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mechanobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319593/profiles-of-long-noncoding-rnas-in-hypertensive-rats-long-noncoding-rna-xr007793-regulates-cyclic-strain-induced-proliferation-and-migration-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#1
Qing-Ping Yao, Zhi-Wei Xie, Kai-Xuan Wang, Ping Zhang, Yue Han, Ying-Xin Qi, Zong-Lai Jiang
BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are being discovered in multiple diseases at a rapid pace. However, the contribution of lncRNAs to hypertension remains largely unknown. In hypertension, the vascular walls are exposed to abnormal mechanical cyclic strain, which leads to vascular remodelling. Here, we investigated the mechanobiological role of lncRNAs in hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: Differences in the lncRNAs and mRNAs between spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats were screened using a gene microarray...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301131/bio-inspired-nano-featured-substrates-suitable-environment-for-bone-regeneration
#2
Hassan Rammal, Marie Dubus, Léa Aubert, Fany Reffuveille, Dominique Laurent Maquin, Christine Terryn, Pierre Schaaf, Halima Alem, Grégory Francius, Fabienne Quilès, Sophie C Gangloff, Fouzia Boulmedais, Halima Kerdjoudj
Bone mimicking coatings provide a complex microenvironment in which material, through its inherent properties (such as nanostructure and composition), affects the commitment of stem cells into bone lineage and the production of bone tissue regulating factors, required for bone healing and regeneration. Herein, a bioactive mineral/biopolymers composite made of calcium phosphate/chitosan and hyaluronic acid (CaP-CHI-HA) was elaborated using a versatile simultaneous spray coating of interacting species. The resulting CaP-CHI-HA coating was mainly constituted of bioactive, carbonated and crystalline hydroxyapatite, with 277 ± 98 nm of roughness, 1 μm of thickness and 2...
March 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300644/the-connective-tissue-phenotype-of-glaucomatous-cupping-in-the-monkey-eye-clinical-and-research-implications
#3
REVIEW
Hongli Yang, Juan Reynaud, Howard Lockwood, Galen Williams, Christy Hardin, Luke Reyes, Cheri Stowell, Stuart K Gardiner, Claude F Burgoyne
In a series of previous publications we have proposed a framework for conceptualizing the optic nerve head (ONH) as a biomechanical structure. That framework proposes important roles for intraocular pressure (IOP), IOP-related stress and strain, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp), systemic and ocular determinants of blood flow, inflammation, auto-immunity, genetics, and other non-IOP related risk factors in the physiology of ONH aging and the pathophysiology of glaucomatous damage to the ONH. The present report summarizes 20 years of technique development and study results pertinent to the characterization of ONH connective tissue deformation and remodeling in the unilateral monkey experimental glaucoma (EG) model...
March 12, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286348/growth-and-remodeling-of-load-bearing-biological-soft-tissues
#4
C J Cyron, J D Humphrey
The past two decades reveal a growing role of continuum biomechanics in understanding homeostasis, adaptation, and disease progression in soft tissues. In this paper, we briefly review the two primary theoretical approaches for describing mechano-regulated soft tissue growth and remodeling on the continuum level as well as hybrid approaches that attempt to combine the advantages of these two approaches while avoiding their disadvantages. We also discuss emerging concepts, including that of mechanobiological stability...
February 2017: Meccanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274875/comparison-of-ultrastructural-and-nanomechanical-signature-of-platelets-from-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-platelet-activation
#5
Aiqun Li, Jianwei Chen, Zhi-Hong Liang, Jiye Cai, Huai-Hong Cai, Min Chen
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) initiation and progression follow complex molecular and structural changes in the nanoarchitecture of platelets. However, it remains poorly understood how the transformation from health to platelet activation alters the ultrastructural and mechanical properties of platelets in AMI formation. Here, we show using an atomic force microscope (AFM) that living human platelets display distinct ultrastructural imaging and stiffness profiles. Correlating morphology obtained on platelets from AMI patients and activated platelets displayed distinct pseudopodia structure and nanoclusters on membrane...
March 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250733/a-new-computational-approach-for-modeling-diffusion-tractography-in-the-brain
#6
REVIEW
Harsha T Garimella, Reuben H Kraft
Computational models provide additional tools for studying the brain, however, many techniques are currently disconnected from each other. There is a need for new computational approaches that span the range of physics operating in the brain. In this review paper, we offer some new perspectives on how the embedded element method can fill this gap and has the potential to connect a myriad of modeling genre. The embedded element method is a mesh superposition technique used within finite element analysis. This method allows for the incorporation of axonal fiber tracts to be explicitly represented...
