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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034866/the-health-effects-of-aluminum-exposure
#1
Katrin Klotz, Wobbeke Weistenhöfer, Frauke Neff, Andrea Hartwig, Christoph van Thriel, Hans Drexler
BACKGROUND: Aluminum is regularly taken up with the daily diet. It is also used in antiperspirants, as an adjuvant for vaccination, and in desensitization procedures. In this review, we present the scientifically documented harmful effects of aluminum on health and the threshold values associated with them. METHODS: This review is based on publications retrieved by a selective search of the PubMed and SCOPUS databases on the topic of aluminum in connection with neurotoxicity, Alzheimer's disease, and breast cancer, as well as on the authors' personal experience in occupational and environmental medicine...
September 29, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032514/surface-roughness-and-bacterial-adhesion-on-root-dentin-treated-with-diode-laser-and-conventional-desensitizing-agents
#2
Maiza S Cury, Camilla B Silva, Ruchele D Nogueira, Michelle G D Campos, Regina G Palma-Dibb, Vinicius R Geraldo-Martins
The treatments for dentin hypersensitivity (DH) may change the surface roughness of the root dentin, which can lead to biofilm accumulation, increasing the risk of root caries. The aim was to compare the surface roughness of root dentin after different treatments of DH and the biofilm formation on those surfaces. After initial surface roughness (Sa) assessment, 50 bovine root fragments received the following treatments (n = 10): G 1-no treatment; G2-5% sodium fluoride varnish; G3-professional application of a desensitizing dentifrice; G4-toothbrushing with a desensitizing dentifrice; and G5-diode laser application (908 nm; 1...
October 14, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031718/g%C3%AE-s-regulates-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-mediated-cyclic-amp-generation-at%C3%A2-rab5-endosomal-compartment
#3
Shravan Babu Girada, Ramya S Kuna, Shilpak Bele, Zhimeng Zhu, N R Chakravarthi, Richard D DiMarchi, Prasenjit Mitra
OBJECTIVE: Upon activation, G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) associate with heterotrimeric G proteins at the plasma membrane to initiate second messenger signaling. Subsequently, the activated receptor experiences desensitization, internalization, and recycling back to the plasma membrane, or it undergoes lysosomal degradation. Recent reports highlight specific cases of persistent cyclic AMP generation by internalized GPCRs, although the functional significance and mechanistic details remain to be defined...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030431/distinctive-modulation-of-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-mediated-by-dopamine-and-acetylcholine-receptors
#4
Jung Hoon Shin, Martin F Adrover, Veronica A Alvarez
Nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell shows unique dopamine (DA) signals in vivo and plays a unique role in DA dependent behaviors, such as reward-motivated learning and the response to drugs of abuse. A di-synaptic mechanism for DA release was reported and shown to require synchronized firing of cholinergic interneurons (CINs) and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) in DA neuron (DAN) axons. The properties of this di-synaptic mechanism of DA transmission is not well understood in the NAc shell...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029377/gain-of-function-mutations-in-g-protein-coupled-receptor-genes-associated-with-human-endocrine-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Maki Fukami, Erina Suzuki, Maki Igarashi, Mami Miyado, Tsutomu Ogata
The human genome encodes more than 700 G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), many of which are involved in hormone secretion. To date, more than 100 gain-of-function (activating) mutations in at least ten genes for GPCRs, in addition to several loss-of-function mutations, have been implicated in human endocrine disorders. Previously reported gain-of-function GPCR mutations comprise various missense substitutions, frameshift mutations, intragenic inframe deletions, and copy-number gains. Such mutations appear in both germline and somatic tumour cells, and lead to various hormonal abnormalities reflecting excessive receptor activity...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025967/diminazene-is-a-slow-pore-blocker-of-acid-sensing-ion-channel-1a-asic1a
#6
Axel Schmidt, Giulia Rossetti, Sylvia Joussen, Stefan Grunder
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are neuronal receptors for extracellular protons. They contribute to the excitatory postsynaptic current and to the detection of painful acidosis. Moreover, they are activated during peripheral inflammation and acidosis associated with various neuronal disorders such as stroke and neuro-inflammation, rendering them interesting drug targets. Diminazene aceturate is a small molecule inhibitor of ASICs with a reported apparent affinity in the low micromolar range, making it an interesting lead compound...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024789/in-vitro-pharmacological-characterization-of-the-bispyridinium-non-oxime-compound-mb327-and-its-2-and-3-regioisomers
#7
K V Niessen, T Seeger, S Rappenglück, T Wein, G Höfner, K T Wanner, H Thiermann, F Worek
The primary toxic mechanism of organophosphorus compounds, i.e. nerve agents or pesticides, is based on the irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. In consequence of the impaired hydrolysis, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine accumulates in cholinergic synapses and disturbs functional activity of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors by overstimulation and subsequent desensitization. The resulting cholinergic syndrome will become acute life-threatening, if not treated adequately. The current standard treatment, consisting of administration of a competitive mAChR antagonist (e...
