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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066132/resilience-and-the-population-history-of-the-kuril-islands-northwest-pacific-a-study-in-complex-human-ecodynamics
#1
Ben Fitzhugh, Erik Gjesfjeld, William Brown, Mark J Hudson, Jennie D Shaw
Living in remote places can strain the adaptive capacities of human settlers. It can also protect communities from external social, political and economic forces. In this paper, we present an archaeological population history of the Kuril Islands. This string of small volcanic islands on the margins of the Northwest Pacific was occupied by maritime hunting, fishing and gathering communities from the mid-Holocene to recent centuries. We bring together (1) 380 new and previously published archaeological radiocarbon dates, (2) a new paleodemographic model based on a radiocarbon-timestamped temporal frequency distribution of archaeological deposits, (3) recently published paleoclimate trends, and (4) recently published archaeological proxy evidence for changes in the extent of social networks...
October 17, 2016: Quaternary International: the Journal of the International Union for Quaternary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058657/a-two-ocean-bouillabaisse-science-politics-and-the-central-american-sea-level-canal-controversy
#2
Christine Keiner
As the Panama Canal approached its fiftieth anniversary in the mid-1960s, U.S. officials concerned about the costs of modernization welcomed the technology of peaceful nuclear excavation to create a new waterway at sea level. Biologists seeking a share of the funds slated for radiological-safety studies called attention to another potential effect which they deemed of far greater ecological and evolutionary magnitude - marine species exchange, an obscure environmental issue that required the expertise of underresourced life scientists...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025911/at-home-in-the-postcolony-ecology-empire-and-domesticity-at-the-lamto-field-station-ivory-coast
#3
Guillaume Lachenal
This article is a history of the field station Lamto, in Ivory Coast, which was created by French ecologists in 1962, after independence. It retraces the origins, the logics and the contradictions of an extraordinarily ambitious scientific project, which aimed at the systematic, holistic, quantitative and multi-disciplinary description of a unit of African nature - the savannah ecosystem. It explores how knowledge-making was articulated with work hierarchies and postcolonial politics, lifestyles, values and affects...
December 2016: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005546/health-promotion-in-an-age-of-normative-equity-and-rampant-inequality
#4
EDITORIAL
Ronald Labonté
The world was different when the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion was released 30 years ago. Concerns over the environment and what we now call the 'social determinants of health' were prominent in 1986. But the acceleration of ecological crises and economic inequalities since then, in a more complex and multi-polar world, pose dramatically new challenges for those committed to the original vision of the Charter. Can the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), agreed to by all the world's governments, offer a new advocacy and programmatic platform for a renewal of health promotion's founding ethos? Critiqued from both the right and the left for, respectively, their aspirational idealism and lack of political analysis, the SDGs are an imperfect but still compelling normative statement of how much of the world thinks the world should look like...
July 18, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977689/tick-borne-diseases-in-turkey-a-review-based-on-one-health-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Abdullah Inci, Alparslan Yildirim, Onder Duzlu, Mehmet Doganay, Serap Aksoy
The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes and the existence of suitable habitats increase the impact of ticks and result in frequent emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) with zoonotic characteristics. In Turkey, almost 19 TBDs have been reported in animals and men, involving four protozoa (babesiosis, theileriosis, cytauxzoonosis, hepatozoonosis), one filarial nematode (acanthocheilonemasis), ten bacterial agents (anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, aegyptianellosis, tick-borne typhus, Candidatus Rickettsia vini, Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne relapsing fever [TBRF], tularaemia, bartonellosis, and hemoplasmosis), and four viral infections (tick-borne encephalitis [TBE], Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever [CCHF], louping-ill [LI], and lumpy skin disease [LSD])...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943587/development-and-implementation-of-a-site-specific-water-quality-limit-for-uranium-in-a-high-conservation-value-ecosystem
#6
Rick van Dam, Alicia C Hogan, Andrew J Harford
Water quality guideline values (GVs) are a key tool for water quality assessments. Site-specific GVs, which incorporate data relevant to local conditions and organisms, provide a higher level of confidence that the GV will protect the aquatic ecosystem at a site compared to generic GVs. Site-specific GVs are, therefore, considered particularly suitable for sites of high socio-political or ecological importance. This paper presents an example of the refinement of a site-specific GV for high ecological value aquatic ecosystems in Kakadu National Park (Northern Territory, Australia) to improve its site-specificity and statistical robustness, thereby increasing confidence in its application...
