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4p deletion and seizures

Ayako Itakura, Yoshiaki Saito, Yoko Nishimura, Tetsuya Okazaki, Koyo Ohno, Hitoshi Sejima, Toshiyuki Yamamoto, Yoshihiro Maegaki
A girl with mild psychomotor developmental delay developed right or left hemiclonic convulsion at 10months of age. One month later, clusters of hemiclonic or bilateral tonic seizures with eyelid twitching emerged, resulting in status epilepticus. Treatment with phenobarbital and potassium bromide completely terminated the seizures within 10days. Ictal electroencephalography revealed a migrating focus of rhythmic 3-4Hz waves from the right temporal to right frontal regions and then to the left frontal regions...
August 2016: Brain & Development
Karen S Ho, Sarah T South, Amanda Lortz, Charles H Hensel, Mallory R Sdano, Rena J Vanzo, Megan M Martin, Andreas Peiffer, Christophe G Lambert, Amy Calhoun, John C Carey, Agatino Battaglia
BACKGROUND: Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving variable size deletions of the 4p16.3 region. Seizures are frequently, but not always, associated with WHS. We hypothesised that the size and location of the deleted region may correlate with seizure presentation. METHODS: Using chromosomal microarray analysis, we finely mapped the breakpoints of copy number variants (CNVs) in 48 individuals with WHS. Seizure phenotype data were collected through parent-reported answers to a comprehensive questionnaire and supplemented with available medical records...
April 2016: Journal of Medical Genetics
Agatino Battaglia, John C Carey, Sarah T South
Since 4p- was first described in 1961, significant progress has been made in our understanding of this classic deletion disorder. We have been able to establish a more complete picture of the WHS phenotype associated with distal 4p monosomy, and we are working to delineate the phenotypic effects when each gene on distal 4p is hemizygous. Our aim is to provide genotype-specific anticipatory guidance and recommendations to families of individuals with a diagnosis of WHS. In addition, establishing the molecular underpinnings of the disorder will potentially suggest targets for molecular treatments...
September 2015: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
E Sukarova-Angelovska, M Kocova, V Sabolich, S Palcevska, N Angelkova
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a rare chromosomal disorder caused by terminal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4. The clinical picture includes growth retardation, severe mental retardation, characteristic "Greek helmet" like face, seizures and midline defects in the brain, heart, palate and genitalia. Recently-used molecular techniques increase the number of diagnosed cases due to the detection of smaller deletions. The severity of the clinical presentation is variable depending on the haploinsufficiency of genes in a deleted region...
June 2014: Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics: BJMG
Marcella Zollino, Daniela Orteschi, Mariken Ruiter, Rolph Pfundt, Katharina Steindl, Concetta Cafiero, Stefania Ricciardi, Ilaria Contaldo, Daniela Chieffo, Domiziana Ranalli, Celeste Acquafondata, Marina Murdolo, Giuseppe Marangi, Alessia Asaro, Domenica Battaglia
OBJECTIVE: Seizure disorder is one of the most relevant clinical manifestations in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) and it acts as independent prognostic factor for the severity of intellectual disability (ID). LETM1, encoding a mitochondrial protein playing a role in K(+) /H(+) exchange and in Ca(2+) homeostasis, is currently considered the major candidate gene. However, whether haploinsufficiency limited to LETM1 is enough to cause epilepsy is still unclear. The main purpose of the present research is to define the 4p chromosome regions where genes for seizures reside...
June 2014: Epilepsia
Kenji Shimizu, Keiko Wakui, Tomoki Kosho, Nobuhiko Okamoto, Seiji Mizuno, Kazuya Itomi, Shigeto Hattori, Kimio Nishio, Osamu Samura, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Yuko Kako, Takashi Arai, Oh-ishi Tsutomu, Hiroshi Kawame, Yoko Narumi, Hirofumi Ohashi, Yoshimitsu Fukushima
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome of the distal 4p chromosome, characterized by craniofacial features, growth impairment, intellectual disability, and seizures. Although genotype-phenotype correlation studies have previously been published, several important issues remain to be elucidated including seizure severity. We present detailed clinical and molecular-cytogenetic findings from a microarray and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based genotype-phenotype analysis of 22 Japanese WHS patients, the first large non-Western series...
March 2014: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Antonietta Coppola, Krishna Chinthapalli, Peter Hammond, Josemir W Sander, Sanjay M Sisodiya
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is a well-known clinical entity caused by a terminal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 (4p-). The diagnosis is usually made in childhood because of the pathognomonic facial dysmorphism, multi-organ involvement and seizures. Epilepsy is a major medical complication during the first years of life, with seizures typically being frequent, although they tend to improve or cease with age. We report on a woman diagnosed with WHS in her thirties by array-CGH. She presents with milder dysmorphic features, recognized by stereophotogrammetry and seizures persistent in adulthood...
