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Narcotics in pediatrics

Michael Pickell, Stephen M Mann, Rajesh Chakravertty, Daniel P Borschneck
BACKGROUND: This is a prospective observational study examining the use of a surgeon-driven intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring system. Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring is becoming the standard of care for spinal surgeries with potential post-operative neurologic deficits. This standard applies to both adult and pediatric spinal surgery, but a shortage of appropriately trained and certified technologists and physiologists can compromise monitoring capabilities in some centers...
September 2016: J Spine Surg
Elżbieta Pac-Kożuchowska, Paulina Krawiec, Agnieszka Mroczkowska-Juchkiewicz, Beata Mełges, Agnieszka Pawłowska-Kamieniak, Katarzyna Kominek, Dorota Gołyska
BACKGROUND: Poisoning among children is a current issue in pediatrics. The pattern and risk factors of poisoning are heterogeneous and vary within the same country. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyze the determinants in the incidence and nature of poisoning between urban and rural children, in order to identify children at higher risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study entailed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 848 children admitted to the Department of Pediatrics at the Medical University of Lublin, Poland, due to exposure to poison from July 2008 to December 2012...
March 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Justin C Sowder, Craig M Gale, Jacob L Henrichsen, Kristy Veale, Katie B Liljestrand, Barbara C Ostlund, Aaron Sherwood, Austin Smith, Griffin H Olsen, Mark Ott, Jeremy D Meier
OBJECTIVES: To (1) review pain medications prescribed following pediatric adenotonsillectomy (T&A), (2) identify pain medications reported to be helpful, and (3) compare parent-reported outcomes among various combinations of pain medications. STUDY DESIGN: Case series with planned data collection. SETTING: Multihospital network. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The primary caregivers of children aged 1 to 18 years who underwent isolated T&A from June to December 2014 were contacted 14 to 21 days after surgery...
September 6, 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Zorik Spektor, David J Kay, David L Mandell
PURPOSE: To compare post-operative pain severity, analgesic intake, and complications in children undergoing tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy with bipolar radiofrequency ablation (Coblation) vs. pulsed-electron avalanche knife (PEAK) technology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, non-randomized, non-blinded comparative cohort study in a private practice setting with three fellowship-trained pediatric otolaryngologists. Patients aged 3 to 12years undergoing tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy were assigned to surgery with either bipolar radiofrequency ablation or pulsed electron avalanche knife instrumentation...
August 5, 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Walter G Park
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize observations in clinical chronic pancreatitis in the past year. RECENT FINDINGS: A predisposing genetic mutation was identified in 67% of cases of pediatric chronic pancreatitis. A novel susceptibility gene involving a hybrid allele is associated with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. ABO blood type B and FUT2 nonsecretor status is associated with asymptomatic hyperlipasemia and chronic pancreatitis. Alcohol consumption impairs cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) activity leading to decreased bicarbonate secretion and patients with susceptible CFTR mutations can develop clinical pancreatitis...
June 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Julia K Shinnick, Heather L Short, Kurt F Heiss, Matthew T Santore, Martin L Blakely, Mehul V Raval
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS), guidelines entail a strategy of perioperative management proven to hasten postoperative recovery and reduce complications in adult populations. Relatively few studies have investigated the applicability of this paradigm to pediatric populations. Our objective was to perform a systematic review of existing evidence regarding the use and efficacy of enhanced recovery protocols (ERPs) in the pediatric population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected through a PubMed/MEDLINE literature search...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Robert M Wolfe, Jonathan Pomerantz, Deborah E Miller, Rebecca Weiss-Coleman, Tony Solomonides
The incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has reached epidemic proportions, and it is an often unrecognized cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Profound hypoxic injury from apnea during the postoperative period is often misdiagnosed as cardiac arrest due to other causes. Almost a quarter of patients entering a hospital for elective surgery have OSA, and >80% of these cases are undiagnosed at the time of surgery. The perioperative period puts patients at high risk of apneic episodes because of drug effects from sedatives, narcotics, and general anesthesia, as well as from the effects of postoperative rapid eye movement sleep changes and postoperative positioning in the hospital bed...
