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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330607/river-continuity-restoration-and-diadromous-fishes-much-more-than-an-ecological-issue
#1
H Drouineau, C Carter, M Rambonilaza, G Beaufaron, G Bouleau, A Gassiat, P Lambert, S le Floch, S Tétard, E de Oliveira
Ecosystem fragmentation is a serious threat to biodiversity and one of the main challenges in ecosystem restoration. River continuity restoration (RCR) has often targeted diadromous fishes, a group of species supporting strong cultural and economic values and especially sensitive to river fragmentation. Yet it has frequently produced mixed results and diadromous fishes remain at very low levels of abundance. Against this background, this paper presents the main challenges for defining, evaluating and achieving effective RCR...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330164/public-health-guide-to-field-developments-linking-ecosystems-environments-and-health-in-the-anthropocene
#2
Chris G Buse, Jordan Sky Oestreicher, Neville R Ellis, Rebecca Patrick, Ben Brisbois, Aaron P Jenkins, Kaileah McKellar, Jonathan Kingsley, Maya Gislason, Lindsay Galway, Ro A McFarlane, Joanne Walker, Howard Frumkin, Margot Parkes
The impacts of global environmental change have precipitated numerous approaches that connect the health of ecosystems, non-human organisms and humans. However, the proliferation of approaches can lead to confusion due to overlaps in terminology, ideas and foci. Recognising the need for clarity, this paper provides a guide to seven field developments in environmental public health research and practice: occupational and environmental health; political ecology of health; environmental justice; ecohealth; One Health; ecological public health; and planetary health...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304251/the-role-of-leadership-in-people-centred-health-systems-a-sub-national-study-in-the-gambia
#3
Simukai Chigudu, Momodou Jasseh, Umberto d'Alessandro, Tumani Corrah, Adama Demba, Julie Balen
Recently, increasing attention has been given to behavioural and relational aspects of the people who both define and shape health systems, placing them at the core. A growing refrain includes the assertion that important decisions determining health system performance, including agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation, are made by people. Within this actor-oriented approach, good leadership has been identified as a key contributing factor in health systems strengthening. However, leadership remains ill-defined and under-researched, especially in resource-limited settings, and understanding the links between leadership and health outcomes remains a challenge...
January 1, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298310/echoes-from-the-past-regional-variations-in-recovery-within-a-harbour-seal-population
#4
Sophie M J M Brasseur, Peter J H Reijnders, Jenny Cremer, Erik Meesters, Roger Kirkwood, Lasse Fast Jensen, Armin Jeβ, Anders Galatius, Jonas Teilmann, Geert Aarts
Terrestrial and marine wildlife populations have been severely reduced by hunting, fishing and habitat destruction, especially in the last centuries. Although management regulations have led to the recovery of some populations, the underlying processes are not always well understood. This study uses a 40-year time series of counts of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Wadden Sea to study these processes, and demonstrates the influence of historical regional differences in management regimes on the recovery of this population...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279206/gun-violence
#5
REVIEW
Wendy Cukier, Sarah Allen Eagen
Drawing on the World Health Organization's ecological model, this review explores how contextual and institutional factors shape individual choice and behavior with respect to gun violence. Young men are disproportionately represented among both perpetrators and victims of violence. Although specific characteristics and behaviors present risks, these vary with the specific forms of violence. There is ample international research that suggests the availability of guns increases the risk of lethal violence. When guns are present, suicide attempts are more likely to succeed and assaults are more likely to become homicides...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247477/finding-politically-feasible-conservation-policies-the-case-of-wildlife-trafficking
#6
Timothy C Haas, Sam M Ferreira
Conservation management is of increasing importance in ecology as most ecosystems nowadays are essentially managed ones. Conservation managers work within a political-ecological system when they develop and attempt to implement a conservation plan that is designed to meet particular conservation goals. In this article, we develop a decision support tool that can identify a conservation policy for a managed wildlife population that is both sustainable and politically feasible. Part of our tool consists of a simulation model composed of interacting influence diagrams...
December 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228986/addressing-vulnerability-building-resilience-community-based-adaptation-to-vector-borne-diseases-in-the-context-of-global-change
#7
REVIEW
Kevin Louis Bardosh, Sadie Ryan, Kris Ebi, Susan Welburn, Burton Singer
BACKGROUND: The threat of a rapidly changing planet - of coupled social, environmental and climatic change - pose new conceptual and practical challenges in responding to vector-borne diseases. These include non-linear and uncertain spatial-temporal change dynamics associated with climate, animals, land, water, food, settlement, conflict, ecology and human socio-cultural, economic and political-institutional systems. To date, research efforts have been dominated by disease modeling, which has provided limited practical advice to policymakers and practitioners in developing policies and programmes on the ground...
