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Brianne K Connizzo, Alan J Grodzinsky
Tendinopathy is a significant clinical problem thought to be associated with altered mechanical loading. Explant culture models allow researchers to alter mechanical loading in a controlled in vitro environment while maintaining tenocytes in their native matrix. However, current models do not accurately represent commonly injured tendons, ignoring contributions of associated musculature and bone, as well as regional collagen structure. This study details the characterization of a mouse rotator cuff explant culture model, including bone, tendon, and muscle (BTM)...
February 15, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Benjamin A Juliar, Mark T Keating, Yen P Kong, Elliot L Botvinick, Andrew J Putnam
Matrix stiffness is a well-established instructive cue in two-dimensional cell cultures. Its roles in morphogenesis in 3-dimensional (3D) cultures, and the converse effects of cells on the mechanics of their surrounding microenvironment, have been more elusive given the absence of suitable methods to quantify stiffness on a length-scale relevant for individual cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. In this study, we applied traditional bulk rheology and laser tweezers-based active microrheology to probe mechanics across length scales during the complex multicellular process of capillary morphogenesis in 3D, and further characterized the relative contributions of neovessels and supportive stromal cells to dynamic changes in stiffness over time...
February 6, 2018: Biomaterials
Viola Vogel
Cells need to be anchored to extracellular matrix (ECM) to survive, yet the role of ECM in guiding developmental processes, tissue homeostasis, and aging has long been underestimated. How ECM orchestrates the deterioration of healthy to pathological tissues, including fibrosis and cancer, also remains poorly understood. Inquiring how alterations in ECM fiber tension might drive these processes is timely, as mechanobiology is a rapidly growing field, and many novel mechanisms behind the mechanical forces that can regulate protein, cell, and tissue functions have recently been deciphered...
February 10, 2018: Annual Review of Physiology
Jason P Caffrey, Eloy Alonso, Koichi Masuda, Jessee P Hunt, Cameron N Carmody, Timothy M Ganey, Robert L Sah
Titanium cages with 3-D printed trussed open-space architectures may provide an opportunity to deliver targeted mechanical behavior in spine interbody fusion devices. The ability to control mechanical strain, at levels known to stimulate an osteogenic response, to the fusion site could lead to development of optimized therapeutic implants that improve clinical outcomes. In this study, cages of varying design (1.00 mm or 0.75 mm diameter struts) were mechanically characterized and compared for multiple compressive load magnitudes in order to determine what impact certain design variables had on localized strain...
February 3, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Carlos Pardo-Pastor, Fanny Rubio-Moscardo, Marina Vogel-González, Selma A Serra, Alexandros Afthinos, Sanela Mrkonjic, Olivier Destaing, Juan F Abenza, José M Fernández-Fernández, Xavier Trepat, Corinne Albiges-Rizo, Konstantinos Konstantopoulos, Miguel A Valverde
Actin polymerization and assembly into stress fibers (SFs) is central to many cellular processes. However, how SFs form in response to the mechanical interaction of cells with their environment is not fully understood. Here we have identified Piezo2 mechanosensitive cationic channel as a transducer of environmental physical cues into mechanobiological responses. Piezo2 is needed by brain metastatic cells from breast cancer (MDA-MB-231-BrM2) to probe their physical environment as they anchor and pull on their surroundings or when confronted with confined migration through narrow pores...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Harshad Kamble, Raja Vadivelu, Matthew Barton, Muhammad J A Shiddiky, Nam-Trung Nguyen
Cellular response to mechanical stimuli is a well-known phenomenon known as mechanotransduction. It is widely accepted that mechanotransduction plays an important role in cell alignment which is critical for cell homeostasis. Although many approaches have been developed in recent years to study the effect of external mechanical stimuli on cell behaviour, most of them have not explored the ability of mechanical stimuli to engineer cell alignment to obtain patterned cell cultures. This paper introduces a simple, yet effective pneumatically actuated 4 × 2 cell stretching array for concurrently inducing a range of cyclic normal strains onto cell cultures to achieve predefined cell alignment...
