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Gary J Hausman
Adipose tissue exists in many locations or depots that differ from one another based on numerous and various characteristics. The unique "layered" anatomical feature of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in man and the pig is reviewed and discussed. The origin of fetal pig adipose tissue subcutaneous layers is reviewed before the onset of adipogenesis and after the overt adipogenesis. Furthermore, the distinguishing characteristics of developing outer SAT layer (OSQ) and middle SAT layer (MSQ) in pigs are reviewed...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Tian-Xing Chen, Xiao-Ying Cheng, Yun Wang, Wu Yin
Toosendanin (TSN), a triterpenoid extracted from Melia toosendan, has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-arthritic activities. However, its anti-adipogenic effect remains unknown. Here, we found that TSN dose-dependently attenuated lipid accumulation in preadipocytes 3T3-L1 as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. TSN also significantly downregulated mRNA and protein levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in adipocytes...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Manizheh Khalilpourfarshbafi, Khadijeh Gholami, Dharmani Devi Murugan, Munavvar Zubaid Abdul Sattar, Nor Azizan Abdullah
PROPOSE: Obesity is a fast growing epidemic worldwide. During obesity, the increase in adipose tissue mass arise from two different mechanisms, namely, hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Hyperplasia which is the increase in adipocyte number is characteristic of severe obese patients. Recently, there has been much interest in targeting adipogenesis as therapeutic strategy against obesity. Flavonoids have been shown to regulate several pathways and affect a number of molecular targets during specific stages of adipocyte development...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Gary Hin-Fai Yam, Ericia Pei-Wen Teo, Melina Setiawan, Matthew J Lovatt, Nur Zahirah Binte M Yusoff, Matthias Fuest, Bee-Tin Goh, Jodhbir S Mehta
Corneal opacities are a leading cause of global blindness. They are conventionally treated by the transplantation of donor corneal tissue, which is, restricted by a worldwide donor material shortage and allograft rejection. Autologous adult stem cells with a potential to differentiate into corneal stromal keratocytes (CSKs) could offer a suitable choice of cells for regenerative cell therapy. Postnatal periodontal ligament (PDL) contains a population of adult stem cells, which has a similar embryological origin as CSK, that is cranial neural crest...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Mona Elsafadi, Muthurangan Manikandan, Sami Almalki, Mohammad Mobarak, Muhammad Atteya, Zafar Iqbal, Jamil Amjad Hashmi, Sameerah Shaheen, Nehad Alajez, Musaad Alfayez, Moustapha Kassem, Raed Abu Dawud, Amer Mahmood
TGF β is a potent regulator of several biological functions in many cell types, but its role in the differentiation of human bone marrow-derived skeletal stem cells (hMSCs) is currently poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that a single dose of TGF β 1 prior to induction of osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation results in increased mineralized matrix or increased numbers of lipid-filled mature adipocytes, respectively. To identify the mechanisms underlying this TGF β -mediated enhancement of lineage commitment, we compared the gene expression profiles of TGF β 1-treated hMSC cultures using DNA microarrays...
2018: Stem Cells International
Simona Ceccarelli, Cristina Nodale, Enrica Vescarelli, Paola Pontecorvi, Valeria Manganelli, Giovanni Casella, Maria Giuseppina Onesti, Maurizio Sorice, Ferdinando Romano, Antonio Angeloni, Cinzia Marchese
Adipogenesis is regulated by a complex network of molecules, including fibroblast growth factors. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) has been previously reported to promote proliferation on rat preadipocytes, although the expression of its specific receptor, FGFR2-IIIb/KGFR, is not actually detected in mesenchymal cells. Here, we demonstrate that human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) show increased expression of KGF during adipogenic differentiation, especially in the early steps. Moreover, KGF is able to induce transient activation of ERK and p38 MAPK pathways in these cells...
