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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160024/a-conceptual-framework-for-understanding-the-perspectives-on-the-causes-of-the-science-practice-gap-in-ecology-and-conservation
#1
Diana Bertuol-Garcia, Carla Morsello, Charbel N El-Hani, Renata Pardini
Applying scientific knowledge to confront societal challenges is a difficult task, an issue known as the science-practice gap. In Ecology and Conservation, scientific evidence has been seldom used directly to support decision-making, despite calls for an increasing role of ecological science in developing solutions for a sustainable future. To date, multiple causes of the science-practice gap and diverse approaches to link science and practice in Ecology and Conservation have been proposed. To foster a transparent debate and broaden our understanding of the difficulties of using scientific knowledge, we reviewed the perceived causes of the science-practice gap, aiming to: (i) identify the perspectives of ecologists and conservation scientists on this problem, (ii) evaluate the predominance of these perspectives over time and across journals, and (iii) assess them in light of disciplines studying the role of science in decision-making...
November 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157274/evaluating-implementation-of-the-world-health-organization-s-strategic-approach-to-strengthening-sexual-and-reproductive-health-policies-and-programs-to-address-unintended-pregnancy-and-unsafe-abortion
#2
Shusmita Rashid, Julia E Moore, Caitlyn Timmings, Joshua P Vogel, Bela Ganatra, Dina N Khan, Radha Sayal, A Metin Gülmezoglu, Sharon E Straus
BACKGROUND: We conducted a process evaluation to assess how the World Health Organization's (WHO) Strategic Approach to strengthening sexual and reproductive health policies and programs ("the SA") was used in 15 countries that requested WHO's technical support in addressing unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion. The SA is a three-stage planning, policy, and program implementation process. We used the social ecological model (SEM) to analyze the contextual factors that influenced SA implementation...
November 21, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152202/assessing-the-potential-of-translocating-vulnerable-forest-birds-by-searching-for-novel-and-enduring-climatic-ranges
#3
Lucas B Fortini, Lauren R Kaiser, Adam E Vorsino, Eben H Paxton, James D Jacobi
Hawaiian forest birds are imperiled, with fewer than half the original >40 species remaining extant. Recent studies document ongoing rapid population decline and project complete climate-based range losses for the critically endangered Kaua'i endemics 'akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris) and 'akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) by end-of-century due to projected warming. Climate change facilitates the upward expansion of avian malaria into native high elevation forests where disease was historically absent. While intensified conservation efforts attempt to safeguard these species and their habitats, the magnitude of potential loss and the urgency of this situation require all conservation options to be seriously considered...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148655/feframing-climate-change-for-environmental-health
#4
Caitlin Weems, Prithwi Raj Subramaniam
Repeated warnings by the scientific community on the dire consequences of climate change through global warming to the ecology and sustenance of our planet have not been give appropriate attention by the U.S. public. Research has shown that climate change is responsible for catastrophic weather occurrences--such as floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, and heat waves--resulting in environmental and public health issues. The purpose of this report is to examine factors influencing public views on climate change. Theoretical and political perspectives are examined to unpack opinions held by the public in the U...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133409/psychological-targeting-as-an-effective-approach-to-digital-mass-persuasion
#5
S C Matz, M Kosinski, G Nave, D J Stillwell
People are exposed to persuasive communication across many different contexts: Governments, companies, and political parties use persuasive appeals to encourage people to eat healthier, purchase a particular product, or vote for a specific candidate. Laboratory studies show that such persuasive appeals are more effective in influencing behavior when they are tailored to individuals' unique psychological characteristics. However, the investigation of large-scale psychological persuasion in the real world has been hindered by the questionnaire-based nature of psychological assessment...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119653/a-social-ecological-framework-a-model-for-addressing-ethical-practice-in-nursing
#6
P M Davidson, C H Rushton, M Kurtz, B Wise, D Jackson, A Beaman, M Broome
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To develop a framework to enable discussion, debate and the formulation of interventions to address ethical issues in nursing practice. BACKGROUND: Social, cultural, political and economic drivers are rapidly changing the landscape of health care in our local environments but also in a global context. Increasingly, nurses are faced with a range of ethical dilemmas in their work. This requires investigation into the culture of health care systems and organisations to identify the root causes and address the barriers and enablers of ethical practice...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119410/africanizing-science-in-post-colonial-kenya-long-term-field-research-in-the-amboseli-ecosystem-1963-1989
