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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917983/conflicts-security-and-marginalisation-institutional-change-of-the-pastoral-commons-in-a-glocal-world
#1
T Haller, H Van Dijk, M Bollig, C Greiner, N Schareika, C Gabbert
This paper argues that pastoral commons are under increasing pressure not just from overuse by pastoralists themselves, but from land management policies. Since colonial times, these have been based on a persistent misconception of the nature of pastoral economies and combined with increasing land alienation and fragmentation through government policies and covert privatisation of pastures. The paper focuses especially on pastoral populations in African drylands and is based on long-term research by independent researchers summarising some of their experiences in western, eastern and southern Africa...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917979/ecology-mobility-and-labour-dynamic-pastoral-herd-management-in-an-uncertain-world
#2
B Butt
In this review, the author discusses how pastoralism, and its many constituent components, is increasingly being recognised as in tune with the changing political and ecological nature of rangelands. He describes ways in which the literature reflects this changing attitude, outlines how rangelands respond to changes in climate and explores the evolving use of livestock resources. In addition, he describes the growing recognition of factors other than livestock density that affect rangeland vegetation (i.e. density-independent relationships)...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917976/institutional-development-and-policy-frameworks-for-pastoralism-from-local-to-regional-perspectives
#3
B Bonfoh, G Fokou, L Crump, J Zinsstag, E Schelling
Pastoralists are among the most politically and economically marginalised communities in the world. They have less and less access to the natural resources on which their livelihoods depend and very limited access to basic socio-economic services and infrastructure. This paper builds on a number of studies carried out in the Sahel, the Horn of Africa, Central Asia and the Swiss Alps to address the institutional dynamics required for sustainable pastoralism. Specifically, the authors question the way in which institutions and policies are currently shaped and suggest that reforming these could contribute to new avenues for pastoralism...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917964/communication-for-the-development-of-pastoralism
#4
M A Seid, L W Yoseph, U W Befekadu, A Muhammed, T Z Fikre
Communication is vital for the socio-economic and cultural development of pastoralists. If used constructively, communication can help to create a favourable environment for change and modernisation. This paper tries to uncover trends in communication as part of pastoral development, emphasising both indigenous and current methods of communication and prevailing constraints. This study reveals that pastoral development interventions in the past have often failed to achieve their goals, due to the centralised, 'top-down' approaches adopted and to reliance on external strategies and channels which ignored the indigenous knowledge and communications systems of pastoralists...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905285/the-current-status-of-ticks-in-turkey-a-100-year-period-review-from-1916-to-2016
#5
Abdullah İnci, Alparslan Yıldırım, Önder Düzlü
Environmental and bio-ecological changes, some administrative and political mistakes, and global warming seriously affect the behaviors of ticks in Turkey and globally. The global public sensitivity toward tick infestations has increased along with increases in tick-borne diseases (TBDs). Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a new political concept, "One Health," for specific struggle strategies against tick infestations and TBDs. To highlight the importance of the issue, the WHO had declared the year 2015 for vector-borne diseases and adopted the slogan "small bites big threat"...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894320/successful-malaria-elimination-in-the-ecuador-peru-border-region-epidemiology-and-lessons-learned
#6
Lyndsay K Krisher, Jesse Krisher, Mariano Ambuludi, Ana Arichabala, Efrain Beltrán-Ayala, Patricia Navarrete, Tania Ordoñez, Mark E Polhemus, Fernando Quintana, Rosemary Rochford, Mercy Silva, Juan Bazo, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra
BACKGROUND: In recent years, malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) has been successfully controlled in the Ecuador-Peru coastal border region. The aim of this study was to document this control effort and to identify the best practices and lessons learned that are applicable to malaria control and to other vector-borne diseases. A proximal outcome evaluation was conducted of the robust elimination programme in El Oro Province, Ecuador, and the Tumbes Region, Peru. Data collection efforts included a series of workshops with local public health experts who played central roles in the elimination effort, review of epidemiological records from Ministries of Health, and a review of national policy documents...
