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political ecology

Kim Hendrickx, Ine Van Hoyweghen
In this article, we ask to what extent the specific characteristics of epigenetics may affect the type of questions one can ask about human society. We pay particular attention to the way epigenetic research stirs debate about normative and moral issues. Are these issues implied by scientific evidence as an outcome of research? Or do moral and normative issues also shape how research is done and which problems it addresses? We briefly explore these questions through examples and discussions in (social-) scientific literature...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Kirsten Hastrup, Astrid Oberborbeck Andersen, Bjarne Grønnow, Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
The formation of the North Water in Smith Sound about 4500 years ago, as evidenced by the establishment of bird colonies and human presence, also initiated a long-term anthropogenic agent as part of this High Arctic ecosystem. Different epochs have influenced the human occupation in the area: immigration pulses from Canada and Alaska, trade with meteorite iron throughout the Arctic, introduction of new technologies by whalers and explorers, exploitation of resources by foreigners, political sequestration, export of fox and seal skins and later narwhal products, and recently fishing...
March 8, 2018: Ambio
Lou Lecuyer, Rehema M White, Birgit Schmook, Violaine Lemay, Sophie Calmé
A failure to address social concerns in biodiversity conservation can lead to feelings of injustice among some actors, and hence jeopardize conservation goals. The complex socio-cultural and political context of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Mexico, has historically led to multiple biodiversity conflicts. Our goal, in this case study, was to explore perceptions of justice held by local actors in relation to biodiversity conflicts. We then aimed to determine the following: 1) people's definitions of their feelings of justice; 2) the criteria used in this assessment; 3) variability in the criteria influencing them; and 4) implications for environmental management in the region and beyond...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Audrey Coreau, Jean-Baptiste Narcy, Sarah Lumbroso
The development of ecosystem knowledge is an essential condition for effective environmental management but using available knowledge to solve environmental controversies is still difficult in "real" situations. This paper explores the conditions under which ecological knowledge could contribute to the environmental strategies and actions of stakeholders at science-policy interface. Ecological restoration of the Seine estuary is an example of an environmental issue whose overall management has run into difficulties despite the production of a large amount of knowledge by a dedicated organization, GIP Seine Aval...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Management
Joanna Latimer
In this paper I explore how the papers in this volume offer ways of thinking about materialities of care in terms of political ecologies, including hierarchies of value as well as assemblages, in which strategic agendas are made present in everyday practices, with profound and ordinary affects, as well as effects. I show how power can work through the association of multiple and heterogeneous materials and social processes to create 'thresholds', as spaces through which people must pass in order to be included as patients, and which circulate specific imaginaries over what counts as an appropriate need...
February 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Ben Wesley Brisbois, Leila Harris, Jerry M Spiegel
Pesticide exposure in Ecuador's banana industry reflects political economic and ecological processes that interact across scales to affect human health. We use this case study to illustrate opportunities for applying political ecology of health scholarship in the burgeoning field of global health. Drawing on an historical literature review and ethnographic data collected in Ecuador's El Oro province, we present three main areas where a political ecological approach can enrich global health scholarship: perceptive characterization of multi-scalar and ecologically entangled pathways to health outcomes; critical analysis of discursive dynamics such as competing scalar narratives; and appreciation of the environment-linked subjectivities and emotions of people experiencing globalized health impacts...
January 2018: Antipode
Guido Veronese, Gianpiero Barola
Within a preventive framework, we outline a school-based intervention aimed at strengthening skills of survival and psychological functioning in children who have experienced war and political violence in the Gaza Strip. In accordance with a socio-ecological perspective on wellbeing and resilience, the pilot study aimed at evaluating the outcomes of a psychosocial narrative school-based intervention with a group of school-aged children in the aftermath of war. The intervention was oriented at empowering positive emotions, life satisfaction, and optimism in children as protective factors in preventing posttraumatic reactions after war...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Richard J McNally
Socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals are at heightened risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following exposure to trauma. Yet a study of cross-national lifetime prevalence rates of PTSD revealed that countries scoring high on an index reflecting cultural and socioeconomic disadvantage exhibited lower rates of PTSD in response to trauma, evincing what the authors called "a vulnerability paradox in the cross-national prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder" Dückers, Alisic, & Brewin (2016a, p...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Nadia Akseer, Mahdis Kamali, Nour Bakhache, Maaz Mirza, Seema Mehta, Sara Al-Gashm, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) period saw dramatic gains in health goals MDG 4 and MDG 5 for improving child and maternal health. However, many Muslim countries in the south Asian, Middle Eastern, and African regions lagged behind. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the status of, progress in, and key determinants of reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health in Muslim majority countries (MMCs). The specific objectives were to understand the current status and progress in reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health in MMCs, and the determinants of child survival among the least developed countries among the MMCs; to explore differences in outcomes and the key contextual determinants of health between MMCs and non-MMCs; and to understand the health service coverage and contextual determinants that differ between best and poor or moderate performing MMCs...
January 30, 2018: Lancet
Khurshaid Khan, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan, Safeer Ullah Shah, Bakht Sarwar, Naheed Ali
We provide a comprehensive and updated review on the effects of elevation and climatic factors on distribution of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) across Pakistan. Our study was undertaken in view of the increasing risk of leishmaniasis, particularly resulting from climatic deviations and political instability in the region. Literature (published and unpublished) on suspected vectors of CL (Phlebotomus sergenti Parrot and Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli) and VL (Phlebotomus major Yakimoff and Schokhor and Phlebotomus hindustanicus Theodor) was collected, sorted, and utilized in geospatial analysis...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Rachele Ellena, Kyrham Aurelius Nongkynrih
Women's position in society, gender roles, and gender division of labour affect household food security, dietary diversity, nutritional status, and well-being of all household members, especially children. Building on both primary and secondary data, this study explores gender roles and relations in food provisioning among the North-East India Indigenous matrilineal Khasi and patrilineal Chakhesang Peoples, amid societal transition. With the use of a combination of ethnographic and ethnobotanical research tools, a total number of 200 informants participated in 20 focus group discussions and 28 key informant interviews...
