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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432818/characterization-of-decellularized-ovine-small-intestine-submucosal-layer-as-extracellular-matrix-based-scaffold-for-tissue-engineering
#1
Morteza Rashtbar, Jamshid Hadjati, Jafar Ai, Issa Jahanzad, Mahmoud Azami, Sadegh Shirian, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Esmaeil Sadroddiny
Extracellular matrix-based scaffolds derived from mammalian tissues have been used in tissue engineering applications. Among all the tissues, decellularized small intestine submucosal layer (SIS) has been recently investigated for its exceptional characteristics and biocompatibilities. These investigations have been mainly focused on the decellularized porcine SIS; however, there has not been any report on ovine SIS (OSIS) layer. In this study, OSIS was decellularized and its physical, chemical, and morphological properties were evaluated...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432302/a-bacterial-abc-transporter-enables-import-of-mammalian-host-glycosaminoglycans
#2
Sayoko Oiki, Bunzo Mikami, Yukie Maruyama, Kousaku Murata, Wataru Hashimoto
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin, constitute mammalian extracellular matrices. The uronate and amino sugar residues in hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate are linked by 1,3-glycoside bond, while heparin contains 1,4-glycoside bond. Some bacteria target GAGs as means of establishing colonization and/or infection, and bacterial degradation mechanisms of GAGs have been well characterized. However, little is known about the bacterial import of GAGs. Here, we show a GAG import system, comprised of a solute-binding protein (Smon0123)-dependent ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, in the pathogenic Streptobacillus moniliformis...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432120/two-glycosaminoglycan-binding-domains-of-the-mouse-cytomegalovirus-encoded-chemokine-mck-2-are-critical-for-oligomerization-of-the-full-length-protein
#3
Sergio M Pontejo, Philip M Murphy
Chemokines are essential for antimicrobial host defenses and tissue repair. Herpesviruses and poxviruses also encode chemokines, copied from their hosts and repurposed for multiple functions, including immune evasion. The CC chemokine MCK-2 encoded by mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) has an atypical structure consisting of a classic chemokine domain N-terminal to a second unique domain, resulting from the splicing of MCMV ORFs m131 and m129. MCK-2 is essential for full MCMV infectivity in macrophages and for persistent infection in the salivary gland...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429999/beneficial-effects-of-oral-supplementation-with-ovoderm-on-human-skin-physiology-two-pilot-studies
#4
Andrés Aguirre, Erena Gil-Quintana, Marisa Fenaux, Sandra Erdozain, Itziar Sarria
Collagens and hyaluronic acid have long been used in pharmaceuticals and food supplements for the improvement of skin elasticity and hydration. These compounds provide the building blocks of the skin. Ovoderm is an oral supplement obtained from eggshells that contains naturally occurring collagen and glycosaminoglycans, such as hyaluronic acid. We evaluated the efficacy of Ovoderm on skin biophysical parameters related to cutaneous aging such as elasticity, hydration, and pigmentation. Two pilot studies were run to assess the effect of daily oral supplementation with 300 mg Ovoderm on skin parameters...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426371/optimization-of-preculture-conditions-to-maximize-the-in-vivo-performance-of-cell-seeded-engineered-intervertebral-discs
#5
John T Martin, Sarah E Gullbrand, Bhavana Mohanraj, Beth G Ashinsky, Dong Hwa Kim, Kensuke Ikuta, Dawn M Elliott, Lachlan J Smith, Robert L Mauck, Harvey E Smith
The development of engineered tissues has progressed over the past 20 years from in vitro characterization to in vivo implementation. For musculoskeletal tissue engineering in particular, the emphasis of many of these studies was to select conditions that maximized functional and compositional gains in vitro. However, the transition from the favorable in vitro culture environment to a less favorable in vivo environment has proven difficult, and, in many cases, engineered tissues do not retain their preimplantation phenotype after even short periods in vivo...
