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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027748/a-microfluidics-approach-to-investigate-the-role-of-dynamic-similitude-in-osteocyte-mechanobiology
#1
Kevin Middleton, Avinash Kondiboyina, Michael Borrett, Yi Cui, Xueting Mei, Lidan You
Fluid flow is an important regulator of cell function and metabolism in many tissues. Fluid shear stresses have been used to level the mechanical stimuli applied in vitro with what occurs in vivo. However, these experiments often lack dynamic similarity, which is necessary to ensure the validity of the model. For interstitial fluid flow, the major requirement for dynamic similarity is the Reynolds number (Re), the ratio of inertial to viscous forces, is the same between the system and model. To study the necessity of dynamic similarity for cell mechanotransduction studies, we investigated the response of osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells to different Re flows at the same level of fluid shear stress...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990082/fluid-shear-stress-induces-osteoblast-differentiation-and-arrests-the-cell-cycle-at-the-g0-phase-via-the-erk1-2-pathway
#2
Liyin Yu, Xingfeng Ma, Junqin Sun, Jie Tong, Liang Shi, Lijun Sun, Jianbao Zhang
Numerous studies have demonstrated that fluid shear stress (FSS) may promote the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast cells. However, proliferation and differentiation are mutually exclusive processes and are unlikely to be promoted by FSS simultaneously. Cell proliferation and differentiation induced by FSS has rarely been reported. In order to provide an insight into this process, the present study investigated the effects of FSS on osteoblast‑like MC3T3 cells in the G0/G1 phase, the period during which the fate of a cell is determined...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989186/the-coupled-bio-chemo-electro-mechanical-behavior-of-glucose-exposed-arterial-elastin
#3
Yanhang Zhang, Jiangyu Li, Gregory S Boutis
Elastin, the principle protein component of the elastic fiber, is a critical extracellular matrix (ECM) component of the arterial wall providing structural resilience and biological signaling essential in vascular morphogenesis and maintenance of mechanical homeostasis. Pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases have been associated with alterations of elastin. As a long-lived ECM protein that is deposited and organized before adulthood, elastic fibers can suffer from cumulative effects of biochemical exposure encountered during aging and/or disease, which greatly compromise their mechanical function...
2017: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980722/calcium-signaling-of-in-situ-chondrocytes-in-articular-cartilage-under-compressive-loading-roles-of-calcium-sources-and-cell-membrane-ion-channels
#4
Mengxi Lv, Yilu Zhou, Xingyu Chen, Lin Han, Liyun Wang, X Lucas Lu
Mechanical loading on articular cartilage can induce many physical and chemical stimuli on chondrocytes residing in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ) signaling is among the earliest responses of chondrocytes to physical stimuli, but the [Ca(2+) ]i signaling of in situ chondrocytes in loaded cartilage is not fully understood due to the technical challenges in [Ca(2+) ]i imaging of chondrocytes in a deforming ECM. This study developed a novel bi-directional microscopy loading device that enables the record of transient [Ca(2+) ]i responses of in situ chondrocytes in loaded cartilage...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976604/mechanobiology-of-young-and-aging-tendons-in-vivo-studies-with-treadmill-running
#5
REVIEW
Bhavani P Thampatty, James H-C Wang
FTendons are unique in the sense that they are constantly subjected to large mechanical loads and that they contain tendon-specific cells, including tenocytes and tendon stem/progenitor cells. The responses of these cells to mechanical loads can be anabolic or catabolic and as a result, change the biological properties of the tendon itself that may be beneficial or detrimental. On the other hand, aging also induces aberrant changes in cellular expression of various genes and production of various types of matrix proteins in the tendon, and consequently lead to tendon degeneration and impaired healing in aging tendons; both could be improved by moderate physiological mechanical loading such as treadmill running...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975660/bone-remodeling-and-mechanobiology-around-implants-insights-from-small-animal-imaging
#6
REVIEW
Zihui Li, Ralph Müller, Davide Ruffoni
Anchorage of orthopedic implants depends on the interfacial bonding between the implant and the host bone as well as on the mass and microstructure of peri-implant bone, with all these factors being continuously regulated by the biological process of bone (re)modeling. In osteoporotic bone implant integration may be jeopardized not only by lower peri-implant bone quality but also by reduced intrinsic regeneration ability. The first aim of this review is to provide a critical overview of the influence of osteoporosis on bone regeneration post-implantation...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960468/in-vitro-loading-models-for-tendon-mechanobiology
#7
REVIEW
Tao Wang, Peilin Chen, Monica Zheng, Allan Wang, David Lloyd, Toby Leys, Qiujian Zheng, Ming H Zheng
Tendons are the connective tissue responsible for transferring force from muscles to bones. A key factor in tendon development, maturation, repair and degradation is it's biomechanical environment. Understanding tendon mechanobiology is essential for the development of injury prevention strategies?rehabilitation protocols and potentially novel treatments in tendon injury and degeneration. Despite the simple overall loading on tendon tissue, cells within the tissue in vivo experience a much more complex mechanical environment including tension, compression and shear forces...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952491/biophysical-tools-to-study-cellular-mechanotransduction
#8
REVIEW
Ismaeel Muhamed, Farhan Chowdhury, Venkat Maruthamuthu
The cell membrane is the interface that volumetrically isolates cellular components from the cell's environment. Proteins embedded within and on the membrane have varied biological functions: reception of external biochemical signals, as membrane channels, amplification and regulation of chemical signals through secondary messenger molecules, controlled exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, organized recruitment and sequestration of cytosolic complex proteins, cell division processes, organization of the cytoskeleton and more...