March 2016: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Lauren J Luk, David Mosen, Carol J MacArthur, Anna H Grosz
OBJECTIVE: In response to the increased risk of respiratory failure and death after tonsillectomy related to codeine use, Kaiser Permanente Northwest restricted use of opioids in patients <7 years old via electronic health record (EHR). However, opioids could be prescribed at physician discretion by overriding the EHR. This study aims to examine protocol compliance in a large group practice using EHR order sets and complication rates as compared with historical data. STUDY DESIGN: Case series with chart review...
April 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Bianca Siegel, Prasad Thottam, Deepak Mehta
OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of laryngotracheal reconstruction for recurrent croup and evaluate surgical outcomes in this cohort of patients. METHODS: Retrospective chart review at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. RESULTS: Six patients who underwent laryngotracheal reconstruction (LTR) for recurrent croup with underlying subglottic stenosis were identified through a search of our IRB-approved airway database. At the time of diagnostic bronchoscopy, all 6 patients had grade 2 subglottic stenosis...
March 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Yvette C Tanhehco, Stuart Weisberg, Joseph Schwartz
The standard therapy for patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and severe abdominal pain is total pancreatectomy (TP) followed by islet autotransplantation (IAT) to prevent the development of brittle diabetes. In adult patients, narcotic independence is achieved in up to 73% of patients 1 to 5 years after transplantation whereas insulin independence is achieved in up to 40% of patients 1 to 2 years after transplantation. Pediatric patients have shown similar outcomes for narcotic independence (up to 79%) but better outcomes for insulin independence (up to 56% 1 year after transplantation)...
March 2016: Transfusion
Jessica A George, Paul S Park, Joanne Hunsberger, Joanne E Shay, Christoph U Lehmann, Elizabeth D White, Benjamin H Lee, Myron Yaster
BACKGROUND: Prescription errors are among the most common types of iatrogenic errors. Because of a previously reported 82% error rate in handwritten discharge narcotic prescriptions, we developed a computerized, web-based, controlled substance prescription writer that includes weight-based dosing logic and alerts to reduce the error rate to (virtually) zero. Over the past 7 years, >34,000 prescriptions have been created by hospital providers using this platform. We sought to determine the ongoing efficacy of the program in prescription error reduction and the patterns with which providers prescribe controlled substances for children and young adults (ages 0-21 years) at hospital discharge...
March 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Sherif M Soaida, Mohammed S ElSheemy, Ahmed M Shouman, Ahmed I Shoukry, Hany A Morsi, Doaa M Salah, Fatina I Fadel, Hafez M Bazaraa
PURPOSE: 'Hockey stick incision' used in renal transplant is large enough to cause severe postoperative morbidity especially in pediatric recipients. Although epidural analgesia is known to be effective in pain control, the resulting sympathectomy might affect hemodynamics interfering with the transplant process. In our study, we evaluated the feasibility and safety of inserting an epidural catheter to the thoracic level via the caudal route, and the effect of using epidural local anesthetics at low concentrations on hemodynamics...
February 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
Christopher Powell, John M Gatti, David Juang, J Patrick Murphy
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have evaluated the role of laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty in the setting of recurrent ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction following open dismembered pyeloplasty in the pediatric population. We present our experience at a single institution. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of patients treated with laparoscopic pyeloplasty for secondary UPJ obstruction from March 2003 to August 2011 at a single institution...
October 2015: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Naveen Poonai, Jennifer Kilgar, Shruti Mehrotra
Fractures in childhood are common painful conditions. Suboptimal analgesia has been reported in the emergency department and following discharge. Recently, concern about the safety of narcotics such as codeine has sparked a renewed interest in opioids such as morphine for pediatric fracture pain. Consequently, opioids are being increasingly used in the clinical setting. Despite this, there is ample evidence that clinicians are more willing to offer opioids to adults than children. The existence of limited evidence supporting their use in children is likely a major contributing factor...
