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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448920/the-effect-of-equiaxial-stretching-on-the-osteogenic-differentiation-and-mechanical-properties-of-human-adipose-stem-cells
#1
Sanni Virjula, Feihu Zhao, Joni Leivo, Sari Vanhatupa, Joose Kreutzer, Ted J Vaughan, Anna-Maija Honkala, Marlitt Viehrig, Conleth A Mullen, Pasi Kallio, Laoise M McNamara, Susanna Miettinen
Although mechanical cues are known to affect stem cell fate and mechanobiology, the significance of such stimuli on the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of long-term mechanical stimulation on the attachment, osteogenic differentiation and mechanical properties of hASCs. Tailor-made, pneumatic cell stretching devices were used to expose hASCs to cyclic equiaxial stretching in osteogenic medium. Cell attachment and focal adhesions were visualised using immunocytochemical vinculin staining on days 3 and 6, and the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity, as a sign of early osteogenic differentiation, were analysed on days 0, 6 and 10...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429161/on-the-in-vivo-function-of-the-mitral-heart-valve-leaflet-insights-into-tissue-interstitial-cell-biomechanical-coupling
#2
Chung-Hao Lee, Will Zhang, Kristen Feaver, Robert C Gorman, Joseph H Gorman, Michael S Sacks
There continues to be a critical need for developing data-informed computational modeling techniques that enable systematic evaluations of mitral valve (MV) function. This is important for a better understanding of MV organ-level biomechanical performance, in vivo functional tissue stresses, and the biosynthetic responses of MV interstitial cells (MVICs) in the normal, pathophysiological, and surgically repaired states. In the present study, we utilized extant ovine MV population-averaged 3D fiducial marker data to quantify the MV anterior leaflet (MVAL) deformations in various kinematic states...
April 20, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427319/mechanobiological-modelling-of-tendons-review-and-future-opportunities
#3
Mark S Thompson, M Nazri Bajuri, Hanifeh Khayyeri, Hanna Isaksson
Tendons are adapted to carry large, repeated loads and are clinically important for the maintenance of musculoskeletal health in an increasing, actively ageing population, as well as in elite athletes. Tendons are known to adapt to mechanical loading. Also, their healing and disease processes are highly sensitive to mechanical load. Computational modelling approaches developed to capture this mechanobiological adaptation in tendons and other tissues have successfully addressed many important scientific and clinical issues...
May 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406209/mechanobiology-a-measure-of-molecular-muscle
#4
Michael Eisenstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403507/endothelial-dysfunction-and-mechanobiology-in-pathological-cutaneous-scarring-lessons-learned-from-soft-tissue-fibrosis
#5
REVIEW
C Huang, L Liu, Z You, Y Zhao, J Dong, Y Du, R Ogawa
Hypertrophic scars/keloids are pathogenic scars that are characterized by collagen and fibroblast accumulation. The endothelia in the lesions are mechanosensitive and participate actively in the pathogenesis of these scars. The present review summarizes how endothelium responds to mechanical stimuli such as shear, stretch, and hydrostatic pressure. It also shows that in heart, liver, kidney, and lung fibrosis, endothelial dysfunctions (EDs) associate with changes in vascular tone, endothelial permeability, coagulation, and vasomodulation that result in inflammation, hypertension, and coagulation...
April 12, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391171/a-two-scale-modeling-and-computational-framework-for-vibration-induced-raynaud-syndrome
#6
Yue Hua, Pierre Lemerle, Jean-François Ganghoffer
Hand-Arm Vibration syndrome (HAVS), usually caused by long-term use of hand-held power tools, can in certain manifestations alter the peripheral blood circulation in the hand-arm region. HAVS typically occurs after exposure to cold, causing an abnormally strong vasoconstriction of blood vessels. A pathoanatomical mechanism suggests that a reduction of the lumen of the blood vessels in VWF (Vibration White Finger) subjects, due to either hypertrophy or thickening of the vessel wall, may be at the origin of the disease...
March 28, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377988/bone-fracture-healing-in-mechanobiological-modeling-a-review-of-principles-and-methods
#7
REVIEW
Mohammad S Ghiasi, Jason Chen, Ashkan Vaziri, Edward K Rodriguez, Ara Nazarian
Bone fracture is a very common body injury. The healing process is physiologically complex, involving both biological and mechanical aspects. Following a fracture, cell migration, cell/tissue differentiation, tissue synthesis, and cytokine and growth factor release occur, regulated by the mechanical environment. Over the past decade, bone healing simulation and modeling has been employed to understand its details and mechanisms, to investigate specific clinical questions, and to design healing strategies. The goal of this effort is to review the history and the most recent work in bone healing simulations with an emphasis on both biological and mechanical properties...