November 28, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893800/ngo-partnerships-in-using-ecotourism-for-conservation-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Tania P Romero-Brito, Ralf C Buckley, Jason Byrne
We analyse 214 cases worldwide where non-governmental organisations (NGOs) use ecotourism for conservation. Other stakeholders in these initiatives include local communities, the private sector, and government agencies. Stakeholder relationships determine NGO roles and project management structures and governance. We classified cases into 10 structural categories based on the initiating stakeholder and the NGO role, and used these categories to analyze geographic patterns and success factors. Most of the 214 cases are community-based (~170; 79%); most are in developing countries (190; 89%); and most are in protected areas (196; 91%)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879461/unstable-malaria-transmission-in-the-southern-peruvian-amazon-and-its-association-with-gold-mining-madre-de-dios-2001-2012
#8
Juan F Sanchez, Andres M Carnero, Esteban Rivera, Luis A Rosales, G Christian Baldeviano, Jorge L Asencios, Kimberly A Edgel, Joseph M Vinetz, Andres G Lescano
The reemergence of malaria in Madre de Dios, in the southern Peruvian Amazon basin, in the last decade was accompanied by ecological, political, and socioeconomic changes related to the proliferation of illegal gold mining. We conducted a secondary analysis of passive malaria surveillance data reported by the health networks in Madre de Dios between 2001 and 2012. We calculated the number of cases of malaria by year, geographic location, intensity of illegal mining activities, and proximity of health facilities to the Peru-Brazil Interoceanic Highway...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878537/a-synthesis-of-convergent-reflections-tensions-and-silences-in-linking-gender-and-global-environmental-change-research
#9
EDITORIAL
Irene Iniesta-Arandia, Federica Ravera, Stephanie Buechler, Isabel Díaz-Reviriego, María E Fernández-Giménez, Maureen G Reed, Mary Thompson-Hall, Hailey Wilmer, Lemlem Aregu, Philippa Cohen, Houria Djoudi, Sarah Lawless, Berta Martín-López, Thomas Smucker, Grace B Villamor, Elizabeth Edna Wangui
This synthesis article joins the authors of the special issue "Gender perspectives in resilience, vulnerability and adaptation to global environmental change" in a common reflective dialogue about the main contributions of their papers. In sum, here we reflect on links between gender and feminist approaches to research in adaptation and resilience in global environmental change (GEC). The main theoretical contributions of this special issue are threefold: emphasizing the relevance of power relations in feminist political ecology, bringing the livelihood and intersectionality approaches into GEC, and linking resilience theories and critical feminist research...
December 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878536/gendered-vulnerabilities-and-grassroots-adaptation-initiatives-in-home-gardens-and-small-orchards-in-northwest-mexico
#10
Stephanie Buechler
With the retreat of the state under neoliberalism, the lack of (or negligible) government and non-governmental support reasserts grassroots initiatives as a global-change strategy. A feminist political ecology approach and the concept of adverse inclusion were used to facilitate an analysis of social differences shaping local-level adaptive responses. Adaptive responses of small farmers in the border village of San Ignacio, Sonora, Mexico, who are increasingly vulnerable to climate change, water scarcity, and changing labor markets were studied...
December 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878448/a-review-of-ecosystem-service-benefits-from-wild-bees-across-social-contexts
#11
REVIEW
Denise Margaret S Matias, Julia Leventon, Anna-Lena Rau, Christian Borgemeister, Henrik von Wehrden
In order to understand the role of wild bees in both social and ecological systems, we conducted a quantitative and qualitative review of publications dealing with wild bees and the benefits they provide in social contexts. We classified publications according to several attributes such as services and benefits derived from wild bees, types of bee-human interactions, recipients of direct benefits, social contexts where wild bees are found, and sources of changes to the bee-human system. We found that most of the services and benefits from wild bees are related to food, medicine, and pollination...
November 22, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869066/developmental-and-social-ecological-perspectives-on-children-political-violence-and-armed-conflict
#12
E Mark Cummings, Christine E Merrilees, Laura K Taylor, Christina F Mondi
An increasing number of researchers and policymakers have been moved to study and intervene in the lives of children affected by violent conflicts (Masten, 2014). According to a United Nations Children's Fund (2009) report, over 1 billion children under the age of 18 are growing up in regions where acts of political violence and armed conflict are, as Ladds and Cairns (1996, p. 15) put it, "a common occurrence-a fact of life." In recent years, the United Nations Children's Fund, advocacy and human rights groups, journalists, and researchers have drawn public attention to the high rates of child casualties in these regions, and to the plights of those children still caught in the crossfire...
November 21, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866498/emotional-insecurity-about-the-community-a-dynamic-within-person-mediator-of-child-adjustment-in-contexts-of-political-violence
#13
E Mark Cummings, Christine Merrilees, Laura K Taylor, Marcie Goeke-Morey, Peter Shirlow
Over 1 billion children worldwide are exposed to political violence and armed conflict. The current conclusions are qualified by limited longitudinal research testing sophisticated process-oriented explanatory models for child adjustment outcomes. In this study, consistent with a developmental psychopathology perspective emphasizing the value of process-oriented longitudinal study of child adjustment in developmental and social-ecological contexts, we tested emotional insecurity about the community as a dynamic, within-person mediating process for relations between sectarian community violence and child adjustment...
