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Jie Gao, John L Williams, Esra Roan
Growth plate chondrocytes are responsible for bone growth through proliferation and differentiation. However, the way they experience physiological loads and regulate bone formation, especially during the later developmental phase in the mature growth plate, is still under active investigation. In this study, a previously developed multiscale finite element model of the growth plate is utilized to study the stress and strain distributions within the cartilage at the cellular level when rapidly compressed to 20 %...
October 21, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Hung-Yi Liu, Tanja Greene, Tsai-Yu Lin, Camron S Dawes, Murray Korc, Chien-Chi Lin
: The complex network of biochemical and biophysical cues in the pancreatic desmoplasia not only presents challenges to the fundamental understanding of tumor progression, but also hinders the development of therapeutic strategies against pancreatic cancer. Residing in the desmoplasia, pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are the major stromal cells affecting the growth and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells by means of paracrine effects and extracellular matrix protein deposition. PSCs remain in a quiescent/dormant state until they are 'activated' by various environmental cues...
October 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Anji Anura, Debanjan Das, Mousumi Pal, Ranjan Rashmi Paul, Soumen Das, Jyotirmoy Chatterjee
Oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSF), a potentially malignant disorder, exhibits extensive remodeling of extra-cellular matrix in the form of sub-epithelial fibrosis which is a possible sequel of assaults from different oral habit related irritants. It has been assumed that micro/nanobio-mechanical imbalance experienced in the oral mucosa due to fibrosis may be deterministic for malignant potential (7-13%) of this pathosis. Present study explores changes in mechanobiological attributes of sub-epithelial connective tissue of OSF and the normal counterpart...
September 20, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Ibrahim El Deeb Zakhary, Karl Wenger, Mohammed Elsalanty, James Cray, Mohamed Sharawy, Regina Messer
OBJECTIVE: The mandible is continuously undergoing remodeling as a result of mechanobiologic factors, such as chewing forces, tooth loss, orthodontic forces, and periodontitis. The effects of mechanical stress and biologic signals in bone homeostasis have been the focus of many investigations. However, much of this research utilized osteocytes derived from long bones, but little is known about the mandible-derived osteocytes. This study tests a protocol to isolate and grow osteocytes from rat mandible...
September 9, 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Adrian Ranga, Mehmet Girgin, Andrea Meinhardt, Dominic Eberle, Massimiliano Caiazzo, Elly M Tanaka, Matthias P Lutolf
Three-dimensional organoid constructs serve as increasingly widespread in vitro models for development and disease modeling. Current approaches to recreate morphogenetic processes in vitro rely on poorly controllable and ill-defined matrices, thereby largely overlooking the contribution of biochemical and biophysical extracellular matrix (ECM) factors in promoting multicellular growth and reorganization. Here, we show how defined synthetic matrices can be used to explore the role of the ECM in the development of complex 3D neuroepithelial cysts that recapitulate key steps in early neurogenesis...
October 14, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hannah E Majeski, Jing Yang
Past decades of cancer research have mainly focused on the role of various extracellular and intracellular biochemical signals on cancer progression and metastasis. Recent studies suggest an important role of mechanical forces in regulating cellular behaviors. This review first provides an overview of the mechanobiology research field. Then we specially focus on mechanotransduction pathways in cancer progression and describe in detail the key signaling components of such mechanotransduction pathways and ECM components that are altered in cancer...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
Fang Wang, Zhu-Liang Wei, Xian-Rui Sun, Qiang Zhang, Cai-Xia Zhang, Wen-Xin Jiang, Xiao Yan, Jia-Ning Liu, Xiao Yuan
The apoptosis of myoblast in response to excessive cyclic stretch is crucial in adaptive construction of skeletal muscles in orthopedic functional therapy. Mitochondria signaling pathway is the central links in the execution of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade, but its molecular mechanism in stretch-induced apoptosis in myoblasts remains incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanobiological roles of caspase-9 and Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF), two important components in mitochondrial pathway, in stretch-induced apoptosis of myoblast...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Alexandre Poulin, Cansaran Saygili Demir, Samuel Rosset, Tatiana V Petrova, Herbert Shea
We demonstrate the use of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) for mechanical stimulation of cells in vitro. The development of living tissues is regulated by their mechanical environment through the modification of fundamental cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation and gene expression. Mechanical cues have been linked to numerous pathological conditions, and progress in cellular mechanobiology could lead to better diagnosis and treatments of diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancers...
September 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Adam O'Reilly, Daniel John Kelly
Developing successful tissue engineering strategies requires an understanding of how cells within an implanted scaffold interacts with the host environment. The objective of this study was to use a computational mechanobiological model to explore how the design of a cell laden scaffold influences the spatial formation of cartilage and bone within an osteochondral defect. Tissue differentiation was predicted using a previously developed model in which cell fate depends on the local oxygen tension and the mechanical environment within a damaged joint...
October 6, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Esperanza Macarena López-Pliego, Miguel Ángel Giráldez-Sánchez, Juan Mora-Macías, Esther Reina-Romo, Jaime Domínguez
INTRODUCTION: Bone transport (BT) for segmentary bone defects is a well-known technique as it enables correction with new bone formation, which is similar to the previous bone. Despite the high number of experimental studies of distraction osteogenesis in bone lengthening, the types of ossification and histological changes that occur in the regenerate of the bone transport process remain controversial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to provide the complete evolution of tissues and the types of ossification in the regenerate during the different phases of bone formation after BT until the end of the remodelling period...