#7
Amanda E Lewis
Following Kenya's independence in 1963, scientists converged on an ecologically sensitive area in southern Kenya on the northern slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro called Amboseli. This region is the homeland of the Ilkisongo Maasai who grazed this ecosystem along with the wildlife of interest to the scientists. Biologists saw opportunities to study this complex community, an environment rich in biological diversity. The Amboseli landscape proved to be fertile ground for testing new methods and lines of inquiry in the biological sciences that were generalizable and important for shaping natural resource management policies in Kenya...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076401/young-people-s-and-stakeholders-perspectives-of-adolescent-sexual-risk-behavior-in-kilifi-county-kenya-a-qualitative-study
#8
Derrick Ssewanyana, Patrick N Mwangala, Vicki Marsh, Irene Jao, Anneloes van Baar, Charles R Newton, Amina Abubakar
A lack of research exists around the most common forms of sexual risk behaviors among adolescents, including their underlying factors, in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using an Ecological Model of Adolescent Behavior, we explore the perceptions of 85 young people and 10 stakeholders on sexual risk behavior of adolescents in Kilifi County on the coast of Kenya. Our findings show that transactional sex, early sexual debut, coerced sex, and multiple sexual partnerships are prevalent. An urgent need exists to develop measures to counter sexual risk behaviors...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046613/ecologies-of-ideologies-explaining-party-entry-and-exit-in-west-european-parliaments-1945-2013
#9
Marc van de Wardt, Joost Berkhout, Floris Vermeulen
This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly experience competition from parties in the same ideological niche (left, centre, right). Pooled time-series analyses of 410 parties, 263 elections and 18 West-European countries largely support our expectations. We find that political parties are more likely to exit when density within their niche increases...
June 2017: Eur Union Polit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038034/environmental-characteristics-of-early-childhood-education-and-care-centres-and-young-children-s-weight-status-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Zhiguang Zhang, João R Pereira, Eduarda Sousa-Sá, Anthony D Okely, Xiaoqi Feng, Rute Santos
The aim of this systematic review was to summarize ECEC environmental correlates of weight status in children under the age of 6years. Six databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Web of Science) were searched until March 2017. Observational studies examining the relationship between ECEC environmental characteristics and weight status in children aged 0-6years were included. Data was extracted using a predesigned form. Eight studies, representing 4862 children, met the inclusion criteria...
October 14, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986822/global-spread-of-hemorrhagic-fever-viruses-predicting-pandemics
#11
Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Marc Souris, Willy Valdivia-Granda
As successive epidemics have swept the world, the scientific community has quickly learned from them about the emergence and transmission of communicable diseases. Epidemics usually occur when health systems are unprepared. During an unexpected epidemic, health authorities engage in damage control, fear drives action, and the desire to understand the threat is greatest. As humanity recovers, policy-makers seek scientific expertise to improve their "preparedness" to face future events.Global spread of disease is exemplified by the spread of yellow fever from Africa to the Americas, by the spread of dengue fever through transcontinental migration of mosquitos, by the relentless influenza virus pandemics, and, most recently, by the unexpected emergence of Ebola virus, spread by motorbike and long haul carriers...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976871/the-terrorist-attacks-and-the-human-live-birth-sex-ratio-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Gwinyai Masukume, Sinéad M O'Neill, Ali S Khashan, Louise C Kenny, Victor Grech
AIM: The live birth sex ratio is defined as male/total births (M/F). Terrorist attacks have been associated with a transient decline in M/F 3-5 months later with an excess of male losses in ongoing pregnancies. The early 21st century is replete with religious/politically instigated attacks. This study estimated the pooled effect size between exposure to attacks and M/F. Registration number CRD42016041220. METHODS: PubMed and Scopus were searched for ecological studies that evaluated the relationship between terrorist attacks from 1/1/2000 to 16/6/2016 and M/F...
2017: Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974921/exploring-public-perceptions-of-solutions-to-tree-diseases-in-the-uk-implications-for-policy-makers
#13
Paul Jepson, Irina Arakelyan
Tree diseases are on the increase in many countries and the implications of their appearance can be political, as well as ecological and economic. Preventative policy approaches to tree diseases are difficult to formulate because dispersal pathways for pest and pathogens are numerous, poorly known and likely to be beyond human management control. Genomic techniques could offer the quickest and most predictable approach to developing a disease tolerant native ash. The population of European Ash (Fraxinus Excelsior) has suffered major losses in the last decade, due to the onset of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (previously called Chalara Fraxinea) commonly known in the UK as ash dieback...