January 10, 2013: Gene
Kelley von Elten, Taylor Sawyer, Sarah Lentz-Kapua, Adam Kanis, Matthew Studer
Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome (WHS) is a genetic syndrome that includes a typical facial appearance, mental retardation, growth delay, seizures, and congenital cardiac defects. A deletion of the terminal band of the short arm of chromosome 4, with a breakpoint at the 4p15 to 4p16 region, is the most common genetic mutation causing WHS. Congenital heart disease associated with WHS typically includes atrial and ventricular septal defects, though there are a few case reports of associated complex congenital heart disease...
June 2013: Pediatric Cardiology
Andrew B Cyr, Manjunath Nimmakayalu, Susannah Q Longmuir, Shivanand R Patil, Kim M Keppler-Noreuil, Oleg A Shchelochkov
Larger imbalances on chromosome 4p in the form of deletions associated with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) and duplications of chromosome 4p have a defined clinical phenotype. The critical region for both these clinical disorders has been narrowed based on the genotype-phenotype correlations. However, cryptic rearrangements in this region have been reported infrequently. We report on a male patient with a microduplication of chromosome 4p, who presents with findings of macrocephaly, irregular iris pigmentation-heterochromia, and preserved linear growth in addition to overlapping features of trisomy 4p such as seizures, delayed psychomotor development, and dysmorphic features including prominent glabella, low-set ears, and short neck...
September 2011: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Tao-Yun Ji, David Chia, Jing-Min Wang, Ye Wu, Jie Li, Jing Xiao, Yu-Wu Jiang
BACKGROUND: Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) results from the partial deletion of 4p. This study aimed to identify and fine map the chromosome deletion regions of Chinese children with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome among the developmental delay/mental retardation (DD/MR) patients. METHODS: We analyzed the relationship of phenotype and genotype. Inclusion criteria were: moderate to severe DD/MR, no definite perinatal brain injury, and no trauma, toxication, hypoxia, infection of central nervous system; routine karyotyping was normal, no evidence of typical inherited metabolic disorder or specific neurodegenerative disorders from cranial neuro-imaging and blood/urinary metabolic diseases screening; no mutation of FMR1 in male patients, no typical clinical manifestation of Rett syndrome in female patients...
July 2010: Chinese Medical Journal
Giorgio A Paskulin, Mariluce Riegel, Philip D Cotter, Andrea Kiss, Rafael F M Rosa, Paulo R G Zen, Rômulo Mombach, Carla Graziadio
We report on a 4-year-old girl who presented with microcephaly, multiple minor anomalies of face and limbs, congenital heart defect, hypotonia, neuropsychomotor delay, deafness and seizures. A GTG-banded karyotype identified an additional fragment of unknown origin on the terminal region of 4p. Parental karyotypes were normal. FISH analysis using a whole chromosome paint probe for chromosome 4 and subtelomere probes showed a signal on the entire add (4) chromosome and loss of the 4p subtelomere region, respectively...
June 2009: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Daniela Gambel Benussi, Paola Costa, Marcella Zollino, Marina Murdolo, Vincenzo Petix, Marco Carrozzi, Vanna Pecile
4p Monosomy and 12p trisomy have been discussed and redefined along with recently reviewed chromosomal syndromes. 12p Trisomy syndrome is characterized by normal or increased birth weight, developmental delay with early hypotonia, psychomotor delay, and typical facial appearance. Most likely, the observed phenotypic variability depends on the type and extent of the associated partial monosomy. Partial deletions of the short arm of one chromosome 4 cause the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). Affected patients present Greek helmet face, growth and mental retardation, hypotonia, and seizures...
April 2009: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
Agatino Battaglia, Tiziana Filippi, John C Carey
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a well-known multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome, firstly described in 1961 by Cooper and Hirschhorn. Its frequency is estimated as 1/50,000-1/20,000 births, with a female predilection of 2:1. The disorder is caused by partial loss of material from the distal portion of the short arm of chromosome 4 (4p16.3), and is considered a contiguous gene syndrome. No single gene deletions or intragenic mutations have been shown to confer the full WHS phenotype. Since the disorder was brought to the attention of geneticists, many additional cases have been published...