2015: Pain Management
Annie Huang, Thomas Tanbonliong
The study investigated patient discharge parameters and postdischarge adverse events after discharge among children who received oral conscious sedation for dental treatment. This prospective study involved 51 patients needing dental treatment under oral conscious sedation. Each patient received one of various regimens involving combinations of a narcotic (ie, morphine or meperidine), a sedative-hypnotic (ie, chloral hydrate), a benzodiazepine (ie, midazolam or diazepam), and/or an antihistamine (ie, hydroxyzine HCl)...
2015: Anesthesia Progress
Kelly Dowhower Karpa, Todd Matthew Felix, Peter R Lewis
Drug use and harms are increasingly common among newborns, infants, children, and adolescents during ambulatory practice, emergency department, and in-hospital treatment, including treatment in pediatric intensive care units. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of drugs often are different for children compared with adults and must be considered before prescribing. Drug exposure and the potential for harms also should be considered for fetuses and breastfeeding infants. As with adult patients, a thorough drug and allergy history (including nonprescription drugs and herbal and dietary supplements) should be obtained and reviewed at each medical visit...
September 2015: FP Essentials
Srinath Chinnakotla, Gregory J Beilman, Ty B Dunn, Melena D Bellin, Martin L Freeman, David M Radosevich, Mustafa Arain, Stuart K Amateau, J Shawn Mallery, Sarah J Schwarzenberg, Alfred Clavel, Joshua Wilhelm, R Paul Robertson, Louise Berry, Marie Cook, Bernhard J Hering, David E R Sutherland, Timothy L Pruett
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to analyze factors predicting outcomes after a total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation (TP-IAT). BACKGROUND: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is increasingly treated by a TP-IAT. Postoperative outcomes are generally favorable, but a minority of patients fare poorly. METHODS: In our single-centered study, we analyzed the records of 581 patients with CP who underwent a TP-IAT. Endpoints included persistent postoperative "pancreatic pain" similar to preoperative levels, narcotic use for any reason, and islet graft failure at 1 year...
October 2015: Annals of Surgery
Michael A Flierl, Patrick M Carry, Frank Scott, Gaia Georgopoulos, Nancy Hadley-Miller
The goal of this study was to identify supracondylar fracture patterns that were predictive of adverse events and poor outcomes. The study consisted of a retrospective review of patients admitted for surgical treatment of a supracondylar humerus fracture between June 2008 and August 2010. Preoperative radiographs were assessed based on appearance (simple vs oblique vs comminuted), coronal plane displacement (angulated, posterior, posteromedial vs posterolateral), and rotation (rotation vs no rotation). Logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between fracture pattern and clinical outcome parameters in 373 patients who were followed for 4 weeks or more postoperatively...
August 2015: Orthopedics
B Randall Brenn, Margaret A Kim, Elora Hilmas
PURPOSE: Development of an operational reporting dashboard designed to correlate data from multiple sources to help detect potential drug diversion by automated dispensing cabinet (ADC) users is described. METHODS: A commercial business intelligence platform was used to create a dashboard tool for rapid detection of unusual patterns of ADC transactions by anesthesia service providers at a large pediatric hospital. By linking information from the hospital's pharmacy information management system (PIMS) and anesthesia information management system (AIMS) in an associative data model, the "narcotic reconciliation dashboard" can generate various reports to help spot outlier activity associated with ADC dispensing of controlled substances and documentation of medication waste processing...
August 15, 2015: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Jill N D'Souza, Richard J Schmidt, Li Xie, Julie P Adelman, Heather C Nardone
OBJECTIVES: In light of current FDA guidelines on opioid use in children, we sought to determine the risk of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) in children who received ibuprofen with acetaminophen versus those who received narcotic with acetaminophen for postoperative pain control. METHODS: This was an IRB-approved retrospective chart review of patients at a tertiary-care pediatric center. The medical records of 449 children who received acetaminophen and ibuprofen following intracapsular tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy were reviewed (NSAID group) and compared with medical records of 1731 children who underwent intracapsular tonsillectomy and received acetaminophen with codeine or hydrocodone with acetaminophen postoperatively (narcotic group)...
September 2015: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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