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political ecology

James Gilligan, Bandy X Lee, Shikha Garg, Morkeh Blay-Tofey, Audrey Luo
Many national and international institutions advocate approaching violence as a problem in public health and preventive medicine, in a manner similar to the way we address other disabling and life-threatening pathologies such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. Prevention by a health model requires an ecological perspective. Previous work has found evidence that economic factors, including unemployment and relative poverty, as well as political culture and values, may affect violent death rates, including homicide and suicide...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
Rosalind E Howes, Sedera Aurélien Mioramalala, Brune Ramiranirina, Thierry Franchard, Andry Joeliarijaona Rakotorahalahy, Donal Bisanzio, Peter W Gething, Peter A Zimmerman, Arsène Ratsimbasoa
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major public health problem in Madagascar. Widespread scale-up of intervention coverage has led to substantial reductions in case numbers since 2000. However, political instability since 2009 has disrupted these efforts, and a resurgence of malaria has since followed. This paper re-visits the sub-national stratification of malaria transmission across Madagascar to propose a contemporary update, and evaluates the reported routine case data reported at this sub-national scale...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
Fiona Mactaggart, Liane McDermott, Anna Tynan, Maxine Whittaker
Health and well-being outcomes in communities living in proximity to mining activity may be influenced by a broad spectrum of factors including population growth, economic instability or land degradation. This review aims to synthesise broader outcomes associated with mining activity and in doing so, further explore possible determinants in communities of low- and middle-income countries. Four databases were systematically searched and articles were included if the study targeted adults residing in proximity to mining activity, and measured individual or community-level health or well-being outcomes...
October 17, 2016: Global Public Health
David R Smith
Foods of animal origin, including beef and dairy products, are nutritious and important to global food security. However, there are important risks to human health from hazards that are introduced to beef and dairy products on the farm. Food safety hazards may be chemical, biological, or physical in nature. Considerations about protecting the safety of beef and dairy products must begin prior to harvest because some potential food safety hazards introduced at the farm (e.g., chemical residues) cannot be mitigated by subsequent postharvest food processing steps...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Françoise Vernier, Odile Leccia-Phelpin, Jean-Marie Lescot, Sébastien Minette, André Miralles, Delphine Barberis, Charlotte Scordia, Vanessa Kuentz-Simonet, Jean-Philippe Tonneau
Non-point source pollution is a cause of major concern within the European Union. This is reflected in increasing public and political focus on a more sustainable use of pesticides, as well as a reduction in diffuse pollution. Climate change will likely to lead to an even more intensive use of pesticides in the future, affecting agriculture in many ways. At the same time, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and associated EU policies called for a "good" ecological and chemical status to be achieved for water bodies by the end of 2015, currently delayed to 2021-2027 due to a lack of efficiency in policies and timescale of resilience for hydrosystems, especially groundwater systems...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Stephanie Rupp, Philippe Ambata, Victor Narat, Tamara Giles-Vernick
In the absence of direct evidence, an imagined "cut hunter" stands in for the index patient of pandemic HIV/AIDS. During the early years of colonial rule, this explanation goes, a hunter was cut or injured from hunting or butchering a chimpanzee infected with simian immunodeficiency virus, resulting in the first sustained human infection with the virus that would emerge as HIV-1M. We argue here that the "cut hunter" relies on a historical misunderstanding and ecological oversimplification of human-chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes troglodytes) interactions that facilitated pathogenic transmission...
October 7, 2016: EcoHealth
Byron Kiiza Yafesi Bitanihirwe
Infectious disease continues to have dramatic effects on morbidity and mortality around the world. Few events could cause such loss of life and damage to livelihoods. As witnessed with the recent West African Ebola outbreak, raising alerts and identifying the outbreak in the community took too long. As a consequence local health systems were quickly overwhelmed. In addition, response at the international level proved slow and poorly coordinated. Rapid diagnostics, effective therapeutics, protective equipment, and a vaccine were all lacking...
July 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Francisco Airton Castro Rocha
Father Cicero Romao Batista is probably the most famous Ceará character of all time. An important protagonist of the Cariri region, situated in the south of Ceara State, in the late nineteenth century and the first third of the twentieth century, Father Cicero had great political and religious activity, as well as other less well-known achievements, for instance, his ecological teachings that led him to be awarded the title of "Patron of Forests", besides an enormous effort and personal sacrifice for the improvement of the conditions of human life...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
Louise S L Teh, Allison Witter, William W L Cheung, U Rashid Sumaila, Xueying Yin
Governance of South China Sea (SCS) fisheries remains weak despite acknowledgement of their widespread overexploitation for the past few decades. This review incorporates unreported fish catches to provide an improved baseline of the current status and societal contribution of SCS marine fisheries, so that the socio-economic and ecological consequences of continued fisheries unsustainability may be understood. Potential fisheries contribution to food and livelihoods include 11-17 million t in fisheries catch and USD 12-22 × 10(9) in fisheries landed value annually in the 2000s, and close to 3 million jobs...
September 23, 2016: Ambio
Vincent Devictor, Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent
This paper is a critical assessment of the epistemological impact of the systematic quantification of nature with the accumulation of big datasets on the practice and orientation of ecological science. We examine the contents of big databases and argue that it is not just accumulated information; records are translated into digital data in a process that changes their meanings. In order to better understand what is at stake in the 'datafication' process, we explore the context for the emergence and quantification of biodiversity in the 1980s, along with the concept of the global environment...