October 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024681/potentiation-of-morphine-induced-antinociception-and-locomotion-by-citalopram-is-accompanied-by-anxiolytic-like-effects
#8
María J Varela, Arlet M Acanda de la Rocha, Alvaro Díaz, Juan F Lopez-Gimenez
Morphine and related opioids are the mainstay of analgesic treatment, especially in patients suffering chronic pain. Besides their antinociceptive effects they may also exhibit anxiolytic-like properties that could contribute to pain relief. The pharmacological manipulation of the serotonergic system may not only modulate pain transmission and processing but also other behavioral effects of opioids. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of the concurrent treatment with citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on the antinociceptive, locomotor and anxiety-related effects induced by acute and subchronic administration of morphine in mice...
October 9, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024124/examining-a-dual-process-model-of-desensitization-and-hypersensitization-to-community-violence-in-african-american-male-adolescents
#9
Noni K Gaylord-Harden, Grace J Bai, Dusan Simic
The purpose of the current study was to examine a dual-process model of reactivity to community violence exposure in African American male adolescents from urban communities. The model focused on desensitization and hypersensitization effects as well as desensitization and hypersensitization as predictors of aggressive behavior. Participants were 133 African American male high school students, mean age = 15.17 years, SD = 0.96. Participants completed measures of exposure to community violence, depressive symptoms, hyperarousal symptoms, aggressive beliefs, and aggressive behaviors at two time points...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023621/bond-strength-of-self-adhering-materials-effect-of-dentin-desensitizing-treatment-with-a-cpp-acp-paste
#10
Fereshteh Shafiei, Reza Derafshi, Mahtab Memarpour
This study investigated the effect of dentin-desensitizing treatment with a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste on shear bond strength (SBS) of two types of self-adhering (SA) restorative materials: resin-modified glass-ionomer (Fuji II LC, GC) and self-adhering flowable composite resin (Vertise Flow, Kerr). Flat and smear layer-free dentin surfaces from 48 extracted molars were prepared and divided into four groups (n = 12 per group) according to Fuji II LC or Vertise Flow and CPP-ACP pretreatment or not...
November 2017: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021748/binge-like-sucrose-self-administration-experience-inhibits-cocaine-and-sucrose-seeking-behavior-in-offspring
#11
Qiumin Le, Yanqing Li, Weiqing Hou, Biao Yan, Xiangchen Yu, Haikun Song, Feifei Wang, Lan Ma
Recent studies show that emotional and environmental stimuli promote epigenetic inheritance and influence behavioral development in the subsequent generations. Caloric mal- and under-nutrition has been shown to cause metabolic disturbances in the subsequent generation, but the incentive properties of paternal binge-like eating in offspring is still unknown. Here we show that paternal sucrose self-administration experience could induce inter-generational decrease in both sucrose and cocaine-seeking behavior, and sucrose responding in F1 rats, but not F2, correlated with the performance of F0 rats in sucrose self-administration...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018388/emdr-beyond-ptsd-a-systematic-literature-review
#12
Alicia Valiente-Gómez, Ana Moreno-Alcázar, Devi Treen, Carlos Cedrón, Francesc Colom, Víctor Pérez, Benedikt L Amann
Background: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a psychotherapeutic approach that has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) through several randomized controlled trials (RCT). Solid evidence shows that traumatic events can contribute to the onset of severe mental disorders and can worsen their prognosis. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the most important findings from RCT conducted in the treatment of comorbid traumatic events in psychosis, bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and chronic back pain...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017196/-the-role-of-eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-emdr-in-substance-use-disorders-a-systematic-review
#13
René Pilz, Riccarda Hartleb, Gabriela Konrad, Eva Reininghaus, Human Friedrich Unterrainer
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a therapeutic method that has been shown to be especially effective in traumatic disorders. Since the concept of an addiction memory has become widely accepted, the use of EMDR also in substance use disorders (SUD) treatment might count as a separate field. This review summarizes the current state of research on treatment effects EMDR in SUD. The literature search included the databases of PubMed and PsychInfo; four studies met the inclusion criteria. EMDR was found to be related to a decreased amount of craving, fear and depression and to an improvement of emotion regulation and management and self-esteem...