February 7, 2018: Lab on a Chip
X Edward Guo, Clark T Hung, Linda J Sandell, Matthew J Silva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Adrianne M Rosales, Christopher Blake Rodell, Minna H Chen, Matthew G Morrow, Kristi S Anseth, Jason A Burdick
Biomimetic hydrogels fabricated from biologically-derived polymers, such as hyaluronic acid (HA), are useful for numerous biomedical applications. Due to the dynamic nature of biological processes, it is of great interest to synthesize hydrogels with dynamically tunable network properties where various functions (e.g., cargo delivery, mechanical signaling) can be changed over time. Among the various stimuli developed to control hydrogel properties, light stands out for its exquisite spatiotemporal control; however, most light-based chemistries are unidirectional in their ability to manipulate network changes...
February 6, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Phillip Kang, Sanjay Kumar, David Schaffer
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are a valuable cell source for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and drug screening applications. Analogous to other stem cells, NSCs are tightly regulated by their microenvironmental niche, and prior work utilizing NSCs as a model system with engineered biomaterials has offered valuable insights into how biophysical inputs can regulate stem cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation. In this review, we highlight recent exciting studies with innovative material platforms that enable narrow stiffness gradients, mechanical stretching, temporal stiffness switching, and three-dimensional culture to study NSCs...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
Koichiro Maki, Sung-Woong Han, Yoshinori Hirano, Shigenobu Yonemura, Toshio Hakoshima, Taiji Adachi
Adherens junctions (AJs) adaptively change their intensities in response to intercellular tension; therefore, they integrate tension generated by individual cells to drive multicellular dynamics, such as morphogenetic change in embryos. Under intercellular tension, α-catenin, which is a component protein of AJs, acts as a mechano-chemical transducer to recruit vinculin to promote actin remodeling. Although in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that α-catenin-mediated mechanotransduction is a dynamic molecular process, which involves a conformational change of α-catenin under tension to expose a cryptic vinculin binding site, there are no suitable experimental methods to directly explore the process...
January 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stefaan W Verbruggen, Bernhard Kainz, Susan C Shelmerdine, Joseph V Hajnal, Mary A Rutherford, Owen J Arthurs, Andrew T M Phillips, Niamh C Nowlan
Mechanical forces generated by fetal kicks and movements result in stimulation of the fetal skeleton in the form of stress and strain. This stimulation is known to be critical for prenatal musculoskeletal development; indeed, abnormal or absent movements have been implicated in multiple congenital disorders. However, the mechanical stress and strain experienced by the developing human skeleton in utero have never before been characterized. Here, we quantify the biomechanics of fetal movements during the second half of gestation by modelling fetal movements captured using novel cine-magnetic resonance imaging technology...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Suhao Qiu, Xuefeng Zhao, Jiayao Chen, Jianfeng Zeng, Shuangqing Chen, Lei Chen, You Meng, Biao Liu, Hong Shan, Mingyuan Gao, Yuan Feng
Breast cancer is one of the leading cancer forms affecting females worldwide. Characterizing the mechanical properties of breast cancer tissue is important for diagnosis and uncovering the mechanobiology mechanism. Although most of the studies were based on human cancer tissue, an animal model is still describable for preclinical analysis. Using a custom-build indentation device, we measured the viscoelastic properties of breast cancer tissue from 4T1 and SKBR3 cell lines. A total of 7 samples were tested for each cancer tissue using a mouse model...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Bahador Marzban, Xin Yi, Hongyan Yuan
Durotaxis refers to the phenomenon in which cells can sense the spatial gradient of the substrate rigidity in the process of cell migration. A conceptual two-part theory consisting of the focal adhesion force generation and mechanotransduction has been proposed previously by Lo et al. to explain the mechanism underlying durotaxis. In the present work, we are concerned with the first part of the theory: how exactly is the larger focal adhesion force generated in the part of the cell adhering to the stiffer region of the substrate? Using a simple elasticity model and by assuming the cell adheres to the substrate continuously underneath the whole cell body, we show that the mechanics principle of static equilibrium alone is sufficient to account for the generation of the larger traction stress on the stiffer region of the substrate...
January 22, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Alba Santos, David Lagares
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Organ fibrosis is a lethal component of scleroderma. The hallmark of scleroderma fibrosis is extensive extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition by activated myofibroblasts, specialized hyper-contractile cells that promote ECM remodeling and matrix stiffening. The purpose of this review is to discuss novel mechanistic insight into myofibroblast activation in scleroderma. RECENT FINDINGS: Matrix stiffness, traditionally viewed as an end point of organ fibrosis, is now recognized as a critical regulator of tissue fibrogenesis that hijacks the normal physiologic wound-healing program to promote organ fibrosis...
