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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719406/toward-a-biopsychosocial-ecology-of-the-human-microbiome-brain-gut-axis-and-health
#1
Karl J Maier, Mustafa al'Absi
OBJECTIVE: Rapidly expanding insights to the human microbiome and health suggest that Western medicine is poised for significant evolution, or perhaps revolution - this while the field continues on a trajectory from reductionism to a biopsychosocial (BPS) paradigm recognizing biological, psychological, and social influences on health. The apparent sensitivity of the microbiota to perturbations across BPS domains suggests that a broad and inclusive framework is needed to develop applicable knowledge in this area...
July 18, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680789/is-it-only-the-regulatory-status-broadening-the-debate-on-cisgenic-plants
#2
Lilian van Hove, Frøydis Gillund
In current debates on emerging technologies for plant breeding in Europe, much attention has been given to the regulatory status of these techniques and their public acceptance. At present, both genetically modified plants with cisgenic approaches-using genes from crossable species-as well as transgenic approaches-using genes from different species-fall under GMO regulation in the EU and both are mandatorily labelled as GMOs. Researchers involved in the early development of cisgenic GM plants convey the message that the potential use and acceptance of cisgenic approaches will be seriously hindered if GMO regulations are not adjusted...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674479/developing-publicly-acceptable-tree-health-policy-public-perceptions-of-tree-breeding-solutions-to-ash-dieback-among-interested-publics-in-the-uk
#3
Paul R Jepson, Irina Arakelyan
The UK needs to develop effective policy responses to the spread of tree pathogens and pests. This has been given the political urgency following the media and other commentary associated with the arrival of a disease that causes 'dieback' of European Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) - a tree species with deep cultural associations. In 2014 the UK government published a plant biosecurity strategy and linked to this invested in research to inform policy. This paper reports the findings of a survey of informed UK publics on the acceptability of various potential strategies to deal with ash dieback, including "no action"...
July 2017: For Policy Econ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658423/-from-environmental-ethics-to-environmental-bioethics-antecedents-trajectories-and-perspectives
#4
Marta Luciane Fischer, Thiago Cunha, Valquiria Renk, Anor Sganzerla, Juliana Zacarkin Dos Santos
The relationship between humans and the environment became an ethical problem in the twentieth century, when accelerated economic and scientific development was accompanied by profound alterations in global ecological systems. In response, environmental ethics called for limits in the dichotomous relationship between man and nature. In 1970, Van Potter proposed bioethics as the interdisciplinary study of "human survival." Subsequently, the discipline focused on clinical and hospital conflicts. Environmental bioethics is analyzed in this article as a theoretical perspective that has historically drawn on Van Potter's approach to bioethics, marked by the interpersonal, socioeconomic, and political dimensions of environmental ethical dilemmas...
April 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649110/bitcoin-and-potos%C3%A3-silver-historical-perspectives-on-cryptocurrency
#5
Zac Zimmer
Bitcoin, the digital cryptocurrency, has been celebrated as the future of money on the Internet. Although Bitcoin does present several forward-looking innovations, it also integrates a very old concept into its digital architecture: the mining of precious metals. Even though Bitcoin explicitly invokes mining as a metaphor and gold as an example for understanding the cryptocurrency, there has been little critical work on the connections between Bitcoin and previous metalist currency regimes. The following essay proposes a historical comparison with colonial South American silver mining and the global currency regime based on the New World silver peso it created as a way to interrogate Bitcoin...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646400/a-brief-assessment-tool-for-investigating-facets-of-moral-judgment-from-realistic-vignettes
#6
Michael Kruepke, Erin K Molloy, Konrad Bresin, Aron K Barbey, Edelyn Verona
Humans make moral judgments every day, and research demonstrates that these evaluations are based on a host of related event features (e.g., harm, legality). In order to acquire systematic data on how moral judgments are made, our assessments need to be expanded to include real-life, ecologically valid stimuli that take into account the numerous event features that are known to influence moral judgment. To facilitate this, Knutson et al. (in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5(4), 378-384, 2010) developed vignettes based on real-life episodic memories rated concurrently on key moral features; however, the method is time intensive (~1...