April 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425567/effect-of-ngf-from-venom-of-chinese-cobra-naja-atra-on-chondrocytes-proliferation-and-metabolism-in-vitro
#6
Jiachang Tan, Zhenhui Lu, Zhikang Miao, Danqing Lei, Li Zheng, Jinmin Zhao
Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is promising strategy for cartilage repair. However, chondrocyte phenotype is easily lost when expanded in vitro which defined as "dedifferentiation". To ensure successful therapy, an effective pro-chondrogenic agent is necessary to overcome the obstacle of limited cell numbers in the restoration process, and dedifferentiation is a prerequisite. In the present study, we investigated the chondro-protective effect of NGF from Chinese cobra venom on human chondrocytes by determination of its specific effect on cell viability, proliferation, morphology, GAG production and cartilage specific gene expression...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424697/regulation-of-the-functions-of-natural-cytotoxicity-receptors-by-interactions-with-diverse-ligands-and-alterations-in-splice-variant-expression
#7
REVIEW
Tatiana Pazina, Avishai Shemesh, Michael Brusilovsky, Angel Porgador, Kerry S Campbell
The natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR) family is constituted by NKp46, NKp44, and NKp30 in humans, which are expressed mainly on natural killer (NK) cells and are encoded by the ncr1, ncr2, and ncr3 genes, respectively. NCRs have classically been defined as activating receptors that trigger cytotoxicity and cytokine responses by NK cells upon engaging with ligands on tumor cells. Several new findings, however, have challenged this model and identified alternative mechanisms regulating the function of NCRs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424334/glycosaminoglycan-based-hydrogels-capture-inflammatory-chemokines-and-rescue-defective-wound-healing-in-mice
#8
Nadine Lohmann, Lucas Schirmer, Passant Atallah, Elke Wandel, Ruben A Ferrer, Carsten Werner, Jan C Simon, Sandra Franz, Uwe Freudenberg
Excessive production of inflammatory chemokines can cause chronic inflammation and thus impair cutaneous wound healing. Capturing chemokine signals using wound dressing materials may offer powerful new treatment modalities for chronic wounds. Here, a modular hydrogel based on end-functionalized star-shaped polyethylene glycol (starPEG) and derivatives of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) heparin was customized for maximal chemokine sequestration. The material is shown to effectively scavenge the inflammatory chemokines MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), IL-8 (interleukin-8), and MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α) and MIP-1β (macrophage inflammatory protein-1β) in wound fluids from patients suffering from chronic venous leg ulcers and to reduce the migratory activity of human monocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils...
April 19, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421916/mucopolysaccharidoses-causing-valvular-heart-disease-report-and-review-of-surgical-management
#9
Carlos O Encarnacion, Dustin Hang, Michael Earing, Michael E Mitchell
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I is a genetic disorder with impaired glycosaminoglycan degradation. Cardiac pathologic involvement in this subset of patients is predominantly valvular heart disease. Valvular heart disease seen in these patients will most likely require surgical intervention in their lifetime. Only a limited amount of reports are dedicated to the cardiac surgical management of mucopolysaccharidoses. We present the case of a 32-year-old female with Hurler-Scheie syndrome who required multiple valve replacements due to progression of valvular dysfunction and decline in the quality of life...
January 1, 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420127/glycosaminoglycan-binding-and-non-endocytic-membrane-translocation-of-cell-permeable-octaarginine-monitored-by-real-time-in-cell-nmr-spectroscopy
#10
Yuki Takechi-Haraya, Kenzo Aki, Yumi Tohyama, Yuichi Harano, Toru Kawakami, Hiroyuki Saito, Emiko Okamura
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are covalently-linked membrane proteins at the cell surface have recently been suggested to involve in not only endocytic cellular uptake but also non-endocytic direct cell membrane translocation of arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). However, in-situ comprehensive observation and the quantitative analysis of the direct membrane translocation processes are challenging, and the mechanism therefore remains still unresolved. In this work, real-time in-cell NMR spectroscopy was applied to investigate the direct membrane translocation of octaarginine (R8) into living cells...