January 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249521/quantitative-photoacoustic-characterization-of-blood-clot-in-blood-a-mechanobiological-assessment-through-spectral-information
#7
Deblina Biswas, Srivathsan Vasudevan, George C K Chen, Norman Sharma
Formation of blood clots, called thrombus, can happen due to hyper-coagulation of blood. Thrombi, while moving through blood vessels can impede blood flow, an important criterion for many critical diseases like deep vein thrombosis and heart attacks. Understanding mechanical properties of clot formation is vital for assessment of severity of thrombosis and proper treatment. However, biomechanics of thrombus is less known to clinicians and not very well investigated. Photoacoustic (PA) spectral response, a non-invasive technique, is proposed to investigate the mechanism of formation of blood clots through elasticity and also differentiate clots from blood...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249360/heart-function-and-hemodynamics-analysis-for-zebrafish-embryos
#8
REVIEW
Huseyin C Yalcin, Armin Amindari, Jonathan T Butcher, Asma Althani, Magdi Yacoub
The zebrafish has emerged to become a powerful vertebrate animal model for cardiovascular research in recent years. Its advantages include easy genetic manipulation, transparency, small size, low cost, and the ability to survive without active circulation at early stages of development. Sequencing the whole genome and identifying orthologue genes with human genome enabled to induce clinically relevant cardiovascular defects via genetic approaches. Heart function and disturbed hemodynamics need to be assessed in a reliable manner for these disease models in order to reveal mechanobiology of induced defects...
March 1, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247311/elevated-serotonin-interacts-with-angiotensin-ii-to-result-in-altered-valve-interstitial-cell-contractility-and-remodeling
#9
Jessica Perez, Nancy Diaz, Ishita Tandon, Rachel Plate, Christopher Martindale, Kartik Balachandran
While the valvulopathic effects of serotonin (5HT) and angiotensin-II (Ang-II) individually are known, it was not clear how 5HT and Ang-II might interact, specifically in the context of the mechanobiological responses due to altered valve mechanics potentiated by these molecules. In this context, the hypothesis of this study was that increased serotonin levels would result in accelerated progression toward disease in the presence of angiotensin-II-induced hypertension. C57/BL6 J mice were divided into four groups and subcutaneously implanted with osmotic pumps containing: PBS (control), 5HT (2...
February 28, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224369/proximity-of-metastatic-cells-enhances-their-mechanobiological-invasiveness
#10
Yulia Merkher, Daphne Weihs
A critical step in metastases formation is cancer-cell invasion through tissue. During invasion, cells change morphology and apply forces to their surroundings. We have previously shown that single, metastatic breast-cancer cells will mechanically indent a synthetic, impenetrable polyacrylamide gel with physiological-stiffness in attempted invasion; benign breast cells do not indent the gels. In solid tumors, e.g., breast cancers, metastases occur predominantly by collective cell-invasion. Thus, here we evaluate the effects of cell proximity on mechanical invasiveness, specifically through changes in gel indention...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216301/identification-of-the-mechanisms-by-which-age-alters-the-mechanosensitivity-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-on-substrates-of-differing-stiffness-implications-for-osteogenesis-and-angiogenesis
#11
Sara Barreto, Arlyng Gonzalez-Vazquez, Andrew R Cameron, Brenton Cavanagh, Dylan J Murray, Fergal J O'Brien
In order to identify the mechanisms by which skeletal maturity alters the mechanosensitivity of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and, the implications for osteogenesis and angiogenesis during bone formation, we compared the response of MSCs derived from children and skeletally-mature healthy adults cultured on soft and stiff collagen-coated polyacrylamide substrates. MSCs from children were more mechanosensitive, showing enhanced angiogenesis and osteogenesis on stiff substrates as indicated by increased endothelial tubule formation, PGF production, nuclear-translocation of YAP, ALP activity and mineralisation...
February 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207921/pneumatic-stimulation-of-c-elegans-mechanoreceptor-neurons-in-a-microfluidic-trap
#12
Adam L Nekimken, Holger Fehlauer, Anna A Kim, Sandra N Manosalvas-Kjono, Purim Ladpli, Farah Memon, Divya Gopisetty, Veronica Sanchez, Miriam B Goodman, Beth L Pruitt, Michael Krieg
New tools for applying force to animals, tissues, and cells are critically needed in order to advance the field of mechanobiology, as few existing tools enable simultaneous imaging of tissue and cell deformation as well as cellular activity in live animals. Here, we introduce a novel microfluidic device that enables high-resolution optical imaging of cellular deformations and activity while applying precise mechanical stimuli to the surface of the worm's cuticle with a pneumatic pressure reservoir. To evaluate device performance, we compared analytical and numerical simulations conducted during the design process to empirical measurements made with fabricated devices...
March 14, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182873/biomechanically-primed-liver-microtumor-array-as-a-high-throughput-mechanopharmacological-screening-platform-for-stroma-reprogrammed-combinatorial-therapy
#13
Lu Zhu, Xingliang Fan, Bingjie Wang, Longwei Liu, Xiaojun Yan, Lyu Zhou, Yang Zeng, Mark C Poznansky, Lili Wang, Huabiao Chen, Yanan Du
Recent breakthrough in stroma-reprogrammed combinatorial therapy (SRCT) for pancreatic tumor opens a new route for improving conventional chemotherapeutic efficacy, which utilizes VDR ligand to reprogram activated stromal cells in stiffened microenvironment, leading to reduced 'barrier effects' and increased tissue-infiltration of the chemotherapy drug. As a novel therapeutic strategy and mechanism of action, the progress of SRCT relies on tailored in vitro drug assessment platforms to further optimize its efficacy and extend to applications in other tumor types...