December 12, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933256/explaining-bioenergy-representations-of-jatropha-in-kenya-before-and-after-disappointing-results
#7
Carol Hunsberger
Proponents of Jatropha curcas portrayed the crop as a 'sustainable biofuel' that was less threatening to food security and forests than other energy crops, creating a reputation that helped jatropha projects to multiply quickly throughout the global South. However, many jatropha initiatives failed to thrive and ultimately collapsed. This paper investigates how actors involved with jatropha in Kenya explained their visions of bioenergy at two points in time. In 2009, when many activities were beginning, I interviewed small-scale farmers, NGO staff, researchers, donors, government officials and members of the private sector about their expectations of jatropha as an energy crop...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917983/conflicts-security-and-marginalisation-institutional-change-of-the-pastoral-commons-in-a-glocal-world
#8
T Haller, H Van Dijk, M Bollig, C Greiner, N Schareika, C Gabbert
This paper argues that pastoral commons are under increasing pressure not just from overuse by pastoralists themselves, but from land management policies. Since colonial times, these have been based on a persistent misconception of the nature of pastoral economies and combined with increasing land alienation and fragmentation through government policies and covert privatisation of pastures. The paper focuses especially on pastoral populations in African drylands and is based on long-term research by independent researchers summarising some of their experiences in western, eastern and southern Africa...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917979/ecology-mobility-and-labour-dynamic-pastoral-herd-management-in-an-uncertain-world
#9
B Butt
In this review, the author discusses how pastoralism, and its many constituent components, is increasingly being recognised as in tune with the changing political and ecological nature of rangelands. He describes ways in which the literature reflects this changing attitude, outlines how rangelands respond to changes in climate and explores the evolving use of livestock resources. In addition, he describes the growing recognition of factors other than livestock density that affect rangeland vegetation (i.e. density-independent relationships)...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917976/institutional-development-and-policy-frameworks-for-pastoralism-from-local-to-regional-perspectives
#10
B Bonfoh, G Fokou, L Crump, J Zinsstag, E Schelling
Pastoralists are among the most politically and economically marginalised communities in the world. They have less and less access to the natural resources on which their livelihoods depend and very limited access to basic socio-economic services and infrastructure. This paper builds on a number of studies carried out in the Sahel, the Horn of Africa, Central Asia and the Swiss Alps to address the institutional dynamics required for sustainable pastoralism. Specifically, the authors question the way in which institutions and policies are currently shaped and suggest that reforming these could contribute to new avenues for pastoralism...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917964/communication-for-the-development-of-pastoralism
#11
M A Seid, L W Yoseph, U W Befekadu, A Muhammed, T Z Fikre
Communication is vital for the socio-economic and cultural development of pastoralists. If used constructively, communication can help to create a favourable environment for change and modernisation. This paper tries to uncover trends in communication as part of pastoral development, emphasising both indigenous and current methods of communication and prevailing constraints. This study reveals that pastoral development interventions in the past have often failed to achieve their goals, due to the centralised, 'top-down' approaches adopted and to reliance on external strategies and channels which ignored the indigenous knowledge and communications systems of pastoralists...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905285/the-current-status-of-ticks-in-turkey-a-100-year-period-review-from-1916-to-2016
#12
Abdullah İnci, Alparslan Yıldırım, Önder Düzlü
Environmental and bio-ecological changes, some administrative and political mistakes, and global warming seriously affect the behaviors of ticks in Turkey and globally. The global public sensitivity toward tick infestations has increased along with increases in tick-borne diseases (TBDs). Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a new political concept, "One Health," for specific struggle strategies against tick infestations and TBDs. To highlight the importance of the issue, the WHO had declared the year 2015 for vector-borne diseases and adopted the slogan "small bites big threat"...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894320/successful-malaria-elimination-in-the-ecuador-peru-border-region-epidemiology-and-lessons-learned
#13
Lyndsay K Krisher, Jesse Krisher, Mariano Ambuludi, Ana Arichabala, Efrain Beltrán-Ayala, Patricia Navarrete, Tania Ordoñez, Mark E Polhemus, Fernando Quintana, Rosemary Rochford, Mercy Silva, Juan Bazo, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra
BACKGROUND: In recent years, malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) has been successfully controlled in the Ecuador-Peru coastal border region. The aim of this study was to document this control effort and to identify the best practices and lessons learned that are applicable to malaria control and to other vector-borne diseases. A proximal outcome evaluation was conducted of the robust elimination programme in El Oro Province, Ecuador, and the Tumbes Region, Peru. Data collection efforts included a series of workshops with local public health experts who played central roles in the elimination effort, review of epidemiological records from Ministries of Health, and a review of national policy documents...
