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Sahan C B Herath, Soheila Sharghi-Namini, Yue Du, Dongan Wang, Ruowen Ge, Qing-Guo Wang, Harry Asada, Peter C Y Chen
Advances in mechanobiology have suggested that physiological and pathological angiogenesis may be differentiated based on the ways in which the cells interact with the extracellular matrix (ECM) that exhibits partially different mechanical properties. This warrants investigating the regulation of ECM stiffness on cell behavior using angiogenesis assays. In this article, we report the application of the technique of active manipulation of ECM stiffness to study in vitro angiogenic sprouting of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) in a microfluidic device...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Laboratory Automation
Marvin J Slepian, Jawaad Sheriff, Marcus Hutchinson, Phat Tran, Naing Bajaj, Joe G N Garcia, S Scott Saavedra, Danny Bluestein
Shear-mediated platelet activation (SMPA) is central in thrombosis of implantable cardiovascular therapeutic devices. Despite the morbidity and mortality associated with thrombosis of these devices, our understanding of mechanisms operative in SMPA, particularly in free flowing blood, remains limited. Herein we present and discuss a range of emerging mechanisms for consideration for "free flow" activation under supraphysiologic shear. Further definition and manipulation of these mechanisms will afford opportunities for novel pharmacologic and mechanical strategies to limit SMPA and enhance overall implant device safety...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Satoru Kidoaki
Recently, control of mechanobiologic response of cells has been a strong attractive issue for biomaterials sciences in relation to the requirements for optimization of cell-materials interactions. In this mini-review, we survey the typical parameters for designing the biomaterials to manipulate cell mechanobiology, i.e., mechanobio-materials. In addition, from the view of regenerative biomedical engineering, we introduce our recent approaches on the development of mechanobio-materials for stem cell manipulation that ensures the high-qualified stemness...
2016: Clinical Calcium
Masahiro Sokabe
In the last decade a new scientific discipline called "Mechanobiology" has emerged. It aims at elucidation of roles and mechanisms of mechanical forces in organisms as well as applications of the obtained fruits to human beings. Mechanobiology deals with a wide variety of objectives, including molecules, cells, tissues, organs and individuals, in which "Cell Mechanosesing" forms the core concept. Starting with a definition of cell mechanosensing, this short review gives an outline of the history of mechanobiology and perspectives on the mechanobiology in the near future...
2016: Clinical Calcium
Michael Lavagnino, Andrew E Brooks, Anna N Oslapas, Keri L Gardner, Steven P Arnoczky
Collagen crimp morphology is thought to contribute to the material behavior of tendons and may reflect the local mechanobiological environment of tendon cells. Following loss of collagen tension in tendons, tenocytes initiate a contraction response that shortens tendon length which, in turn, may alter crimp patterns. We hypothesized that changes in the crimp pattern of tendons are the result of cell-based contractions which are governed by relative tautness/laxity of the collagen matrix. To determine the relationship between crimp pattern and tensional homeostasis, rat tail tendon fascicles (RTTfs) were either allowed to freely contract or placed in clamps with 10% laxity for 7 days...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Thomas A Metzger, Ted J Vaughan, Laoise M McNamara, Glen L Niebur
Age-related increases in trabecular bone porosity, as seen in osteoporosis, not only affect the strength and stiffness, but also potentially the mechanobiological response of bone. The mechanical interaction between trabecular bone and bone marrow is one source of mechanobiological signaling, as many cell populations in marrow are mechanosensitive. However, measuring the mechanics of this interaction is difficult, due to the length scales and geometric complexity of trabecular bone. In this study, a multi-scale computational scheme incorporating high-resolution, tissue-level, fluid-structure interaction simulations with discrete cell-level models was applied to characterize the potential effects of trabecular porosity and marrow composition on marrow mechanobiology in human femoral bone...
November 22, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Verena Ruprecht, Pascale Monzo, Andrea Ravasio, Zhang Yue, Ekta Makhija, Pierre Olivier Strale, Nils Gauthier, G V Shivashankar, Vincent Studer, Corinne Albiges-Rizo, Virgile Viasnoff
Biomimetic materials have long been the (he)art of bioengineering. They usually aim at mimicking in vivo conditions to allow in vitro culture, differentiation and expansion of cells. The past decade has witnessed a considerable amount of progress in soft lithography, bio-inspired micro-fabrication and biochemistry, allowing the design of sophisticated and physiologically relevant micro- and nano-environments. These systems now provide an exquisite toolbox with which we can control a large set of physicochemical environmental parameters that determine cell behavior...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
B Vafaeian, D Zonoobi, M Mabee, A R Hareendranathan, M El-Rich, S Adeeb, J L Jaremko
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a common condition predisposing to osteoarthritis (OA). Especially since DDH is best identified and treated in infancy before bones ossify, there is surprisingly a near-complete absence of literature examining mechanical behavior of infant dysplastic hips. We sought to identify current practice in finite element modeling (FEM) of DDH, to inform future modeling of infant dysplastic hips. We performed multi-database systematic review using PRISMA criteria. Abstracts (n = 126) fulfilling inclusion criteria were screened for methodological quality, and results were analyzed and summarized for eligible articles (n = 12)...
