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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705250/effect-of-manufacturing-and-experimental-conditions-on-the-mechanical-and-surface-properties-of-silicone-elastomer-scaffolds-used-in-endothelial-mechanobiological-studies
#1
Marc-Antoine Campeau, Audrey Lortie, Pierrick Tremblay, Marc-Olivier Béliveau, Dominic Dubé, Ève Langelier, Léonie Rouleau
BACKGROUND: Mechanobiological studies allow the characterization of cell response to mechanical stresses. Cells need to be supported by a material with properties similar to the physiological environment. Silicone elastomers have been used to produce various in vitro scaffolds of different geometries for endothelial cell studies given its relevant mechanical, optical and surface properties. However, obtaining defined and repeatable properties is a challenge as depending on the different manufacturing and processing steps, mechanical and surface properties may vary significantly between research groups...
July 14, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696483/combined-bone-ingrowth-and-remodelling-around-uncemented-acetabular-component-a-multiscale-mechanobiology-based-finite-element-analysis
#2
Kaushik Mukherjee, Sanjay Gupta
Bone ingrowth and remodelling are two different evolutionary processes which might occur simultaneously. Both these processes are influenced by local mechanical stimulus. However, a combined study on bone ingrowth and remodelling has rarely been performed. This study is aimed at understanding the relationship between bone ingrowth and adaptation and their combined influence on fixation of the acetabular component. Based on 3-D macroscale FE model of implanted pelvis and microscale FE model of implant-bone interface, a multiscale framework has been developed...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696002/mitochondrial-dysfunction-is-an-acute-response-of-articular-chondrocytes-to-mechanical-injury
#3
Michelle L Delco, Edward D Bonnevie, Lawrence J Bonassar, Lisa A Fortier
Mitochondrial (MT) dysfunction is known to occur in chondrocytes isolated from end-stage osteoarthritis (OA) patients, but the role of MT dysfunction in the initiation and early pathogenesis of post-traumatic OA (PTOA) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate chondrocyte MT function immediately following mechanical injury in cartilage, and to determine if the response to injury differed between a weight bearing region (medial femoral condyle; MFC) and a non-weight bearing region (distal patellofemoral groove; PFG) of the same joint...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694489/high-frequency-components-of-hemodynamic-shear-stress-profiles-are-a-major-determinant-of-shear-mediated-platelet-activation-in-therapeutic-blood-recirculating-devices
#4
Filippo Consolo, Jawaad Sheriff, Silvia Gorla, Nicolò Magri, Danny Bluestein, Federico Pappalardo, Marvin J Slepian, Gianfranco B Fiore, Alberto Redaelli
We systematically analyzed the relative contributions of frequency component elements of hemodynamic shear stress waveforms encountered in cardiovascular blood recirculating devices as to overall platelet activation over time. We demonstrated that high frequency oscillations are the major determinants for priming, triggering and yielding activated "prothrombotic behavior" for stimulated platelets, even if the imparted shear stress has low magnitude and brief exposure time. Conversely, the low frequency components of the stress signal, with limited oscillations over time, did not induce significant activation, despite being of high magnitude and/or exposure time...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688729/cellular-mechanosensing-of-the-biophysical-microenvironment-a-review-of-mathematical-models-of-biophysical-regulation-of-cell-responses
#5
REVIEW
Bo Cheng, Min Lin, Guoyou Huang, Yuhui Li, Baohua Ji, Guy M Genin, Vikram S Deshpande, Tian Jian Lu, Feng Xu
Cells in vivo reside within complex microenvironments composed of both biochemical and biophysical cues. The dynamic feedback between cells and their microenvironments hinges upon biophysical cues that regulate critical cellular behaviors. Understanding this regulation from sensing to reaction to feedback is therefore critical, and a large effort is afoot to identify and mathematically model the fundamental mechanobiological mechanisms underlying this regulation. This review provides a critical perspective on recent progress in mathematical models for the responses of cells to the biophysical cues in their microenvironments, including dynamic strain, osmotic shock, fluid shear stress, mechanical force, matrix rigidity, porosity, and matrix shape...
June 21, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684609/single-and-collective-cell-migration-the-mechanics-of-adhesions
#6
Chiara De Pascalis, Sandrine Etienne-Manneville
Chemical and physical properties of the environment control cell proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis in the long term. However, to be able to move and migrate through a complex three-dimensional environment, cells must quickly adapt in the short term to the physical properties of their surroundings. Interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) occur through focal adhesions or hemidesmosomes via the engagement of integrins with fibrillar ECM proteins. Cells also interact with their neighbors, and this involves various types of intercellular adhesive structures such as tight junctions, cadherin-based adherens junctions, and desmosomes...
