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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224369/proximity-of-metastatic-cells-enhances-their-mechanobiological-invasiveness
#1
Yulia Merkher, Daphne Weihs
A critical step in metastases formation is cancer-cell invasion through tissue. During invasion, cells change morphology and apply forces to their surroundings. We have previously shown that single, metastatic breast-cancer cells will mechanically indent a synthetic, impenetrable polyacrylamide gel with physiological-stiffness in attempted invasion; benign breast cells do not indent the gels. In solid tumors, e.g., breast cancers, metastases occur predominantly by collective cell-invasion. Thus, here we evaluate the effects of cell proximity on mechanical invasiveness, specifically through changes in gel indention...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216301/identification-of-the-mechanisms-by-which-age-alters-the-mechanosensitivity-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-on-substrates-of-differing-stiffness-implications-for-osteogenesis-and-angiogenesis
#2
Sara Barreto, Arlyng Gonzalez-Vazquez, Andrew R Cameron, Brenton Cavanagh, Dylan J Murray, Fergal J O'Brien
: In order to identify the mechanisms by which skeletal maturity alters the mechanosensitivity of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and, the implications for osteogenesis and angiogenesis during bone formation, we compared the response of MSCs derived from children and skeletally-mature healthy adults cultured on soft and stiff collagen-coated polyacrylamide substrates. MSCs from children were more mechanosensitive, showing enhanced angiogenesis and osteogenesis on stiff substrates as indicated by increased endothelial tubule formation, PGF production, nuclear-translocation of YAP, ALP activity and mineralisation...
February 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207921/pneumatic-stimulation-of-c-elegans-mechanoreceptor-neurons-in-a-microfluidic-trap
#3
Adam L Nekimken, Holger Fehlauer, Anna A Kim, Sandra N Manosalvas-Kjono, Purim Ladpli, Farah Memon, Divya Gopisetty, Veronica Sanchez, Miriam B Goodman, Beth L Pruitt, Michael Krieg
New tools for applying force to animals, tissues, and cells are critically needed in order to advance the field of mechanobiology, as few existing tools enable simultaneous imaging of tissue and cell deformation as well as cellular activity in live animals. Here, we introduce a novel microfluidic device that enables high-resolution optical imaging of cellular deformations and activity while applying precise mechanical stimuli to the surface of the worm's cuticle with a pneumatic pressure reservoir. To evaluate device performance, we compared analytical and numerical simulations conducted during the design process to empirical measurements made with fabricated devices...
February 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182873/biomechanically-primed-liver-microtumor-array-as-a-high-throughput-mechanopharmacological-screening-platform-for-stroma-reprogrammed-combinatorial-therapy
#4
Lu Zhu, Xingliang Fan, Bingjie Wang, Longwei Liu, Xiaojun Yan, Lyu Zhou, Yang Zeng, Mark C Poznansky, Lili Wang, Huabiao Chen, Yanan Du
Recent breakthrough in stroma-reprogrammed combinatorial therapy (SRCT) for pancreatic tumor opens a new route for improving conventional chemotherapeutic efficacy, which utilizes VDR ligand to reprogram activated stromal cells in stiffened microenvironment, leading to reduced 'barrier effects' and increased tissue-infiltration of the chemotherapy drug. As a novel therapeutic strategy and mechanism of action, the progress of SRCT relies on tailored in vitro drug assessment platforms to further optimize its efficacy and extend to applications in other tumor types...
January 27, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164445/holographic-optical-tweezers-based-in-vivo-manipulations-in-zebrafish-embryos
#5
Florian Hörner, Robert Meissner, Sruthi Polali, Jana Pfeiffer, Timo Betz, Cornelia Denz, Erez Raz
Understanding embryonic development requires the characterization of the forces and the mechanical features that shape cells and tissues within the organism. In addition, experimental application of forces on cells and altering cell and organelle shape allows determining the role such forces play in morphogenesis. Here, we present a holographic optical tweezers-based new microscopic platform for in vivo applications in the context of a developing vertebrate embryo that unlike currently used setups allows simultaneous trapping of multiple objects and rapid comparisons of viscoelastic properties in different locations...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163791/mechanobiology-of-chromatin-and-the-nuclear-interior
#6
Stephen T Spagnol, Travis J Armiger, Kris Noel Dahl
The view of the cell nucleus has evolved from an isolated, static organelle to a dynamic structure integrated with other mechanical elements of the cell. Both dynamics and integration appear to contribute to a mechanical regulation of genome expression. Here, we review physical structures inside the nucleus at different length scales and the dynamic reorganization modulated by cellular forces. First, we discuss nuclear organization focusing on self-assembly and disassembly of DNA structures and various nuclear bodies...