October 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992797/hydroxychloroquine-desensitization-an-effective-method-to-overcome-hypersensitivity-a-multicenter-experience
#14
Y Tal, R Maoz Segal, P Langevitz, S Kivity, Z Darnizki, N Agmon-Levin
Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is widely used to treat autoimmune/rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The immune modulation effects of HCQ have been highlighted as beneficial for maintaining remission of SLE as well as ameliorating skin, joint and other manifestations. Moreover, HCQ exposure for prolonged periods as well as during pregnancy is considered safe, therefore it is recommended for the vast majority of SLE patients. Although HCQ therapy requires follow-up by a specialist, its most common side effects are mild gastrointestinal disturbances, sensitivity to light and skin rashes...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991263/structural-basis-for-gabaa-receptor-potentiation-by-neurosteroids
#15
Paul S Miller, Suzanne Scott, Simonas Masiulis, Luigi De Colibus, Els Pardon, Jan Steyaert, A Radu Aricescu
Type A γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAARs) are the principal mediators of inhibitory neurotransmission in the human brain. Endogenous neurosteroids interact with GABAARs to regulate acute and chronic anxiety and are potent sedative, analgesic, anticonvulsant and anesthetic agents. Their mode of binding and mechanism of receptor potentiation, however, remain unknown. Here we report crystal structures of a chimeric GABAAR construct in apo and pregnanolone-bound states. The neurosteroid-binding site is mechanically coupled to the helices lining the ion channel pore and modulates the desensitization-gate conformation...
October 9, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991238/the-structure-energy-landscape-of-nmda-receptor-gating
#16
Drew M Dolino, Sudeshna Chatterjee, David M MacLean, Charlotte Flatebo, Logan D C Bishop, Sana A Shaikh, Christy F Landes, Vasanthi Jayaraman
N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are the main calcium-permeable excitatory receptors in the mammalian central nervous system. The NMDA receptor gating is complex, exhibiting multiple closed, open, and desensitized states; however, central questions regarding the conformations and energetics of the transmembrane domains as they relate to the gating states are still unanswered. Here, using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET), we map the energy landscape of the first transmembrane segment of the Rattus norvegicus NMDA receptor under resting and various liganded conditions...
October 9, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989085/ferulic-acid-relaxed-rat-aortic-small-mesenteric-and-coronary-arteries-by-blocking-voltage-gated-calcium-channel-and-calcium-desensitization-via-dephosphorylation-of-erk1-2-and-mypt1
#17
Zhong-Yan Zhou, Jia-Qi Xu, Wai-Rong Zhao, Xin-Lin Chen, Yu Jin, Nuo Tang, Jing-Yi Tang
Ferulic acid, a natural ingredient presents in several Chinese Materia Medica such as Radix Angelicae Sinensis, has been identified as an important multifunctional and physiologically active small molecule. However, its pharmacological activity in different blood vessel types and underlying mechanisms are unclear. The present study was to investigate the vascular reactivity and the possible action mechanism of FA on aorta, small mesenteric arteries and coronary arteries isolated from Wistar rats. We found FA dose-dependently relieved the contraction of aorta, small mesenteric arteries and coronary arteries induced by different contractors, U46619, phenylephrine (Phe) and KCl...
October 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988729/allergic-reactions-to-antivenom-in-a-patient-bitten-twice-by-the-same-snake-within-a-month-a-rare-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Fan-Jie Zeng, Cong Chen, Ming-Hua Liu
Antivenom is the most effective method currently available for the treatment of poisonous snake bite. Allergic reactions to antivenom have been reported in the past. Here we shared a case of allergic reactions to antivenom in an old male patient who was bitten twice by the same snake (probably same one) at the same biting site within a month whereas the patient did not show any allergic disorder in the first bitten. Envenomations twice in a short period time by the same kind of snake are very rare. Physician should be alert to the occurrence of allergic reactions in treating this type of patients with antivenom...
July 13, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986872/functional-analysis-of-recombinant-channels-in-host-cells-using-a-fast-agonist-application-system
#19
Andrei Rozov, David Jappy
A reduced recombinant system provides a unique opportunity to study the biophysical properties of NMDAR channels with known subunit compositions, by using a point mutation approach to analyze the structural determinants of receptor function (Wollmuth and Sobolevsky, Trends Neurosci 27:321-328, 2004). However, in addition to the well-developed repertoire of molecular biological techniques, these types of studies also require electrophysiological methods that allow a wide range of receptor activation protocols that can adequately assess desensitization, inactivation, ion permeability, and other properties of the channels...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986119/utility-of-risk-stratification-for-paclitaxel-hypersensitivity-reactions
#20
Iris M Otani, Timothy Lax, Aidan A Long, Benjamin R Slawski, Carlos A Camargo, Aleena Banerji
BACKGROUND: Hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) are a common impediment to paclitaxel therapy. Management strategies to guide care after a paclitaxel-induced HSR are needed. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the utility and safety of risk stratification on the basis of severity of the initial HSR. METHODS: A risk stratification pathway was developed on the basis of a retrospective review of the management and outcome of 130 patients with paclitaxel-induced HSRs at Massachusetts General Hospital...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
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