December 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226606/the-challenges-of-implementing-an-integrated-one-health-surveillance-system-in-australia
#8
I Johnson, A Hansen, P Bi
As 75 per cent of emerging infectious diseases are of animal origin, a One Health approach that integrates the health of humans, animals and the environment could provide an earlier opportunity for zoonotic disease detection and prevention. In Australia, human, animal and ecological health are managed by separate sectors with limited communication. This study aims to explore how professionals in these fields perceive a One Health approach to zoonotic disease surveillance, aiming to identify the challenges to the implementation of an integrated system in Australia...
December 10, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225951/is-governance-gross-domestic-product-inequality-population-size-or-country-surface-area-associated-with-coverage-and-equity-of-health-interventions-ecological-analyses-of-cross-sectional-surveys-from-80-countries
#9
Fernando C Wehrmeister, Inácio Crochemore M da Silva, Aluisio J D Barros, Cesar G Victora
Objective: To assess associations between national characteristics, including governance indicators, with a proxy for universal health coverage in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH). Design: Ecological analysis based on data from national standardised cross-sectional surveys. Setting: Low-income and middle-income countries with a Demographic and Health Survey or a Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey since 2005. Participants: 1 246 710 mothers and 2 129 212 children from 80 national surveys...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225752/emerging-and-re-emerging-infectious-diseases-in-iran
#10
REVIEW
Najmeh Parhizgari, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Ehsan Mostafavi
Despite development of preventive and controlling strategies regarding infectious diseases, they are still considered as one of the most significant leading causes of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Changes in humans' demographics and behaviors, microbial and ecological alterations, agricultural development, international travels and susceptibility to infectious diseases have resulted in increased reports of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and reemerging infectious diseases (RIDs) in various geographical areas...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220706/swing-voting-in-the-2016-presidential-election-in-counties-where-midlife-mortality-has-been-rising-in-white-non-hispanic-americans
#11
Usama Bilal, Emily A Knapp, Richard S Cooper
Understanding the effects of widespread disruption of the social fabric on public health outcomes can provide insight into the forces that drive major political realignment. Our objective was to estimate the association between increases in mortality in middle-aged non-Hispanic white adults from 1999 to 2005 to 2009-2015, health inequalities in life expectancy by income, and the surge in support for the Republican Party in pivotal US counties in the 2016 presidential election. We conducted a longitudinal ecological study in 2764 US counties from 1999 to 2016...
December 2, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192688/fluoridation-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-critique-of-malin-and-till-2015
#12
K W Perrott
A recent ecological study found a statistically significant association of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence in youth with exposure to fluoride in fluoridated water. However, it included only household income as a possible covariate. In contrast another study found a significant association of ADHD prevalence with residential altitude. A multiple regression analysis including water fluoridation extent, mean US state elevation and a number of possibly important social factors as covariates showed statistically significant associations of ADHD prevalence in 2011 with altitude and per capita personal income in 2009...
December 1, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160024/a-conceptual-framework-for-understanding-the-perspectives-on-the-causes-of-the-science-practice-gap-in-ecology-and-conservation
#13
Diana Bertuol-Garcia, Carla Morsello, Charbel N El-Hani, Renata Pardini
Applying scientific knowledge to confront societal challenges is a difficult task, an issue known as the science-practice gap. In Ecology and Conservation, scientific evidence has been seldom used directly to support decision-making, despite calls for an increasing role of ecological science in developing solutions for a sustainable future. To date, multiple causes of the science-practice gap and diverse approaches to link science and practice in Ecology and Conservation have been proposed. To foster a transparent debate and broaden our understanding of the difficulties of using scientific knowledge, we reviewed the perceived causes of the science-practice gap, aiming to: (i) identify the perspectives of ecologists and conservation scientists on this problem, (ii) evaluate the predominance of these perspectives over time and across journals, and (iii) assess them in light of disciplines studying the role of science in decision-making...
