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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918541/enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-black-liquor-xylan-by-a-novel-xylose-tolerant-thermostable-%C3%AE-xylosidase-from-a-tropical-strain-of-aureobasidium-pullulans-cbs-135684
#1
Wichanee Bankeeree, Rinji Akada, Pongtharin Lotrakul, Hunsa Punnapayak, Sehanat Prasongsuk
From three cell-associated β-xylosidases produced by Aureobasidium pullulans CBS 135684, the principal enzyme was enriched to apparent homogeneity and found to be active at high temperatures (60-70 °C) over a pH range of 5-9 with a specific activity of 163.3 units (U) mg(-1). The enzyme was thermostable, retaining over 80% of its initial activity after a 12-h incubation at 60 °C, with half-lives of 38, 22, and 10 h at 60, 65, and 70 °C, respectively. Moreover, it was tolerant to xylose inhibition with a K i value of 18 mM...
September 16, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918452/pro-oxidant-status-and-nrf2-levels-in-psoriasis-vulgaris-skin-tissues-and-dimethyl-fumarate-treated-hacat-cells
#2
Yoon Jin Lee, Jin Ho Bae, Sang-Gue Kang, Sung Woo Cho, Dong-Il Chun, Seung Min Nam, Chul Han Kim, Hae Seon Nam, Seon Hwa Lee, Sang Han Lee, Moon Kyun Cho
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to pathogenesis of many inflammatory skin diseases, including psoriasis. The aim of this study is to compare antioxidant protein expression in psoriasis vulgaris (PV) skin tissues with that in normal skin tissues in vivo and to evaluate the effects of dimethyl fumarate (DMF), used for the treatment of psoriasis, on ROS generation and apoptosis in a human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. Compared with normal skin tissues, PV skin tissues showed increased protein oxidation as well as down-regulation of Nrf2 and its regulatory proteins such as HO-1 and AKR1C3...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918433/procalcitonin-and-c-reactive-protein-as-early-markers-of-postoperative-intra-abdominal-infection-in-patients-operated-on-colorectal-cancer
#3
E Domínguez-Comesaña, S M Estevez-Fernández, V López-Gómez, J Ballinas-Miranda, R Domínguez-Fernández
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of serum procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) for early diagnosis of postoperative intra-abdominal infections (PIAI) after elective surgery for colorectal cancer. METHODS: Prospective observational study including patients operated on for colorectal cancer between January and December of 2015 was performed. Serum PCT and CRP levels were measured before surgery and daily until postoperative day 3...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918420/computer-analysis-of-glioma-transcriptome-profiling-alternative-splicing-events
#4
Vladimir N Babenko, Natalya V Gubanova, Anatoly O Bragin, Irina V Chadaeva, Gennady V Vasiliev, Irina V Medvedeva, Alexey S Gaytan, Alexey L Krivoshapkin, Yuriy L Orlov
Here we present the analysis of alternative splicing events on an example of glioblastoma cell culture samples using a set of computer tools in combination with database integration. The gene expression profiles of glioblastoma were obtained from cell culture samples of primary glioblastoma which were isolated and processed for RNA extraction. Transcriptome profiling of normal brain samples and glioblastoma were done by Illumina sequencing. The significant differentially expressed exon-level probes and their corresponding genes were identified using a combination of the splicing index method...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918323/quantitative-determination-of-carfilzomib-in-mouse-plasma-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-its-application-to-a-pharmacokinetic-study
#5
Jee Sun Min, Jiseon Kim, Jung Ho Kim, Doyun Kim, Yu Fen Zheng, Ji Eun Park, Wooin Lee, Soo Kyung Bae
A highly sensitive and rapid LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to determine the levels of carfilzomib in mice plasma by using chlorpropamide as an internal standard. Carfilzomib and chlorpropamide were extracted from 5 μL of plasma after protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was performed on Phenomenex Luna C18 column (50×2.0mm id, 3μm). The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile -0.1% formic acid in water (1:1v/v) and the flow rate was 0.3mL/min...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918138/characterizing-effects-of-feed-restriction-and-glucagon-like-peptide-2-administration-on-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-intestinal-morphology
