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Citrulline AND nitric oxide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223686/metabolic-profiling-of-presymptomatic-huntington-s-disease-sheep-reveals-novel-biomarkers
#1
Debra J Skene, Benita Middleton, Cara K Fraser, Jeroen L A Pennings, Timothy R Kuchel, Skye R Rudiger, C Simon Bawden, A Jennifer Morton
The pronounced cachexia (unexplained wasting) seen in Huntington's disease (HD) patients suggests that metabolic dysregulation plays a role in HD pathogenesis, although evidence of metabolic abnormalities in HD patients is inconsistent. We performed metabolic profiling of plasma from presymptomatic HD transgenic and control sheep. Metabolites were quantified in sequential plasma samples taken over a 25 h period using a targeted LC/MS metabolomics approach. Significant changes with respect to genotype were observed in 89/130 identified metabolites, including sphingolipids, biogenic amines, amino acids and urea...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188129/enhancement-of-fracture-healing-in-the-rat-modulated-by-compounds-that-stimulate-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-acceleration-of-fracture-healing-via-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase
#2
R A Rajfer, A Kilic, A S Neviaser, L M Schulte, S M Hlaing, J Landeros, M G Ferrini, E Ebramzadeh, S-H Park
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects on fracture healing of two up-regulators of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a rat model of an open femoral osteotomy: tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and the recently reported nutraceutical, COMB-4 (consisting of L-citrulline, Paullinia cupana, ginger and muira puama), given orally for either 14 or 42 days. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Unilateral femoral osteotomies were created in 58 male rats and fixed with an intramedullary compression nail...
February 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178400/levels-of-l-arginine-and-l-citrulline-in-patients-with-erectile-dysfunction-of-different-etiology
#3
A Barassi, M M Corsi Romanelli, R Pezzilli, C A L Damele, L Vaccalluzzo, G Goi, N Papini, G M Colpi, L Massaccesi, G V Melzi d'Eril
Nitric oxide is a physiologic signal essential to penile erection. l-citrulline (l-Cit) is converted into l-arginine (l-Arg), the precursor from which nitric oxide is generated. The level of l-Arg and l-Cit in the field of male sexual function remains relatively underexplored. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of serum l-Arg and of l-Cit in a group of patients with erectile dysfunction. Diagnosis and severity of erectile dysfunction was based on the IIEF-5 and its etiology was classified as arteriogenic (A-ED), borderline (BL-ED), and non-arteriogenic (NA-ED) with penile echo-color-Doppler in basal condition and after intracaversous injection of prostaglandin E1...
February 8, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169465/correlation-between-plasma-levels-of-arginine-and-citrulline-in-preterm-and-full-term-neonates-therapeutical-implications
#4
Mike T Contreras, Maria J Gallardo, Luis R Betancourt, Pedro V Rada, Gerardo A Ceballos, Luis E Hernandez, Luis F Hernandez
BACKGROUND: Preterm neonates exhibit several deficiencies that endanger their lives. Understanding those disturbances will provide tools for the management of preterm neonates. The present work focuses on arginine and citrulline which has been flagged among the biochemical landmarks of prematurity. METHODS: We examined blood samples of preterm newborns as compared with mature neonates to determine the levels of arginine and citrulline by capillary zone electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection (CZE-LIFD)...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114584/bh4-mediated-enhancement-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-activity-reduces-hyperoxia-induced-endothelial-damage-and-preserves-vascular-integrity-in-the-neonate
#5
Kevin S Edgar, Orla M Galvin, Anthony Collins, Zvonimir S Katusic, Denise M McDonald
Purpose: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived nitric oxide (NO) has important vasoprotective functions that are compromised in the vasodegenerative phase of retinopathy of prematurity, owing to hyperoxia-induced depletion of the essential NOS cofactor BH4. Because modulating eNOS function can be beneficial or detrimental, our aim was to investigate the effect of BH4 supplementation on eNOS function and vascular regression in hyperoxia. Methods: Endothelial-specific eNOS-green fluorescent protein (GFP) overexpressing mice at postnatal day 7 (P7) were exposed to hyperoxia for 48 hours in the presence or absence of supplemental BH4, achieved by administration of sepiapterin, a stable BH4 precursor...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939527/nitric-oxide-production-by-peritoneal-macrophages-from-aged-rats-a-short-term-and-direct-modulation-by-citrulline
#6
Charlotte Breuillard, Emmanuel Curis, Servane Le Plénier, Luc Cynober, Christophe Moinard
Citrulline has anti-inflammatory properties and exerts beneficial effects on various impaired functions in aging. However, there are few data on citrulline action on immune function in aged populations. The objective of the study was to evaluate citrulline ability, after in vivo and in vitro administration, to modulate macrophage functions in aged rats and the possible pathways involved. Twenty-one-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 27) received a citrulline supplementation at 5 g/kg/d for 5 days, or an isonitrogenous diet, and peritoneal macrophages were cultured with or without LPS...