April 15, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420082/can-early-rehabilitation-prevent-posttraumatic-osteoarthritis-in-the-patellofemoral-joint-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-rupture-understanding-the-pathological-features
#11
Nai-Jen Chang, Ming-You Shie, Kuan-Wei Lee, Pei-Hsi Chou, Chih-Chan Lin, Chih-Jou Chu
Knee instability resulting from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a high-risk factor for posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) in the patellofemoral joint (PFJ). However, whether non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing treatments have chondroprotective effects remains unclear. Twenty-four adult New Zealand White male rabbits were employed in this study. All animals received ACL transection in the right knee and sham surgery in the left knee. The rabbits were randomly assigned to the following groups: (I) In the sedentary (SED) group, the rabbits (n = 6) were simply kept in their cage; (II) In the continuous passive motion (CPM) group, the rabbits (n = 6) performed CPM exercise for 7 days, starting from the first postoperative day; (III) In the active treadmill exercise (TRE) group, the rabbits (n = 6) performed TRE for 2 weeks; (IV) In the CPM + TRE group, the rabbits (n = 6) executed CPM exercise, followed by TRE...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419733/interphotoreceptor-matrix-based-biomaterial-impact-on-human-retinal-progenitor-cell-attachment-and-differentiation
#12
Joydip Kundu, Andrew Michaelson, Petr Baranov, Marco Chiumiento, Tom Nigl, Michael J Young, Rebecca L Carrier
While cell transplantation therapies show great promise as treatments for retinal degeneration, the challenge of low cell survival upon transplantation motivates exploration of materials that may serve as cell delivery vehicles and promote survival and differentiation. In this study, we explored the native matrix that surrounds the outer segments of photoreceptors and promotes their homeostasis, interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM), as a substrate for human retinal progenitor cells (hRPCs). Bovine IPM was characterized to determine its structure and biochemical composition, and processed to develop substrates for cells...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418018/neurodevelopmental-changes-in-excitatory-synaptic-structure-and-function-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-sanfilippo-syndrome-iiia-mice
#13
Chrissa A Dwyer, Samantha L Scudder, Ying Lin, Lara E Dozier, Dustin Phan, Nicola J Allen, Gentry N Patrick, Jeffrey D Esko
Sanfilippo syndrome, MPS IIIA-D, results from deficits in lysosomal enzymes that specifically degrade heparan sulfate, a sulfated glycosaminoglycan. The accumulation of heparan sulfate results in neurological symptoms, culminating in extensive neurodegeneration and early death. To study the impact of storage in postnatal neurodevelopment, we examined murine models of MPS IIIA, which lack the enzyme sulfamidase. We show that changes occur in excitatory postsynaptic structure and function in the somatosensory cortex prior to signs of neurodegeneration...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416438/nsaid-use-in-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-what-are-the-effects-on-matrix-homeostasis-in-vivo
#14
Nicholas Vaudreuil, Tiffany Kadow, Takashi Yurube, Robert Hartman, Kevin Ngo, Qing Dong, Pedro Pohl, J Paulo Coelho, James Kang, Nam Vo, Gwendolyn Sowa
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) agents are a widely utilized treatment for low back pain (LBP). Literature on NSAID use in articular cartilage has shown detrimental effects; however, minimal data exist to detail the effects of NSAIDs in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). As IDD is a major cause of LBP, we explored the effects of indomethacin, a commonly used NSAID, on disc matrix homeostasis in an animal model of IDD. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of oral indomethacin administration on IDD in an in vivo rabbit model...
April 14, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415472/supercritical-carbon-dioxide-extracted-extracellular-matrix-material-from-adipose-tissue
#15
Jun Kit Wang, Baiwen Luo, Vipra Guneta, Liang Li, Selin Ee Min Foo, Yun Dai, Timothy Thatt Yang Tan, Nguan Soon Tan, Cleo Choong, Marcus Thien Chong Wong
Adipose tissue is a rich source of extracellular matrix (ECM) material that can be isolated by delipidating and decellularizing the tissue. However, the current delipidation and decellularization methods either involve tedious and lengthy processes or require toxic chemicals, which may result in the elimination of vital proteins and growth factors found in the ECM. Hence, an alternative delipidation and decellularization method for adipose tissue was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) that eliminates the need of any harsh chemicals and also reduces the amount of processing time required...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411103/-endogenous-regeneration-engineering-growth-factors-for-stroke
#16
REVIEW
Su Jing Chan, Christopher Love, Myron Spector, Simon M Cool, Victor Nurcombe, Eng H Lo
Despite the efforts in developing therapeutics for stroke, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) remains the only FDA approved drug for ischemic stroke. Regenerative medicine targeting endogenous growth factors has drawn much interest in the clinical field as it provides potential restoration for the damaged brain tissue without being limited by a narrow therapeutic window. To date, most of the translational studies using regenerative medicines have encountered problems and failures. In this review, we discuss the effects of some trophic factors which include of erythropoietin (EPO), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and heparin binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) in experimental ischemic stroke models and elaborate the lost in translation of the candidate growth factors from bench to bedside...