November 9, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Marcus Stoffel, Wolfgang Willenberg, Marzieh Azarnoosh, Nadine Fuhrmann-Nelles, Bei Zhou, Bernd Markert
In biomedical applications bioreactors are used, which are able to apply mechanical loadings under cultivation conditions on biological tissues. However, complex mechanobiological evolutions, such as the dependency between mechanical properties and cell activity, depend strongly on the applied loading conditions. This requires correct physiological movements and loadings in bioreactors. The aim of the present study is to develop bioreactors, in which native and artificial biological tissues can be cultivated under physiological conditions in knee joints and spinal motion segments...
November 8, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
Jason P Caffrey, Esther Cory, Van W Wong, Koichi Masuda, Albert C Chen, Jessee P Hunt, Timothy M Ganey, Robert L Sah
A truss structure was recently introduced as an interbody fusion cage. As a truss system, some of the connected elements may be in a state of compression and others in tension. This study aimed to quantify both the mean and variance of strut strains in such an implant when loaded in a simulated fusion condition with vertebral body or contoured plastic loading platens ex vivo. Cages were each instrumented with 78 fiducial spheres, loaded between platens (vertebral body or contoured plastic), imaged using high resolution micro-CT, and analyzed for deformation and strain of each of the 221 struts...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Yoshihisa Shimizu, Masao Kamimura, Shota Yamamoto, Shimaa A Abdellatef, Kazuo Yamaguchi, Jun Nakanishi
This paper describes a facile method for the preparation of photoactivatable substrates with tuned surface density of an extracellular matrix peptide to resolve the impacts of biochemical and mechanical cues on collective cell migration. The controllability of surface ligand density was validated by cell adhesion and migration tests, complemented with fluorescence observation of an alternative ligand. Depending on the surface ligand density, HeLa cells either kept or lost collective characteristics. The present materials will be useful to address mechanobiology of collective cell migration...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Takuya Genjo, Shingo Sotoma, Ryotaro Tanabe, Ryuji Igarashi, Masahiro Shirakawa
Recently, the importance of conformational changes in actin filaments induced by mechanical stimulation of a cell has been increasingly recognized, especially in terms of mechanobiology. Despite its fundamental importance, however, long-term observation of a single actin filament by fluorescent microscopy has been difficult because of the low photostability of traditional fluorescent molecules. This paper reports a novel molecular labeling system for actin filaments using fluorescent nanodiamond (ND) particles harboring nitrogen-vacancy centers; ND has flexible chemical modifiability, extremely high photostability and biocompatibility, and provides a variety of physical information quantitatively via optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) measurements...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Takashi Hoshiba, Masaru Tanaka
Cells can mainly sense mechanical cues from the extracellular matrix via integrins. Because mechanical cues can strongly influence cellular functions, understanding the roles of integrins in the sensing of mechanical cues is a key for the achievement of tissue engineering. The analyses to determine the roles of integrins in the sensing of mechanical cues have been performed by many methods based on molecular- and cell-biological techniques, atomic force microscopy, and optical tweezers. Integrin-dependent cell adhesion substrates have been also used for this purpose...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
J F Stoltz
The word "Biorheology" was introduced in 1948 during the first international congress on Rheology but "hemorheology" was first employed in 1951 during a meeting of the American Institute of Physics. Basically this science is related to physics and mechanics. The first international conference devoted to hemorheology was organized by AL Copley in Reykjavik (Iceland) in July 1969 and an International Society on Hemorheology was created. But after Reykjavik this society was named "International Society of Biorheology"...
October 27, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Salma Ayoub, Giovanni Ferrari, Robert C Gorman, Joseph H Gorman, Frederick J Schoen, Michael S Sacks
Heart valves control unidirectional blood flow within the heart during the cardiac cycle. They have a remarkable ability to withstand the demanding mechanical environment of the heart, achieving lifetime durability by processes involving the ongoing remodeling of the extracellular matrix. The focus of this review is on heart valve functional physiology, with insights into the link between disease-induced alterations in valve geometry, tissue stress, and the subsequent cell mechanobiological responses and tissue remodeling...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Samantha K Atkins, Andrew McNally, Philippe Sucosky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Jie Gao, John L Williams, Esra Roan
Growth plate chondrocytes are responsible for bone growth through proliferation and differentiation. However, the way they experience physiological loads and regulate bone formation, especially during the later developmental phase in the mature growth plate, is still under active investigation. In this study, a previously developed multiscale finite element model of the growth plate is utilized to study the stress and strain distributions within the cartilage at the cellular level when rapidly compressed to 20 %...
October 21, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Hung-Yi Liu, Tanja Greene, Tsai-Yu Lin, Camron S Dawes, Murray Korc, Chien-Chi Lin
: The complex network of biochemical and biophysical cues in the pancreatic desmoplasia not only presents challenges to the fundamental understanding of tumor progression, but also hinders the development of therapeutic strategies against pancreatic cancer. Residing in the desmoplasia, pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are the major stromal cells affecting the growth and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells by means of paracrine effects and extracellular matrix protein deposition. PSCs remain in a quiescent/dormant state until they are 'activated' by various environmental cues...
October 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Anji Anura, Debanjan Das, Mousumi Pal, Ranjan Rashmi Paul, Soumen Das, Jyotirmoy Chatterjee
Oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSF), a potentially malignant disorder, exhibits extensive remodeling of extra-cellular matrix in the form of sub-epithelial fibrosis which is a possible sequel of assaults from different oral habit related irritants. It has been assumed that micro/nanobio-mechanical imbalance experienced in the oral mucosa due to fibrosis may be deterministic for malignant potential (7-13%) of this pathosis. Present study explores changes in mechanobiological attributes of sub-epithelial connective tissue of OSF and the normal counterpart...
September 20, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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