2018: Stem Cells International
Phealay May, Patricia Bremond, Christophe Sauzet, Philippe Piccerelle, Frédérique Grimaldi, Serge Champion, Pierre-Henri Villard
(1) Objective: Highlight the in vitro effects of 3T3-L1 cell exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB118 and 153) or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) alone or as a cocktail on adipogenesis (ADG) by focusing on changes in lipid metabolism and inflammatory-related genes expression (INFG) and ADG-related genes expression (ADGG); (2) Results: Treatment from the early stage of cell differentiation by BaP alone or in combination with PCBs decreased the expression of some of the ADGG ( PPARγ Glut-4 , FAS , Lipin-1a , Leptin , and Adiponectin )...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Cui Zhang, Liang Li, Yuanda Jiang, Cuicui Wang, Baoming Geng, Yanqiu Wang, Jianling Chen, Fei Liu, Peng Qiu, Guangjie Zhai, Ping Chen, Renfu Quan, Jinfu Wang
Bone formation is linked with osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the bone marrow. Microgravity in spaceflight is known to reduce bone formation. In this study, we used a real microgravity environment of the SJ-10 Recoverable Scientific Satellite to examine the effects of space microgravity on the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). hMSCs were induced toward osteogenic differentiation for 2 and 7 d in a cell culture device mounted on the SJ-10 Satellite...
March 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Yves Mugabo, Mina Sadeghi, Nancy N Fang, Thibault Mayor, Gareth E Lim
Adipogenesis involves a complex signaling network requiring strict temporal and spatial organization of effector molecules. Molecular scaffolds, such as 14-3-3 proteins, facilitate such organization, and we have previously identified 14-3-3ζ as an essential scaffold in adipocyte differentiation. The interactome of 14-3-3ζ is large and diverse, and it is possible that novel adipogenic factors may be present within it, but this possibility has not yet been tested. Herein, we generated mouse embryonic fibroblasts from mice overexpressing a TAP-epitope-tagged 14-3-3ζ molecule...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Banjun Ruan, Zheng Zhu, Zhao Yan, Wei Yang, Dongsheng Zhai, Li Wang, Zichen Ye, Huanyu Lu, An Xiang, Jingwei Liang, Yinghao Jiang, Chengming Xu, Zhenyu Wang, Ming Wei, Xiaoying Lei, Xiaorui Cao, Zifan Lu
BACKGROUND: The reciprocal fate decision of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to either bone or adipocytes is determined by Wnt-related signaling and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R). Azoramide, an ER stress alleviator, was reported to have an antidiabetic effect. In this study, we investigated the function of azoramide in regulating the lineage determination of MSCs for either adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation. METHODS: In this study, microcomputed tomography and histological analysis on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2-induced parietal periosteum bone formation assays, C3H10T1/2 and mouse bone marrow MSC-derived bone formation and adipogenesis assays, and specific staining for bone tissue and lipid droplets were used to evaluate the role of azoramide on the lineage determination of MSC differentiation...
March 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Tiange Li, Jing Gao, Min Du, Jiajia Song, Xueying Mao
Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), a protein-lipid complex surrounding the fat globules in milk, has many health benefits. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether MFGM could prevent obesity through inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting brown remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT) in mice fed with high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), HFD plus MFGM at 100 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW or 400 mg/kg BW for 8 weeks. Results showed that MFGM suppressed body weight gain induced by HFD, reduced white adipose tissue (WAT) mass accompanied with the decrease in adipocyte sizes...
March 9, 2018: Nutrients
Yan-Ling Zhu, Ting Chen, Jia-Li Xiong, Di Wu, Qian-Yun Xi, Jun-Yi Luo, Jia-Jie Sun, Yong-Liang Zhang
Adipose tissue plays an important role in energy metabolism. Adipose dysfunction is closely related to obesity and type II diabetes. Glucose uptake is the key step for fat synthesis in adipocyte. miRNAs have been proven to play a crucial role in adipocyte differentiation, adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis. In this paper, we firstly reported that miR-146b decreased glucose consumption by up-regulating miR-146b in a porcine primary adipocyte model, while the inhibitor of endogenous miR-146b rescued the reduction...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Md Mahbubur Rahman, Myung-Jin Kim, Jin-Hyoung Kim, Sok-Ho Kim, Hyeon-Kyu Go, Mee-Hyang Kweon, Do-Hyung Kim
CONTEXT: Salicornia europaea (Amaranthaceae) (SE) has been shown to reduce obesity, but it remains a problem as a food supplement because of its high salt content (25-35% NaCl). OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the anti-obesity effects and mechanism of action of desalted SE powder (DSP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 50) were divided into a normal control group (NC), a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity control group (HFD), and HFD groups co-administered DSP (250 and 500 mg/kg) or Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) extract (GE, 200 mg/kg, standard control) orally each day for 12 weeks...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
D Balan, Kit-Lam Chan, D Murugan, Sazaly AbuBakar, Pooi-Fong Wong
Bioactive compounds of Eurycoma longifolia (EL) jack were previously shown to reduce omentum fat mass and oestradiol-induced fatty uterine adhesion in rats. However, the exact role of EL on adipogenesis remains unknown. This study sought to investigate the effects of an EL standardized quassinoids-enriched fraction (SQEL) and the pure compound, eurycomanone, on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells. 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate and treated for 8 days. The treatment reduced intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets and triglycerides in the differentiating adipocytes and induced lipolysis in matured adipocytes...
