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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821664/differential-desensitization-observed-at-multiple-effectors-of-somatic-mu-opioid-receptors-underlies-sustained-agonist-mediated-inhibition-of-proopiomelanocortin-neuron-activity
#1
Philip D Fox, Shane T Hentges
Activation of somatic mu opioid receptors (MORs) in hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons leads to the activation of G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium (GIRK) channels and hyperpolarization, but in response to continued signaling, MORs undergo acute desensitization resulting in robust reduction in the peak GIRK current after minutes of agonist exposure. We hypothesized that the attenuation of the GIRK current would lead to a recovery of neuronal excitability whereby desensitization of the receptor would lead to a new steady-state of POMC neuron activity reflecting the sustained GIRK current observed after the initial decline from peak with continued agonist exposure...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820395/chemokine-c-x-c-motif-ligand-1-cxcl1-and-chemokine-c-x-c-motif-ligand-2-cxcl2-modulate-the-activity-of-trpv1-ib4-cultured-rat-dorsal-root-ganglia-neurons-upon-short-term-and-acute-application
#2
A F Deftu, A Filippi, K Shibsaki, R O Gheorghe, M Chiritoiu, V Ristoiu
CXCL1 and CXCL2 are two chemokines with 78% homology of their sequence. CXCL1 was associated with atopic dermatitis, a highly pruritic skin disease, but it is not clear what is its mechanism of action, while for CXCL2 there are no data about an association with itch sensitivity. CXCL1 and CXCL2 can modulate TRPV1 receptors, which are one of the most important downstream effectors for itch sensitivity, upon short-term (4 h) or long-term (24 h) incubation, but the data are incomplete. Therefore, the aims of this study were to better characterize the short-term effects of CXCL1 and CXCL2 on TRPV1(+)/IB4(+) dorsal root ganglia neurons known to include nociceptor and itch-sensitive neurons, and to obtain new data about the acute application (12 min) of the two chemokines on the same population of neurons...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819006/increased-tissue-oxygenation-explains-the-attenuation-of-hyperaemia-upon-repetitive-pneumatic-compression-of-the-lower-leg
#3
Alessandro Messere, Gianluca Ceravolo, Walter Franco, Daniela Maffiodo, Carlo Ferraresi, Silvestro Roatta
Aim The rapid hyperaemia evoked by muscle compression is short-lived and was recently shown to undergo a rapid decrease even in spite of continuing mechanical stimulation. The present study aims at investigating the mechanisms underlying this attenuation which include local metabolic mechanisms, desensitization of mechano-sensitive pathways, and reduced efficacy of the muscle pump. Methods In 10 healthy subjects short sequences of mechanical compressions (n=3-6; 150 mmHg) of the lower leg were delivered at different inter-stimulus intervals (ranging from 20 to 160 s) through a customized pneumatic device...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817953/the-evidence-base-for-interventions-targeting-individuals-with-work-related-ptsd-a-systematic-review-and-recommendations
#4
Iris Torchalla, Verena Strehlau
The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence base for interventions targeting individuals with work-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to make recommendations for clinicians and administrative decision makers involved in their rehabilitation, and to guide future research in this area. Particular attention was given to studies that were conducted in naturalistic clinical settings or in a workers' compensation claim context. Electronic searches of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, PILOTS, and EMBASE identified 11 articles...
August 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813321/focusing-on-trauma-focused-psychotherapy-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Paula P Schnurr
Trauma-focused psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) includes a range of theoretical approaches, but primarily is based on cognitive-behavioral theory. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing is another type of trauma-focused psychotherapy. Although there is some evidence to support present-centered and interpersonal approaches, trauma-focused psychotherapies have the most empirical support and are the most effective for treating PTSD and related problems.
