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glycosaminoglycan

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350869/in-vitro-skin-models-to-study-epithelial-regeneration-from-the-hair-follicle
#1
Nkemcho Ojeh, Baki Akgül, Marjana Tomic-Canic, Mike Philpott, Harshad Navsaria
The development of dermal equivalents (DEs) for the treatment of burns has contributed toward efficient wound closure. A collagen-glycosaminoglycan DE (C-GAG) grafted with hair follicles converted a full-thickness wound to partial-thickness resulting in complete wound closure and restored hair. In this study we compared the ability of both intact pilosebaceous units (PSU) or truncated hair follicles (THF) to regenerate a multilayered epidermis in vitro when implanted into de-epidermalized dermis (DED) or C-GAG with the epidermis generated in vivo using C-CAG...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346881/heparin-and-homogeneous-model-heparin-oligosaccharides-form-distinct-complexes-with-protamine-light-scattering-and-zeta-potential-analysis
#2
Cynthia D Sommers, Hongping Ye, Jian Liu, Robert J Linhardt, David A Keire
Large multimolecular complexes of heparin with positively charged proteins such as platelet factor 4 (PF4) or protamine can initiate immune responses associated with heparin use in patients, including the most significant adverse event, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Current evidence suggests that platelet-activating antibodies that recognize large multi-molecular complexes (300-700kDa) of PF4 bound to heparin cause HIT [1] and in very rare cases anti-protamine-heparin antibodies can induce thrombocytopenia [2]...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345411/corrigendum-to-depth-dependent-glycosaminoglycan-concentration-in-articular-cartilage-by-quantitative-contrast-enhanced-micro-computed-tomography
#3
(no author information available yet)
Owing to the errors made by the authors, Mittelstaedt D and Xia Y, the following article contains error. Mittelstaedt D, Xia Y. Depth-Dependent Glycosaminoglycan Concentration in Articular Cartilage by Quantitative Contrast-Enhanced Micro-Computed Tomography. Cartilage. 2015;6:216-25. Original doi: 10.1177/1947603515596418.
April 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339078/comparative-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-platelet%C3%A2-rich-plasma-formulations-on-extracellular-matrix-formation-and-the-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-human-articular-chondrocytes
#4
Wenjing Yin, Haitao Xu, Jiagen Sheng, Zhengliang Xu, Xuetao Xie, Changqing Zhang
Concentrated leukocytes in leukocyte and platelet‑rich plasma (L‑PRP) may deliver increased levels of pro‑inflammatory cytokines to activate the nuclear factor (NF)‑κB signaling pathway, to counter or overwhelm the beneficial effects of growth factors on cartilage regeneration. However, to date, no relevant studies have substantiated this. In the present study, L‑PRP and pure platelet‑rich plasma (P‑PRP) were prepared, and leukocytes, platelets, pro‑inflammatory cytokines and growth factor concentrations were quantified; they were then used to treat human articular chondrocytes (HACs)...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338424/monocytes-seeded-on-engineered-hypertrophic-cartilage-do-not-enhance-endochondral-ossification-capacity
#5
Atanas Todorov, Celeste Scotti, Andrea Barbero, Arnaud Scherberich, Adam Papadimitropoulos, Ivan Martin
Engineered hypertrophic cartilage (HC) represents an attractive bone substitute material, capable to induce bone formation by endochondral ossification. Since bone formation by HC depends on factors released from the extracellular matrix, in this study, we hypothesized that HC seeding with monocytes committed to osteoclastogenesis could enhance its remodeling, improve chemotaxis of skeletal and vascular cells, and consequently enhance bone formation. This would be particularly relevant for devitalized HC, which currently exhibits only limited osteoinductivity...