June 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155122/anisotropic-permeability-of-trabecular-bone-and-its-relationship-to-fabric-and-architecture-a-computational-study
#7
T C Kreipke, G L Niebur
Trabecular bone is a porous, mineralized tissue found in vertebral bodies, the metaphyses and epiphyses of long bones, and in the irregular and flat shaped bones. The pore space is filled with bone marrow, a highly cellular fluid. Together, the bone and marrow behave as a poroelastic solid. In poroelasticity theory, the permeability is the primary material property that governs the momentum transfer between the solid and fluid constituents. In the linearized theory, the permeability of a material depends on the shape and connectivity of the pores...
February 2, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142337/cell-gel-mechanical-interactions-as-an-approach-to-rapidly-and-quantitatively-reveal-invasive-subpopulations-of-metastatic-cancer-cells
#8
Martha Beatriz Alvarez-Elizondo, Daphne Weihs
We present a novel mechanobiology-based invasiveness assay to rapidly and quantitatively evaluate the mechanical invasiveness of metastatic cancer cells and identify invasive subpopulations, without need for chemoattractants and independent of serum content. The commonly accepted assay to determine metastatic potential in vitro is the Boyden chamber assay, where the percent of serum-starved cells that can long-term transmigrate/invade through sub-cell size membrane-pores is quantified; those experiments typically take 2-3 days...
January 31, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135286/fluid-dynamics-appearing-during-simulated-microgravity-using-random-positioning-machines
#9
Simon L Wuest, Philip Stern, Ernesto Casartelli, Marcel Egli
Random Positioning Machines (RPMs) are widely used as tools to simulate microgravity on ground. They consist of two gimbal mounted frames, which constantly rotate biological samples around two perpendicular axes and thus distribute the Earth's gravity vector in all directions over time. In recent years, the RPM is increasingly becoming appreciated as a laboratory instrument also in non-space-related research. For instance, it can be applied for the formation of scaffold-free spheroid cell clusters. The kinematic rotation of the RPM, however, does not only distribute the gravity vector in such a way that it averages to zero, but it also introduces local forces to the cell culture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130014/-biology-and-mechanobiology-of-the-intervertebral-disc
#10
Emilio González Martínez, José García-Cosamalón, Iván Cosamalón-Gan, Marta Esteban Blanco, Olivia García-Suarez, José A Vega
The intervertebral disc (IVD) is noted for its low cell content, and being the largest avascular structure of human body. The low amount of cells in the disc have to adapt to an anaerobic metabolism with low oxygen pressure and acidic pH. Apart from surviving in an adverse microenvironment, they are exposed to a high level of mechanical stress. The biological adaptation of cells to acidosis and hyperosmolarity conditions are regulated by mechanoproteins, which are responsible for converting a mechanical signal into a cellular response, thus modifying its gene expression...
January 24, 2017: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128420/grk2-desensitizes-flow-induced-responses-in-osteoblasts
#11
Y Xing, Y Gu, X Shan, L Wang, J You
Bone desensitization after mechanical loading is essential for bone to adapt to its mechanical environment. However, the desensitization mechanism is unknown. Previous studies suggest that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including P2Y and parathyroid hormone receptors, play important roles in osteoblast mechanobiology. Thus, for the present research, we examined the role of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in osteoblast desensitization after exposure to mechanical stimulation. We first showed the existence of osteoblast desensitization after mechanical stimulation based on cytosol Ca(2+) and phosphorylated ERK1/2 activities, detected using a fluorescent Ca(2+)-sensitive dye and western blotting, respectively...
January 23, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122453/improving-t-cell-expansion-with-a-soft-touch
#12
Lester H Lambert, Geraldine K E Goebrecht, Sarah E De Leo, Roddy S O'Connor, Selene Nunez-Cruz, Tai-De Li, Jinglun Yuan, Michael C Milone, Lance C Kam
Protein-coated microbeads provide a consistent approach for activating and expanding populations of T cells for immunotherapy but do not fully capture the properties of antigen presenting cells. In this report, we enhance T cell expansion by replacing the conventional, rigid bead with a mechanically soft elastomer. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was prepared in a microbead format and modified with activating antibodies to CD3 and CD28. A total of three different formulations of PDMS provided an extended proliferative phase in both CD4(+)-only and mixed CD4(+)-CD8(+) T cell preparations...
January 30, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116907/quantitative-control-of-protein-and-cell-interaction-with-nanostructured-surfaces-by-cluster-assembling
#13
Carsten Schulte, Alessandro Podestà, Cristina Lenardi, Gabriella Tedeschi, Paolo Milani
The development of smart prosthetics, scaffolds, and biomaterials for tissue engineering and organ-on-a-chip devices heavily depends on the understanding and control of biotic/abiotic interfaces. In recent years, the nanometer scale emerged as the predominant dimension for processes impacting on protein adsorption and cellular responses on surfaces. In this context, the extracellular matrix (ECM) can be seen as the prototype for an intricate natural structure assembled by nanoscale building blocks forming highly variable nanoscale configurations, dictating cellular behavior and fate...