November 21, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829987/passive-silent-and-revolutionary-the-arab-spring-revisited
#14
Billie Jeanne Brownlee, Maziyar Ghiabi
To counter the trend toward mechanization of research and aridity of critical analysis, this article makes a case for an interdisciplinary quest. To borrow Felix Guattari and Gilles Deleuze's phrase, we are convinced that 'everything is political, but every politics is simultaneously a macropolitics and a micropolitics.' With an eye to open-ended research questions, this article attempts to build a body of theoretical, political and anthropological considerations, which, it is hoped, could function as a case of enquiry into the mechanics of power, revolt and revolution...
2016: Middle East Crit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799537/continental-scale-quantification-of-landscape-values-using-social-media-data
#15
Boris T van Zanten, Derek B Van Berkel, Ross K Meentemeyer, Jordan W Smith, Koen F Tieskens, Peter H Verburg
Individuals, communities, and societies ascribe a diverse array of values to landscapes. These values are shaped by the aesthetic, cultural, and recreational benefits and services provided by those landscapes. However, across the globe, processes such as urbanization, agricultural intensification, and abandonment are threatening landscape integrity, altering the personally meaningful connections people have toward specific places. Existing methods used to study landscape values, such as social surveys, are poorly suited to capture dynamic landscape-scale processes across large geographic extents...
October 31, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797569/the-contribution-of-maternal-care-and-control-and-community-type-to-children-s-adjustment-to-political-violence
#16
Gali Tangir, Rachel Dekel, Tamar Lavi, Abigail H Gewirtz, Osnat Zamir
Objectives: This study explored the behavioral and emotional adjustment of Israeli school-age children who are exposed to political violence. Based on Bronfenbrenner's (1986) ecological model and ecological model of psychosocial trauma (Harvey, 2007), we examined the direct contribution of exposure, gender, maternal characteristics (mother's posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS], maternal care and maternal control), and community type (development town vs. kibbutz), to school-age children's adjustment. In addition, we examined whether maternal characteristics and community type moderated the association between exposure and adjustment...
October 31, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791072/interactions-of-social-terrestrial-and-marine-sub-systems-in-the-galapagos-islands-ecuador
#17
Stephen J Walsh, Carlos F Mena
Galapagos is often cited as an example of the conflicts that are emerging between resource conservation and economic development in island ecosystems, as the pressures associated with tourism threaten nature, including the iconic and emblematic species, unique terrestrial landscapes, and special marine environments. In this paper, two projects are described that rely upon dynamic systems models and agent-based models to examine human-environment interactions. We use a theoretical context rooted in complexity theory to guide the development of our models that are linked to social-ecological dynamics...
October 10, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781004/biosocial-approaches-to-the-2013-2016-ebola-pandemic
#18
Eugene T Richardson, Mohamed Bailor Barrie, J Daniel Kelly, Yusupha Dibba, Songor Koedoyoma, Paul E Farmer
Despite more than 25 documented outbreaks of Ebola since 1976, our understanding of the disease is limited, in particular the social, political, ecological, and economic forces that promote (or limit) its spread. In the following study, we seek to provide new ways of understanding the 2013-2016 Ebola pandemic. We use the term, 'pandemic,' instead of 'epidemic,' so as not to elide the global forces that shape every localized outbreak of infectious disease. By situating life histories via a biosocial approach, the forces promoting or retarding Ebola transmission come into sharper focus...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761011/a-case-for-studying-country-regimes-in-the-public-health-model-of-violence
#19
James Gilligan, Bandy X Lee, Shikha Garg, Morkeh Blay-Tofey, Audrey Luo
Many national and international institutions advocate approaching violence as a problem in public health and preventive medicine, in a manner similar to the way we address other disabling and life-threatening pathologies such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. Prevention by a health model requires an ecological perspective. Previous work has found evidence that economic factors, including unemployment and relative poverty, as well as political culture and values, may affect violent death rates, including homicide and suicide...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756389/contemporary-epidemiological-overview-of-malaria-in-madagascar-operational-utility-of-reported-routine-case-data-for-malaria-control-planning
#20
Rosalind E Howes, Sedera Aurélien Mioramalala, Brune Ramiranirina, Thierry Franchard, Andry Joeliarijaona Rakotorahalahy, Donal Bisanzio, Peter W Gething, Peter A Zimmerman, Arsène Ratsimbasoa
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major public health problem in Madagascar. Widespread scale-up of intervention coverage has led to substantial reductions in case numbers since 2000. However, political instability since 2009 has disrupted these efforts, and a resurgence of malaria has since followed. This paper re-visits the sub-national stratification of malaria transmission across Madagascar to propose a contemporary update, and evaluates the reported routine case data reported at this sub-national scale...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
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