January 19, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
Shumeng Jiang, Sabrina Cloud Li, Chenyu Huang, Barbara Pui Chan, Yanan Du
Porous bioscaffolds are applied to facilitate skin repair since the early 1990s, but a perfect regeneration outcome has yet to be achieved. Until now, most efforts have focused on modulating the chemical properties of bioscaffolds, while physical properties are traditionally overlooked. Recent advances in mechanobiology and mechanotherapy have highlighted the importance of biomaterials' physical properties in the regulation of cellular behaviors and regenerative processes. In skin repair, the mechanical and structural features of porous bioscaffolds are two major physical properties that determine therapeutic efficacy...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Antonio Boccaccio, Antonio E Uva, Michele Fiorentino, Giuseppe Monno, Andrea Ballini, Apollonia Desiate
Thanks to the recent advances of three-dimensional printing technologies the design and the fabrication of a large variety of scaffold geometries was made possible. The surgeon has the availability of a wide number of scaffold micro-architectures thus needing adequate guidelines for the choice of the best one to be implanted in a patient-specific anatomic region. We propose a mechanobiology-based optimization algorithm capable of determining, for bone tissue scaffolds with an assigned geometry, the optimal value Lopt of the compression load to which they should be subjected, i...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
J J Vaca-González, M Moncayo-Donoso, J M Guevara, Y Hata, S J Shefelbine, D A Garzón-Alvarado
Long bone formation starts early during embryonic development through a process known as endochondral ossification. This is a highly regulated mechanism that involves several mechanical and biochemical factors. Because long bone development is an extremely complex process, it is unclear how biochemical regulation is affected when dynamic loads are applied, and also how the combination of mechanical and biochemical factors affect the shape acquired by the bone during early development. In this study, we develop a mechanobiological model combining: (1) a reaction-diffusion system to describe the biochemical process and (2) a poroelastic model to determine the stresses and fluid flow due to loading...
January 10, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Anne-Marie Pobloth, Sara Checa, Hajar Razi, Ansgar Petersen, James C Weaver, Katharina Schmidt-Bleek, Markus Windolf, Andras Á Tatai, Claudia P Roth, Klaus-Dieter Schaser, Georg N Duda, Philipp Schwabe
Three-dimensional (3D) titanium-mesh scaffolds offer many advantages over autologous bone grafting for the regeneration of challenging large segmental bone defects. Our study supports the hypothesis that endogenous bone defect regeneration can be promoted by mechanobiologically optimized Ti-mesh scaffolds. Using finite element techniques, two mechanically distinct Ti-mesh scaffolds were designed in a honeycomb-like configuration to minimize stress shielding while ensuring resistance against mechanical failure...
January 10, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
G Limbert, E Kuhl
Over the course of a life time, as a result of adaptive mechanobiological processes (e.g. ageing), or the action of external physical factors such as mechanical loading, the human skin is subjected to, and hosts complex biophysical processes. These phenomena typically operate through a complex interplay, that, ultimately, is responsible for the evolutive geometrical characteristics of the skin surface. Wrinkles are a manifestation of these effects. Although numerous theoretical models of wrinkles arising in multi-layered structures have been proposed, they typically apply to idealised geometries...
January 10, 2018: Soft Matter
Chao Liu, Robert Carrera, Vittoria Flamini, Lena Kenny, Pamela Cabahug-Zuckerman, Benson M George, Daniel Hunter, Bo Liu, Gurpreet Singh, Philipp Leucht, Kenneth A Mann, Jill A Helms, Alesha B Castillo
Mechanical loading is an important aspect of post-surgical fracture care. The timing of load application relative to the injury event may differentially regulate repair depending on the stage of healing. Here, we used a novel mechanobiological model of cortical defect repair that offers several advantages including its technical simplicity and spatially confined repair program, making effects of both physical and biological interventions more easily assessed. Using this model, we showed that daily loading (5N peak load, 2Hz, 60 cycles, 4 consecutive days) during hematoma consolidation and inflammation disrupted the injury site and activated cartilage formation on the periosteal surface adjacent to the defect...
January 4, 2018: Bone
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