#6
S K Kvidera, E A Horst, M V Sanz Fernandez, M Abuajamieh, S Ganesan, P J Gorden, H B Green, K M Schoenberg, W E Trout, A F Keating, L H Baumgard
Inadequate feed consumption reduces intestinal barrier function in both ruminants and monogastrics. Objectives were to characterize how progressive feed restriction (FR) affects inflammation, metabolism, and intestinal morphology, and to investigate if glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) administration influences the aforementioned responses. Twenty-eight Holstein cows (157 ± 9 d in milk) were enrolled in 2 experimental periods. Period 1 [5 d of ad libitum (AL) feed intake] served as baseline for period 2 (5 d), during which cows received 1 of 6 treatments: (1) 100% of AL feed intake (AL100; n = 3), (2) 80% of AL feed intake (n = 5), (3) 60% of AL feed intake (n = 5), (4) 40% of AL feed intake (AL40; n = 5), (5) 40% of AL feed intake + GLP2 administration (AL40G; 75 µg/kg of BW s...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917922/the-effects-of-lotus-root-amylopectin-on-the-formation-of-whey-protein-isolate-gels
#7
Kang Liu, Qiang-Ming Li, Li-Hua Pan, Xin-Ping Qian, Hai-Lin Zhang, Xue-Qiang Zha, Jian-Ping Luo
The effects of lotus root amylopectin (LRA) on the formation of whey protein isolate (WPI) gels were investigated at the concentration range from 0 to 1.0% (w/v) by determining the texteral, thermal and rheological properties. Results exhibited these properties of WPI gels could be significantly enhanced by the addition of LRA in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared the gel with free of starch, the gel strength, water holding capacity and thermal transition temperature of WPI gel containing 1% (w/v) amylopectin were enhanced by 12...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917892/a-mechanism-for-the-synergistic-gelation-properties-of-gelatin-b-and-xanthan-gum-aqueous-mixtures
#8
Chang-Sheng Wang, Nick Virgilio, Paula Wood-Adams, Marie-Claude Heuzey
Gelatin B and xanthan gum aqueous mixtures (GB/XG, (0.2-2%)/0.2% w/v) exhibit enhanced gelling properties compared to their pure component solutions at similar compositions. The mixed gels comprise co-localized networks of GB and XG-rich domains. Our results show that these domains are composed of intermolecular complexes and their aggregates stabilized by the neutralization effect of GB, and linked together by formation of GB triple helices. GB/XG mixtures display composition-dependent microstructural transitions: from discontinuous aggregates (GB/XG ratio≤1) to a continuous GB/XG network (ratio=2-6), followed by network fragmentation (ratio=8-10)...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917841/graphene-vp40-interactions-and-potential-disruption-of-the-ebola-virus-matrix-filaments
#9
Jeevan B Gc, Rudramani Pokhrel, Nisha Bhattarai, Kristen A Johnson, Bernard S Gerstman, Robert V Stahelin, Prem P Chapagain
Ebola virus infections cause hemorrhagic fever that often results in very high fatality rates. In addition to exploring vaccines, development of drugs is also essential for treating the disease and preventing the spread of the infection. The Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 exists in various conformational and oligomeric forms and is a potential pharmacological target for disrupting the virus life-cycle. Here we explored graphene-VP40 interactions using molecular dynamics simulations and graphene pelleting assays...
September 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917840/both-nitric-oxide-and-nitrite-prevent-homocysteine-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-subsequent-apoptosis-via-cgmp-dependent-pathway-in-neuronal-cells
#10
Sun-Oh Jeong, Yong Son, Ju Hwan Lee, Seung Won Choi, Sung Hun Kim, Yong-Kwan Cheong, Hun-Taeg Chung, Hyun-Ock Pae
Growing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and/or ER stress-mediated apoptosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The present study investigated the effects of non-cytotoxic concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrite, a metabolite of NO, on ER stress and ER stress-mediated apoptosis in Neuro-2a cells exposed to homocysteine (Hcy), an endogenous ER stress inducer. Hcy induced ER stress, as confirmed by inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) phosphorylation and X-box-binding protein-1 (Xbp1) mRNA splicing as well as C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression, and apoptosis, as verified by Annexin V-positive cells...
