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political ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342425/how-neighborhoods-influence-health-lessons-to-be-learned-from-the-application-of-political-ecology
#1
Tendai Chitewere, Janet K Shim, Judith C Barker, Irene H Yen
This paper articulates how political ecology can be a useful tool for asking fundamental questions and applying relevant methods to investigate structures that impact relationship between neighborhood and health. Through a narrative analysis, we identify how political ecology can develop our future agendas for neighborhood-health research as it relates to social, political, environmental, and economic structures. Political ecology makes clear the connection between political economy and neighborhood by highlighting the historical and structural processes that produce and maintain social inequality, which affect health and well-being...
March 22, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340207/effect-of-the-2014-2015-ebola-outbreak-on-reproductive-health-services-in-a-rural-district-of-guinea-an-ecological-study
#2
Bienvenu S Camara, Alexandre Delamou, Ermias Diro, Abdoul H Béavogui, Alison M El Ayadi, Sidikiba Sidibé, Fassou M Grovogui, Kudakwashe C Takarinda, Patrice Bouedouno, Sah D Sandouno, Junko Okumura, Mamadou D Baldé, Johan Van Griensven, Rony Zachariah
Background: The 2014/2015 Ebola outbreak was the most sustained in history. In Guinea, we compared trends in family planning, antenatal care, and institutional deliveries over the period before, during and after the outbreak. Methods: We carried out an ecological study involving all the health facilities during pre-Ebola (1 March 2013 to 28 February 2014), intra-Ebola (1 March 2014 to 28 February 2015) and post-Ebola (1 March to 31 July 2016) periods in Macenta district...
March 18, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261537/are-limits-of-concern-a-useful-concept-to-improve-the-environmental-risk-assessment-of-gm-plants
#3
Marion Dolezel, Marianne Miklau, Andreas Heissenberger, Wolfram Reichenbecher
BACKGROUND: The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has introduced a concept for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants which foresees the definition of ecological threshold values defining acceptable adverse effects of the GM plant on the environment (Limits of Concern, LoC). METHODS: We analysed the LoC concept by scrutinising its feasibility with regard to important aspects of the environmental risk assessment. We then considered its relationship with protection goals, the comparative safety assessment and the stepwise testing approach...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238198/the-social-historical-and-institutional-contingencies-of-dam-removal
#4
F J Magilligan, C S Sneddon, C A Fox
Environmental managers in the United States and elsewhere are increasingly perceiving dam removal as a critical tool for river restoration and enhancing watershed resilience. In New England, over 125 dams have been dismantled for ecological and economic rationales. A surprising number of these removals, including many that are ongoing, have generated heated conflicts between restoration proponents and local communities who value their dammed landscapes. Using a comparative case study approach, we examine the environmental conflict around efforts to remove six dams in New England...
February 25, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215010/key-actions-towards-the-sustainable-management-of-european-geese
#5
David A Stroud, Jesper Madsen, Anthony D Fox
Increasing abundance of geese in North America and Europe constitutes a major conservation success, but has caused increasing conflicts with economic, health and safety interests, as well as ecosystem impacts. Potential conflict resolution through a single, 'one size fits all' policy is hindered by differences in species' ecology, behaviour, abundance and population status, and in contrasting political and socio-economic environments across the flyways. Effective goose management requires coordinated application of a suite of tools from the local level to strategic flyway management actions...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213812/the-neuroscience-of-human-decision-making-through-the-lens-of-learning-and-memory
#6
Lesley K Fellows
We are called upon to make decisions, large and small, many times a day. Whether in the voting booth, the stock exchange, or the cafeteria line, we identify potential options, estimate and compare their subjective values, and make a choice. Decision-making has only recently become a focus for cognitive neuroscience. The last two decades have seen rapid progress in our understanding of the brain basis of at least some aspects of this rather complex aspect of cognition. This work has provided fresh perspectives on poorly understood brain regions, such as orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum...
February 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177266/social-ecology-of-resilience-and-sumud-of-palestinians
#7
Mohammad Marie, Ben Hannigan, Aled Jones
The aim of this article is to provide an overview of theoretical perspectives and practical research knowledge in relation to 'resilience', the resilience of Palestinians in particular and the related concept of 'Sumud'. 'Sumud' is a Palestinian idea that is interwoven with ideas of personal and collective resilience and steadfastness. It is also a socio-political concept and refers to ways of surviving in the context of occupation, chronic adversity, lack of resources and limited infrastructure. The concept of 'resilience' has deep roots, going back at least to the 10th century when Arabic scholars suggested strategies to cope with life adversity...