July 7, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684607/forces-that-shape-fission-yeast-cells
#7
Fred Chang
One of the major challenges of modern cell biology is to understand how cells are assembled from nanoscale components into micrometer-scale entities with a specific size and shape. Here I describe how our quest to understand the morphogenesis of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe drove us to investigate cellular mechanics. These studies build on the view that cell shape arises from the physical properties of an elastic cell wall inflated by internal turgor pressure. Consideration of cellular mechanics provides new insights into not only mechanisms responsible for cell-shape determination and growth, but also cellular processes such as cytokinesis and endocytosis...
July 7, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682003/impact-insertion-of-osteochondral-grafts-interference-fit-and-central-graft-reduction-affect-biomechanics-and-cartilage-damage
#8
Alvin W Su, Yunchan Chen, Dustin H Wailes, Van W Wong, Shengqiang Cai, Albert C Chen, William D Bugbee, Robert L Sah
An osteochondral graft (OCG) is an effective treatment for articular cartilage and osteochondral defects. Impact of an OCG during insertion into the osteochondral recipient site (OCR) can cause chondrocyte death and matrix damage. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of graft-host interference fit and a modified OCG geometry on OCG insertion biomechanics and cartilage damage. The effects of interference fit (radius of OCG - radius of OCR), loose (0.00mm), moderate (0.05mm), tight (0.10mm), and of a tight fit with OCG geometry modification (central region of decreased radius) were analyzed for OCG cylinders and OCR blocks from adult bovine knee joints with an instrumented drop tower apparatus...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680670/finite-element-modelling-of-mechanobiological-factors-influencing-sesamoid-tissue-morphology-in-the-patellar-tendon-of-an-ostrich
#9
Kyle P Chadwick, Sandra J Shefelbine, Andrew A Pitsillides, John R Hutchinson
The appearance and shape of sesamoid bones within a tendon or ligament wrapping around a joint are understood to be influenced by both genetic and epigenetic factors. Ostriches (Struthio camelus) possess two sesamoid patellae (kneecaps), one of which (the distal patella) is unique to their lineage, making them a good model for investigating sesamoid tissue development and evolution. Here we used finite-element modelling to test the hypothesis that specific mechanical cues in the ostrich patellar tendon favour the formation of multiple patellae...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676425/functional-proteomics-of-cellular-mechanosensing-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Anita A Wasik, Herbert B Schiller
Mechanosensing enables cells to coordinate their phenotype with the mechanical properties of their tissue microenvironment. In this process, cells probe their surroundings by applying contractile forces, which produces different amounts of mechanical strain within the cells as a function of the stiffness of their extracellular substrates. Tension within cells can then affect the structure and composition of most cellular organelles, including cell adhesions, the cytoskeleton, the plasma membrane and the nucleus...
July 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671618/vascular-mechanobiology-towards-control-of-in-situ-regeneration
#11
REVIEW
Eline E van Haaften, Carlijn V C Bouten, Nicholas A Kurniawan
The paradigm of regenerative medicine has recently shifted from in vitro to in situ tissue engineering: implanting a cell-free, biodegradable, off-the-shelf available scaffold and inducing the development of functional tissue by utilizing the regenerative potential of the body itself. This approach offers a prospect of not only alleviating the clinical demand for autologous vessels but also circumventing the current challenges with synthetic grafts. In order to move towards a hypothesis-driven engineering approach, we review three crucial aspects that need to be taken into account when regenerating vessels: (1) the structure-function relation for attaining mechanical homeostasis of vascular tissues, (2) the environmental cues governing cell function, and (3) the available experimental platforms to test instructive scaffolds for in situ tissue engineering...
July 3, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646107/become-one-with-the-force-optimising-mechanotherapy-through-an-understanding-of-mechanobiology
#12
EDITORIAL
Stuart J Warden, William R Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643869/mechanotransduction-properties-of-the-cytoplasmic-tail-of-pecam-1
#13
Jessica L Snyder, Elena McBeath, Tamlyn N Thomas, Yi Jen Chiu, Robert L Clark, Keigi Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are a well-known cell system used in the study of mechanobiology. Using cultured ECs, we found that platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, CD31), a cell adhesion protein localized to regions of EC-EC contact, was rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in ECs exposed to shear or cyclic stretch. Src-homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) binds phosphorylated PECAM-1 and activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling cascade, a known flow-activated signaling pathway...
