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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195807/parallel-evaluation-of-circulating-tumor-dna-and-circulating-tumor-cells-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#1
Giovanni Germano, Gianluca Mauri, Giulia Siravegna, Caroline Dive, Jackie Pierce, Federica Di Nicolantonio, Maurizio D'Incalci, Alberto Bardelli, Salvatore Siena, Andrea Sartore-Bianchi
BACKGROUND: Tissue biopsy is the gold standard for tumor genotyping, but it is an invasive procedure providing a single snapshot into tumor heterogeneity. Liquid biopsy approaches, encompassing the analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) or circulating tumor cells (CTCs), have been proposed as an alternative, with the potential of providing a comprehensive portrait of the tumor molecular landscape. In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), both CTCs and ctDNA analysis have been investigated, but comparative analyses are limited...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168077/progress-and-challenges-of-sequencing-and-analyzing-circulating-tumor-cells
#2
REVIEW
Zhongyi Zhu, Si Qiu, Kang Shao, Yong Hou
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) slough off primary tumor tissues and are swept away by the circulatory system. These CTCs can remain in circulation or colonize new sites, forming metastatic clones in distant organs. Recently, CTC analyses have been successfully used as effective clinical tools to monitor tumor progression and prognosis. With advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and single-cell sequencing (SCS) technologies, scientists can obtain the complete genome of a CTC and compare it with corresponding primary and metastatic tumors...
November 22, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156792/liquid-biopsy-in-colon-cancer-comparison-of-different-circulating-dna-extraction-systems-following-absolute-quantification-of-kras-mutations-using-intplex-allele-specific-pcr
#3
Vera Kloten, Nadine Rüchel, Nadina Ortiz Brüchle, Janina Gasthaus, Nils Freudenmacher, Florian Steib, Jolein Mijnes, Julian Eschenbruch, Marcel Binnebösel, Ruth Knüchel, Edgar Dahl
Non-invasive molecular analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising application in personalized cancer management, although there is still much to learn about the biological characteristics of ctDNA. The present study compared absolute amounts of KRAS mutated ctDNA and total circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (n=50) from various stages and healthy controls (n=8) by Intplex allele-specific and digital droplet PCR. In addition, the impact of two prominent extraction techniques (silica-based membrane vs...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153095/circulating-cell-free-dna-mutation-patterns-in-early-and-late-stage-colon-and-pancreatic-cancer
#4
Eveline E Vietsch, Garrett T Graham, Justine N McCutcheon, Aamir Javaid, Giuseppe Giaccone, John L Marshall, Anton Wellstein
Cancer is a heterogeneous disease harboring diverse subclonal populations that can be discriminated by their DNA mutations. Environmental pressure selects subclones that ultimately drive disease progression and tumor relapse. Circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) can be used to approximate the mutational makeup of cancer lesions and can serve as a marker for monitoring disease progression at the molecular level without the need for invasively acquired samples from primary or metastatic lesions. This potential for molecular analysis makes ccfDNA attractive for the study of clonal evolution and for uncovering emerging therapeutic resistance or sensitivity...
December 2017: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125240/tumor-associated-dna-mutation-detection-in-individuals-undergoing-colonoscopy
#5
Phillip Fleshner, Glenn D Braunstein, Gayane Ovsepyan, Theresa R Tonozzi, Anja Kammesheidt
The majority of colorectal cancers (CRC) harbor somatic mutations and epigenetic modifications in the tumor tissue, and some of these mutations can be detected in plasma as circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). Precancerous colorectal lesions also contain many of these same mutations. This study examined plasma for ctDNA from patients undergoing a screening or diagnostic colonoscopy to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the ctDNA panel for detecting CRC and precancerous lesions. Two hundred patients without a history of nonskin cancer had blood drawn before a colonoscopy...
