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Circulating tumor colon

Fangxia Guan, Tahmineh Tabrizian, Ardijana Novaj, Masako Nakanishi, Daniel W Rosenberg, Derek M Huffman
Obesity can negatively impact intestinal homeostasis, and increase colon cancer risk and related mortality. Thus, given the alarmingly high rates of obesity in the US and globally, it is critical to identify practical strategies that can break the obesity-cancer link. Walnuts have been increasingly recognized to mitigate cancer risk, and contain many bioactive constituents with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that could potentially counteract pathways thought to be initiators of obesity-related cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Wanxia Gai, Lu Ji, W K Jacky Lam, Kun Sun, Peiyong Jiang, Anthony W H Chan, John Wong, Paul B S Lai, Simon S M Ng, Brigette B Y Ma, Grace L H Wong, Vincent W S Wong, Henry L Y Chan, Rossa W K Chiu, Y M Dennis Lo, K C Allen Chan
BACKGROUND: Measurement of DNA derived from different tissues in the circulating DNA pool can provide important information regarding the presence of many pathological conditions. However, existing methods involving genome-wide bisulfite sequencing are relatively expensive and may present challenges for large-scale analysis. METHODS: Through identifying differentially methylated regions in the liver and colon compared with other tissues, we identified 2 markers and developed corresponding droplet digital PCR assays...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Alexander H Jinnah, Benjamin C Zacks, Chukwuweike U Gwam, Bethany A Kerr
Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related death and drives patient morbidity as well as healthcare costs. Bone is the primary site of metastasis for several cancers-breast and prostate cancers in particular. Efforts to treat bone metastases have been stymied by a lack of models to study the progression, cellular players, and signaling pathways driving bone metastasis. In this review, we examine newly described and classic models of bone metastasis. Through the use of current in vivo, microfluidic, and in silico computational bone metastasis models we may eventually understand how cells escape the primary tumor and how these circulating tumor cells then home to and colonize the bone marrow...
June 1, 2018: Cancers
Geneva R Doak, Kathryn L Schwertfeger, David K Wood
Tumor-associated macrophages are known contributors of tumor progression in the primary tumor via multiple mechanisms. However, recent studies have demonstrated the ability of macrophages to promote secondary tumor development by inhibiting tumoricidal immune response, initiating angiogenesis, remodeling the local matrix, and directly communicating with cancer cells. In this review, we discuss macrophage functions in establishing distant metastases including formation of the premetastatic niche, extravasation of circulating cancer cells, and colonization of secondary metastases...
June 2018: Trends in Cancer
Wen-Hui Weng, I-Lin Ho, Chi-Chia Pang, Sow-Neng Pang, Tung-Ming Pan, Wai-Hung Leung
The concept of rapid detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has always been the focal point of modern and future medicine. However, the dispersity and rarity of CTCs in the bloodstream makes it hard to detect metastasis. Herein, our newly designed needle-like cytosensor demonstrates that the capture and analysis of CTCs are a much less laborious process and have more potential than ever. Our aim is to detect and capture CTCs directly in the bloodstream without altering the genetic information; further benefit of current cytosensor is allows for the whole circulation of blood to run through the cytosensor, giving a much better sensitivity and chance of detecting CTCs...
May 24, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
M J A Weerts, E C Timmermans, A van de Stolpe, R H A M Vossen, S Y Anvar, J A Foekens, S Sleijfer, J W M Martens
The use of blood-circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as a "liquid biopsy" in oncology is being explored for its potential as a cancer biomarker. Mitochondria contain their own circular genomic entity (mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA), up to even thousands of copies per cell. The mutation rate of mtDNA is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the nuclear DNA. Tumor-specific variants have been identified in tumors along the entire mtDNA, and their number varies among and within tumors. The high mtDNA copy number per cell and the high mtDNA mutation rate make it worthwhile to explore the potential of tumor-specific cf-mtDNA variants as cancer marker in the blood of cancer patients...