June 23, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642262/arterial-stiffness-induces-remodeling-phenotypes-in-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-via-yap-taz-mediated-repression-of-cyclooxygenase-2
#14
Paul B Dieffenbach, Christina Mallarino Haeger, Anna Maria F Coronata, Kyoung Moo Choi, Xaralabos Varelas, Daniel J Tschumperlin, Laura E Fredenburgh
Pulmonary arterial stiffness is an independent risk factor for mortality in pulmonary hypertension (PH), and plays a critical role in PH pathophysiology. We have recently demonstrated arterial stiffening early in experimental PH, along with evidence for a mechanobiologic feedback loop by which arterial stiffening promotes further cellular remodeling behaviors. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin signaling have been implicated in stiffness-mediated regulation, with prostaglandin activity inversely correlated to matrix stiffness and remodeling behaviors in vitro, as well as to disease progression in rodent PH models...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634949/3d-stem-cell-niche-engineering-via-two-photon-laser-polymerization
#15
Michele M Nava, Tommaso Zandrini, Giulio Cerullo, Roberto Osellame, Manuela T Raimondi
A strategy to modulate the behavior of stem cells in culture is to mimic structural aspects of the native cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction. An important example of such artificial microenvironments for stem cell culture is the so-called "synthetic niche." Synthetic niches can be defined as polymeric culture systems mimicking at least one aspect of the interactions between stem cells and the extracellular surroundings, including biochemical factors (e.g., the delivery of soluble factors) and/or biophysical factors (e...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634933/3d-cell-culture-in-interpenetrating-networks-of-alginate-and-rbm-matrix
#16
Katrina Wisdom, Ovijit Chaudhuri
Altered tissue mechanical properties have been implicated in many key physiological and pathological processes. Hydrogel-based materials systems, made with native extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, nonnative biopolymers, or synthetic polymers are often used to study these processes in vitro in 3D cell culture experiments. However, each of these materials systems present major limitations when used in mechanobiological studies. While native ECM-based hydrogels may enable good recapitulation of physiological behavior, the mechanics of these hydrogels are often manipulated by increasing or decreasing the protein concentration...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634452/establishing-the-basis-for-mechanobiology-based-physical-therapy-protocols-to-potentiate-cellular-healing-and-tissue-regeneration
#17
REVIEW
Joanna L Ng, Mariana E Kersh, Sharon Kilbreath, M Knothe Tate
Life is mechanobiological: mechanical stimuli play a pivotal role in the formation of structurally and functionally appropriate body templates through mechanobiologically-driven cellular and tissue re/modeling. The body responds to mechanical stimuli engendered through physical movement in an integrated fashion, internalizing and transferring forces from organ, through tissue and cellular length scales. In the context of rehabilitation and therapeutic outcomes, such mechanical stimuli are referred to as mechanotherapy...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633977/vascular-endothelial-cell-mechanosensing-new-insights-gained-from-biomimetic-microfluidic-models
#18
REVIEW
Kelsey M Gray, Kimberly M Stroka
In vivo, cells of the vascular system are subjected to various mechanical stimuli and have demonstrated the ability to adapt their behavior via mechanotransduction. Recent advances in microfluidic and "on-chip" techniques have provided the technology to study these alterations in cell behavior. Contrary to traditional in vitro assays such as transwell plates and parallel plate flow chambers, these microfluidic devices (MFDs) provide the opportunity to integrate multiple mechanical cues (e.g. shear stress, confinement, substrate stiffness, vessel geometry and topography) with in situ quantification capabilities...
June 17, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631145/biaxial-mechanical-properties-of-bovine-jugular-venous-valve-leaflet-tissues
#19
Hsiao-Ying Shadow Huang, Jiaqi Lu
Venous valve incompetence has been implicated in diseases ranging from chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) to intracranial venous hypertension. However, while the mechanical properties of venous valve leaflet tissues are central to CVI biomechanics and mechanobiology, neither stress-strain curves nor tangent moduli have been reported. Here, equibiaxial tensile mechanical tests were conducted to assess the tangent modulus, strength and anisotropy of venous valve leaflet tissues from bovine jugular veins. Valvular tissues were stretched to 60% strain in both the circumferential and radial directions, and leaflet tissue stress-strain curves were generated for proximal and distal valves (i...
June 19, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620766/phenotype-transformation-of-aortic-valve-interstitial-cells-due-to-applied-shear-stresses-within-a-microfluidic-chip
#20
Xinmei Wang, Joohyung Lee, Mir Ali, Jungkyu Kim, Carla M R Lacerda
Despite valvular heart diseases constituting a significant medical problem, the acquisition of information describing their pathophysiology remains difficult. Due to valvular size, role and location within the body, there is a need for in vitro systems that can recapitulate disease onset and progression. This study combines the development of an in vitro model and its application in the mechanical stimulation of valvular cell transformation. Specifically, porcine aortic valvular interstitial cells (PAVIC) were cultured on polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic devices with or without exposure to shear stresses...
June 15, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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