February 7, 2017: Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951564/mechanobiology-of-yap-and-taz-in-physiology-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Tito Panciera, Luca Azzolin, Michelangelo Cordenonsi, Stefano Piccolo
A growing body of evidence suggests that mechanical signals emanating from the cell's microenvironment are fundamental regulators of cell behaviour. Moreover, at the macroscopic scale, the influence of forces, such as the forces generated by blood flow, muscle contraction, gravity and overall tissue rigidity (for example, inside of a tumour lump), is central to our understanding of physiology and disease pathogenesis. Still, how mechanical cues are sensed and transduced at the molecular level to regulate gene expression has long remained enigmatic...
September 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922717/magnetic-nanoparticle-loaded-alginate-beads-for-local-micro-actuation-of-in-vitro-tissue-constructs
#10
Awatef M Alshehri, Otto C Wilson, Bishnu Dahal, John Philip, Xiaolong Luo, Christopher B Raub
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) self-align and transduce magnetic force, two properties which lead to promising applications in cell and tissue engineering. However, the toxicity of MNPs to cells which uptake them is a major impediment to applications in engineered tissue constructs. To address this problem, MNPs were embedded in millimeter-scale alginate beads, coated with glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan, and loaded in acellular and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell-seeded collagen hydrogels, providing local micro-actuation under an external magnetic field...
September 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915383/force-activatable-biosensor-enables-single-platelet-force-mapping-directly-by-fluorescence-imaging
#11
Yongliang Wang, Dana N LeVine, Margaret Gannon, Yuanchang Zhao, Anwesha Sarkar, Bailey Hoch, Xuefeng Wang
Integrin-transmitted cellular forces are critical for platelet adhesion, activation, aggregation and contraction during hemostasis and thrombosis. Measuring and mapping single platelet forces are desired in both research and clinical applications. Conventional force-to-strain based cell traction force microscopies have low resolution which is not ideal for cellular force mapping in small platelets. To enable platelet force mapping with submicron resolution, we developed a force-activatable biosensor named integrative tension sensor (ITS) which directly converts molecular tensions to fluorescent signals, therefore enabling cellular force mapping directly by fluorescence imaging...
September 8, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914402/analytical-modeling-of-the-mechanics-of-early-invasion-of-a-merozoite-into-a-human-erythrocyte
#12
Tamer Abdalrahman, Thomas Franz
In this study, we used a continuum model based on contact mechanics to understand the mechanics of merozoite invasion into human erythrocytes. This model allows us to evaluate the indentation force and work as well as the contact pressure between the merozoite and erythrocyte for an early stage of invasion (γ = 10%). The model predicted an indentation force of 1.3e (-11)N and an indentation work of 1e (-18)J. The present analytical model can be considered as a useful tool not only for investigations in mechanobiology and biomechanics but also to explore novel therapeutic targets for malaria and other parasite infections...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903319/loss-of-giant-obscurins-alters-breast-epithelial-cell-mechanosensing-of-matrix-stiffness
#13
Kimberly M Stroka, Bin Sheng Wong, Marey Shriver, Jude M Phillip, Denis Wirtz, Aikaterini Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos Konstantopoulos
Obscurins are a family of RhoGEF-containing proteins with tumor and metastasis suppressing roles in breast epithelium. Downregulation of giant obscurins in normal breast epithelial cells leads to reduced levels of active RhoA and of its downstream effectors. Herein, we elucidate how depletion of giant obscurins affects the response of breast epithelial cells to changes in the mechanical properties of the microenvironment. We find that knockdown of obscurins increases cell morphodynamics, migration speed, and diffusivity on polyacrylamide gels of ≥ 1 kPa, presumably by decreasing focal adhesion area and density as well as cell traction forces...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900011/robust-mechanobiological-behavior-emerges-in-heterogeneous-myosin-systems
#14
Paul F Egan, Jeffrey R Moore, Allen J Ehrlicher, David A Weitz, Christian Schunn, Jonathan Cagan, Philip LeDuc
Biological complexity presents challenges for understanding natural phenomenon and engineering new technologies, particularly in systems with molecular heterogeneity. Such complexity is present in myosin motor protein systems, and computational modeling is essential for determining how collective myosin interactions produce emergent system behavior. We develop a computational approach for altering myosin isoform parameters and their collective organization, and support predictions with in vitro experiments of motility assays with α-actinins as molecular force sensors...