June 23, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645870/impact-on-environment-ecosystem-diversity-and-health-from-culturing-and-using-gmos-as-feed-and-food
#7
REVIEW
Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Victor A Tutelyan, Kirill S Golokhvast, Olga-Ioanna Kalantzi, Duck Hwa Chung, Sung Jo Kang, Michael D Coleman, Nadia Tyshko, Seung Hwan Yang, Gyuhwa Chung
Modern agriculture provides the potential for sustainable feeding of the world's increasing population. Up to the present moment, genetically modified (GM) products have enabled increased yields and reduced pesticide usage. Nevertheless, GM products are controversial amongst policy makers, scientists and the consumers, regarding their possible environmental, ecological, and health risks. Scientific-and-political debates can even influence legislation and prospective risk assessment procedure. Currently, the scientifically-assessed direct hazardous impacts of GM food and feed on fauna and flora are conflicting; indeed, a review of literature available data provides some evidence of GM environmental and health risks...
June 20, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627853/determinants-of-outbreaks-of-emerging-infectious-diseases-the-case-of-chikungunya-in-indian-ocean-2004-2007
#8
Antoine Flahault
Emerging outbreaks of arboviroses are most often tied to the convergence of a set of factors which have physical and environmental, genetic and biological, ecological, social, political and economic origins. Thirteen out of these factors are known as main determinants of emerging infectious disease outbreaks. This paper assesses the role of these factors from exploring the Chikungunya outbreak which occurred in Indian Ocean in 2004-2007, as case study. Chikungunya is an alphavirus borne and transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus...
May 3, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594568/repellents-and-new-spaces-of-concern-in-global-health
#9
Ann H Kelly, Hermione N Boko Koudakossi, Sarah J Moore
Today, malaria prevention hinges upon two domestic interventions: insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying. As mosquitoes grow resistant to these tools, however, novel approaches to vector control have become a priority area of malaria research and development. Spatial repellency, a volumetric mode of action that seeks to reduce disease transmission by creating an atmosphere inimical to mosquitoes, represents one way forward. Drawing from research that sought to develop new repellent chemicals in conversation with users from sub-Saharan Africa and the United States, we consider the implications of a non-insecticidal paradigm of vector control for how we understand the political ecology of malaria...
June 8, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585541/the-social-dimensions-of-invasive-plants
#10
REVIEW
Lesley Head
Invasive plants pose a major environmental management issue. Research into the social dimensions of this issue has flourished over the past decade, as part of the critical examination of relations between human and nonhuman worlds. The social sciences and humanities have made substantial contributions to conceptualizing invasiveness and nativeness; understanding the perceptions, attitudes and values of diverse stakeholders; and analysing the politics and practices of invasive plant management. Cultural analysis allows areas of conflict and commonality to be identified...
June 6, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584177/structural-drivers-of-vulnerability-to-zoonotic-disease-in-africa
#11
Vupenyu Dzingirai, Salome Bukachi, Melissa Leach, Lindiwe Mangwanya, Ian Scoones, Annie Wilkinson
This paper argues that addressing the underlying structural drivers of disease vulnerability is essential for a 'One Health' approach to tackling zoonotic diseases in Africa. Through three case studies-trypanosomiasis in Zimbabwe, Ebola and Lassa fever in Sierra Leone and Rift Valley fever in Kenya-we show how political interests, commercial investments and conflict and securitization all generate patterns of vulnerability, reshaping the political ecology of disease landscapes, influencing traditional coping mechanisms and affecting health service provision and outbreak responses...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584170/one-health-for-a-changing-world-new-perspectives-from-africa
#12
Andrew A Cunningham, Ian Scoones, James L N Wood
The concept of One Health, which aims to drive improvements in human, animal and ecological health through an holistic approach, has been gaining increasing support and attention in recent years. While this concept has much appeal, there are few examples where it has been successfully put into practice. This Special Issue explores the challenges in African contexts, with papers looking at the complex interactions between ecosystems, diseases and poverty dynamics; at underlying social and political dimensions; at the potentials for integrative modelling; and at the changes in policy and practice required to realise a One Health approach...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546653/biosocial-conservation-integrating-biological-and-ethnographic-methods-to-study-human-primate-interactions
#13
Joanna M Setchell, Emilie Fairet, Kathryn Shutt, Siân Waters, Sandra Bell
Biodiversity conservation is one of the grand challenges facing society. Many people interested in biodiversity conservation have a background in wildlife biology. However, the diverse social, cultural, political, and historical factors that influence the lives of people and wildlife can be investigated fully only by incorporating social science methods, ideally within an interdisciplinary framework. Cultural hierarchies of knowledge and the hegemony of the natural sciences create a barrier to interdisciplinary understandings...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531097/evolution-not-revolution-nutrition-and-obesity
#14
Elaine C Rush, Mary R Yan
The increasing prevalence of obesity over the course of life is a global health challenge because of its strong and positive association with significant health problems such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and some cancers. The complex causes and drivers of obesity include genetic factors, social, ecological and political influences, food production and supply, and dietary patterns. Public health messages and government food and activity guidelines have little impact; the retail food environment has many low-priced, nutrient-poor, but energy-dense products and there is a gap between what an individual knows and what they do...
