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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051388/a-conduit-to-metastasis-circulating-tumor-cell-biology
#1
REVIEW
Douglas S Micalizzi, Shyamala Maheswaran, Daniel A Haber
Advances in the enrichment and analysis of rare cells from the bloodstream have allowed for detection and characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from patients with cancer. The analysis of CTCs has provided significant insight into the metastatic process. Studies on the biology of CTCs have begun to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of CTC generation, intravasation, survival, interactions with components of the blood, extravasation, and colonization of distant organs. Additionally, the study of CTCs has exposed dramatic intrapatient and interpatient heterogeneity and their evolution over time...
September 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031034/-potential-of-using-vitamin-d-as-an-adjuvant-treatment-of-malignant-melanoma
#2
B Bolerázska, E Ďurovcová, M Mareková
The incidence of malignant melanoma worldwide continues to grow despite the enormous advances in topical and systemic therapy. This increase is recorded regularly even in countries where, as a result of public health campaigns, dermatological examination and subsequent treatment have become more frequent. However, there have been reports of a stable or even decreasing mortality rate that seem to contradict the objective increase in its incidence. The well-known risk factors for malignant melanoma include sunburns and occasional sunbathing, whereas regular sunbathing is associated with a lower incidence...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993738/continuous-release-of-tumor-derived-factors-improves-the-modeling-of-cachexia-in-muscle-cell-culture
#3
Robert W Jackman, Jess Floro, Rei Yoshimine, Brian Zitin, Maythita Eiampikul, Kahlid El-Jack, Danielle N Seto, Susan C Kandarian
Cachexia is strongly associated with a poor prognosis in cancer patients but the biological trigger is unknown and therefore no therapeutics exist. The loss of skeletal muscle is the most deleterious aspect of cachexia and it appears to depend on secretions from tumor cells. Models for studying wasting in cell culture consist of experiments where skeletal muscle cells are incubated with medium conditioned by tumor cells. This has led to candidates for cachectic factors but some of the features of cachexia in vivo are not yet well-modeled in cell culture experiments...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980150/comparison-of-circulating-mirnas-expression-alterations-in-matched-tissue-and-plasma-samples-during-colorectal-cancer-progression
#4
Zsófia Brigitta Nagy, Barbara Kinga Barták, Alexandra Kalmár, Orsolya Galamb, Barnabás Wichmann, Magdolna Dank, Péter Igaz, Zsolt Tulassay, Béla Molnár
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play a critical role in colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence. MiRNA-specific high-throughput arrays became available to detect promising miRNA expression alterations even in biological fluids, such as plasma samples, where miRNAs are stable. The purpose of this study was to identify circulating miRNAs showing altered expression between normal colonic (N), tubular adenoma (ADT), tubulovillous adenoma (ADTV) and colorectal cancer (CRC) matched plasma and tissue samples. Sixteen peripheral plasma and matched tissue biopsy samples (N n = 4; ADT n = 4; ADTV n = 4; CRC n = 4) were selected, and total RNA including miRNA fraction was isolated...
October 4, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975085/evaluation-of-a-simple-method-for-storage-of-blood-samples-that-enables-isolation-of-circulating-tumor-cells-96%C3%A2-h-after-sample-collection
#5
Panagiotis Apostolou, Dimitrios-Athanasios Ntanovasilis, Ioannis Papasotiriou
BACKGROUND: Minimizing the effects of transportation on the properties of biological material is a major challenge for the scientific community. The viability of cells is important in cases where their study is urgent for evaluation of treatment response or for the study of cancer progression. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) constitute a cell subpopulation with great importance for oncologists, because of their prognostic value. Detection and isolation of CTCs from blood samples is a routine activity in many laboratories, but concerns exist with regard to the maintenance of the cells during transportation...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949453/somatic-mutation-detection-using-various-targeted-detection-assays-in-paired-samples-of-circulating-tumor-dna-primary-tumor-and-metastases-from-patients-undergoing-resection-of-colorectal-liver-metastases
#6
(no author information available yet)
Assessing circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising method to evaluate somatic mutations from solid tumors in a minimally-invasive way. In a group of twelve metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients undergoing liver metastasectomy, from each patient DNA from cell-free DNA (cfDNA), the primary tumor, metastatic liver tissue, normal tumor-adjacent colon or liver tissue, and whole blood were obtained. Investigated was the feasibility of a targeted NGS approach to identify somatic mutations in ctDNA. This targeted NGS approach was also compared with NGS preceded by mutant allele enrichment using synchronous coefficient of drag alteration technology embodied in the OnTarget assay, and for selected mutations with digital PCR (dPCR)...