February 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923948/decreased-rate-of-plasma-arginine-appearance-in-murine-malaria-may-explain-hypoargininemia-in-children-with-cerebral-malaria
#7
Matthew S Alkaitis, Honghui Wang, Allison K Ikeda, Carol A Rowley, Ian J C MacCormick, Jessica H Chertow, Oliver Billker, Anthony F Suffredini, David J Roberts, Terrie E Taylor, Karl B Seydel, Hans C Ackerman
BACKGROUND:  Plasmodium infection depletes arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, and impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Increased conversion of arginine to ornithine by parasites or host arginase is a proposed mechanism of arginine depletion. METHODS:  We used high-performance liquid chromatography to measure plasma arginine, ornithine, and citrulline levels in Malawian children with cerebral malaria and in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA with or without the arginase gene...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922857/comprehensive-assessment-of-the-arginine-pathway-and-its-relationship-to-inflammation-in-hiv
#8
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Khurshid Alam, Abdus Sattar, Manjusha Kulkarni, Nicholas Funderburg, Wai Hong Wilson, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide helps maintain vascular function and is generated through the oxidation of arginine. Whether altered arginine metabolism may lead to elevated levels of inflammation in HIV is unclear. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected adults on stable antiretroviral therapy with HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/ml and HIV-uninfected controls. We measured biomarkers in the arginine pathway, markers of systemic inflammation, and monocyte activation...
February 20, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830380/recovery-of-pan-genotypic-and-genotype-specific-amino-acid-alterations-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-after-viral-clearance-transition-at-the-crossroad-of-metabolism-and-immunity
#9
Ming-Ling Chang, Mei-Ling Cheng, Su-Wei Chang, Hsiang-Yu Tang, Cheng-Tang Chiu, Chau-Ting Yeh, Ming-Shi Shiao
Recovery of amino acid (AA) metabolism and the associated clinical implications in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with sustained virological response (SVR) following anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy remains elusive. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 222 CHC patients with SVR. Eighty-two age-matched male genotype 1 (G1) and G2 patients underwent paired serum metabolomics analyses with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to examine AAs before and 24 weeks after anti-HCV therapy. Before anti-HCV therapy, G1 patients had a higher HCV RNA level than G2 patients...