June 2017: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372277/mechanobiology-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-which-interest-for-cell-based-treatment
#8
Céline Huselstein, R Rahouadj, N de Isla, D Bensoussan, J F Stoltz, Y P Li
Thanks to their immune properties, the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a promising source for cell therapy. Current clinical trials show that MSC administrated to patients can treat different diseases (graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), liver cirrhosis, systemic lupus, erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, type I diabetes…). In this case, the most common mode of cell administration is the intravenous injection, and the hemodynamic environment of cells induced by blood circulation could interfere on their behavior during the migration and homing towards the injured site...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372275/examples-of-multiscale-and-multiphysics-numerical-modeling-of-biological-tissues
#9
Daniel George, Camille Spingarn, Caroline Dissaux, Mathieu Nierenberger, Ranya Abdel Rahman, Yves Rémond
Predictive theoretical-numerical modeling of the behavior and evolution of biological tissue is a difficult task since many of the required knowledge tools (experimental, theoretical and numerical) are still not well understood. We present here some methodologies and results specific to multiscale and multiphysics numerical modeling of biological tissues applied to the predictive behavior of cortical veins depending on their local constituents' microstructure and for bone remodeling and reconstruction as a function of the local mechanobiology...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363954/estrogen-deficiency-attenuates-fluid-flow-induced-ca-2-i-oscillations-and-mechanoresponsiveness-of-mlo-y4-osteocytes
#10
Vishwa Deepak, Pushpalata Kayastha, Laoise M McNamara
It has been proposed that estrogen regulates the mechanosensitivity of osteocytes; however, the effects of estrogen deficiency that arises during postmenopausal osteoporosis on mechanical stimulation-induced calcium signaling in osteocytes remains elusive. Here, we pretreated MLO-Y4 osteocytes with 10 nM E2 for 2, 3 and 5 d, then simulated postmenopausal conditions either by withdrawing estrogen (EW) from culture medium, or by inhibiting the estrogen receptor by using fulvestrant and estrogen (FE; ICI 182,780) in vitro We investigated [Ca(2+)]i oscillations and mechanobiologic responses of osteocytes (EW and FE) that were exposed to oscillatory fluid flow (OFF; 1 Pa, 0...
March 31, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319593/profiles-of-long-noncoding-rnas-in-hypertensive-rats-long-noncoding-rna-xr007793-regulates-cyclic-strain-induced-proliferation-and-migration-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#11
Qing-Ping Yao, Zhi-Wei Xie, Kai-Xuan Wang, Ping Zhang, Yue Han, Ying-Xin Qi, Zong-Lai Jiang
BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are being discovered in multiple diseases at a rapid pace. However, the contribution of lncRNAs to hypertension remains largely unknown. In hypertension, the vascular walls are exposed to abnormal mechanical cyclic strain, which leads to vascular remodelling. Here, we investigated the mechanobiological role of lncRNAs in hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: Differences in the lncRNAs and mRNAs between spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats were screened using a gene microarray...
June 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301131/bioinspired-nanofeatured-substrates-suitable-environment-for-bone-regeneration
#12
H Rammal, M Dubus, L Aubert, F Reffuveille, D Laurent-Maquin, C Terryn, P Schaaf, H Alem, G Francius, F Quilès, S C Gangloff, F Boulmedais, H Kerdjoudj
Bone mimicking coatings provide a complex microenvironment in which material, through its inherent properties (such as nanostructure and composition), affects the commitment of stem cells into bone lineage and the production of bone tissue regulating factors required for bone healing and regeneration. Herein, a bioactive mineral/biopolymer composite made of calcium phosphate/chitosan and hyaluronic acid (CaP-CHI-HA) was elaborated using a versatile simultaneous spray coating of interacting species. The resulting CaP-CHI-HA coating was mainly constituted of bioactive, carbonated and crystalline hydroxyapatite with 277 ± 98 nm of roughness, 1 μm of thickness, and 2...
March 30, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300644/the-connective-tissue-phenotype-of-glaucomatous-cupping-in-the-monkey-eye-clinical-and-research-implications
#13
REVIEW
Hongli Yang, Juan Reynaud, Howard Lockwood, Galen Williams, Christy Hardin, Luke Reyes, Cheri Stowell, Stuart K Gardiner, Claude F Burgoyne
In a series of previous publications we have proposed a framework for conceptualizing the optic nerve head (ONH) as a biomechanical structure. That framework proposes important roles for intraocular pressure (IOP), IOP-related stress and strain, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp), systemic and ocular determinants of blood flow, inflammation, auto-immunity, genetics, and other non-IOP related risk factors in the physiology of ONH aging and the pathophysiology of glaucomatous damage to the ONH. The present report summarizes 20 years of technique development and study results pertinent to the characterization of ONH connective tissue deformation and remodeling in the unilateral monkey experimental glaucoma (EG) model...