December 2016: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948632/circulating-cell-free-high-mobility-group-at-hook-2-mrna-as-a-detection-marker-in-the-serum-of-colorectal-cancer-patients
#7
Sana Sahengbieke, Jian Wang, Xiangwei Li, Yuhong Wang, Maode Lai, Jingjing Wu
BACKGROUND: Detection of circulating cell-free mRNA serves as noninvasive tools for cancer diagnosis. As an oncofetal protein, HMGA2 (high mobility group AT-hook 2) is upregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues. However, it is not clear whether the increased levels of circulating cell-free HMGA2 mRNA functions as potential biomarkers for improved diagnosis of CRC. METHODS: To assess its clinical significance in diagnosis and prediction, we evaluated serum levels of circulating HMGA2 mRNA in CRC patients and in healthy controls...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940209/chronic-psychological-stress-promotes-lung-metastatic-colonization-of-circulating-breast-cancer-cells-by-decorating-a-pre-metastatic-niche-through-activating-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling
#8
Hongyu Chen, Dan Liu, Liang Guo, Xiang Cheng, Ning Guo, Ming Shi
Numerous studies have indicated that primary tumors induce formation of a pre-metastatic niche in distant organs by secreting tumor-derived factors. The present study shows that pre-exposure to chronic stress enhanced lung colonization efficiency by circulating tumor cells, suggesting that chronic stress critically influences pre-metastatic lungs before arrival of disseminated tumor cells. Ablation of the sympathetic nerve function by 6-OHDA or blockage of the β-adrenergic signaling by propranolol remarkably suppressed stress-induced lung metastasis...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938688/drag-reducing-polymers-decrease-hepatic-injury-and-metastases-after-liver-ischemia-reperfusion
#9
Samer Tohme, Marina V Kameneva, Hamza O Yazdani, Vikas Sud, Julie Goswami, Patricia Loughran, Hai Huang, Richard L Simmons, Allan Tsung
INTRODUCTION: Surgery, a crucial therapeutic modality in the treatment of solid tumors, can induce sterile inflammatory processes which can result in metastatic progression. Liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, an inevitable consequence of hepatic resection of metastases, has been shown to foster hepatic capture of circulating cancer cells and accelerate metastatic growth. Efforts to reduce these negative consequences have not been thoroughly investigated. Drag reducing polymers (DRPs) are blood-soluble macromolecules that can, in nanomolar concentrations, increase tissue perfusion, decrease vascular resistance and decrease near-wall microvascular concentration of neutrophils and platelets thereby possibly reducing the inflammatory microenvironment...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904887/biology-and-clinical-significance-of-circulating-tumor-cell-subpopulations-in-lung-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Linda O'Flaherty, Harriet Wikman, Klaus Pantel
By identifying and tracking genetic changes in primary tumors and metastases, patients can be stratified for the most efficient therapeutic regimen by screening for known biomarkers. However, retrieving tissues biopsies is not always feasible due to tumor location or risk to patient. Therefore, a liquid biopsies approach offers an appealing solution to an otherwise invasive procedure. The rapid growth of the liquid biopsy field has been aided by improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of enrichment assays for isolating circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from normal surrounding blood cells...