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809765/cyclin-dependent-kinase-5-modulates-the-p2x2a-receptor-channel-gating-through-phosphorylation-of-c-terminal-threonine-372
#6
Claudio Coddou, Rodrigo Sandoval, Patricio Castro, Pablo Lazcano, Maria José Hevia, Milos Rokic, Bradford Hall, Anita Terse, Christian Gonzalez-Billault, Ashok B Kulkarni, Stanko S Stojilkovic, Elias Utreras
The purinergic P2X2 receptor (P2X2R) is an adenosine triphosphate-gated ion channel widely expressed in the nervous system. Here, we identified a putative cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) phosphorylation site in the full-size variant P2X2aR (TPKH), which is absent in the splice variant P2X2bR. We therefore investigated the effects of Cdk5 and its neuronal activator, p35, on P2X2aR function. We found an interaction between P2X2aR and Cdk5/p35 by co-immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation in HEK293 cells...
July 17, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808633/comparing-the-effect-of-a-desensitizing-material-and-a-self-etch-adhesive-on-dentin-sensitivity-after-periodontal-surgery-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Hila Hajizadeh, Atefeh Nemati-Karimooy, Sara Majidinia, Amir Moeintaghavi, Marjaneh Ghavamnasiri
OBJECTIVES: This double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluated the ability of a desensitizing agent and a self-etch adhesive on cervical dentin sensitivity (CDS) after periodontal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety hypersensitive teeth of 13 subjects were included in the study. After periodontal surgery, the teeth of each posterior sextant treated with one of the following materials: G1: Clearfil S(3) Bond (Kuraray Dental), G2: Gluma Desensitizer (Heraeus Kulzer), and G3: placebo (water)...
August 2017: Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802348/alarm-safety-and-alarm-fatigue
#8
REVIEW
Kendall R Johnson, James I Hagadorn, David W Sink
Clinical alarm systems have received significant attention in recent years following warnings from hospital accrediting and health care technology organizations regarding patient harm caused by unsafe practices. Alarm desensitization or fatigue from frequent, false, or unnecessary alarms, has led to serious events and even patient deaths. Other concerns include settings inappropriate to patient population or condition, inadequate staff training, and improper use or disabling. Research on human factors in alarm response and of functionality of medical devices will help clinicians develop appropriate policies, practices, and device settings for clinical alarms in neonatal intensive care units...
September 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800362/nucleotide-transmitters-atp-and-adp-mediate-intercellular-calcium-wave-communication-via-p2y12-13-receptors-among-bv-2-microglia
#9
Pengchong Jiang, Fulin Xing, Bu Guo, Jianyu Yang, Zheming Li, Wei Wei, Fen Hu, Imshik Lee, Xinzheng Zhang, Leiting Pan, Jingjun Xu
Nerve injury is accompanied by a liberation of diverse nucleotides, some of which act as 'find/eat-me' signals in mediating neuron-glial interplay. Intercellular Ca2+ wave (ICW) communication is the main approach by which glial cells interact and coordinate with each other to execute immune defense. However, the detailed mechanisms on how these nucleotides participate in ICW communication remain largely unclear. In the present work, we employed a mechanical stimulus to an individual BV-2 microglia to simulate localized injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797116/calcium-imaging-with-genetically-encoded-sensor-case12-facile-analysis-of-%C3%AE-7-%C3%AE-9-nachr-mutants
#10
Irina Shelukhina, Ekaterina Spirova, Denis Kudryavtsev, Lucy Ojomoko, Markus Werner, Christoph Methfessel, Michael Hollmann, Victor Tsetlin
Elucidation of the structural basis of pharmacological differences for highly homologous α7 and α9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may shed light on their involvement in different physiological functions and diseases. Combination of site-directed mutagenesis and electrophysiology is a powerful tool to pinpoint the key amino-acid residues in the receptor ligand-binding site, but for α7 and α9 nAChRs it is complicated by their poor expression and fast desensitization. Here, we probed the ligand-binding properties of α7/α9 nAChR mutants by a proposed simple and fast calcium imaging method...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797041/repeat-low-level-blast-exposure-increases-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-trpv1-and-endothelin-1-et-1-expression-in-the-trigeminal-ganglion
#11
Elaine D Por, Melody L Sandoval, Chiquita Thomas-Benson, Teresa A Burke, Allison Doyle Brackley, Nathaniel A Jeske, Jeffery M Cleland, Brian J Lund