November 10, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113675/surgery-induced-tumor-growth-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Klaas M Govaert, Jennifer M J Jongen, Onno Kranenburg, Inne H M Borel Rinkes
Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a devastating disease causing 700.000 deaths annually worldwide. Metastases most frequently develop in the liver. Partial hepatectomy has dramatically improved clinical outcome and is the only curative treatment option for eligible patients with mCRC. Pre-clinical studies have shown that surgical procedures can have tumor-promoting local 'side-effects' such as hypoxia and inflammation, thereby altering the behaviour of residual tumor cells. In addition, systemically released factors following (colon or liver) surgery can act as a wakeup-call for dormant tumor cells in distant organs and/or help establish a pre-metastatic niche...
December 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093815/metabolomics-guided-pathway-analysis-reveals-link-between-cancer-metastasis-cholesterol-sulfate-and-phospholipids
#7
Caroline H Johnson, Antonio F Santidrian, Sarah E LeBoeuf, Michael E Kurczy, Nicholas J W Rattray, Zahra Rattray, Benedikt Warth, Melissa Ritland, Linh T Hoang, Celine Loriot, Jason Higa, James E Hansen, Brunhilde H Felding, Gary Siuzdak
Background: Cancer cells that enter the metastatic cascade require traits that allow them to survive within the circulation and colonize distant organ sites. As disseminating cancer cells adapt to their changing microenvironments, they also modify their metabolism and metabolite production. Methods: A mouse xenograft model of spontaneous tumor metastasis was used to determine the metabolic rewiring that occurs between primary cancers and their metastases. An "autonomous" mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomic workflow with integrative metabolic pathway analysis revealed a number of differentially regulated metabolites in primary mammary fat pad (MFP) tumors compared to microdissected paired lung metastases...
2017: Cancer & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071179/novel-hyaluronic-acid-conjugates-for-dual-nuclear-imaging-and-therapy-in-cd44-expressing-tumors-in-mice-in-vivo
#8
Ravindra Dhar Dubey, Rebecca Klippstein, Julie Tzu-Wen Wang, Naomi Hodgins, Kuo-Ching Mei, Jane Sosabowski, Robert C Hider, Vincenzo Abbate, Prem N Gupta, Khuloud T Al-Jamal
Hyaluronic acid, a natural CD44 receptor ligand, has attracted attention in the past years as a macromolecular delivery of anticancer agents to cancer. At the same time, the clinical applications of Gemcitabine (Gem) have been hindered by its short biological half-life, high dose and development of drug resistance. This work reports the synthesis of a hyaluronic acid (HA) conjugate for nuclear imaging, and in vivo Gem delivery to CD44-expressing solid tumors in mice. HA was individually conjugated, via amide coupling, to Gem (HA-Gem), 4'-(aminomethyl)fluorescein hydrochloride (HA-4'-AMF) or tris(hydroxypyridinone) amine (HA-THP) for cancer therapy, in vitro tracking or single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging, respectively...
2017: Nanotheranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069870/tumor-educated-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-pro-metastatic-phenotype
#9
REVIEW
Billy Samuel Hill, Alessandra Pelagalli, Nunzia Passaro, Antonella Zannetti
Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are recruited into tumor microenvironment in response to multiple signals produced by cancer cells. Molecules involved in their homing to tumors are the same inflammatory mediators produced by injured tissues: chemokines, cytokines and growth factors. When MSCs arrive into the tumor microenvironment these are "educated" to have pro-metastatic behaviour. Firstly, they promote cancer immunosuppression modulating both innate and adaptive immune systems. Moreover, tumor associated-MSCs trans-differentiating into cancer-associated fibroblasts can induce epithelial-mesenchymal-transition program in tumor cells...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069832/acylated-and-unacylated-ghrelin-inhibit-atrophy-in-myotubes-co-cultured-with-colon-carcinoma-cells
#10
Xianliang Zeng, Sizeng Chen, Yang Yang, Zhao Ke
Cancer cachexia is a result of increased protein degradation and decreased protein synthesis. The multifunctional circulating hormone ghrelin promotes synthesis and inhibits degradation of muscle protein, but its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether co-culturing C2C12 myotubes with CT26 colon carcinoma cells induces myotube atrophy, and whether acylated ghrelin (AG) and unacylated ghrelin (UnAG) had anti-atrophic effects. We found that co-culture induced myotube atrophy and increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and myostatin concentrations in the culture medium...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051388/a-conduit-to-metastasis-circulating-tumor-cell-biology
#11
REVIEW
Douglas S Micalizzi, Shyamala Maheswaran, Daniel A Haber
Advances in the enrichment and analysis of rare cells from the bloodstream have allowed for detection and characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from patients with cancer. The analysis of CTCs has provided significant insight into the metastatic process. Studies on the biology of CTCs have begun to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of CTC generation, intravasation, survival, interactions with components of the blood, extravasation, and colonization of distant organs. Additionally, the study of CTCs has exposed dramatic intrapatient and interpatient heterogeneity and their evolution over time...