August 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903369/toxicology-and-efficacy-of-tumor-targeting-salmonella-typhimurium-a1-r-compared-to-vnp-20009-in-a-syngeneic-mouse-tumor-model-in-immunocompetent-mice
#11
Yong Zhang, Wenluo Cao, Makoto Toneri, Nan Zhang, Tasuku Kiyuna, Takashi Murakami, Scott D Nelson, Sarah M Dry, Yunfeng Li, Shukuan Li, Xiaoen Wang, Huaiyu Ma, Arun S Singh, Fritz C Eilber, Robert M Hoffman, Ming Zhao
Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R) attenuated by leu and arg auxotrophy has been shown to target multiple types of cancer in mouse models. In the present study, toxicologic and biodistribution studies of tumor-targeting S. typhimurium A1-R and S. typhimurium VNP20009 (VNP 20009) were performed in a syngeneic tumor model growing in immunocompetent BALB/c mice. Single or multiple doses of S. typhimurium A1-R of 2.5 × 10(5) and 5 × 10(5) were tolerated. A single dose of 1 × 10(6) resulted in mouse death...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900219/rapid-staining-of-circulating-tumor-cells-in-three-dimensional-microwell-dialysis-3d-%C3%AE-dialysis-chip
#12
Wanying Cho, Rangadhar Pradhan, Hsin Ying Chen, Yi-Hsuan Weng, Hsueh Yao Chu, Fan-Gang Tseng, Chien-Ping Lin, Jeng-Kai Jiang
The conventional techniques to detect circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are lengthy and the use of centrifugal forces in this technique may cause cell mortality. As the number of CTCs in patients is quite low, the present study aims towards a gentler diagnostic procedure so as not to lose too many CTCs during the sample preparation process. Hence, a Three-Dimensional Microwell dialysis (3D-μDialysis) chip was designed in this study to perform gentle fluorescence-removal process by using dialysis-type flow processes without centrifuging...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894840/cell-line-dependent-expression-of-epcam-influences-the-detection-of-circulating-tumor-cells-with-cellsearch
#13
Gustaf Lindgren, Johan Wennerberg, Lars Ekblad
OBJECTIVES: The existence of circulating tumor cells has emerged as an important factor for prognosis and survival. The CellSearch method is the only circulating tumor cell detection method approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for clinical use. It relies on the detection of EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) and is approved for colon cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer. We now investigated whether CellSearch can be used to quantify circulating tumor cells in head and neck squamous cell cancer...
August 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889371/bone-marrow-stroma-and-vascular-contributions-to-myeloma-bone-homing
#14
REVIEW
Michele Moschetta, Yawara Kawano, Antonio Sacco, Angelo Belotti, Rossella Ribolla, Marco Chiarini, Viviana Giustini, Diego Bertoli, Alessandra Sottini, Monica Valotti, Claudia Ghidini, Federico Serana, Michele Malagola, Luisa Imberti, Domenico Russo, Alessandro Montanelli, Giuseppe Rossi, Michaela R Reagan, Patricia Maiso, Bruno Paiva, Irene M Ghobrial, Aldo M Roccaro
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Herein we dissect mechanisms behind the dissemination of cancer cells from primary tumor site to the bone marrow, which are necessary for metastasis development, with a specific focus on multiple myeloma. RECENT FINDINGS: The ability of tumor cells to invade vessels and reach the systemic circulation is a fundamental process for metastasis development; however, the interaction between clonal cells and the surrounding microenvironment is equally important for supporting colonization, survival, and growth in the secondary sites of dissemination...