December 2016: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
James Gilligan, Bandy X Lee, Shikha Garg, Morkeh Blay-Tofey, Audrey Luo
Many national and international institutions advocate approaching violence as a problem in public health and preventive medicine, in a manner similar to the way we address other disabling and life-threatening pathologies such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. Prevention by a health model requires an ecological perspective. Previous work has found evidence that economic factors, including unemployment and relative poverty, as well as political culture and values, may affect violent death rates, including homicide and suicide...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
Yusuf Ransome, Sandro Galea, Roman Pabayo, Ichiro Kawachi, Sarah Braunstein, Denis Nash
BACKGROUND: Late HIV diagnosis is associated with higher medical costs, early mortality among individuals, and HIV transmission in the population. Even under optimal configurations of stable or declining HIV incidence and increase in HIV case findings, no change in proportion of late HIV diagnosis is projected after year 2019. We investigated the association among social capital, gender, and late HIV diagnosis. METHODS: We conduct ecological analyses (ZIP code, N = 166) using negative binomial regression of gender-specific rates of late HIV diagnoses (an AIDS defining illness or a CD4 count ≤200 cell/μL within 12 months of a new HIV diagnosis) in 2005 and 2006 obtained from the New York City HIV Surveillance Registry, and social capital indicators (civic engagement, political participation, social cohesion, and informal social control) from the New York Social Indicators Survey, 2004...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
J Marla Toyne, Warren B Church, Jose Luis Coronado Tello, Ricardo Morales Gamarra
OBJECTIVES: Inca imperial strategies of political and territorial expansion varied across conquered regions depending on local ecology and cultural resistance, and Chachapoya peoples in Peru's forested northeastern Andes were renowned for their rebellions against the invaders. The cliff tombs of Los Pinchudos (AD 1470-1535) present opportunities to use stable isotopes to: (1) explore dietary and mobility patterns from a mortuary community interred at a site attributed to the poorly-known Chachapoya culture during the period of Inca domination, and (2) explore the origins of the individuals as either local or foreign (Inca)...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Emily Mannix Wanderer
In the aftermath of the 2009 outbreak of H1N1 influenza, scientists in Mexico sought to develop bioseguridad, that is, to protect biological life in Mexico by safely conducting research on infectious disease. Drawing on ethnographic research in laboratories and with scientists in Mexico, I look at how scientists make claims about local differences in regulations, infrastructure, bodies, and culture. The scientists working with infectious microbes sought to establish how different microbial ecologies, human immune systems, and political and regulatory systems made the risks of research different in Mexico from other countries...
September 14, 2016: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
James E M Watson, Danielle F Shanahan, Moreno Di Marco, James Allan, William F Laurance, Eric W Sanderson, Brendan Mackey, Oscar Venter
Humans have altered terrestrial ecosystems for millennia [1], yet wilderness areas still remain as vital refugia where natural ecological and evolutionary processes operate with minimal human disturbance [2-4], underpinning key regional- and planetary-scale functions [5, 6]. Despite the myriad values of wilderness areas-as critical strongholds for endangered biodiversity [7], for carbon storage and sequestration [8], for buffering and regulating local climates [9], and for supporting many of the world's most politically and economically marginalized communities [10]-they are almost entirely ignored in multilateral environmental agreements...
September 3, 2016: Current Biology: CB
David A Nolin, John P Ziker
In the face of economic and political changes following the end of the Soviet Union, total fertility rates fell significantly across the post-Soviet world. In this study we examine the dramatic fertility transition in one community in which the total fertility rate fell from approximately five children per woman before 1993 to just over one child per woman a decade later. We apply hypotheses derived from evolutionary ecology and demography to the question of fertility transition in the post-Soviet period, focusing on an indigenous community (Ust'-Avam) in the Taimyr Region, northern Russia...
September 5, 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Bruce Jennings
The further development of public health ethics will be assisted by a more direct engagement with political theory. In this way, the moral vocabulary of the liberal tradition should be supplemented-but not supplanted-by different conceptual and normative resources available from other traditions of political and social thought. This article discusses four lines of further development that the normative conceptual discourse of public health ethics might take. (i) The relational turn. The implications for public health ethics of the new 'ecological' or 'relational' interpretation that is emerging for concepts such as agency, self-identity, autonomy, liberty and justice...
July 2016: Public Health Ethics
Stefan Gelcich, Camila Vargas, Maria Jose Carreras, Juan Carlos Castilla, C Josh Donlan
Biodiversity offsets are becoming increasingly common across a portfolio of settings: national policy, voluntary programs, international lending, and corporate business structures. Given the diversity of ecological, political, and socio-economic systems where offsets may be applied, place-based information is likely to be most useful in designing and implementing offset programs, along with guiding principles that assure best practice. We reviewed the research on biodiversity offsets to explore gaps and needs...
August 16, 2016: Ambio
Siobhán M Mattison, Eric A Smith, Mary K Shenk, Ethan E Cochrane
Understanding how systems of political and economic inequality evolved from relatively egalitarian origins has long been a focus of anthropological inquiry. Many hypotheses have been suggested to link socio-ecological features with the rise and spread of inequality, and empirical tests of these hypotheses in prehistoric and extant societies are increasing. In this review, we synthesize several streams of theory relevant to understanding the evolutionary origins, spread, and adaptive significance of inequality...
July 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
Casey M Ryan, Rose Pritchard, Iain McNicol, Matthew Owen, Janet A Fisher, Caroline Lehmann
Miombo and mopane woodlands are the dominant land cover in southern Africa. Ecosystem services from these woodlands support the livelihoods of 100 M rural people and 50 M urban dwellers, and others beyond the region. Provisioning services contribute $9 ± 2 billion yr(-1) to rural livelihoods; 76% of energy used in the region is derived from woodlands; and traded woodfuels have an annual value of $780 M. Woodlands support much of the region's agriculture through transfers of nutrients to fields and shifting cultivation...
September 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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