May 26, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Malgorzata Krzystek-Korpacka, Marek Zawadzki, Bartosz Kapturkiewicz, Paulina Lewandowska, Iwona Bednarz-Misa, Sabina Gorska, Wojciech Witkiewicz, Andrzej Gamian
Colorectal cancers (CRCs) are treated as one entity but are in fact a heterogeneous group of diseases. If not addressed, subsite-associated variability may interfere with mechanism-targeted therapies and accuracy of potential CRC biomarkers. Little is known about the contribution of systemic inflammatory and immune mediators to subsite heterogeneity in CRC. Our purpose was to compare the profiles of key cytokines between right and left colonic and rectal CRCs. Using Luminex xMAP® technology, serum concentrations of eotaxin, IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12(p70), IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, IFNγ, IP-10, FGF-2, G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1, MIP-1α and β, PDGF-BB, RANTES, TNFα, and VEGF-A were determined in 104 CRC patients...
May 22, 2018: Cytokine
Mahvash Alizadeh Naini, Soudabeh Kavousipour, Maryam Hasanzarini, Amir Nasrollah, Ahmad Monabati, Pooneh Mokarram
Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide but current molecular targeted therapy is not providing major success in CRC treatment, so early detection by non-invasive methods continues to be vital. Aberrant methylation of CpG islands in promoter regions is associated with inactivation of various tumor suppressor genes. O6-methyguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a DNA repair enzyme that removes mutagenic and cytotoxic adducts from O6-guanine in DNA. Aberrant hypermethylation of the MGMT promoter has been associated with lack of mRNA expression, with concomitant loss of protein content and enzyme activity...
May 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Ilaria Elia, Ginevra Doglioni, Sarah-Maria Fendt
Metastasis to distant organs is a predictor of poor prognosis. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the mechanisms that impinge on the different steps of the metastatic cascade. Recent work has revealed that particular metabolic pathways are rewired in cancer cells to support their transition through the metastatic cascade, resulting in the formation of secondary tumors in distant organs. Indeed, metabolic rewiring induces signaling pathways during initial cancer invasion, circulating cancer cells depend on enhanced antioxidant defenses, and cancer cells colonizing a distant organ require increased ATP production...
May 7, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Lauren Burkard-Mandel, Rachel O'Neill, Sean Colligan, Mukund Seshadri, Scott I Abrams
It is well-recognized that macrophages, which arise from circulating precursors, enhance tumor progression in patients and animal models. However, less is known regarding the role of tissue-resident macrophages in metastasis. Moreover, the identification of tumor factors which influence macrophage function in the metastatic niche remains incomplete. Here, we investigated one such cytokine known as thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). Our rationale to focus on TSLP was based on two non-overlapping findings; first, TSLP exacerbates asthma in part by altering the lung macrophage response and, secondly, TSLP is produced by certain mouse and human tumor systems, although its role in neoplasia remains understudied...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Mylène A Carrascal, Catarina Talina, Paula Borralho, A Gonçalo Mineiro, Ana Raquel Henriques, Cláudia Pen, Manuela Martins, Sofia Braga, Robert Sackstein, Paula A Videira
BACKGROUND: The E-selectin ligands expressed by cancer cells mediate adhesion of circulating cancer cells to endothelial cells, as well as within tissue microenvironments important for tumor progression and metastasis. The identification of E-selectin ligands within cancer tissue could yield new biomarkers for patient stratification and aid in identifying novel therapeutic targets. The determinants of selectin ligands consist of sialylated tetrasaccharides, the sialyl Lewis X and A (sLeX and sLeA ), displayed on protein or lipid scaffolds...