November 28, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893800/ngo-partnerships-in-using-ecotourism-for-conservation-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Tania P Romero-Brito, Ralf C Buckley, Jason Byrne
We analyse 214 cases worldwide where non-governmental organisations (NGOs) use ecotourism for conservation. Other stakeholders in these initiatives include local communities, the private sector, and government agencies. Stakeholder relationships determine NGO roles and project management structures and governance. We classified cases into 10 structural categories based on the initiating stakeholder and the NGO role, and used these categories to analyze geographic patterns and success factors. Most of the 214 cases are community-based (~170; 79%); most are in developing countries (190; 89%); and most are in protected areas (196; 91%)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879461/unstable-malaria-transmission-in-the-southern-peruvian-amazon-and-its-association-with-gold-mining-madre-de-dios-2001-2012
#15
Juan F Sanchez, Andres M Carnero, Esteban Rivera, Luis A Rosales, G Christian Baldeviano, Jorge L Asencios, Kimberly A Edgel, Joseph M Vinetz, Andres G Lescano
The reemergence of malaria in Madre de Dios, in the southern Peruvian Amazon basin, in the last decade was accompanied by ecological, political, and socioeconomic changes related to the proliferation of illegal gold mining. We conducted a secondary analysis of passive malaria surveillance data reported by the health networks in Madre de Dios between 2001 and 2012. We calculated the number of cases of malaria by year, geographic location, intensity of illegal mining activities, and proximity of health facilities to the Peru-Brazil Interoceanic Highway...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878537/a-synthesis-of-convergent-reflections-tensions-and-silences-in-linking-gender-and-global-environmental-change-research
#16
EDITORIAL
Irene Iniesta-Arandia, Federica Ravera, Stephanie Buechler, Isabel Díaz-Reviriego, María E Fernández-Giménez, Maureen G Reed, Mary Thompson-Hall, Hailey Wilmer, Lemlem Aregu, Philippa Cohen, Houria Djoudi, Sarah Lawless, Berta Martín-López, Thomas Smucker, Grace B Villamor, Elizabeth Edna Wangui
This synthesis article joins the authors of the special issue "Gender perspectives in resilience, vulnerability and adaptation to global environmental change" in a common reflective dialogue about the main contributions of their papers. In sum, here we reflect on links between gender and feminist approaches to research in adaptation and resilience in global environmental change (GEC). The main theoretical contributions of this special issue are threefold: emphasizing the relevance of power relations in feminist political ecology, bringing the livelihood and intersectionality approaches into GEC, and linking resilience theories and critical feminist research...
December 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878536/gendered-vulnerabilities-and-grassroots-adaptation-initiatives-in-home-gardens-and-small-orchards-in-northwest-mexico
#17
Stephanie Buechler
With the retreat of the state under neoliberalism, the lack of (or negligible) government and non-governmental support reasserts grassroots initiatives as a global-change strategy. A feminist political ecology approach and the concept of adverse inclusion were used to facilitate an analysis of social differences shaping local-level adaptive responses. Adaptive responses of small farmers in the border village of San Ignacio, Sonora, Mexico, who are increasingly vulnerable to climate change, water scarcity, and changing labor markets were studied...
December 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878448/a-review-of-ecosystem-service-benefits-from-wild-bees-across-social-contexts
#18
REVIEW
Denise Margaret S Matias, Julia Leventon, Anna-Lena Rau, Christian Borgemeister, Henrik von Wehrden
In order to understand the role of wild bees in both social and ecological systems, we conducted a quantitative and qualitative review of publications dealing with wild bees and the benefits they provide in social contexts. We classified publications according to several attributes such as services and benefits derived from wild bees, types of bee-human interactions, recipients of direct benefits, social contexts where wild bees are found, and sources of changes to the bee-human system. We found that most of the services and benefits from wild bees are related to food, medicine, and pollination...
November 22, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869066/developmental-and-social-ecological-perspectives-on-children-political-violence-and-armed-conflict
#19
E Mark Cummings, Christine E Merrilees, Laura K Taylor, Christina F Mondi
An increasing number of researchers and policymakers have been moved to study and intervene in the lives of children affected by violent conflicts (Masten, 2014). According to a United Nations Children's Fund (2009) report, over 1 billion children under the age of 18 are growing up in regions where acts of political violence and armed conflict are, as Ladds and Cairns (1996, p. 15) put it, "a common occurrence-a fact of life." In recent years, the United Nations Children's Fund, advocacy and human rights groups, journalists, and researchers have drawn public attention to the high rates of child casualties in these regions, and to the plights of those children still caught in the crossfire...
November 21, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866498/emotional-insecurity-about-the-community-a-dynamic-within-person-mediator-of-child-adjustment-in-contexts-of-political-violence
#20
E Mark Cummings, Christine Merrilees, Laura K Taylor, Marcie Goeke-Morey, Peter Shirlow
Over 1 billion children worldwide are exposed to political violence and armed conflict. The current conclusions are qualified by limited longitudinal research testing sophisticated process-oriented explanatory models for child adjustment outcomes. In this study, consistent with a developmental psychopathology perspective emphasizing the value of process-oriented longitudinal study of child adjustment in developmental and social-ecological contexts, we tested emotional insecurity about the community as a dynamic, within-person mediating process for relations between sectarian community violence and child adjustment...
November 21, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
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