May 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498334/pastoralism-versus-agriculturalism-how-do-altered-land-use-forms-affect-the-spread-of-invasive-plants-in-the-degraded-mutara-rangelands-of-north-eastern-rwanda
#15
Torsten Wronski, Jean Damascene Bariyanga, Ping Sun, Martin Plath, Ann Apio
Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) originates from tropical Central and South America and has become invasive in about 50 countries. It causes problems when invading rangelands due to its toxicity to livestock and its tendency to form dense, monotonous thickets. Its invasiveness can partly be explained by the high tannin content largely protecting the species from being browsed, its tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions, as well as its general preference for anthropogenically disturbed habitats...
May 12, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494421/forest-protected-areas-governance-in-zimbabwe-shift-needed-away-from-a-long-history-of-local-community-exclusion
#16
V T Mutekwa, J Gambiza
In this literature review based paper we explored the concept of exclusion of local communities from accessing resources in forest protected areas (FPAs) in Zimbabwe. We discussed the colonial and post-colonial forms, causes and mechanisms of exclusion and their social, economic and ecological outcomes. We examined the range of powers embodied in and exercised through various mechanisms, processes and social relations and their impact on local communities' access to FPA resources and associated benefits along the historical trajectory of forest governance in Zimbabwe...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468022/from-conflict-and-misunderstanding-to-respect
#17
Ivan Cvitković
Sociologists of the 19(th) and the 20(th) centuries were tackling the relation between science and religion. A few models of these relations were offered, by which the monopoly over the truth by any one of those is crashed. Therefore, there are a few models but each is with lots of limitations. None is sufficient to explain the relation between the science and religion, but each contributes to certain extent to better understanding of those relations. Almost every one of the interpretations was under the influence of the social (particularly ideological and political) conditions in which they were emerging...
April 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453112/-trend-and-causes-of-infant-mortality-in-border-areas-in-colombia-from-2005-to-2011
#18
Sonia C Mogollón-Pastrán, Juan C García-Ubaque
Objective: To evaluate the registered trends and main causes of Infant Mortality (IM) in border areas of Colombia between 2005 and 2011. Methodology: Ecological study in border areas, developed from the analysis of institutional information on IM and its causes, using the list of leading causes of death of infants and children by the WHO. For analysis, descriptive statistics and cluster analysis techniques were measured using Excel and the R-Project processing software...
September 2016: Revista de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346991/an-integrated-assessment-framework-for-the-analysis-of-multiple-pressures-in-aquatic-ecosystems-and-the-appraisal-of-management-options
#19
A Pistocchi, A Udias, B Grizzetti, E Gelati, P Koundouri, R Ludwig, A Papandreou, I Souliotis
The contribution illustrates an integrated assessment framework aimed at evaluating the relationships between multiple pressures and water body status for the purposes of river basin management. The framework includes the following steps. (1) Understanding how the different pressures affect the status of water bodies. This entails the characterization of biophysical state variables and the definition of a causal relationship between pressures and status. Therefore this step involves interaction between experts bearing ecological understanding and experts providing models to represent the effect of pressures...
January 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342425/how-neighborhoods-influence-health-lessons-to-be-learned-from-the-application-of-political-ecology
#20
Tendai Chitewere, Janet K Shim, Judith C Barker, Irene H Yen
This paper articulates how political ecology can be a useful tool for asking fundamental questions and applying relevant methods to investigate structures that impact relationship between neighborhood and health. Through a narrative analysis, we identify how political ecology can develop our future agendas for neighborhood-health research as it relates to social, political, environmental, and economic structures. Political ecology makes clear the connection between political economy and neighborhood by highlighting the historical and structural processes that produce and maintain social inequality, which affect health and well-being...
May 2017: Health & Place
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