January 24, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109889/vascular-remodeling-a-redox-modulated-mechanism-of-vessel-caliber-regulation
#14
REVIEW
Leonardo Y Tanaka, Francisco R M Laurindo
Vascular remodeling, i.e. whole-vessel structural reshaping, determines lumen caliber in (patho)physiology. Here we review mechanisms underlying vessel remodeling, with emphasis in redox regulation. First, we discuss confusing terminology and focus on strictu sensu remodeling. Second, we propose a mechanobiological remodeling paradigm based on the concept of tensional homeostasis as a setpoint regulator. We first focus on shear-mediated models as prototypes of remodeling closely dominated by highly redox-sensitive endothelial function...
January 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109795/bone-morphological-effects-on-post-implantation-remodeling-of-maxillary-anterior-buccal-bone-a-clinical-and-biomechanical-study
#15
Nobuhiro Yoda, Keke Zheng, Junning Chen, Wei Li, Michael Swain, Keiichi Sasaki, Qing Li
PURPOSE: This study combines clinical investigation with finite element (FE) analysis to explore the effects of buccal bone thickness (BBT) on the morphological changes of buccal bone induced by the loaded implant. METHODS: One specific patient who had undergone an implant treatment in the anterior maxilla and experienced the buccal bone resorption on the implant was studied. Morphological changes of the bone were measured through a series of cone-beam computed tomography (CT) scans...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105774/stiffness-controlled-thermoresponsive-hydrogels-for-cell-harvesting-with-sustained-mechanical-memory
#16
Xingliang Fan, Lu Zhu, Ke Wang, Bingjie Wang, Yaozu Wu, Wei Xie, Chengyu Huang, Barbara Pui Chan, Yanan Du
Most mechanobiological investigations focused on in situ mechanical regulation of cells on stiffness-controlled substrates with few downstream applications, as it is still challenging to harvest and expand mechanically primed cells by enzymatic digestion (e.g., trypsin) without interrupting cellular mechanical memory between passages. This study develops thermoresponsive hydrogels with controllable stiffness to generate mechanically primed cells with intact mechanical memory for augmented wound healing. No significant cellular property alteration of the fibroblasts primed on thermoresponsive hydrogels with varied stiffness has been observed through thermoresponsive harvesting...
January 20, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100420/osteoarthritis-year-in-review-2016-mechanics
#17
REVIEW
D J Saxby, D G Lloyd
Inappropriate biomechanics, namely wear-and-tear, has been long believed to be a main cause of osteoarthritis (OA). However, this view is now being re-evaluated, especially when examined alongside mechanobiology and new biomechanical studies. These are multiscale experimental and computational studies focussing on cell- and tissue-level mechanobiology through to organ- and whole-body-level biomechanics, which focuses on the biomechanical and biochemical environment of the joint tissues. This review examined papers from April 2015 to April 2016, with a focus on multiscale experimental and computational biomechanical studies of OA...
December 16, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097402/-mechanobiology-of-fracture-healing
#18
EDITORIAL
L Claes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076363/effects-of-loading-duration-and-short-rest-insertion-on-cancellous-and-cortical-bone-adaptation-in-the-mouse-tibia
#19
Haisheng Yang, Rachel E Embry, Russell P Main
The skeleton's osteogenic response to mechanical loading can be affected by loading duration and rest insertion during a series of loading events. Prior animal loading studies have shown that the cortical bone response saturates quickly and short rest insertions between load cycles can enhance cortical bone formation. However, it remains unknown how loading duration and short rest insertion affect load-induced osteogenesis in the mouse tibial compressive loading model, and particularly in cancellous bone. To address this issue, we applied cyclic loading (-9 N peak load; 4 Hz) to the tibiae of three groups of 16 week-old female C57BL/6 mice for two weeks, with a different number of continuous load cycles applied daily to each group (36, 216 and 1200)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069165/on-the-quantification-and-visualization-of-transient-periodic-instabilities-in-pulsatile-flows
#20
Muhammad Owais Khan, Christophe Chnafa, Diego Gallo, Filippo Molinari, Umberto Morbiducci, David A Steinman, Kristian Valen-Sendstad
Turbulent-like flows without cycle-to-cycle variations are more frequently being reported in studies of cardiovascular flows. The associated stimuli might be of mechanobiological relevance, but how to quantify them objectively is not obvious. Classical Reynolds decomposition, where the flow is separated into mean and fluctuating velocity components, is not applicable as the phase-average is zero. We therefore expanded on established techniques and present the idea, analogous to Reynolds decomposition, to decompose a flow with transient instabilities into low- versus high frequency components, respectively, to discriminate flow instabilities from the underlying cardiac pulsatility...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
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