September 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031034/-potential-of-using-vitamin-d-as-an-adjuvant-treatment-of-malignant-melanoma
#12
B Bolerázska, E Ďurovcová, M Mareková
The incidence of malignant melanoma worldwide continues to grow despite the enormous advances in topical and systemic therapy. This increase is recorded regularly even in countries where, as a result of public health campaigns, dermatological examination and subsequent treatment have become more frequent. However, there have been reports of a stable or even decreasing mortality rate that seem to contradict the objective increase in its incidence. The well-known risk factors for malignant melanoma include sunburns and occasional sunbathing, whereas regular sunbathing is associated with a lower incidence...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993738/continuous-release-of-tumor-derived-factors-improves-the-modeling-of-cachexia-in-muscle-cell-culture
#13
Robert W Jackman, Jess Floro, Rei Yoshimine, Brian Zitin, Maythita Eiampikul, Kahlid El-Jack, Danielle N Seto, Susan C Kandarian
Cachexia is strongly associated with a poor prognosis in cancer patients but the biological trigger is unknown and therefore no therapeutics exist. The loss of skeletal muscle is the most deleterious aspect of cachexia and it appears to depend on secretions from tumor cells. Models for studying wasting in cell culture consist of experiments where skeletal muscle cells are incubated with medium conditioned by tumor cells. This has led to candidates for cachectic factors but some of the features of cachexia in vivo are not yet well-modeled in cell culture experiments...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980150/comparison-of-circulating-mirnas-expression-alterations-in-matched-tissue-and-plasma-samples-during-colorectal-cancer-progression
#14
Zsófia Brigitta Nagy, Barbara Kinga Barták, Alexandra Kalmár, Orsolya Galamb, Barnabás Wichmann, Magdolna Dank, Péter Igaz, Zsolt Tulassay, Béla Molnár
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play a critical role in colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence. MiRNA-specific high-throughput arrays became available to detect promising miRNA expression alterations even in biological fluids, such as plasma samples, where miRNAs are stable. The purpose of this study was to identify circulating miRNAs showing altered expression between normal colonic (N), tubular adenoma (ADT), tubulovillous adenoma (ADTV) and colorectal cancer (CRC) matched plasma and tissue samples. Sixteen peripheral plasma and matched tissue biopsy samples (N n = 4; ADT n = 4; ADTV n = 4; CRC n = 4) were selected, and total RNA including miRNA fraction was isolated...