March 12, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286348/growth-and-remodeling-of-load-bearing-biological-soft-tissues
#14
C J Cyron, J D Humphrey
The past two decades reveal a growing role of continuum biomechanics in understanding homeostasis, adaptation, and disease progression in soft tissues. In this paper, we briefly review the two primary theoretical approaches for describing mechano-regulated soft tissue growth and remodeling on the continuum level as well as hybrid approaches that attempt to combine the advantages of these two approaches while avoiding their disadvantages. We also discuss emerging concepts, including that of mechanobiological stability...
February 2017: Meccanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274875/comparison-of-ultrastructural-and-nanomechanical-signature-of-platelets-from-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-platelet-activation
#15
Aiqun Li, Jianwei Chen, Zhi-Hong Liang, Jiye Cai, Huai-Hong Cai, Min Chen
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) initiation and progression follow complex molecular and structural changes in the nanoarchitecture of platelets. However, it remains poorly understood how the transformation from health to AMI alters the ultrastructural and biomechanical properties of platelets within the platelet activation microenvironment. Here, we show using an atomic force microscope (AFM) that platelet samples, including living human platelets from the healthy and AMI patient, activated platelets from collagen-stimulated model, show distinct ultrastructural imaging and stiffness profiles...
April 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250733/a-new-computational-approach-for-modeling-diffusion-tractography-in-the-brain
#16
REVIEW
Harsha T Garimella, Reuben H Kraft
Computational models provide additional tools for studying the brain, however, many techniques are currently disconnected from each other. There is a need for new computational approaches that span the range of physics operating in the brain. In this review paper, we offer some new perspectives on how the embedded element method can fill this gap and has the potential to connect a myriad of modeling genre. The embedded element method is a mesh superposition technique used within finite element analysis. This method allows for the incorporation of axonal fiber tracts to be explicitly represented...
January 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249521/quantitative-photoacoustic-characterization-of-blood-clot-in-blood-a-mechanobiological-assessment-through-spectral-information
#17
Deblina Biswas, Srivathsan Vasudevan, George C K Chen, Norman Sharma
Formation of blood clots, called thrombus, can happen due to hyper-coagulation of blood. Thrombi, while moving through blood vessels can impede blood flow, an important criterion for many critical diseases like deep vein thrombosis and heart attacks. Understanding mechanical properties of clot formation is vital for assessment of severity of thrombosis and proper treatment. However, biomechanics of thrombus is less known to clinicians and not very well investigated. Photoacoustic (PA) spectral response, a non-invasive technique, is proposed to investigate the mechanism of formation of blood clots through elasticity and also differentiate clots from blood...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249360/heart-function-and-hemodynamics-analysis-for-zebrafish-embryos
#18
REVIEW
Huseyin C Yalcin, Armin Amindari, Jonathan T Butcher, Asma Althani, Magdi Yacoub
The zebrafish has emerged to become a powerful vertebrate animal model for cardiovascular research in recent years. Its advantages include easy genetic manipulation, transparency, small size, low cost, and the ability to survive without active circulation at early stages of development. Sequencing the whole genome and identifying orthologue genes with human genome enabled to induce clinically relevant cardiovascular defects via genetic approaches. Heart function and disturbed hemodynamics need to be assessed in a reliable manner for these disease models in order to reveal mechanobiology of induced defects...
March 1, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247311/elevated-serotonin-interacts-with-angiotensin-ii-to-result-in-altered-valve-interstitial-cell-contractility-and-remodeling
#19
Jessica Perez, Nancy Diaz, Ishita Tandon, Rachel Plate, Christopher Martindale, Kartik Balachandran
While the valvulopathic effects of serotonin (5HT) and angiotensin-II (Ang-II) individually are known, it was not clear how 5HT and Ang-II might interact, specifically in the context of the mechanobiological responses due to altered valve mechanics potentiated by these molecules. In this context, the hypothesis of this study was that increased serotonin levels would result in accelerated progression toward disease in the presence of angiotensin-II-induced hypertension. C57/BL6 J mice were divided into four groups and subcutaneously implanted with osmotic pumps containing: PBS (control), 5HT (2...
February 28, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224369/proximity-of-metastatic-cells-enhances-their-mechanobiological-invasiveness
#20
Yulia Merkher, Daphne Weihs
A critical step in metastases formation is cancer-cell invasion through tissue. During invasion, cells change morphology and apply forces to their surroundings. We have previously shown that single, metastatic breast-cancer cells will mechanically indent a synthetic, impenetrable polyacrylamide gel with physiological-stiffness in attempted invasion; benign breast cells do not indent the gels. In solid tumors, e.g., breast cancers, metastases occur predominantly by collective cell-invasion. Thus, here we evaluate the effects of cell proximity on mechanical invasiveness, specifically through changes in gel indention...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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