February 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770189/identification-of-urinary-metabolites-with-potential-blood-pressure-lowering-effects-in-lentil-fed-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#10
Matthew Hanson, Peter Zahradka, Carla G Taylor, Michel Aliani
PURPOSE: Urine samples were obtained from a previously completed study that showed lentil consumption attenuates the increase in blood pressure that occurs over time in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The objective of the present study was to compare the metabolite profile of the urine samples from control and lentil-fed SHR in relation to the compounds present in lentils but not in other pulses. METHODS: The urine samples were from 17-week-old, male SHR fed semi-purified diet prepared with powder (30 %, w/w) from cooked whole pulses or a pulse-free control diet (n = 8/group) for 4 weeks...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754236/os-34-03-the-association-of-tetrahydrobiopterin-with-a-marker-of-nitric-oxide-production-in-a-black-and-white-population-the-sabpa-study
#11
Hugo Huisman, Aletta Schutte, Johannes Van Rooyen, Carla Fourie, Ruan Kruger, Wayne Smith, Leandi Lammertyn, Leone Malan, Shani Botha, Carina Mels
OBJECTIVE: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a cofactor for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and may be a critical agent in endothelial function by improving nitric oxide (NO) mediated effects. It is reported that the NO synthesis capacity seems favourable in blacks despite their adverse cardiovascular profile. We therefore compared the concentrations of BH4, as well as blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness between black and white teachers. Furthermore, we tested the associations of BH4 with a product and inhibitor of NO synthesis, namely L-citrulline, and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) respectively, in both ethnic groups...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749691/influence-of-l-citrulline-and-watermelon-supplementation-on-vascular-function-and-exercise-performance
#12
Arturo Figueroa, Alexei Wong, Salvador J Jaime, Joaquin U Gonzales
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: L-Citrulline, either synthetic or in watermelon, may improve vascular function through increased L-arginine bioavailability and nitric oxide synthesis. This article analyses potential vascular benefits of L-citrulline and watermelon supplementation at rest and during exercise. RECENT FINDINGS: There is clear evidence that acute L-citrulline ingestion increases plasma L-arginine, the substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthesis. However, the subsequent acute improvement in nitric oxide production and mediated vasodilation is inconsistent, which likely explains the inability of acute L-citrulline or watermelon to improve exercise tolerance...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706647/molecular-cloning-and-expression-pattern-of-oriental-river-prawn-macrobrachium-nipponense-nitric-oxide-synthase
#13
N M A Rahman, H T Fu, S M Sun, H Qiao, S Jin, H K Bai, W Y Zhang, G X Liang, Y S Gong, Y W Xiong, Y Wu
Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) produces nitric oxide (NO) by catalyzing the conversion of l-arginine to l-citrulline, with the concomitant oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Recently, various studies have verified the importance of NOS invertebrates and invertebrates. However, the NOS gene family in the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense is poorly understood. In this study, we cloned the full-length NOS complementary DNA from M. nipponense (MnNOS) and characterized its expression pattern in different tissues and at different developmental stages...
August 29, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648629/the-assessment-of-short-term-effect-of-l-citrulline-on-endothelial-function-via-fmd-to-nmd-ratio-in-known-cad-patients-a-randomized-cross-over-clinical-trial-clinical-trial-number-nct02638727
#14
Morteza Safi, Mohammad Parsa Mahjoob, Saeed Nateghi, Isa Khaheshi, Mohammad Ali Akbarzadeh, Mohammadreza Naderian
BACKGROUND: The recent studies have confirmed the essential and paramount role of the L-Citrulline on the nitric oxide regulation and the endothelial function improvement. METHODS: In this cross-over clinical trial, thirty patients, diagnosed with coronary artery disease (CAD) and flow mediated dilation to nitroglycerin dependent vasodilation (FMD/NMD) ratio less than 1, were included. The patients were randomly divided in two groups of 15 patients and underwent treatment by L-Citrulline or placebo for 15 days, in 2 step protocol...
September 18, 2016: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643196/os-34-03-the-association-of-tetrahydrobiopterin-with-a-marker-of-nitric-oxide-production-in-a-black-and-white-population-the-sabpa-study
#15
Hugo Huisman, Aletta Schutte, Johannes Van Rooyen, Carla Fourie, Ruan Kruger, Wayne Smith, Leandi Lammertyn, Leone Malan, Shani Botha, Carina Mels
OBJECTIVE: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a cofactor for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and may be a critical agent in endothelial function by improving nitric oxide (NO) mediated effects. It is reported that the NO synthesis capacity seems favourable in blacks despite their adverse cardiovascular profile. We therefore compared the concentrations of BH4, as well as blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness between black and white teachers. Furthermore, we tested the associations of BH4 with a product and inhibitor of NO synthesis, namely L-citrulline, and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) respectively, in both ethnic groups...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641435/tetrahydrobiopterin-supplementation-improves-phenylalanine-metabolism-in-a-murine-model-of-severe-malaria
#16
Matthew S Alkaitis, Hans C Ackerman
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for both phenylalanine hydroxylase and nitric oxide synthase. Patients with severe malaria have low urinary BH4, elevated plasma phenylalanine, and impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, suggesting that BH4 depletion may limit phenylalanine metabolism and nitric oxide synthesis. We infected C57BL/6 mice with Plasmodium berghei ANKA to characterize BH4 availability and to investigate the effects of BH4 supplementation. P. berghei ANKA infection lowered BH4 in plasma, erythrocytes, and brain tissue but raised it in aorta and liver tissue...