March 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338083/microvasculature-on-a-chip-study-of-the-endothelial-surface-layer-and-the-flow-structure-of-red-blood-cells
#6
Daria Tsvirkun, Alexei Grichine, Alain Duperray, Chaouqi Misbah, Lionel Bureau
Microvasculatures-on-a-chip, i.e. in vitro models that mimic important features of microvessel networks, have gained increasing interest in recent years. Such devices have allowed investigating pathophysiological situations involving abnormal biophysical interactions between blood cells and vessel walls. Still, a central question remains regarding the presence, in such biomimetic systems, of the endothelial glycocalyx. The latter is a glycosaminoglycans-rich surface layer exposed to blood flow, which plays a crucial role in regulating the interactions between circulating cells and the endothelium...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334971/expanding-glycosaminoglycan-chemical-space-towards-the-creation-of-sulfated-analogs-novel-polymers-and-chimeric-constructs
#7
Rachel S Lane, Kalib St Ange, Behnam Zolghadr, Xinyue Liu, Christina Schäffer, Robert J Linhardt, Paul L DeAngelis
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have therapeutic potential in areas ranging from angiogenesis, inflammation, hemostasis and cancer. GAG bioactivity is conferred by intrinsic structural features, such as disaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages and sulfation pattern. Unfortunately, the in vitro enzymatic synthesis of defined GAGs is quite restricted by a limited understanding of current GAG synthases and modifying enzymes. Our work provides insights into GAG-active enzymes through the creation of sulfated oligosaccharides, a new polysaccharide and chimeric polymers...
March 17, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334757/perturbations-in-cell-signaling-elicit-early-cardiac-defects-in-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-ii
#8
Roberto Costa, Andrea Urbani, Marika Salvalaio, Stefania Bellesso, Domenico Cieri, Ilaria Zancan, Mirella Filocamo, Paolo Bonaldo, Ildiko Szabò, Rosella Tomanin, Enrico Moro
Morphogens release and activity can be negatively affected by an impaired glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) turnover and proteoglycans assembly in the extracellular matrix, leading to altered tissue morphogenesis. In this work, we show that loss of Iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) activity, affecting GAGs catabolism and responsible for a life-threatening valvulopathy in mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII), triggers early Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling defects, leading to aberrant heart development and atrioventricular valve formation in a zebrafish model...
February 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333845/changes-in-the-extracellular-matrix-are-associated-with-the-development-of-serous-tubal-intraepithelial-carcinoma-into-high-grade-serous-carcinoma
#9
Sophieke C H A van der Steen, Johan Bulten, Koen K Van de Vijver, Toin H van Kuppevelt, Leon F A G Massuger
OBJECTIVE: The identification of a marker for early progression of preinvasive lesions into invasive pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) may provide novel handles for innovative screening and prevention strategies. The interplay between cancer cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) is one of the main principles in cancer development and growth, but has been largely neglected in preinvasive lesions. This is the first study addressing the involvement of the ECM in the "step-by-step" transition of normal fallopian tube epithelium into preinvasive lesions, and eventually the progression of preinvasive lesions into invasive HGSC...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332587/bioreactor-mechanically-guided-3d-mesenchymal-stem-cell-chondrogenesis-using-a-biocompatible-novel-thermo-reversible-methylcellulose-based-hydrogel
#10
A Cochis, S Grad, M J Stoddart, S Farè, L Altomare, B Azzimonti, M Alini, L Rimondini