November 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Stefanie Lemke, Treena Delormier
Indigenous Peoples, especially women and children, are affected disproportionately by malnutrition and diet-related health problems. Addressing this requires an investigation of the structural conditions that underlie unequal access to resources and loss of traditional lifestyles and necessitates inclusive approaches that shed light onto these issues and provide strategies to leverage change. Indigenous Peoples' food systems are inextricably connected to land, which in turn is interwoven with issues of self-determination, livelihoods, health, cultural and spiritual heritage, and gender...
November 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
H Drouineau, C Carter, M Rambonilaza, G Beaufaron, G Bouleau, A Gassiat, P Lambert, S le Floch, S Tétard, E de Oliveira
Ecosystem fragmentation is a serious threat to biodiversity and one of the main challenges in ecosystem restoration. River continuity restoration (RCR) has often targeted diadromous fishes, a group of species supporting strong cultural and economic values and especially sensitive to river fragmentation. Yet it has frequently produced mixed results and diadromous fishes remain at very low levels of abundance. Against this background, this paper presents the main challenges for defining, evaluating and achieving effective RCR...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Management
Chris G Buse, Jordan Sky Oestreicher, Neville R Ellis, Rebecca Patrick, Ben Brisbois, Aaron P Jenkins, Kaileah McKellar, Jonathan Kingsley, Maya Gislason, Lindsay Galway, Ro A McFarlane, Joanne Walker, Howard Frumkin, Margot Parkes
The impacts of global environmental change have precipitated numerous approaches that connect the health of ecosystems, non-human organisms and humans. However, the proliferation of approaches can lead to confusion due to overlaps in terminology, ideas and foci. Recognising the need for clarity, this paper provides a guide to seven field developments in environmental public health research and practice: occupational and environmental health; political ecology of health; environmental justice; ecohealth; One Health; ecological public health; and planetary health...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Simukai Chigudu, Momodou Jasseh, Umberto d'Alessandro, Tumani Corrah, Adama Demba, Julie Balen
Recently, increasing attention has been given to behavioural and relational aspects of the people who both define and shape health systems, placing them at the core. A growing refrain includes the assertion that important decisions determining health system performance, including agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation, are made by people. Within this actor-oriented approach, good leadership has been identified as a key contributing factor in health systems strengthening. However, leadership remains ill-defined and under-researched, especially in resource-limited settings, and understanding the links between leadership and health outcomes remains a challenge...
January 1, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Sophie M J M Brasseur, Peter J H Reijnders, Jenny Cremer, Erik Meesters, Roger Kirkwood, Lasse Fast Jensen, Armin Jeβ, Anders Galatius, Jonas Teilmann, Geert Aarts
Terrestrial and marine wildlife populations have been severely reduced by hunting, fishing and habitat destruction, especially in the last centuries. Although management regulations have led to the recovery of some populations, the underlying processes are not always well understood. This study uses a 40-year time series of counts of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Wadden Sea to study these processes, and demonstrates the influence of historical regional differences in management regimes on the recovery of this population...
2018: PloS One
Wendy Cukier, Sarah Allen Eagen
Drawing on the World Health Organization's ecological model, this review explores how contextual and institutional factors shape individual choice and behavior with respect to gun violence. Young men are disproportionately represented among both perpetrators and victims of violence. Although specific characteristics and behaviors present risks, these vary with the specific forms of violence. There is ample international research that suggests the availability of guns increases the risk of lethal violence. When guns are present, suicide attempts are more likely to succeed and assaults are more likely to become homicides...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Timothy C Haas, Sam M Ferreira
Conservation management is of increasing importance in ecology as most ecosystems nowadays are essentially managed ones. Conservation managers work within a political-ecological system when they develop and attempt to implement a conservation plan that is designed to meet particular conservation goals. In this article, we develop a decision support tool that can identify a conservation policy for a managed wildlife population that is both sustainable and politically feasible. Part of our tool consists of a simulation model composed of interacting influence diagrams...
December 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Kevin Louis Bardosh, Sadie J Ryan, Kris Ebi, Susan Welburn, Burton Singer
BACKGROUND: The threat of a rapidly changing planet - of coupled social, environmental and climatic change - pose new conceptual and practical challenges in responding to vector-borne diseases. These include non-linear and uncertain spatial-temporal change dynamics associated with climate, animals, land, water, food, settlement, conflict, ecology and human socio-cultural, economic and political-institutional systems. To date, research efforts have been dominated by disease modeling, which has provided limited practical advice to policymakers and practitioners in developing policies and programmes on the ground...
December 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
I Johnson, A Hansen, P Bi
As 75 per cent of emerging infectious diseases are of animal origin, a One Health approach that integrates the health of humans, animals and the environment could provide an earlier opportunity for zoonotic disease detection and prevention. In Australia, human, animal and ecological health are managed by separate sectors with limited communication. This study aims to explore how professionals in these fields perceive a One Health approach to zoonotic disease surveillance, aiming to identify the challenges to the implementation of an integrated system in Australia...
February 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
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