March 9, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Kinyui Alice Lo, Shiqi Huang, Arcinas Camille Esther Walet, Zhi-Chun Zhang, Melvin Khee-Shing Leow, Meihui Liu, Lei Sun
Obesity induces profound transcriptome changes in adipocytes; recent evidence suggests that lncRNAs play key roles in this process. Here, we performed a comprehensive transcriptome study by RNA-Seq in adipocytes isolated from interscapular brown, inguinal and epididymal white adipose tissues in diet-induced obese mice. Our analysis reveals a set of obesity-dysregulated lncRNAs, many of which exhibit dynamic changes in fed vs. fasted state, potentially serving as novel molecular markers reflecting adipose energy status...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes
Veronica Moreno-Viedma, Matteo Tardelli, Maximilian Zeyda, Maria Sibilia, J Deborah Burks, M Thomas Stulnig
OBJECTIVE: Osteopontin (OPN, Spp1) is a protein upregulated in white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese subjects. Deletion of OPN protects mice from high-fat diet-induced WAT inflammation and insulin resistance. However, the alterations mediated by loss of OPN in WAT before the obesogenic challenge have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we hypothesised that the lack of OPN might enhance the pro-adipogenic micro environment before obesity driven inflammation. METHODS: OPN deficiency was tested in visceral (V) and subcutaneous (SC) WAT from WT and Spp1-/- female mice...
March 6, 2018: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
Hong-Qiang Chen, Ji Zhao, Yan Li, Li-Xiong He, Yu-Jing Huang, Wei-Qun Shu, Jia Cao, Wen-Bin Liu, Jin-Yi Liu
Microcystin (MC) is a cyclic heptapeptide compound which could lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the underlying epigenetic regulation mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, microcystin-LR (L: lysine, R: arginine, MC-LR) was used to induce the malignant transformation of human hepatocyte L02 cell line. The profile of gene expression, microRNA (miRNA) and DNA methylation were detected through high-throughput sequencing. Compared with control group, the expression of 826 genes and 187 miRNAs changed significantly in MC-LR treated group...
March 5, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Xiaoying He, Hongyu Guan, Weiwei Liang, Zhimin Huang, Lijuan Xu, Pengyuan Zhang, Fen Xu, Yanbing Li
BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity is considered a major factor in the development of metabolic disorders. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been reported to have positive effects on improving body metabolism and to reducing insulin resistance. However, it remains less clear whether GLP-1 plays a role in the adipogenesis process of visceral fat. METHODS: Here, we analyzed the in vitro actions and probable mechanisms of Exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, on human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSCs) isolated from omentum...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Maria Moysidou, Sevasti Karaliota, Elisavet Kodela, Maria Salagianni, Yassemi Koutmani, Antonia Katsouda, Konstantia Kodella, Panagiotis Tsakanikas, Styliani Ourailidou, Evangelos Andreakos, Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, Dimitris Skokos, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou, Kyoung-Jin Chung, Stefan Bornstein, Mark W Sleeman, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Katia P Karalis
Although accumulation of lymphocytes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) in obesity is linked to insulin resistance, it remains unclear whether lymphocytes also participate in the regulation of energy homeostasis in the WAT. Here, we demonstrate enhanced energy dissipation in Rag1-/- mice, increased catecholaminergic input to subcutaneous WAT, and significant beige adipogenesis. Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that CD8+ T cell deficiency accounts for the enhanced beige adipogenesis in Rag1-/- mice...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
Cristina Salmerón
White adipose tissue (AT) is the main lipid storage depot in vertebrates. Initially considered to be a simple lipid store, AT has recently been recognized as playing a role as an endocrine organ that is implicated in processes such as energy homeostasis and as a rich source of stem cells. Interest in adipogenesis has increased not only because of the prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in humans, but also in aquaculture because of the excessive fat deposition experienced in some cultured fish species, which may compromise both their welfare and their final product quality...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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