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mechanobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624610/chemically-defined-ultrasoft-pdms-elastomers-with-selectable-elasticity-for-mechanobiology
#1
Viktor Heinrichs, Sabine Dieluweit, Jörg Stellbrink, Wim Pyckhout-Hintzen, Nils Hersch, Dieter Richter, Rudolf Merkel
Living animal cells are strongly influenced by the mechanical properties of their environment. To model physiological conditions ultrasoft cell culture substrates, in some instances with elasticity (Young's modulus) of only 1 kPa, are mandatory. Due to their long shelf life PDMS-based elastomers are a popular choice. However, uncertainty about additives in commercial formulations and difficulties to reach very soft materials limit their use. Here, we produced silicone elastomers from few, chemically defined and commercially available substances...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609866/biomechanical-analysis-of-bone-remodeling-following-mandibular-reconstruction-using-fibula-free-flap
#2
Nobuhiro Yoda, Keke Zheng, Junning Chen, Zhipeng Liao, Shigeto Koyama, Christopher Peck, Michael Swain, Keiichi Sasaki, Qing Li
Whilst the newly established biomechanical conditions following mandibular reconstruction using fibula free flap can be a critical determinant for achieving favorable bone union, little has been known about their association in a time-dependent fashion. This study evaluated the bone healing/remodeling activity in reconstructed mandible and its influence on jaw biomechanics using CT data, and further quantified their correlation with mechanobiological responses through an in-silico approach. A 66-year-old male patient received mandibular reconstruction was studied...
March 30, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606309/targeting-biophysical-cues-a-niche-approach-to-study-diagnose-and-treat-cancer
#3
Shirley X Zhang, Linan Liu, Weian Zhao
Probing the biophysical properties of the tumor niche offers a new perspective in cancer mechanobiology, and supports the development of next-generation diagnostics and therapeutics for cancer, in particular for metastasis.
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599957/a-comprehensive-method-for-accurate-strain-distribution-measurement-of-cell-substrate-subjected-to-large-deformation
#4
Hong He, Rong Zhou, Yuanwen Zou, Xuejin Huang, Jinchuan Li
Cell mechanical stretching in vitro is a fundamental technique commonly used in cardiovascular mechanobiology research. Accordingly, it is crucial to measure the accurate strain field of cell substrate under different strains. Digital image correlation (DIC) is a widely used measurement technique, which is able to obtain the accurate displacement and strain distribution. However, the traditional DIC algorithm used in digital image correlation engine (DICe) cannot obtain accurate result when utilized in large strain measurement...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596022/3d-uniaxial-mechanical-stimulation-induces-tenogenic-differentiation-of-tendon-derived-stem-cells-through-a-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#5
Tao Wang, Christine Thien, Carolyn Wang, Ming Ni, Junjie Gao, Allan Wang, Qing Jiang, Rocky S Tuan, Qiujian Zheng, Ming H Zheng
The tendon is a mechanosensitive tissue, but little is known about how mechanical stimulation selectively signals tenogenic differentiation and neo-tendon formation. In this study, we compared the impact of uniaxial and biaxial mechanical loading on tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs). Our data show that there are variations in cell signaling and cell differentiation of mouse TDSCs in response to uniaxial and biaxial loading in monolayer culture. Whereas uniaxial loading induced TDSCs toward tenogenic and osteogenic differentiation, biaxial loading induced osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation of TDSCs...
March 29, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594040/cancer-cell-mechanics-adhesion-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-action
#6
Nicole Scholz
In mammals, numerous organ systems are equipped with adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) to shape cellular processes including migration, adhesion, polarity and guidance. All of these cell biological aspects are closely associated with tumor cell biology. Consistently, aberrant expression or malfunction of aGPCRs has been associated with dysplasia and tumorigenesis. Mounting evidence indicates that cancer cells comprise viscoelastic properties that are different from that of their non-tumorigenic counterparts, a feature that is believed to contribute to the increased motility and invasiveness of metastatic cancer cells...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581973/computational-investigation-on-the-biomechanical-responses-of-the-osteocytes-to-the-compressive-stimulus-a-poroelastic-model
#7
Liping Wang, Jianghui Dong, Cory J Xian
Osteocytes, the major type of bone cells embedded in the bone matrix and surrounded by the lacunar and canalicular system, can serve as biomechanosensors and biomechanotranducers of the bone. Theoretical analytical methods have been employed to investigate the biomechanical responses of osteocytes in vivo; the poroelastic properties have not been taken into consideration in the three-dimensional (3D) finite element model. In this study, a 3D poroelastic idealized finite element model was developed and was used to predict biomechanical behaviours (maximal principal strain, pore pressure, and fluid velocity) of the osteocyte-lacunar-canalicular system under 150-, 1000-, 3000-, and 5000-microstrain compressive loads, respectively, representing disuse, physiological, overuse, and pathological overload loading stimuli...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564298/pauwels-osteotomy-for-femoral-neck-nonunion-in-two-adult-siblings-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#8
Peter Kloen, Johanna C E Donders, E Marelise W Eekhoff, Reggie C Hamdy
This is a retrospective review of two adult siblings with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type III (according to Sillence classification), who sustained a spontaneous femoral neck fracture and subsequent nonunion. The diagnosis of OI in these two patients was made based on clinical, radiological and genetic findings. The fracture was most likely caused by femoroacetabular impingement secondary to OI induced acetabular protrusio. A valgus osteotomy according to Pauwels'principles and fixation of the osteotomy and nonunion with a locking plate resulted in healing despite compromised bone quality and limited bone stock...