October 4, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975085/evaluation-of-a-simple-method-for-storage-of-blood-samples-that-enables-isolation-of-circulating-tumor-cells-96%C3%A2-h-after-sample-collection
#15
Panagiotis Apostolou, Dimitrios-Athanasios Ntanovasilis, Ioannis Papasotiriou
BACKGROUND: Minimizing the effects of transportation on the properties of biological material is a major challenge for the scientific community. The viability of cells is important in cases where their study is urgent for evaluation of treatment response or for the study of cancer progression. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) constitute a cell subpopulation with great importance for oncologists, because of their prognostic value. Detection and isolation of CTCs from blood samples is a routine activity in many laboratories, but concerns exist with regard to the maintenance of the cells during transportation...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949453/somatic-mutation-detection-using-various-targeted-detection-assays-in-paired-samples-of-circulating-tumor-dna-primary-tumor-and-metastases-from-patients-undergoing-resection-of-colorectal-liver-metastases
#16
(no author information available yet)
Assessing circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising method to evaluate somatic mutations from solid tumors in a minimally-invasive way. In a group of twelve metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients undergoing liver metastasectomy, from each patient DNA from cell-free DNA (cfDNA), the primary tumor, metastatic liver tissue, normal tumor-adjacent colon or liver tissue, and whole blood were obtained. Investigated was the feasibility of a targeted NGS approach to identify somatic mutations in ctDNA. This targeted NGS approach was also compared with NGS preceded by mutant allele enrichment using synchronous coefficient of drag alteration technology embodied in the OnTarget assay, and for selected mutations with digital PCR (dPCR)...
December 2016: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948632/circulating-cell-free-high-mobility-group-at-hook-2-mrna-as-a-detection-marker-in-the-serum-of-colorectal-cancer-patients
#17
Sana Sahengbieke, Jian Wang, Xiangwei Li, Yuhong Wang, Maode Lai, Jingjing Wu
BACKGROUND: Detection of circulating cell-free mRNA serves as noninvasive tools for cancer diagnosis. As an oncofetal protein, HMGA2 (high mobility group AT-hook 2) is upregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues. However, it is not clear whether the increased levels of circulating cell-free HMGA2 mRNA functions as potential biomarkers for improved diagnosis of CRC. METHODS: To assess its clinical significance in diagnosis and prediction, we evaluated serum levels of circulating HMGA2 mRNA in CRC patients and in healthy controls...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940209/chronic-psychological-stress-promotes-lung-metastatic-colonization-of-circulating-breast-cancer-cells-by-decorating-a-pre-metastatic-niche-through-activating-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling
#18
Hongyu Chen, Dan Liu, Liang Guo, Xiang Cheng, Ning Guo, Ming Shi
Numerous studies have indicated that primary tumors induce the formation of a pre-metastatic niche in distant organs by secreting tumor-derived factors. The present study shows that pre-exposure to chronic stress enhanced lung colonization efficiency by circulating tumor cells, suggesting that chronic stress critically influences pre-metastatic lungs before the arrival of disseminated tumor cells. Ablation of the sympathetic nerve function by 6-OHDA or blockage of the β-adrenergic signaling by propranolol remarkably suppressed stress-induced lung metastasis...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938688/drag-reducing-polymers-decrease-hepatic-injury-and-metastases-after-liver-ischemia-reperfusion
#19
Samer Tohme, Marina V Kameneva, Hamza O Yazdani, Vikas Sud, Julie Goswami, Patricia Loughran, Hai Huang, Richard L Simmons, Allan Tsung
INTRODUCTION: Surgery, a crucial therapeutic modality in the treatment of solid tumors, can induce sterile inflammatory processes which can result in metastatic progression. Liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, an inevitable consequence of hepatic resection of metastases, has been shown to foster hepatic capture of circulating cancer cells and accelerate metastatic growth. Efforts to reduce these negative consequences have not been thoroughly investigated. Drag reducing polymers (DRPs) are blood-soluble macromolecules that can, in nanomolar concentrations, increase tissue perfusion, decrease vascular resistance and decrease near-wall microvascular concentration of neutrophils and platelets thereby possibly reducing the inflammatory microenvironment...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904887/biology-and-clinical-significance-of-circulating-tumor-cell-subpopulations-in-lung-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Linda O'Flaherty, Harriet Wikman, Klaus Pantel
By identifying and tracking genetic changes in primary tumors and metastases, patients can be stratified for the most efficient therapeutic regimen by screening for known biomarkers. However, retrieving tissues biopsies is not always feasible due to tumor location or risk to patient. Therefore, a liquid biopsies approach offers an appealing solution to an otherwise invasive procedure. The rapid growth of the liquid biopsy field has been aided by improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of enrichment assays for isolating circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from normal surrounding blood cells...
August 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
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