April 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410878/efficacy-of-laronidase-therapy-in-patients-with-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-i-who-initiated-enzyme-replacement-therapy-in-adult-age-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Jordi Pérez-López, Montserrat Morales-Conejo, Mónica López-Rodríguez, Álvaro Hermida-Ameijeiras, Marc Moltó-Abad
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of starting enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in adults with Muchopolysaccharidosis Type I (MPS-I) is controversial. Evaluating the benefits reported by patients initiating ERT with laronidase at adult age might help physicians decide whether the use of ERT in these patients is worthwhile from a clinical point of view. OBJECTIVE: To assess every effectiveness variable modified in MPS-I patients who initiated laronidase at adult age. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature, from inception to July 2016, was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and LILACS to identify randomized trials or observational studies including ≥1 MPS-I patients with ERT initiated in adult age (≥18years) and evaluating ERT efficacy...
April 9, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408175/an-oncofetal-glycosaminoglycan-modification-provides-therapeutic-access-to-cisplatin-resistant-bladder-cancer
#18
Roland Seiler, Htoo Zarni Oo, Davide Tortora, Thomas M Clausen, Chris K Wang, Gunjan Kumar, Marina Ayres Pereira, Maj S Ørum-Madsen, Mette Ø Agerbæk, Tobias Gustavsson, Mie A Nordmaj, Jamie R Rich, Nada Lallous, Ladan Fazli, Sherry S Lee, James Douglas, Tilman Todenhöfer, Shaghayegh Esfandnia, Dulguun Battsogt, John S Babcook, Nader Al-Nakouzi, Simon J Crabb, Igor Moskalev, Bernhard Kiss, Elai Davicioni, George N Thalmann, Paul S Rennie, Peter C Black, Ali Salanti, Mads Daugaard
BACKGROUND: Although cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) improves survival of unselected patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), only a minority responds to therapy and chemoresistance remains a major challenge in this disease setting. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical significance of oncofetal chondroitin sulfate (ofCS) glycosaminoglycan chains in cisplatin-resistant MIBC and to evaluate these as targets for second-line therapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: An ofCS-binding recombinant VAR2CSA protein derived from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (rVAR2) was used as an in situ, in vitro, and in vivo ofCS-targeting reagent in cisplatin-resistant MIBC...
April 10, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407128/the-bittersweet-taste-of-tubulo-interstitial-glycans
#19
Ditmer T Talsma, Mohamed R Daha, Jacob van den Born
Recently, interesting work was published by Farrar et al. [1] showing the interaction of fucosylated glycoproteins on stressed tubular epithelial cells with collectin-11 leading to complement activation via the lectin route of complement. This elegant work stimulated us to evaluate the dark side (bittersweet taste) of tubulo-interstitial glycans in kidney tissue damage. As will be discussed, glycans not only initiate tubular complement activation but also orchestrate tubulo-interstitial leucocyte recruitment and growth factor responses...
April 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404855/genome-wide-screening-uncovers-the-significance-of-n-sulfation-of-heparan-sulfate-as-a-host-cell-factor-for-chikungunya-virus-infection
#20
Atsushi Tanaka, Uranan Tumkosit, Shota Nakamura, Daisuke Motooka, Natsuko Kishishita, Thongkoon Priengprom, Areerat Sa-Ngasang, Taroh Kinoshita, Naokazu Takeda, Yusuke Maeda
The molecular mechanisms underlying chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection are poorly characterized. In this study, we analyzed the host factors involved in CHIKV infection using genome-wide screening. Human haploid HAP1 cells, into which an exon-trapping vector was introduced, were challenged with a vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype bearing the CHIKV E3-E1 envelope proteins. Analysis of genes enriched in the cells resistant to the pseudotyped virus infection unveiled a critical role of N-sulfation of heparan sulfate (HS) for the infectivity of a clinically isolated CHIKV Thai #16856 strain to HAP1 cells...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
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