Blast-associated sensory and cognitive trauma sustained by military service members is an area of extensively studied research. Recent studies in our laboratory have revealed that low-level blast exposure increased expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), proteins well characterized for their role in mediating pain transmission, in the cornea. Determining the functional consequences of these alterations in protein expression is critical to understanding blast-related sensory trauma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792635/favorable-results-in-abo-incompatible-renal-transplantation-without-b-cell-targeted-therapy-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-rituximab-pretreatment
#12
Manabu Okada, Yoshihiko Watarai, Kenta Iwasaki, Kenta Murotani, Kenta Futamura, Takayuki Yamamoto, Takahisa Hiramitsu, Makoto Tsujita, Norihiko Goto, Shunji Narumi, Asami Takeda, Kunio Morozumi, Kazuharu Uchida, Takaaki Kobayashi
The effectiveness of desensitization with rituximab in ABO-incompatible renal transplantation (ABO-I) has been widely reported. However, ABO-I outcomes are still worse than those of ABO-identical or ABO-compatible renal transplantation (ABO-Id/C). We retrospectively examined the outcomes in consecutive living donor ABO-Id/C (n = 412) and ABO-I (n = 205) cases to elucidate the causes of inferiority in ABO-I. ABO-I cases included recipients treated with rituximab (RIT, n = 131), splenectomy (SPX, n = 21), or neither because of low anti-A/B antibody titers (NoR/S, n = 53)...
August 9, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792272/trigeminovascular-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-function-in-cacna1a-r192q-mutated-knock-in-mice
#13
Kayi Y Chan, Alejandro Labastida-Ramírez, Martha B Ramírez-Rosas, Sieneke Labruijere, Ingrid M Garrelds, Alexander Hj Danser, Arn Mjm van den Maagdenberg, Antoinette MaassenVanDenBrink
Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) is a rare migraine subtype. Whereas transgenic knock-in mice with the human pathogenic FHM1 R192Q missense mutation in the Cacna1a gene reveal overall neuronal hyperexcitability, the effects on the trigeminovascular system and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor are largely unknown. This gains relevance as blockade of CGRP and its receptor are therapeutic targets under development. Hence, we set out to test these effects in FHM1 mice. We characterized the trigeminovascular system of wild-type and FHM1 mice through: (i) in vivo capsaicin- and CGRP-induced dural vasodilation in a closed-cranial window; (ii) ex vivo KCl-induced CGRP release from isolated dura mater, trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal nucleus caudalis; and (iii) peripheral vascular function in vitro ...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782296/combining-anti-ige-with-oral-immunotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Chunrong Lin, Ivan T Lee, Vanitha Sampath, Chitra Dinakar, Rosemarie H DeKruyff, Lynda C Schneider, Kari C Nadeau
Food allergy is a significant medical problem that affects up to 8% of children in developed countries. At present, there are no curative therapies available in routine practice and management of food allergy involves strict allergen avoidance, education, and prompt treatment upon accidental exposure. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an efficacious experimental approach to food allergy and has been shown to provide a substantial benefit in terms of allergen desensitization. However, OIT is associated with high rates of allergic reactions, and the period of protection offered by OIT appears to be limited and highly variable...
August 7, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781805/successful-oral-desensitization-with-crizotinib-after-crizotinib-induced-hepatitis-in-an-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-rearranged-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patient-a-case-report
#15
Yuto Yasuda, Yasuyo Nishikawa, Yuichi Sakamori, Makoto Terao, Kentaro Hashimoto, Tomoko Funazo, Takashi Nomizo, Takahiro Tsuji, Hironori Yoshida, Hiroki Nagai, Hiroaki Ozasa, Toyohiro Hirai, Young Hak Kim
Crizotinib is one of the molecularly-targeted agents targeted against anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although its effects appear to be promising, crizotinib may cause adverse effects in patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC. Hepatic laboratory abnormalities are frequently observed with crizotinib and treatment discontinuation is occasionally required. We herein report the case of a 51-year-old woman diagnosed with relapsed ALK-rearranged NSCLC, who received crizotinib as second-line systemic chemotherapy...