September 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894347/solid-tumors-are-poroelastic-solids-with-a-chemo-mechanical-feedback-on-growth
#15
D Ambrosi, S Pezzuto, D Riccobelli, T Stylianopoulos, P Ciarletta
The experimental evidence that a feedback exists between growth and stress in tumors poses challenging questions. First, the rheological properties (the "constitutive equations") of aggregates of malignant cells are still a matter of debate. Secondly, the feedback law (the "growth law") that relates stress and mitotic-apoptotic rate is far to be identified. We address these questions on the basis of a theoretical analysis of in vitro and in vivo experiments that involve the growth of tumor spheroids. We show that solid tumors exhibit several mechanical features of a poroelastic material, where the cellular component behaves like an elastic solid...
December 2017: Journal of Elasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888055/evaluation-of-loading-parameters-for-murine-axial-tibial-loading-stimulating-cortical-bone-formation-while-reducing-loading-duration
#16
David Sun, Michael D Brodt, Heather M Zannit, Nilsson Holguin, Matthew J Silva
Classic studies in bone mechanobiology have established the importance of loading parameters on the anabolic response. Most of these early studies were done using loading methods not currently in favor, and using non-murine species. Our objective was to re-examine the effects of several loading parameters on the response of cortical bone using the contemporary murine axial tibial compression model. We subjected tibias of 5-month old, female C57Bl/6 mice to cyclic (4 Hz) mechanical loading and examined bone formation responses using dynamic and static histomorphometry...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886204/stress-analysis-driven-design-of-bilayered-scaffolds-for-tissue-engineered-vascular-grafts
#17
Jason M Szafron, Christopher K Breuer, Yadong Wang, Jay D Humphrey
Continuing advances in the fabrication of scaffolds for tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) are greatly expanding the scope of potential designs. Increasing recognition of the importance of local biomechanical cues for cell-mediated neotissue formation, neovessel growth, and subsequent remodeling is similarly influencing the design process. This study examines directly the potential effects of different combinations of key geometric and material properties of polymeric scaffolds on the initial mechanical state of an implanted graft into which cells are seeded or migrate...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884523/response-of-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-to-varying-titanium-topographical-signals
#18
Ines Lauria, Miriam Höner, Sebastian Kant, Roswitha Davtalab, Thomas Weik, Katrin Sternberg, Horst Fischer
A wide variety of titanium implant modifications have been developed to improve tissue- or cell-material interactions including bone bonding, implant failure, and contact osteogenesis. Osteogenesis can be stimulated by mechanobiological signals such as topography though translation of in vivo reactions to in vitro bioactivity and stem cell culture data, and vice versa, is challenging. We hypothesized that a systematic in vitro approach comparing clinically well-accepted implant surface topographical modifications could shed light on potential cell biological mechanisms provoked by submicron-, micron- or macrostructured surfaces...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877491/%C3%AE-1-integrin-mediated-adhesion-is-lipid-bilayer-dependent
#19
Seoyoung Son, George J Moroney, Peter J Butler
Integrin-mediated adhesion is a central feature of cellular adhesion, locomotion, and endothelial cell mechanobiology. Although integrins are known to be transmembrane proteins, little is known about the role of membrane biophysics and dynamics in integrin adhesion. We treated human aortic endothelial cells with exogenous amphiphiles, shown previously in model membranes, and computationally, to affect bilayer thickness and lipid phase separation, and subsequently measured single-integrin-molecule adhesion kinetics using an optical trap, and diffusion using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy...
September 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867243/a-mechanopharmacology-approach-to-overcome-chemoresistance-in-pancreatic-cancer
#20
Stefano Coppola, Ilaria Carnevale, Erik H J Danen, Godefridus J Peters, Thomas Schmidt, Yehuda G Assaraf, Elisa Giovannetti
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly chemoresistant malignancy. This chemoresistant phenotype has been historically associated with genetic factors. Major biomedical research efforts were concentrated that resulted in the identification of subtypes characterized by specific genetic lesions and gene expression signatures that suggest important biological differences. However, to date, these distinct differences could not be exploited for therapeutic interventions. Apart from these genetic factors, desmoplasia and tumor microenvironment have been recognized as key contributors to PDAC chemoresistance...
March 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
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