormalities-in-egyptian-children-with-mucopolysaccharidoses
#19
Laila Selim, Nehal Abdelhamid, Emad Salama, Amera Elbadawy, Iman Gamaleldin, Mohamed Abdelmoneim, Abeer Selim
INTRODUCTION: The Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are rare inherited metabolic disorders. They are characterized by the progressive systemic deposition of Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). GAGs accumulate in the myocardium and the cardiac valves. Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT) is available for MPS I, II, and VI. However, ERT does not appear to improve cardiac valve disease in patients with valve disease present at the start of ERT. AIM: To evaluate the cardiac involvement in Egyptian children with MPS...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049462/new-herbal-composition-oa-f2-protects-cartilage-degeneration-in-a-rat-model-of-collagenase-induced-osteoarthritis
#20
Pallavi S Nirmal, Suresh D Jagtap, Aarti N Narkhede, Bhagyashri E Nagarkar, Abhay M Harsulkar
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) is on rise on the global scale. At present there are no satisfactory pharmacological agents for treating OA. Our previous study showed that Sida cordifolia L. and Zingiber officinale Rosc. had protective effect on cartilage. Here, we describe the effect of OA-F2, a herbal formulation prepared using combination of these two plants in alleviating OA associated symptoms in a rat model of collagenase-induced OA. METHODS: OA was induced by intra-articular injection of collagenase type II in wistar rats...
January 3, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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