November 11, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621107/metformin-effect-on-non-targeted-metabolite-profiles-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-multiple-murine-tissues
#17
Jonathan Adam, Stefan Brandmaier, Jörn Leonhardt, Markus F Scheerer, Robert P Mohney, Tao Xu, Jie Bi, Markus Rotter, Martina Troll, Shen Chi, Margit Heier, Christian Herder, Wolfgang Rathmann, Guido Giani, Jerzy Adamski, Thomas Illig, Konstantin Strauch, Yixue Li, Christian Gieger, Annette Peters, Karsten Suhre, Donna Ankerst, Thomas Meitinger, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Michael Roden, Susanne Neschen, Gabi Kastenmüller, Rui Wang-Sattler
Metformin is the first-line oral medication to increase insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our aim is to investigate metformin's pleiotropic effect using a non-targeted metabolomics approach. We analyzed 353 metabolites in fasting serum samples of the population-based human KORA F4 cohort. To compare T2D patients treated with metformin (mt-T2D, n=74) and those without antidiabetic medication (ndt-T2D, n=115), we used multivariable linear regression models in a cross-sectional study...
September 12, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614253/bacterial-toxins-activation-of-abbreviated-urea-cycle-in-porcine-cerebral-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#18
Rajesh G Mishra, Tzu-Ling Tseng, Mei-Fang Chen, Po-Yi Chen, Tony J-F Lee
Nitric oxide (NO) overproduction via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is implicated in vasodilatory shock in sepsis, leading to septic encephalopathy and accelerating cerebral ischemic injury. An abbreviated urea-cycle (l-citrulline-l-arginine-NO cycle) has been demonstrated in cerebral perivascular nitrergic nerves and endothelial cells but not in normal cerebral vascular smooth muscle cell (CVSMC). This cycle indicates that argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) catalyzes l-citrulline (l-cit) conversion to form argininosuccinate (AS), and subsequent AS cleavage by argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) forms l-arginine (l-arg), the substrate for NO synthesis...
December 2016: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562295/l-citrulline-prevents-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-mediated-reductions-in-nitric-oxide-and-nitrosative-stress-in-primary-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#19
D Winnica, L G Que, C Baffi, H Grasemann, K Fiedler, Z Yang, E Etling, K Wasil, S E Wenzel, B Freeman, F Holguin
BACKGROUND: Asthma is associated with reduced systemic levels of l-arginine and increased asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). This imbalance leads to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) uncoupling with reduced nitric oxide (NO) formation and greater oxidative and nitrosative stress. Whether this imbalance also occurs in bronchial epitheliumof asthmatics is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We used primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) from asthmatics and healthy controls to evaluate: (i) ADMA-mediated NOS uncoupling reduces epithelial production of NO and increases oxygen and nitrogen reactive species, and (ii) l-citrulline can reverse this mechanism by recoupling NOS, restoring NO production and reducing oxidative and nitrosative stress...
February 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529679/altered-brain-arginine-metabolism-in-schizophrenia
#20
P Liu, Y Jing, N D Collie, B Dean, D K Bilkey, H Zhang
Previous research implicates altered metabolism of l-arginine, a versatile amino acid with a number of bioactive metabolites, in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The present study, for we believe the first time, systematically compared the metabolic profile of l-arginine in the frontal cortex (Brodmann's area 8) obtained post-mortem from schizophrenic individuals and age- and gender-matched non-psychiatric controls (n=20 per group). The enzyme assays revealed no change in total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, but significantly increased arginase activity in the schizophrenia group...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
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