November 15, 2008: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
Marcella Zollino, Marina Murdolo, Giuseppe Marangi, Vanna Pecile, Cinzia Galasso, Laura Mazzanti, Giovanni Neri
Based on genotype-phenotype correlation analysis of 80 Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) patients, as well as on review of relevant literature, we add further insights to the following aspects of WHS: (1) clinical delineation and phenotypic categories; (2) characterization of the basic genomic defect, mechanisms of origin and familiarity; (3) identification of prognostic factors for mental retardation; (4) chromosome mapping of the distinctive clinical signs, in an effort to identify pathogenic genes. Clinically, we consider that minimal diagnostic criteria for WHS, defining a "core" phenotype, are typical facial appearance, mental retardation, growth delay and seizures (or EEG anomalies)...
November 15, 2008: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
Katarzyna Gawlik-Kuklinska, Jolanta Wierzba, Agnieszka Wozniak, Mariola Iliszko, Maria Debiec-Rychter, Miroslawa Dubaniewicz-Wybieralska, Janusz Limon
We report on a 4-year-old boy with a proximal interstitial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4p with the karyotype 46,XY,del(4)(p14p15.32),inv(9)(p13q13). For a precise delineation of the deleted region, an array-based comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) analysis was performed. The proband's phenotype and cytogenetic findings are compared with previously reported cases with proximal 4p deletion syndrome. The syndrome is associated with normal growth, varying degrees of mental retardation, characteristic facial appearance and minor dysmorphic features...
March 2008: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Sarah T South, Steven B Bleyl, John C Carey
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is characterized by growth delay, developmental delay, hypotonia, seizures, feeding difficulties, and characteristic facial features. Deletion of either of two critical regions (WHSCR and WHSCR-2) within chromosome band 4p16.3 has been proposed as necessary for the minimal clinical manifestations of WHS and controversy remains regarding their designation. We describe two patients with novel terminal microdeletions in 4p16.3 who lack the characteristic facial features but do show some of the more nonspecific manifestations of WHS...
September 15, 2007: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Francesca Faravelli, Marina Murdolo, Giuseppe Marangi, Franca Dagna Bricarelli, Maja Di Rocco, Marcella Zollino
A 2.8-Mb 4p16.3 terminal deletion, with proximal breakpoint at locus D4S182, was diagnosed by FISH in a 16-year-old boy who presented with a typical Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) phenotype. The deletion, which was maternally derived, was isolated, and a balanced translocation was ruled out in both parents by FISH with probe 33c6 (locus D4S43) falling within the patient's deletion interval, at a distance of about 2.3 Mb from the telomere. His older brother, who died from pneumonia at the age of 18 years, also presented with clinical signs consistent with WHS, including typical facial appearance and major malformations, but the genetic test was not performed...
June 1, 2007: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Angel Chao, Yun-Shien Lee, An-Shine Chao, Tzu-Hao Wang, Shuenn-Dyh Chang
BACKGROUND: Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), caused by the deletion of a segment in chromosome 4, is characterized by mental and developmental defects. Clinical manifestations of WHS include intrauterine growth restriction, failure to thrive in the neonatal period that is present simultaneously with hypotonia, typical "Greek helmet" facial appearance, cleft lip and palate, mental deficiency, and seizures. CASE: We present a case of WHS with prenatal conventional cytogenetics of 46,XY,der(4)t(4;13)(p15...
October 2006: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
A Laleye, M J Alao, M Adjagba, C Hans, D Delneste, D K Gnamey, B Ayivi, R B Darboux
Ring chromosome 4 associates concomitant loss of the telomeric 4p and 4q regions and leads to variable clinical manifestations depending on the size of the deleted chromosomal material. We report on a patient with ring chromosome 4, showing the Wolf-Hirshhorn Syndrome (WHS) phenotype and minor symptoms of distal 4q deletion syndrome; the severity of the signs of WHS masks the symptomatology of the 4q deletion syndrome. The absence of seizures despite the absence of the specific 4p16.3 region with haploinsufficiency of the LETM1 gene is striking...
2006: Genetic Counseling
Marek Kaciński, Ewa Kostyk, Anna Kruczek, Barbara Skowronek-Bała
OBJECTIVES: Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (4p detetion) belongs to the group of disorders caused by chromosomal aberrations, associated with frequent occurrence of epilepsy. To illustrate phenotype - genotype association, the study presents 3 children with this syndrome and epilepsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The diagnosis of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome was established in 2 patients during neonatal period and in the third child, the 5 month of life. In the majority of patients characteristic phenotype and associated malformations were detected, and the low birth weight and fronto-temporal diameter of the head as well...
2005: Przegla̧d Lekarski
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