November 1, 2016: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173802/malaria-from-hyperendemicity-to-elimination-in-hekou-county-on-china-vietnam-border-an-ecological-study
#8
Jian-Wei Xu, Jian-Jie Li, Hong-Ping Guo, Shu-Wei Pu, Shu-Mei Li, Rong-Hua Wang, Hui Liu, Wei-Jia Wang
BACKGROUND: Malaria control and elimination are challenged by diversity and complexity of the determinants on the international border in the Great Mekong Sub-region. Hekou, a Chinese county on the China-Vietnam border, was used to document Chinese experiences and lessons for malaria control and elimination. METHODS: The design was an ecological study. Malaria burden before 1951 and procedures of 64 years (1952-2015) from malaria hyperendemicity to elimination are described...
February 7, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155590/alchemy-in-the-rain-forest-politics-ecology-and-resilience-in-a-new-guinea-mining-area
#9
José Ramón Bertomeu Sánchez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2017: Ambix
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107045/examining-bidirectional-pathways-between-exposure-to-political-violence-and-adolescent-adjustment-in-northern-ireland
#10
E Mark Cummings, Laura K Taylor, Han Du, Christine E Merrilees, Marcie Goeke-Morey, Peter Shirlow
Research on social ecologies of political violence has been largely confined to cross-sectional tests of the impact of political violence on child adjustment, limiting perspectives on more nuanced causal pathways, including tests of reciprocal relations between exposure to political violence and child adjustment. Based on a four-wave longitudinal study, this research breaks new ground in assessing bidirectional relations between exposure to political violence in the form of experience with sectarian antisocial behavior and adolescents' adjustment problems...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092709/the-centrality-of-philosophical-anthropology-to-a-future-environmental-ethics
#11
Arran Gare
While environmental ethics has successfully established itself in philosophy, as presently conceived it is still largely irrelevant to grappling the global ecological crisis because, as Alasdair MacIntyre has argued, ethical philosophy itself is in grave disorder. MacIntyre's historically oriented recovery of virtue ethics is defended, but it is argued that even MacIntyre was too constrained by received assumptions to overcome this disorder. As he himself realized, his ideas need to be integrated and defended through philosophical anthropology...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066132/resilience-and-the-population-history-of-the-kuril-islands-northwest-pacific-a-study-in-complex-human-ecodynamics
#12
Ben Fitzhugh, Erik Gjesfjeld, William Brown, Mark J Hudson, Jennie D Shaw
Living in remote places can strain the adaptive capacities of human settlers. It can also protect communities from external social, political and economic forces. In this paper, we present an archaeological population history of the Kuril Islands. This string of small volcanic islands on the margins of the Northwest Pacific was occupied by maritime hunting, fishing and gathering communities from the mid-Holocene to recent centuries. We bring together (1) 380 new and previously published archaeological radiocarbon dates, (2) a new paleodemographic model based on a radiocarbon-timestamped temporal frequency distribution of archaeological deposits, (3) recently published paleoclimate trends, and (4) recently published archaeological proxy evidence for changes in the extent of social networks...
October 17, 2016: Quaternary International: the Journal of the International Union for Quaternary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058657/a-two-ocean-bouillabaisse-science-politics-and-the-central-american-sea-level-canal-controversy
#13
Christine Keiner
As the Panama Canal approached its fiftieth anniversary in the mid-1960s, U.S. officials concerned about the costs of modernization welcomed the technology of peaceful nuclear excavation to create a new waterway at sea level. Biologists seeking a share of the funds slated for radiological-safety studies called attention to another potential effect which they deemed of far greater ecological and evolutionary magnitude - marine species exchange, an obscure environmental issue that required the expertise of underresourced life scientists...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025911/at-home-in-the-postcolony-ecology-empire-and-domesticity-at-the-lamto-field-station-ivory-coast
#14
Guillaume Lachenal
This article is a history of the field station Lamto, in Ivory Coast, which was created by French ecologists in 1962, after independence. It retraces the origins, the logics and the contradictions of an extraordinarily ambitious scientific project, which aimed at the systematic, holistic, quantitative and multi-disciplinary description of a unit of African nature - the savannah ecosystem. It explores how knowledge-making was articulated with work hierarchies and postcolonial politics, lifestyles, values and affects...