September 2016: Injury
Eliane Hermes Dutra, Ravindra Nanda, Sumit Yadav
The tooth-periodontal ligament-alveolar bone complex acts symbiotically to dissipate the mechanical loads incurred during mastication and/or orthodontic tooth movement. The periodontal ligament functions both in the tension and compression. At the molecular and celleular levels, the loads in the periodontal ligament trigger mechanobiological events in the alveolar bone, which leads to bone modeling and remodeling. The current review focuses on the bone response to mechanical loading of the periodontal ligament on the tension and pressure sides...
September 28, 2016: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Michael A Hill, Gerald A Meininger
Small arteries and their component cellular and non-cellular elements are continually subjected to, and interact with, mechanical forces. Such interactions are key in both short and long-term adaptation of the structure and function of the microcirculation to its local environment and metabolic requirements. Following this brief introduction is a series of papers presented as a symposium (Small Artery Mechanobiology: Roles of Cellular and Non-Cellular Elements) at the World Congress for Microcirculation, Kyoto 2015...
September 28, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Benedikt Fels, Nikolaj Nielsen, Albrecht Schwab
The tumor environment contributes importantly to tumor cell behavior and cancer progression. Aside from biochemical constituents, physical factors of the environment also influence the tumor. Growing evidence suggests that mechanics [e.g., tumor (stroma) elasticity, tissue pressure] are critical players of cancer progression. Underlying mechanobiological mechanisms involve among others the regulation of focal adhesion molecules, cytoskeletal modifications, and mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels of cancer- and tumor-associated cells...
October 2016: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
Despina Bazou, Mei Rosa Ng, Jonathan W Song, Shan Min Chin, Nir Maimon, Lance L Munn
Angiogenesis requires the coordinated growth and migration of endothelial cells (ECs), with each EC residing in the vessel wall integrating local signals to determine whether to remain quiescent or undergo morphogenesis. These signals include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and flow-induced mechanical stimuli such as interstitial flow, which are both elevated in the tumor microenvironment. However, it is not clear how VEGF signaling and mechanobiological activation due to interstitial flow cooperate during angiogenesis...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Thomas A Metzger, Glen L Niebur
The mechanical environment and mechanobiology of bone marrow may play essential roles in bone adaptation, cancer metastasis, and immune cell regulation. However, the location of marrow within the trabecular pore space complicates experimental measurement of marrow mechanics. Computational models provide a means to assess the shear stress and pressure in the marrow during physiological loading, but they rely on accurate inputs for the marrow and the physics assumed for the interaction of bone and marrow. Elastic, viscoelastic, and fluid constitutive properties have all been reported from experimental measurements of marrow properties...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Abdelwahed Barkaoui, Rabeb Ben Kahla, Tarek Merzouki, Ridha Hambli
Bone remodeling is a physiological process by which bone constantly adapts its structure to changes in long-term loading manifested by interactions between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. This process can be influenced by many local factors, via effects on bone cells differentiation and proliferation, which are produced by bone cells and act in a paracrine or autocrine way. The aim of the current work is to provide mechanobiological finite elements modeling coupling both cellular activities and mechanical behavior in order to investigate age and gender effects on bone remodeling evolution...
September 22, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Leonardo Punzi, Paola Galozzi, Roberto Luisetto, Marta Favero, Roberta Ramonda, Francesca Oliviero, Anna Scanu
Post-traumatic arthritis (PTA) develops after an acute direct trauma to the joints. PTA causes about 12% of all osteoarthritis cases, and a history of physical trauma may also be found in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis. Symptoms include swelling, synovial effusion, pain and sometimes intra-articular bleeding. Usually, PTA recoveries spontaneously, but the persistence of symptoms after 6 months may be considered pathological and so-called chronic PTA. A variety of molecular, mechanobiological and cellular events involved in the pathogenesis and the progression of PTA have been identified...
2016: RMD Open
Zhipeng Liao, Nobuhiro Yoda, Junning Chen, Keke Zheng, Keiichi Sasaki, Michael V Swain, Qing Li
This paper aimed to develop a clinically validated bone remodeling algorithm by integrating bone's dynamic properties in a multi-stage fashion based on a four-year clinical follow-up of implant treatment. The configurational effects of fixed partial dentures (FPDs) were explored using a multi-stage remodeling rule. Three-dimensional real-time occlusal loads during maximum voluntary clenching were measured with a piezoelectric force transducer and were incorporated into a computerized tomography-based finite element mandibular model...
September 15, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Chunqiu Zhang, Lulu Qiu, Lilan Gao, Yinjie Guan, Qiang Xu, Xizheng Zhang, Qian Chen
In mechanobiological research, an appropriate loading system is an essential tool to mimic mechanical signals in a native environment. To achieve this goal, we have developed a novel loading system capable of applying dual-frequency loading including both a low-frequency high-amplitude loading and a high-frequency low-amplitude loading, according to the mechanical conditions experienced by bone and articular cartilage tissues. The low-frequency high-amplitude loading embodies the main force from muscular contractions and/or reaction forces while the high-frequency low-amplitude loading represents an assistant force from small muscles, ligaments and/or other tissue in order to maintain body posture during human activities...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Peng He, Nan Shen, Gongming Gao, Xuefeng Jiang, Huiqing Sun, Dong Zhou, Nanwei Xu, Luming Nong, Kewei Ren
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The present study aimed to analyze the mechanisms by which periodic mechanical stress is translated into biochemical signals, and to verify the important role of signaling molecules including phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt, protein kinase C (PKC), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in chondrocyte proliferation. The effects of periodic mechanical stress on the mitogenesis of chondrocytes have been studied extensively in recent years. However, the mechanisms underlying the ability of chondrocytes to sense and respond to periodic mechanical stress need further investigation...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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