November 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157274/evaluating-implementation-of-the-world-health-organization-s-strategic-approach-to-strengthening-sexual-and-reproductive-health-policies-and-programs-to-address-unintended-pregnancy-and-unsafe-abortion
#14
Shusmita Rashid, Julia E Moore, Caitlyn Timmings, Joshua P Vogel, Bela Ganatra, Dina N Khan, Radha Sayal, A Metin Gülmezoglu, Sharon E Straus
BACKGROUND: We conducted a process evaluation to assess how the World Health Organization's (WHO) Strategic Approach to strengthening sexual and reproductive health policies and programs ("the SA") was used in 15 countries that requested WHO's technical support in addressing unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion. The SA is a three-stage planning, policy, and program implementation process. We used the social ecological model (SEM) to analyze the contextual factors that influenced SA implementation...
November 21, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152202/assessing-the-potential-of-translocating-vulnerable-forest-birds-by-searching-for-novel-and-enduring-climatic-ranges
#15
Lucas B Fortini, Lauren R Kaiser, Adam E Vorsino, Eben H Paxton, James D Jacobi
Hawaiian forest birds are imperiled, with fewer than half the original >40 species remaining extant. Recent studies document ongoing rapid population decline and project complete climate-based range losses for the critically endangered Kaua'i endemics 'akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris) and 'akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) by end-of-century due to projected warming. Climate change facilitates the upward expansion of avian malaria into native high elevation forests where disease was historically absent. While intensified conservation efforts attempt to safeguard these species and their habitats, the magnitude of potential loss and the urgency of this situation require all conservation options to be seriously considered...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148655/feframing-climate-change-for-environmental-health
#16
Caitlin Weems, Prithwi Raj Subramaniam
Repeated warnings by the scientific community on the dire consequences of climate change through global warming to the ecology and sustenance of our planet have not been give appropriate attention by the U.S. public. Research has shown that climate change is responsible for catastrophic weather occurrences--such as floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, and heat waves--resulting in environmental and public health issues. The purpose of this report is to examine factors influencing public views on climate change. Theoretical and political perspectives are examined to unpack opinions held by the public in the U...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133409/psychological-targeting-as-an-effective-approach-to-digital-mass-persuasion
#17
S C Matz, M Kosinski, G Nave, D J Stillwell
People are exposed to persuasive communication across many different contexts: Governments, companies, and political parties use persuasive appeals to encourage people to eat healthier, purchase a particular product, or vote for a specific candidate. Laboratory studies show that such persuasive appeals are more effective in influencing behavior when they are tailored to individuals' unique psychological characteristics. However, the investigation of large-scale psychological persuasion in the real world has been hindered by the questionnaire-based nature of psychological assessment...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119653/a-social-ecological-framework-a-model-for-addressing-ethical-practice-in-nursing
#18
P M Davidson, C H Rushton, M Kurtz, B Wise, D Jackson, A Beaman, M Broome
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To develop a framework to enable discussion, debate and the formulation of interventions to address ethical issues in nursing practice. BACKGROUND: Social, cultural, political and economic drivers are rapidly changing the landscape of health care in our local environments but also in a global context. Increasingly, nurses are faced with a range of ethical dilemmas in their work. This requires investigation into the culture of health care systems and organisations to identify the root causes and address the barriers and enablers of ethical practice...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119410/africanizing-science-in-post-colonial-kenya-long-term-field-research-in-the-amboseli-ecosystem-1963-1989
#19
Amanda E Lewis
Following Kenya's independence in 1963, scientists converged on an ecologically sensitive area in southern Kenya on the northern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro called Amboseli. This region is the homeland of the Ilkisongo Maasai who grazed this ecosystem along with the wildlife of interest to the scientists. Biologists saw opportunities to study this complex community, an environment rich in biological diversity. The Amboseli landscape proved to be fertile ground for testing new methods and lines of inquiry in the biological sciences that were generalizable and important for shaping natural resource management policies in Kenya...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076401/young-people-s-and-stakeholders-perspectives-of-adolescent-sexual-risk-behavior-in-kilifi-county-kenya-a-qualitative-study
#20
Derrick Ssewanyana, Patrick N Mwangala, Vicki Marsh, Irene Jao, Anneloes van Baar, Charles R Newton, Amina Abubakar
A lack of research exists around the most common forms of sexual risk behaviors among adolescents, including their underlying factors, in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using an Ecological Model of Adolescent Behavior, we explore the perceptions of 85 young people and 10 stakeholders on sexual risk behavior of adolescents in Kilifi County on the coast of Kenya. Our findings show that transactional sex, early sexual debut, coerced sex, and multiple sexual partnerships are prevalent. An urgent need exists to develop measures to counter sexual risk behaviors...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
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