January 27, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164445/holographic-optical-tweezers-based-in-vivo-manipulations-in-zebrafish-embryos
#14
Florian Hörner, Robert Meissner, Sruthi Polali, Jana Pfeiffer, Timo Betz, Cornelia Denz, Erez Raz
Understanding embryonic development requires the characterization of the forces and the mechanical features that shape cells and tissues within the organism. In addition, experimental application of forces on cells and altering cell and organelle shape allows determining the role such forces play in morphogenesis. Here, we present a holographic optical tweezers-based new microscopic platform for in vivo applications in the context of a developing vertebrate embryo that unlike currently used setups allows simultaneous trapping of multiple objects and rapid comparisons of viscoelastic properties in different locations...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163791/mechanobiology-of-chromatin-and-the-nuclear-interior
#15
Stephen T Spagnol, Travis J Armiger, Kris Noel Dahl
The view of the cell nucleus has evolved from an isolated, static organelle to a dynamic structure integrated with other mechanical elements of the cell. Both dynamics and integration appear to contribute to a mechanical regulation of genome expression. Here, we review physical structures inside the nucleus at different length scales and the dynamic reorganization modulated by cellular forces. First, we discuss nuclear organization focusing on self-assembly and disassembly of DNA structures and various nuclear bodies...
June 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155122/anisotropic-permeability-of-trabecular-bone-and-its-relationship-to-fabric-and-architecture-a-computational-study
#16
T C Kreipke, G L Niebur
Trabecular bone is a porous, mineralized tissue found in vertebral bodies, the metaphyses and epiphyses of long bones, and in the irregular and flat shaped bones. The pore space is filled with bone marrow, a highly cellular fluid. Together, the bone and marrow behave as a poroelastic solid. In poroelasticity theory, the permeability is the primary material property that governs the momentum transfer between the solid and fluid constituents. In the linearized theory, the permeability of a material depends on the shape and connectivity of the pores...
February 2, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142337/cell-gel-mechanical-interactions-as-an-approach-to-rapidly-and-quantitatively-reveal-invasive-subpopulations-of-metastatic-cancer-cells
#17
Martha B Alvarez-Elizondo, Daphne Weihs
We present a novel mechanobiology-based invasiveness assay to rapidly and quantitatively evaluate the mechanical invasiveness of metastatic cancer cells and identify invasive subpopulations, without need for chemoattractants and independent of serum content. A commonly accepted assay to determine metastatic potential in vitro is the Boyden chamber assay, where the percentage of serum-starved cells that can long-term transmigrate/invade through subcell size membrane pores is quantified; those experiments typically take 2-3 days and require serum-starvation...
March 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135286/fluid-dynamics-appearing-during-simulated-microgravity-using-random-positioning-machines
#18
Simon L Wuest, Philip Stern, Ernesto Casartelli, Marcel Egli
Random Positioning Machines (RPMs) are widely used as tools to simulate microgravity on ground. They consist of two gimbal mounted frames, which constantly rotate biological samples around two perpendicular axes and thus distribute the Earth's gravity vector in all directions over time. In recent years, the RPM is increasingly becoming appreciated as a laboratory instrument also in non-space-related research. For instance, it can be applied for the formation of scaffold-free spheroid cell clusters. The kinematic rotation of the RPM, however, does not only distribute the gravity vector in such a way that it averages to zero, but it also introduces local forces to the cell culture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130014/-biology-and-mechanobiology-of-the-intervertebral-disc
#19
Emilio González Martínez, José García-Cosamalón, Iván Cosamalón-Gan, Marta Esteban Blanco, Olivia García-Suarez, José A Vega
The intervertebral disc (IVD) is noted for its low cell content, and being the largest avascular structure of human body. The low amount of cells in the disc have to adapt to an anaerobic metabolism with low oxygen pressure and acidic pH. Apart from surviving in an adverse microenvironment, they are exposed to a high level of mechanical stress. The biological adaptation of cells to acidosis and hyperosmolarity conditions are regulated by mechanoproteins, which are responsible for converting a mechanical signal into a cellular response, thus modifying its gene expression...
January 24, 2017: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128420/grk2-desensitizes-flow-induced-responses-in-osteoblasts
#20
Y Xing, Y Gu, X Shan, L Wang, J You
Bone desensitization after mechanical loading is essential for bone to adapt to its mechanical environment. However, the desensitization mechanism is unknown. Previous studies suggest that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including P2Y and parathyroid hormone receptors, play important roles in osteoblast mechanobiology. Thus, for the present research, we examined the role of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in osteoblast desensitization after exposure to mechanical stimulation. We first showed the existence of osteoblast desensitization after mechanical stimulation based on cytosol Ca(2+) and phosphorylated ERK1/2 activities, detected using a fluorescent Ca(2+)-sensitive dye and western blotting, respectively...
January 23, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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