September 9, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881655/dna-hypomethylation-of-cbs-promoter-induced-by-folate-deficiency-is-a-potential-noninvasive-circulating-biomarker-for-colorectal-adenocarcinomas
#15
Geng Xue, Chao-Jing Lu, Shu-Jun Pan, Yin-Ling Zhang, Hui Miao, Shi Shan, Xiao-Ting Zhu, Yi Zhang
Aberrant DNA methylation patterns, which induced by folate deficiency, play important roles in tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Some DNA methylation alterations can also be detected in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of patients' plasma, making cfDNA an ideal noninvasive circulating biomarker. However, exact DNA methylation alterations induced by folate deficiency in tumorigenesis of CRC and exact potential circulating cfDNA methylation biomarker are still unclear. Therefore, DNA methylation patterns of the normal human colon mucosal epithelial cell line (NCM460), cultured with normal or low folate content, were screened and the DNA hypomethylation of cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) promoter was further validated in vitro and vivo...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870907/circulating-levels-of-vegf-and-cxcl1-are-predictive-of-metastatic-organotropismin-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer
#16
Rosa Divella, Antonella Daniele, Raffaele DE Luca, Michele Simone, Emanuele Naglieri, Eufemia Savino, Ines Abbate, Cosmo Damiano Gadaleta, Girolamo Ranieri
Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal system and has a marked preference to metastasize to distant organs. In this study, we investigated whether levels of circulating serum pro-angiogenic cytokine such as chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (melanoma growth-stimulating activity, alpha; CXCL1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have a role in favoring the colonization of metastatic cells at preferential sites and determined their prognostic significance in a cohort of 103 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer...
September 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819847/negative-enrichment-and-isolation-of-circulating-tumor-cells-for-whole-genome-amplification
#17
Nisha Kanwar, Susan J Done
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a rare population of cells found in the peripheral blood of patients with many types of cancer such as breast, prostate, colon, and lung cancers. Higher numbers of these cells in blood are associated with a poorer prognosis of patients. Genomic profiling of CTCs would help characterize markers specific for the identification of these cells in blood, and also define genomic alterations that give these cells a metastatic advantage over other cells in the primary tumor. Here, we describe an immunomagnetic method to enrich CTCs from the blood of patients with breast cancer, followed by single-cell laser capture microdissection to isolate single CTCs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819844/fourier-ptychographic-microscopy-for-rapid-high-resolution-imaging-of-circulating-tumor-cells-enriched-by-microfiltration
#18
Anthony Williams, Jaebum Chung, Changhuei Yang, Richard J Cote
Examining the hematogenous compartment for evidence of metastasis has increased significantly within the oncology research community in recent years, due to the development of technologies aimed at the enrichment of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), the subpopulation of primary tumor cells that gain access to the circulatory system and are responsible for colonization at distant sites. In contrast to other technologies, filtration-based CTC enrichment, which exploits differences in size between larger tumor cells and surrounding smaller, non-tumor blood cells, has the potential to improve CTC characterization through isolation of tumor cell populations with greater molecular heterogeneity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811968/il-32%C3%AE-induced-inflammation-constitutes-a-link-between-obesity-and-colon-cancer
#19
Victoria Catalán, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Amaia Rodríguez, Beatriz Ramírez, Victor A Ortega, José Luis Hernández-Lizoain, Jorge Baixauli, Sara Becerril, Fernando Rotellar, Víctor Valentí, Rafael Moncada, Camilo Silva, Javier Salvador, Gema Frühbeck
Growing evidence indicates that adipose tissue inflammation is an important mechanism whereby obesity promotes cancer risk and progression. Since IL-32 is an important inflammatory and remodeling factor in obesity and is also related to colon cancer (CC) development, the aim of this study was to explore whether IL-32 could function as an inflammatory factor in human obesity-associated CC promoting a microenvironment favorable for tumor growth. Samples obtained from 84 subjects [27 lean (LN) and 57 obese (OB)] were used in the study...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742687/the-allosteric-hemoglobin-effector-itpp-inhibits-metastatic-colon-cancer-in-mice
#20
Perparim Limani, Michael Linecker, Marcel A Schneider, Philipp Kron, Christoph Tschuor, Ekaterina Kachaylo, Udo Ungethuem, Claude Nicolau, Jean-Marie Lehn, Rolf Graf, Bostjan Humar, Pierre-Alain Clavien
OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of enhanced intracellular oxygen contents on the metastatic potential of colon cancer. BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the commonest gastrointestinal carcinoma. Distant metastases occur in half of patients and are responsible for most cancer-related deaths. Tumor hypoxia is central to the pathogenesis of metastases. Myo-Inositoltrispyrophosphate (ITPP), a nontoxic, antihypoxic compound, has recently shown significant benefits in experimental cancer, particularly when combined with standard chemotherapy...
November 2017: Annals of Surgery
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