Autologous chondrocyte implantation for cartilage repair represents a challenge because strongly limited by chondrocytes' poor expansion capacity in vitro. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into chondrocytes, while mechanical loading has been proposed as alternative strategy to induce chondrogenesis excluding the use of exogenous factors. Moreover, MSC supporting material selection is fundamental to allow for an active interaction with cells. Here, we tested a novel thermo-reversible hydrogel composed of 8% w/v methylcellulose (MC) in a 0...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332572/xeno-free-culture-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-on-oligopeptide-grafted-hydrogels-with-various-molecular-designs
#11
Yen-Ming Chen, Li-Hua Chen, Meng-Pei Li, Hsing-Fen Li, Akon Higuchi, S Suresh Kumar, Qing-Dong Ling, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Murugan A Munusamy, Yung Chang, Giovanni Benelli, Kadarkarai Murugan, Akihiro Umezawa
Establishing cultures of human embryonic (ES) and induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells in xeno-free conditions is essential for producing clinical-grade cells. Development of cell culture biomaterials for human ES and iPS cells is critical for this purpose. We designed several structures of oligopeptide-grafted poly (vinyl alcohol-co-itaconic acid) hydrogels with optimal elasticity, and prepared them in formations of single chain, single chain with joint segment, dual chain with joint segment, and branched-type chain...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331092/monkeypox-virus-host-factor-screen-in-haploid-cells-identifies-essential-role-of-garp-complex-in-extracellular-virus-formation
#12
Susan Realegeno, Andreas S Puschnik, Amrita Kumar, Cynthia Goldsmith, Jillybeth Burgado, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Victoria A Olson, Darin Carroll, Inger Damon, Tetsuya Hirata, Taroh Kinoshita, Jan E Carette, Panayampalli Subbian Satheshkumar
Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a human pathogen that is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes Vaccinia virus and Variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). Human monkeypox is considered an emerging zoonotic infectious disease. To identify host factors required for MPXV infection, we performed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis screen in human haploid cells. The screen revealed several candidate genes, including those involved in Golgi trafficking, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) - anchor biosynthesis...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327528/anti-obesity-effect-of-bombus-ignitus-queen-glycosaminoglycans-in-rats-on-a-high-fat-diet
#13
Mi Young Ahn, Ban Ji Kim, Ha Jeong Kim, Hyung Joo Yoon, Sang Duck Jee, Jae Sam Hwang, Kun-Koo Park
The mechanism of functional insect glycosaminoglycan (GAG) on obesity caused a high fat diet has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, insect glycosaminoglycans derived from Isaria sinclairii, Bombus ignitus (a type of bumblebee) queen, and Gryllus bimaculatus were purified and investigated as a potential functional food. 14-week old male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks. There were five groups that received daily intraperitoneal administration of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, control), GbG (GAG from Gryllus bimaculatus) 10 mg/kg, ISG (GAG from Isaria sinclairii) 10 mg/kg, IQG (GAG from Bombus ignites) 10 mg/kg, or Pravastatin (2 mg/kg)...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327272/effects-of-electrospun-scaffolds-of-di-o-butyrylchitin-and-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-on-wound-healing
#14
Jacek Drobnik, Izabella Krucinska, Agnieszka Komisarczyk, Stanislaw Sporny, Alicja Szczepanowska, Joanna Ciosek
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the usefulness of electrospun dibutyrylchitin (DBC) or poly (ε-Caprolactone [PCL]), in wound treatment. We investigated the mechanisms of action of these polymers on wound healing. METHODS: We synthesized DBC, a newly identified ester derivative of chitin, using a patented method comprising the substitution of butyryl groups at positions C-3 and C-6 in chitin molecules. We confirmed the double substitution by the butyric groups using infrared spectrometry...