October 2017: Environmental Science & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968415/county-community-health-associations-of-net-voting-shift-in-the-2016-u-s-presidential-election
#14
Jason H Wasfy, Charles Stewart, Vijeta Bhambhani
IMPORTANCE: In the U.S. presidential election of 2016, substantial shift in voting patterns occurred relative to previous elections. Although this shift has been associated with both education and race, the extent to which this shift was related to public health status is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which county community health was associated with changes in voting between the presidential elections of 2016 and 2012. DESIGN: Ecological study with principal component analysis (PCA) using principal axis method to extract the components, then generalized linear regression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966369/towards-economic-geographies-beyond-the-nature-society-divide
#15
Luke Bergmann
This article suggests an approach to economic-geographic quantification that is relevant to engaging the socionatural blurring of an Anthropocene. It develops representations of commodities and of economies that draw upon concepts of absolute, relative, and relational space to help move beyond legacies of the Nature-Society divide in economic-geographic thought. To supplement familiar ways of knowing commodities as bounded objects with associated single values (prices), the piece rereads input-output approaches, providing accounts of how commodities enfold relations among socionatural phenomena...
October 2017: Geoforum; Journal of Physical, Human, and Regional Geosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948884/benevolent-technotopias-and-hitherto-unimaginable-meats-tracing-the-promises-of-in-vitro-meat
#16
Erik Jönsson
Today, in vitro (Latin: in glass) meat researchers strive to overhaul meat production technologies by producing meat outside animal bodies, primarily by culturing cells. In the process, meat should become healthier, more environmentally friendly and kinder to animals. In this article, I scrutinize (and problematize) this promissory discourse by examining the world that proponents envision alongside the world from which promises emerge. First, I trace the increasing number of publications striving to pinpoint the nature of in vitro meat to unveil the creation of an in vitro meat canon wherein perceived possibilities become taken for granted...
October 2016: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922796/space-emotions-and-the-everyday-the-affective-ecology-of-1980s-london
#17
Stephen Brooke
This article explores the relationship between emotions, space and politics in 1980s London, using the Greater London Council, childcare, and racial harassment as particular foci. It brings together political history, the history of emotions, and geography to offer a new way of thinking about political culture, as well as contributing to the history of the 1980s. It is based upon archival sources.
March 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915988/learning-to-be-gendered-gender-socialization-in-early-adolescence-among-urban-poor-in-delhi-india-and-shanghai-china
#18
Sharmistha Basu, Xiayun Zuo, Chaohua Lou, Rajib Acharya, Rebecka Lundgren
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to understand the gender socialization process in early adolescence. METHODS: The study was located in two disadvantaged urban communities in Delhi, India and Shanghai, China and was part of the multicountry (15) Global Early Adolescent Study. Qualitative methodologies were used with boys and girls aged 11-13 years, including 16 group-based timeline exercises and 65 narrative interviews. In addition, 58 parents of participating adolescents were interviewed...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912394/-hpv-vaccination-program-the-history-and-recent-progress
#19
Hiroyuki Yoshikawa
Four years have passed since HPV vaccination "crisis" occurred in June 2013. In Japan,a publicly funded HPV vaccination program for adolescent females aged 12-16 years began in December 2010. However,the Japanese government withdrew its recommendation for HPV vaccination in June, 2013 because news reports on potential adverse effects of HPV vaccines without any medical evidence appeared repeatedly. The vaccination coverage among adolescent females decreased quickly from around 70%in females born between 1994 and 1999 to only 1%in females born since 2001 over the country...
September 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902904/assessing-coastal-wetland-vulnerability-to-sea-level-rise-along-the-northern-gulf-of-mexico-coast-gaps-and-opportunities-for-developing-a-coordinated-regional-sampling-network
#20
Michael J Osland, Kereen T Griffith, Jack C Larriviere, Laura C Feher, Donald R Cahoon, Nicholas M Enwright, David A Oster, John M Tirpak, Mark S Woodrey, Renee C Collini, Joseph J Baustian, Joshua L Breithaupt, Julia A Cherry, Jeremy R Conrad, Nicole Cormier, Carlos A Coronado-Molina, Joseph F Donoghue, Sean A Graham, Jennifer W Harper, Mark W Hester, Rebecca J Howard, Ken W Krauss, Daniel E Kroes, Robert R Lane, Karen L McKee, Irving A Mendelssohn, Beth A Middleton, Jena A Moon, Sarai C Piazza, Nicole M Rankin, Fred H Sklar, Greg D Steyer, Kathleen M Swanson, Christopher M Swarzenski, William C Vervaeke, Jonathan M Willis, K Van Wilson
Coastal wetland responses to sea-level rise are greatly influenced by biogeomorphic processes that affect wetland surface elevation. Small changes in elevation relative to sea level can lead to comparatively large changes in ecosystem structure, function, and stability. The surface elevation table-marker horizon (SET-MH) approach is being used globally to quantify the relative contributions of processes affecting wetland elevation change. Historically, SET-MH measurements have been obtained at local scales to address site-specific research questions...
2017: PloS One
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