September 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917670/morphological-characterization-and-biocontrol-effects-of-vibrio-vulnificus-phages-against-vibriosis-in-the-shrimp-aquaculture-environment
#11
P Srinivasan, P Ramasamy
The re-emerging field of phage therapy is the potential biocontrol agents for the transfer of virulence factor and to kill their bacterial hosts. In this study, the lytic Vibrio vulnificus phages were studied to provide a better understanding of phage-host interactions and development of phage therapy. Four new V. vulnificus phages were detected from shrimp aquaculture system, named VV1, VV2, VV3 and VV4. All lytic V. vulnificus phages are the Tecviruses of the family Tectiviridae with typical double layered elongated icosahedral head and tailless morphology...
September 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917403/cataract-surgery-in-patients-with-late-onset-retinal-degeneration
#12
Vasileios T Papastavrou, Shyamanga Borooah, Jill M O'Brien, Neeta Ray-Chaudhuri, Baljean Dhillon, Rute V Vieira, Andrew C Browning
PURPOSE: To review the outcomes in a series of patients with long anterior lens zonular fibers associated with late-onset retinal degeneration who had phacoemulsification cataract surgery. SETTING: Newcastle Eye Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were patients with genetically confirmed late-onset retinal degeneration requiring cataract surgery...
August 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916982/chemical-shift-assignments-and-the-secondary-structure-of-the-est3-telomerase-subunit-in-the-yeast-hansenula-polymorpha
#13
Sofia S Mariasina, Sergey V Efimov, Olga A Petrova, Elena V Rodina, Alexander N Malyavko, Maria I Zvereva, Vladimir V Klochkov, Olga A Dontsova, Vladimir I Polshakov
Telomerase is a multisubunit ribonucleoprotein enzyme that is essential for continuous cellular proliferation. A key role of telomerase in cancer and ageing makes it a promising target for the development of cancer therapies and treatments of other age-associated diseases, since telomerase allows unlimited proliferation potential of cells in the majority of cancer types. However, the structure and molecular mechanism of telomerase action are still poorly understood. In budding yeast, telomerase consists of the catalytic subunit, the telomerase reverse transcriptase or Est2 protein, telomerase RNA (TLC1) and two regulatory subunits, Est1 and Est3...
September 15, 2017: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916981/expression-of-a-novel-bi-directional-brassica-napus-promoter-in-soybean
#14
Siva Chennareddy, Toby Cicak, Lauren Clark, Sean Russell, Michiyo Skokut, Jeffrey Beringer, Xiaozeng Yang, Yi Jia, Manju Gupta
The expression profile of a natural bi-directional promoter, derived from the Brassica napus EPSPS-A gene, was studied in transgenic soybean (Glycine max C.V. Maverick) lines. Two constructs, pDAB100331 and pDAB100333, were assembled to test the bi-directionality of the promoter. Two reporter genes, gfp and gusA, were employed and they were interchangeably placed in both constructs, one on each end of the promoter such that both proteins expressed divergently in each construct. In the T0 generation, GUS expression was more uniform throughout the leaf of pDAB100333 transgenic plants, where the gusA gene was expressed from the downstream or EPSPS-A end of the bi-directional promoter...
September 15, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916386/molecular-mechanisms-of-the-r61t-mutation-in-apolipoprotein-e4-a-dynamic-rescue
#15
Benfeard Williams, Marino Convertino, Jhuma Das, Nikolay V Dokholyan
The apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) gene is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). With respect to the other common isoforms of this protein (ApoE2 and ApoE3), ApoE4 is characterized by lower stability that underlies the formation of a stable interaction between the protein's N- and C-terminal domains. AD-related cellular dysfunctions have been linked to this ApoE4 misfolded state. In this regard, it has been reported that the mutation R61T is able to rescue the deleterious cellular effects of ApoE4 by preventing the formation of the misfolded intermediate state...