March 2018: Hip & Pelvis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553526/using-a-microfluidics-device-for-mechanical-stimulation-and-high-resolution-imaging-of-c-elegans
#9
Holger Fehlauer, Adam L Nekimken, Anna A Kim, Beth L Pruitt, Miriam B Goodman, Michael Krieg
One central goal of mechanobiology is to understand the reciprocal effect of mechanical stress on proteins and cells. Despite its importance, the influence of mechanical stress on cellular function is still poorly understood. In part, this knowledge gap exists because few tools enable simultaneous deformation of tissue and cells, imaging of cellular activity in live animals, and efficient restriction of motility in otherwise highly mobile model organisms, such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The small size of C...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549970/programmable-hydrogels
#10
Yong Wang
Programmable hydrogels are defined as hydrogels that are able to change their properties and functions periodically, reversibly and/or sequentially on demand. They are different from those responsive hydrogels whose changes are passive or cannot be stopped or reversed once started and vice versa. The purpose of this review is to summarize major progress in developing programmable hydrogels from the viewpoints of principles, functions and biomedical applications. The principles are first introduced in three categories including biological, chemical and physical stimulation...
March 5, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543908/simulating-lateral-distraction-osteogenesis
#11
Frank Niemeyer, Lutz Claes, Anita Ignatius, Nicholaus Meyers, Ulrich Simon
Distraction osteogenesis is an effective method for generating large amounts of bone in situ for treating pathologies such as large bone defects or skeletal malformations, for instance leg-length discrepancies. While an optimized distraction procedure might have the potential to reduce the rate of complications significantly, our knowledge of the underlying mechanobiological processes is still insufficient for systematic optimization of treatment parameters such as distraction rate or fixation stiffness. We present a novel numerical model of lateral distraction osteogenesis, based on a mechanically well-controlled in vivo experiment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543348/recent-advances-in-magnetic-nanomaterial-based-mechanotransduction-for-cell-fate-regulation
#12
REVIEW
Congyu Wu, Yajing Shen, Mengwei Chen, Kun Wang, Yongyong Li, Yu Cheng
Remote control of cells and the regulation of cell events at the molecular level are of great interest in the biomedical field. In addition to chemical compounds and genes, mechanical forces play a pivotal role in regulating cell fate, which have prompted the rapid growth of mechanobiology. From a perspective of nanotechnology, magnetic nanomaterials (MNs) are an appealing option for mechanotransduction due to their capabilities in spatiotemporal manipulation of mechanical forces via the magnetic field. As a newly developed paradigm, magneto-mechanotransduction is harnessed to physically regulate cell fate for biomedical applications...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542324/interconnectable-dynamic-compression-bioreactors-for-combinatorial-screening-of-cell-mechanobiology-in-three-dimensions
#13
Jungmok Seo, Jung-Youn Shin, Jeroen Leijten, Oju Jeon, Ayça Bal Öztürk, Jeroen Rouwkema, Yuancheng Li, Su Ryon Shin, Hadi Hajiali, Eben Alsberg, Ali Khademhosseini
Biophysical cues can potently direct a cell's or tissue's behavior. Cells interpret their biophysical surroundings, such as matrix stiffness or dynamic mechanical stimulation, through mechanotransduction. However, our understanding of the various aspects of mechanotransduction has been limited by the lack of proper analysis platforms capable of screening three-dimensional (3D) cellular behaviors in response to biophysical cues. Here, we developed a dynamic compression bioreactor to study the combinational effects of biomaterial composition and dynamic mechanical compression on cellular behavior in 3D hydrogels...
March 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536225/hemodynamic-shear-stress-induces-protective-autophagy-in-hela-cells-through-lipid-raft-mediated-mechanotransduction
#14
Joyjyoti Das, Somnath Maji, Tarun Agarwal, Suman Chakraborty, Tapas K Maiti
During metastatic dissemination, cancer cells experience shear stresses in narrow confinements of in vivo vasculature. Such stresses are currently known to influence a gamut of cellular processes. While a host of cells emanating from a primary tumor perish in circulation due to shear, some cells manage to migrate to distant niches and form secondary tumors. Current research focuses on how cancer cells avert such mechanical stresses and adapt themselves in order to survive. This study deals with the autophagic response of cervical cancer cells HeLa and its subline HeLa 229, exposed to physiological shear stresses in vitro, and evaluates its role as a pro-survival mechanism...