May 2, 2018: BMC Cancer
Hassan Doulabi, Maryam Rastin, Hossein Shabahangh, Ghodratollah Maddah, Abbas Abdollahi, Reza Nosratabadi, Seyed-Alireza Esmaeili, Mahmoud Mahmoudi
T-helper (Th) 22 cells are involved in the immunopathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, but their specific role in the immunopathogenesis of cancer is unknown. In this study, we examined the profile of circulating and intratumoral Th17, Th22 and CD4+ cells co-producing IL-17/IL-22 in colon cancer (CC) patients in relation to tumor staging. Thirty newly diagnosed colon cancer (CC) patients participated in this study. The percentage of Th1 (CD4+ IFN-γ+ IL-17- IL-22- ), Th17 (CD4+ IFN-γ- IL-17+ IL-22- ), Th22 (CD4+ IFN-γ- IL-17- IL-22+ ) and CD4+ cells co-producing IL-17/IL-22 (CD4+ IFN-γ- IL-17+ IL-22+ ) in the peripheral blood, tumor and paratumor tissues was assessed by multicolor flow cytometry...
July 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Li Liu, Fred K Tabung, Xuehong Zhang, Jonathan A Nowak, Zhi Rong Qian, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Daniel Nevo, Susan Bullman, Kosuke Mima, Keisuke Kosumi, Annacarolina da Silva, Mingyang Song, Yin Cao, Tyler S Twombly, Yan Shi, Hongli Liu, Mancang Gu, Hideo Koh, Wanwan Li, Chunxia Du, Yang Chen, Chenxi Li, Wenbin Li, Raaj S Mehta, Kana Wu, Molin Wang, Aleksander D Kostic, Marios Giannakis, Wendy S Garrett, Curtis Hutthenhower, Andrew T Chan, Charles S Fuchs, Reiko Nishihara, Shuji Ogino, Edward L Giovannucci
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Specific nutritional components are likely to induce intestinal inflammation, which is characterized by increased levels of interleukin 6 (IL6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-receptor superfamily member 1B (TNFRSF1B) in the circulation and promotes colorectal carcinogenesis. The inflammatory effects of a diet can be estimated based on an empiric dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score, calculated based on intake of 18 foods associated with plasma levels of IL6, CRP, and TNFRSF1B...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Jolanta Artym, Maja Kocięba, Ewa Zaczyńska, Iwona Kochanowska, Michał Zimecki, Wojciech Kałas, Anna Fiedorowicz, Alicja Pawlak, Leon Strządała, Małgorzata Jeleń, Beata Morak-Młodawska, Krystian Pluta, Katarzyna Kaleta-Kuratewicz, Jan P Madej, Piotr Kuropka, Jan Kuryszko
The therapeutic efficacy of topically applied azaphenothiazine derivatives: 9-chloro-6-acetylaminobutylquinobenzo[3,2-b][1,4]thiazine (compound 4) and 6-chloroethylureidoethyldiquino[3,2-b;2';3'-e][1,4]thiazine (compound 5) in the amelioration of inflammatory symptoms of imiquimod-induced psoriasis in mice was investigated. Clobederm®, containing clobetasol propioniate, served as a reference drug. The application of the compounds led to thinning of the epidermis and reduction of the cell layers. The suppressive actions of the compounds were even stronger with regard to pathological changes of the dermis...
June 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Sandra Santasusagna, Isabel Moreno, Alfons Navarro, Joan J Castellano, Francisco Martinez, Raquel Hernández, Carmen Muñoz, Mariano Monzo
BACKGROUND: The analysis of exosomes in blood obtained from the tumor-draining mesenteric vein (MV) can identify tumor biomarkers before they reach target organs and form the premetastatic niche where circulating tumor cells can anchor. Our group has recently shown that microRNAs in plasma from the MV-but not the peripheral vein (PV)-have been related to liver metastases in colon cancer (CC) patients. Here we examine the exosomal protein cargo in plasma from the MV and paired PV in 31 CC patients...