September 12, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916359/a-class-b-scavenger-receptor-from-eriocheir-sinensis-essr-b1-restricts-bacteria-proliferation-by-promoting-phagocytosis
#16
Yao-Meng Wu, Lei Yang, Xue-Jie Li, Lu Li, Qun Wang, Wei-Wei Li
Scavenger receptors (SRs) are important pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which play significant roles in host defense against pathogens by identifying pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of a SR from Eriocheir sinensis (EsSR-B1) which is a 500 amino acid protein encoded by a gene comprised of 2726 nucleotides with a 1503 bp open reading frame. The domains of EsSR-B1 were found to be evolutionarily conserved. EsSR-B1 was widely detected in different tissues of E...
September 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915614/mitochondrial-protein-18-mtp18-plays-a-pro-apoptotic-role-in-chemotherapy-induced-gastric-cancer-cell-apoptosis
#17
Lynn H H Aung, Ruibei Li, Bellur S Prabhakar, Ajay V Maker, Peifeng Li
One of the severe limitations of chemotherapy is the development of drug resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying chemotherapy resistance remain to be elucidated. Mitochondrial mediated apoptosis is a form of cell death induced by chemotherapy. Several chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce mitochondrial fission, and finally activate the apoptosis cascade in various cancer cells. Here, we report that the mitochondrial membrane protein 18 (MTP18) induced mitochondrial fragmentation in gastric cancer cells under doxorubicin (DOX) exposure...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915417/lc-ms-ms-quantification-of-7%C3%AE-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one-c4-in-rat-and-monkey-plasma
#18
Lijuan Kang, Thomas M Connolly, Naidong Weng, Wenying Jian
7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) is an oxidative enzymatic product of cholesterol metabolism via cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, an enzyme also known as cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase or cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1). C4 is a stable intermediate in the rate limiting pathway of bile acid biosynthesis. Previous studies showed that plasma C4 levels correlated with CYP7A1 enzymatic activity and could serve as a biomarker for bile acid synthesis. Here we developed and qualified a simple and robust high-throughput method using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify C4 in rat and monkey plasma...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915389/choline-prevents-fetal-overgrowth-and-normalizes-placental-fatty-acid-and-glucose-metabolism-in-a-mouse-model-of-maternal-obesity
#19
Juha Nam, Esther Greenwald, Chauntelle Jack-Roberts, Tamara T Ajeeb, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Kathleen Axen, Anjana Saxena, Ekaterina Semernina, Khatia Nanobashvili, Xinyin Jiang
Maternal obesity increases placental transport of macronutrients, resulting in fetal overgrowth and obesity later in life. Choline participates in fatty acid metabolism, serves as a methyl donor and influences growth signaling, which may modify placental macronutrient homeostasis and affect fetal growth. Using a mouse model of maternal obesity, we assessed the effect of maternal choline supplementation on preventing fetal overgrowth and restoring placental macronutrient homeostasis. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat (HF, 60% kcal from fat) diet or a normal (NF, 10% kcal from fat) diet with a drinking supply of either 25 mM choline chloride or control purified water, respectively, beginning 4 weeks prior to mating until gestational day 12...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914771/geminiviruses-and-plant-hosts-a-closer-examination-of-the-molecular-arms-race
#20
REVIEW
Shunmugiah V Ramesh, Pranav P Sahu, Manoj Prasad, Shelly Praveen, Hanu R Pappu
Geminiviruses are plant-infecting viruses characterized by a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genome. Geminivirus-derived proteins are multifunctional and effective regulators in modulating the host cellular processes resulting in successful infection. Virus-host interactions result in changes in host gene expression patterns, reprogram plant signaling controls, disrupt central cellular metabolic pathways, impair plant's defense system, and effectively evade RNA silencing response leading to host susceptibility...
September 15, 2017: Viruses
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