December 2016: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005546/health-promotion-in-an-age-of-normative-equity-and-rampant-inequality
#15
EDITORIAL
Ronald Labonté
The world was different when the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion was released 30 years ago. Concerns over the environment and what we now call the 'social determinants of health' were prominent in 1986. But the acceleration of ecological crises and economic inequalities since then, in a more complex and multi-polar world, pose dramatically new challenges for those committed to the original vision of the Charter. Can the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), agreed to by all the world's governments, offer a new advocacy and programmatic platform for a renewal of health promotion's founding ethos? Critiqued from both the right and the left for, respectively, their aspirational idealism and lack of political analysis, the SDGs are an imperfect but still compelling normative statement of how much of the world thinks the world should look like...
July 18, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977689/tick-borne-diseases-in-turkey-a-review-based-on-one-health-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Abdullah Inci, Alparslan Yildirim, Onder Duzlu, Mehmet Doganay, Serap Aksoy
The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes and the existence of suitable habitats increase the impact of ticks and result in frequent emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) with zoonotic characteristics. In Turkey, almost 19 TBDs have been reported in animals and men, involving four protozoa (babesiosis, theileriosis, cytauxzoonosis, hepatozoonosis), one filarial nematode (acanthocheilonemasis), ten bacterial agents (anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, aegyptianellosis, tick-borne typhus, Candidatus Rickettsia vini, Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne relapsing fever [TBRF], tularaemia, bartonellosis, and hemoplasmosis), and four viral infections (tick-borne encephalitis [TBE], Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever [CCHF], louping-ill [LI], and lumpy skin disease [LSD])...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943587/development-and-implementation-of-a-site-specific-water-quality-limit-for-uranium-in-a-high-conservation-value-ecosystem
#17
Rick A van Dam, Alicia C Hogan, Andrew J Harford
Water quality guideline values (GVs) are a key tool for water quality assessments. Site-specific GVs, which incorporate data relevant to local conditions and organisms, provide a higher level of confidence that the GV will protect the aquatic ecosystem at a site compared to generic GVs. Site-specific GVs are, therefore, considered particularly suitable for sites of high sociopolitical or ecological importance. The present paper provides an example of the refinement of a site-specific GV for high ecological value aquatic ecosystems in Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory, Australia, to improve its site specificity and statistical robustness, thereby increasing confidence in its application...
December 12, 2016: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933256/explaining-bioenergy-representations-of-jatropha-in-kenya-before-and-after-disappointing-results
#18
Carol Hunsberger
Proponents of Jatropha curcas portrayed the crop as a 'sustainable biofuel' that was less threatening to food security and forests than other energy crops, creating a reputation that helped jatropha projects to multiply quickly throughout the global South. However, many jatropha initiatives failed to thrive and ultimately collapsed. This paper investigates how actors involved with jatropha in Kenya explained their visions of bioenergy at two points in time. In 2009, when many activities were beginning, I interviewed small-scale farmers, NGO staff, researchers, donors, government officials and members of the private sector about their expectations of jatropha as an energy crop...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917983/conflicts-security-and-marginalisation-institutional-change-of-the-pastoral-commons-in-a-glocal-world
#19
T Haller, H Van Dijk, M Bollig, C Greiner, N Schareika, C Gabbert
This paper argues that pastoral commons are under increasing pressure not just from overuse by pastoralists themselves, but from land management policies. Since colonial times, these have been based on a persistent misconception of the nature of pastoral economies and combined with increasing land alienation and fragmentation through government policies and covert privatisation of pastures. The paper focuses especially on pastoral populations in African drylands and is based on long-term research by independent researchers summarising some of their experiences in western, eastern and southern Africa...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917979/ecology-mobility-and-labour-dynamic-pastoral-herd-management-in-an-uncertain-world
#20
B Butt
In this review, the author discusses how pastoralism, and its many constituent components, is increasingly being recognised as in tune with the changing political and ecological nature of rangelands. He describes ways in which the literature reflects this changing attitude, outlines how rangelands respond to changes in climate and explores the evolving use of livestock resources. In addition, he describes the growing recognition of factors other than livestock density that affect rangeland vegetation (i.e. density-independent relationships)...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
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