April 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325317/distribution-of-uronic-acid-containing-polysaccharides-in-5-species-of-shellfishes
#15
Bin Liu, Haiman Liu, Chunqing Ai, Zhenjun Zhu, Chengrong Wen, Shuang Song, Beiwei Zhu
Mollusks are a rich source of uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) possessing biological and pharmacological activities. In the present study, UACP compositions of different tissues from 5 species of edible shellfishes, namely Neverita didyma, Natica janthostomoides, Saxidomus purpurata, Cyclina sinensis, and Chlamys farreri were systemically analyzed. Totally 10 UACPs were observed, including chondroitin sulfate, heparin, an identified mannoglucuronan, 3 unknown glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, U1, U3 and U6) with hexuronic acid-hexosamine repeating units, and 4 unknown non-GAGs (U2, U4, U5 and U7) with hexuronic acid-hexose repeating units...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325283/silencing-of-carbohydrate-sulfotransferase-15-hinders-murine-pulmonary-fibrosis-development
#16
Yoshiro Kai, Koichi Tomoda, Hiroyuki Yoneyama, Masahiro Kitabatake, Atsuhiro Nakamura, Toshihiro Ito, Masanori Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Kimura
Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disorder characterized by interstitial fibrosis, for which no effective treatments are available. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) has been shown to be a mediator, but the specific component of glycosaminoglycan chains of CSPG has not been explored. We show that chondroitin sulfate E-type (CS-E) is involved in fibrogenesis. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting carbohydrate sulfotransferase 15 (CHST15) was designed to inhibit CHST15 mRNA and its product, CS-E...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323137/defects-in-chondrocyte-maturation-and-secondary-ossification-in-mouse-knee-joint-epiphyses-due-to-snorc-deficiency
#17
J Heinonen, F-P Zhang, C Surmann-Schmitt, S Honkala, M Stock, M Poutanen, A-M Säämänen
OBJECTIVE: The role of Snorc, a novel cartilage specific transmembrane proteoglycan, was studied during skeletal development using two Snorc knockout mouse models. Hypothesizing that Snorc, like the other transmembrane proteoglycans, may be a coreceptor, we also studied its interaction with growth factors. METHODS: Skeletal development was studied in wild type and Snorc knockout mice during postnatal development by whole mount staining, X-ray imaging, histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR...
March 17, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322746/truncation-of-cxcl12-by-cd26-reduces-its-cxc-chemokine-receptor-4-and-atypical-chemokine-receptor-3-dependent-activity-on-endothelial-cells-and-lymphocytes
#18
Rik Janssens, Anneleen Mortier, Daiane Boff, Pieter Ruytinx, Mieke Gouwy, Bo Vantilt, Olav Larsen, Viktorija Daugvilaite, Mette M Rosenkilde, Marc Parmentier, Sam Noppen, Sandra Liekens, Jo Van Damme, Sofie Struyf, Mauro M Teixeira, Flávio A Amaral, Paul Proost
The chemokine CXCL12 or stromal cell-derived factor 1/SDF-1 attracts hematopoietic progenitor cells and mature leukocytes through the G protein-coupled CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). In addition, it interacts with atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3 or CXCR7) and glycosaminoglycans. CXCL12 activity is regulated through posttranslational cleavage by CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase 4 that removes two N-terminal amino acids. CD26-truncated CXCL12 does not induce calcium signaling or chemotaxis of mononuclear cells...
March 16, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319248/cyclic-tensile-strain-enhances-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-smad-2-3-activation-and-tenogenic-differentiation-in-anisotropic-collagen-glycosaminoglycan-scaffolds
#19
W G Grier, A S Moy, B A Harley
Stem cell research arose from the need to explore new therapeutic possibilities for intractable and lethal diseases. Although musculoskeletal disorders are basically nonlethal, their high prevalence and relative ease of performing clinical trials have facilitated the clinical application of stem cells in this field. However, few reliable clinical studies have been published, despite the plethora of in vitro and preclinical studies in stem cell research for regenerative medicine in the musculoskeletal system...
March 20, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318230/label-free-discovery-array-platform-for-the-characterization-of-glycan-binding-proteins-and-glycoproteins
#20
Christopher John Gray, Antonio Sánchez-Ruiz, Ivana Šardzíková, Yassir A Ahmed, Rebecca Louise Miller, Juana E Reyes Martinez, Edward Pallister, Kun Huang, Peter Both, Mirja Hartmann, Hannah N Roberts, Robert Šardzik, Santanu Mandal, Jeremy E Turnbull, Claire E Eyers, Sabine L Flitsch
The identification of carbohydrate-protein interactions is central to our understanding of the roles of cell-surface carbohydrates (the glycocalyx), fundamental for cell-recognition events. Therefore there is a need for fast high-throughput biochemical tools to capture the complexity of these biological interactions. Here we describe a rapid method for qualitative label-free detection of carbohydrate-protein interactions on arrays of simple synthetic glycans, more com-plex natural glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and lectins/carbohydrate binding proteins using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry...
March 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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