March 13, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533180/large-long-range-tensile-forces-drive-convergence-during-xenopus-blastopore-closure-and-body-axis-elongation
#15
David R Shook, Eric M Kasprowicz, Lance A Davidson, Raymond Keller
Indirect evidence suggests that blastopore closure during gastrulation of anamniotes, including amphibians such as Xenopus laevis , depends on circumblastoporal convergence forces generated by the marginal zone (MZ), but direct evidence is lacking. We show that explanted MZs generate tensile convergence forces up to 1.5 mN during gastrulation and over 4 mN thereafter. These forces are generated by convergent thickening (CT) until the midgastrula and increasingly by convergent extension (CE) thereafter. Explants from ventralized embryos, which lack tissues expressing CE but close their blastopores, produce up to 2 mN of tensile force, showing that CT alone generates forces sufficient to close the blastopore...
March 13, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515846/on-the-feasibility-of-the-computational-modelling-of-the-endoluminal-vacuum-assisted-closure-of-an-oesophageal-anastomotic-leakage
#16
Ester Comellas, Facundo J Bellomo, Iván Rosales, Luis F Del Castillo, Ricardo Sánchez, Pau Turon, Sergio Oller
Endoluminal vacuum-assisted closure (E-VAC) is a promising therapy to treat anastomotic leakages of the oesophagus and bowel which are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. An open-pore polyurethane foam is introduced into the leakage cavity and connected to a device that applies a suction pressure to accelerate the closure of the defect. Computational analysis of this healing process can advance our understanding of the biomechanical mechanisms at play. To this aim, we use a dual-stage finite-element analysis in which (i) the structural problem addresses the cavity reduction caused by the suction and (ii) a new constitutive formulation models tissue healing via permanent deformations coupled to a stiffness increase...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512682/cyclic-mechanical-tension-reinforces-dna-damage-and-activates-the-p53-p21-rb-pathway-to-induce-premature-senescence-of-nucleus-pulposus-cells
#17
Chencheng Feng, Minghui Yang, Yang Zhang, Minghong Lan, Bo Huang, Huan Liu, Yue Zhou
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration (IDD) is a widely recognized contributor to low back pain. Mechanical stress is a crucial etiological factor of IDD. During the process of IDD, a vicious circle is formed between abnormal mechanical stress and the damage of disc structure and function. Notably, the pathological process of IDD is mediated by the phenotypic shift of IVD cells from an extracellular matrix anabolic phenotype to a catabolic and pro-inflammatory phenotype. Therefore, the effects of mechanical stress on the initiation and progression of IDD depend on the mechanobiology of IVD cells...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488533/flow-dynamics-control-endothelial-permeability-in-a-microfluidic-vessel-bifurcation-model
#18
Ehsan Akbari, Griffin B Spychalski, Kaushik K Rangharajan, Shaurya Prakash, Jonathan W Song
Endothelial barrier function is known to be regulated by a number of molecular mechanisms; however, the role of biomechanical signals associated with blood flow is comparatively less explored. Biomimetic microfluidic models comprised of vessel analogues that are lined with endothelial cells (ECs) have been developed to help answer several fundamental questions in endothelial mechanobiology. However, previously described microfluidic models have been primarily restricted to single straight or two parallel vessel analogues, which do not model the bifurcating vessel networks typically present in physiology...
February 28, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485616/whole-transcriptome-sequencing-a-powerful-tool-for-vascular-tissue-engineering-and-endothelial-mechanobiology
#19
REVIEW
Anton G Kutikhin, Maxim Yu Sinitsky, Arseniy E Yuzhalin, Elena A Velikanova
Among applicable high-throughput techniques in cardiovascular biology, whole-transcriptome sequencing is of particular use. By utilizing RNA that is isolated from virtually all cells and tissues, the entire transcriptome can be evaluated. In comparison with other high-throughput approaches, RNA sequencing is characterized by a relatively low-cost and large data output, which permits a comprehensive analysis of spatiotemporal variation in the gene expression profile. Both shear stress and cyclic strain exert hemodynamic force upon the arterial endothelium and are considered to be crucial determinants of endothelial physiology...
February 21, 2018: High-throughput
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447021/release-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-from-muscle-and-bone-causes-tenocyte-death-in-a-novel-rotator-cuff-in-vitro-explant-culture-model
#20
Brianne K Connizzo, Alan J Grodzinsky
Tendinopathy is a significant clinical problem thought to be associated with altered mechanical loading. Explant culture models allow researchers to alter mechanical loading in a controlled in vitro environment while maintaining tenocytes in their native matrix. However, current models do not accurately represent commonly injured tendons, ignoring contributions of associated musculature and bone, as well as regional collagen structure. This study details the characterization of a mouse rotator cuff explant culture model, including bone, tendon, and muscle (BTM)...
February 15, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
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