June 2018: Translational Oncology
Roni F Rayes, Simon Milette, Maria Celia Fernandez, Boram Ham, Ni Wang, France Bourdeau, Stephanie Perrino, Shoshana Yakar, Pnina Brodt
The growth of cancer metastases in the liver depends on a permissive interaction with the hepatic microenvironment and neutrophils can contribute to this interaction, either positively or negatively, depending on their phenotype. Here we investigated the role of IGF-I in the control of the tumor microenvironment in the liver, using mice with a conditional, liver-specific, IGF-I deficiency (iLID) induced by a single tamoxifen injection. In mice that had a sustained (3 weeks) IGF-I deficiency prior to the intrasplenic/portal inoculation of colon carcinoma MC-38 cells, we observed an increase in neutrophil accumulation in the liver relative to controls...
March 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Marie-Elena Brett, Heather E Bomberger, Geneva R Doak, Matthew A Price, James B McCarthy, David K Wood
Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of altered hyaluronan metabolism to malignant progression of multiple tumor types, including breast carcinomas. Increased hyaluronan (HA) metabolism in the stroma of primary tumors promotes activation of oncogenic signaling pathways that impact tumor initiation, growth, and invasion. Carcinoma cell synthesis and assembly of HA-rich pericellular matrices induces a stromal-independent phenotype, which is associated with cancer progression. Although the pro-tumorigenic role of stromal HA is well established, a novel but unexplored hypothesis is that carcinoma cell-associated HA pericellular matrices promote metastasis of circulating tumor cells...
April 23, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
M Brown, F P Assen, A Leithner, J Abe, H Schachner, G Asfour, Z Bago-Horvath, J V Stein, P Uhrin, M Sixt, D Kerjaschki
During metastasis, malignant cells escape the primary tumor, intravasate lymphatic vessels, and reach draining sentinel lymph nodes before they colonize distant organs via the blood circulation. Although lymph node metastasis in cancer patients correlates with poor prognosis, evidence is lacking as to whether and how tumor cells enter the bloodstream via lymph nodes. To investigate this question, we delivered carcinoma cells into the lymph nodes of mice by microinfusing the cells into afferent lymphatic vessels...
March 23, 2018: Science
Ethel R Pereira, Dmitriy Kedrin, Giorgio Seano, Olivia Gautier, Eelco F J Meijer, Dennis Jones, Shan-Min Chin, Shuji Kitahara, Echoe M Bouta, Jonathan Chang, Elizabeth Beech, Han-Sin Jeong, Michael C Carroll, Alphonse G Taghian, Timothy P Padera
Lymph node metastases in cancer patients are associated with tumor aggressiveness, poorer prognoses, and the recommendation for systemic therapy. Whether cancer cells in lymph nodes can seed distant metastases has been a subject of considerable debate. We studied mice implanted with cancer cells (mammary carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or melanoma) expressing the photoconvertible protein Dendra2. This technology allowed us to selectively photoconvert metastatic cells in the lymph node and trace their fate...
March 23, 2018: Science
M E Rodríguez-Ruiz, J L Perez-Gracia, I Rodríguez, C Alfaro, C Oñate, G Pérez, I Gil-Bazo, A Benito, S Inogés, A López-Diaz de Cerio, M Ponz-Sarvise, L Resano, P Berraondo, B Barbés, S Martin-Algarra, A Gúrpide, M F Sanmamed, C de Andrea, A M Salazar, I Melero
Background: Combination immunotherapy has the potential to achieve additive or synergistic effects. Combined local injections of dsRNA analogues (mimicking viral RNA) and repeated vaccinations with tumor-lysate loaded dendritic cells shows efficacy against colon cancer mouse models. In the context of immunotherapy, radiotherapy can exert beneficial abscopal effects. Patients and methods: In this two-cohort pilot phase I study, 15 advanced cancer patients received two 4-week cycles of four intradermal daily doses of monocyte-derived dendritic cells preloaded with autologous tumor lysate and matured for 24 h with poly-ICLC (Hiltonol), TNF-α and IFN-α...
May 1, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
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