August 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780220/clinical-aspects-of-oral-immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-allergies
#16
REVIEW
Noriyuki Yanagida, Sakura Sato, Motohiro Ebisawa
Studies on oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, some concerns exist with this treatment. The rate of long-term sustained unresponsiveness is quite low; moreover, the desensitization or sustained unresponsiveness does not equate to tolerance. Furthermore, adverse reactions are frequent. Therefore, safe and feasible methods for long-term therapies are needed. Novel therapies such as low-dose OIT, hypoallergenic products, and OIT in combination with omalizumab are reported as effective for inducing sustained unresponsiveness and may lead to fewer adverse reactions than standard OIT...
August 2, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774827/therapeutic-apheresis-in-kidney-ab0-incompatible-transplantation
#17
REVIEW
Anna Parolo, Cristina Silvestre, Flavia Neri, Paolo Rigotti, Lucrezia Furian
Desensitization strategies to safely perform ABO incompatible living donor kidney transplantations are various and still evolving. Given the successful outcome of the majority of the approaches, the current trend is focused on a minimization of treatments. Based on this consideration, the evolution at a single Center of the desensitization protocol is herein described. Starting from 2010, 58 AB0 incompatible living donor kidney transplantations were performed at the University-Hospital of Padua. Over the years, the initial desensitization strategy with rituximab single-dose induction, pre-and post-transplant plasmapheresis and CMV-specific immunoglobulin administration has been shifted to a minimized approach, omitting post-transplant antibody removal in 25 cases...
July 10, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772744/effect-and-stability-of-poly-amido-amine-induced-biomineralization-on-dentinal-tubule-occlusion
#18
Yuan Gao, Kunneng Liang, Jianshu Li, He Yuan, Hongling Liu, Xiaolei Duan, Jiyao Li
In recent years, scientists have developed various biomaterials to remineralize human teeth to treat dentine hypersensitivity. Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have become a research focus in this field. It has been demonstrated that PAMAM is able to create precipitates both on the surface of and within the dentinal tubules, however, there is little information about its effect on reducing dentine permeability in vitro. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro effectiveness and stability of the fourth generation amine-terminated PAMAM on dentinal tubule occlusion, especially on dentine permeability...
April 5, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772594/in-vitro-evaluation-of-dentin-tubule-occlusion-for-novel-calcium-lactate-phosphate-clp-paste
#19
Jen-Chang Yang, Hsin-Tai Hu, Sheng-Yang Lee, Sung-Chih Hsieh, Pei-Chi Huang, Chen-Feng Ma, Dian-Yu Ji, Liang-Yu Chang, Nai-Chia Teng
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this in vitro study is to evaluate the effective and long-term occlusion of dentinal tubules using a novel calcium lactate phosphate (CLP) based desensitizing agent. METHODS: Dentin disks (n = 9) were pre-etched using 1 M lactic acid for 30 s and individually treated with Colgate(®) Pro-Relief™ paste, CLP paste, and double distilled water (ddH₂O) by a rubber-cupped handpiece. Dentin disks were analyzed under optical micrographs for pre-treatment, directly after treatment, and 14 days post-treatment...
February 27, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769809/apixaban-enhances-vasodilatation-mediated-by-protease-activated-receptor-2-in-isolated-rat-arteries
#20
Ambra Villari, Giovanni Giurdanella, Claudio Bucolo, Filippo Drago, Salvatore Salomone
Apixaban (APX) is a direct inhibitor of factor X (FXa) approved for prophylaxis and treatment of deep venous thrombosis and atrial fibrillation. Because FXa activates protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle, inhibition of FXa by APX may affect vasomotor function. The effect of APX was assessed in vitro, by wire myography, in rat mesenteric resistance arteries (MRAs) and basilar arteries challenged with vasoconstrictors [phenylephrine (PE); 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)], vasodilators [acetylcholine (ACh); sodium nitroprusside (SNP)] or with the PAR-2 peptide agonist SLIGRL...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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