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environmental justice

Hossein Zanjanian, Hamid Abdolabadi, Mohammad Hossein Niksokhan, Amin Sarang
Allocating water to organizational stakeholders poses a vital challenge to water managers. Organizations which benefit from water as the primary factor input attempt to achieve their objectives using cost-effective and quick-return strategies, such as increasing the water rights. In such circumstances, lack of water probably results in the conflict. Recognizing the management approaches, organizational priorities, and the stakeholders' influence power can play a dominant role in analyzing the future of such conflicts...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Raoul S Liévanos, Pierce Greenberg, Ryan Wishart
This article advances an environmental-sociological and quantitative spatial-analytic approach to the study of environmental inequality formation in coal country. We use spatial error regression models in a case study of 2000 census block group proximity to hazardous coal waste impoundments amidst shifting coal production trajectories and impoundment disaster contexts in the declining Eastern Kentucky coalfields. Proximity to abandoned and sealed mines, coal production density, and the "buffering effect" of rural-agricultural context are the most powerful predictors of impoundment proximity in the period encapsulating the boom years of coal production and culminating in 2000...
March 2018: Social Science Research
Douglas Houston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Lou Lecuyer, Rehema M White, Birgit Schmook, Violaine Lemay, Sophie Calmé
A failure to address social concerns in biodiversity conservation can lead to feelings of injustice among some actors, and hence jeopardize conservation goals. The complex socio-cultural and political context of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Mexico, has historically led to multiple biodiversity conflicts. Our goal, in this case study, was to explore perceptions of justice held by local actors in relation to biodiversity conflicts. We then aimed to determine the following: 1) people's definitions of their feelings of justice; 2) the criteria used in this assessment; 3) variability in the criteria influencing them; and 4) implications for environmental management in the region and beyond...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Mark A Rothstein, Heather L Harrell, Gary E Marchant
Human transmission to offspring and future generations of acquired epigenetic modifications has not been definitively established, although there are several environmental exposures with suggestive evidence. This article uses three examples of hazardous substances with greater exposures in vulnerable populations: pesticides, lead, and diesel exhaust. It then considers whether, if there were scientific evidence of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, there would be greater attention given to concerns about environmental justice in environmental laws, regulations, and policies at all levels of government...
July 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
Alistair Wardrope
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
William R Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
David B Resnik, D Robert MacDougall, Elise M Smith
Various U.S. laws, such as the Clean Air Act and the Food Quality Protection Act, require additional protections for susceptible subpopulations who face greater environmental health risks. The main ethical rationale for providing these protections is to ensure that environmental health risks are distributed fairly. In this article, we (1) consider how several influential theories of justice deal with issues related to the distribution of environmental health risks; (2) show that these theories often fail to provide specific guidance concerning policy choices; and (3) argue that an approach to public decision making known as accountability for reasonableness can complement theories of justice in establishing acceptable environmental health risks for the general population and susceptible subpopulations...
March 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Nuriel Moghavem
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Stephane Shepherd, Benjamin Spivak, Rohan Borschmann, Stuart A Kinner, Henning Hachtel
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and correlates of self-harm among young people in detention in Australia. The sample included 215 (177 male; 38 female) young people who were in youth detention in the state of Victoria, Australia. Participants were administered a series of questionnaires related to self-harm, mental health, socio-environmental experiences and behaviours. Overall, one-third (33%) of the sample reported previous self-harm and 12% reported at least one suicide attempt...
2018: PloS One
Jennifer A Horney, Gaston A Casillas, Erin Baker, Kahler W Stone, Katie R Kirsch, Krisa Camargo, Terry L Wade, Thomas J McDonald
INTRODUCTION: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are complex environmental toxicants. Exposure to them has been linked to adverse health outcomes including cancer, as well as diseases of the skin, liver, and immune system. Based on an ongoing community engagement partnership with stakeholder groups and residents, we conducted a small longitudinal study to assess domestic exposure to PAHs among residents of Manchester, an environmental justice neighborhood located in the East End of Houston, TX...
2018: PloS One
Joanna Burger, Michael Gochfeld
Global warming is leading to increased frequency and severity of storms that are associated with flooding, increasing the risk to urban, coastal populations. This study examined perceptions of the relationship between severe storms, sea level rise, climate change and ecological barriers by a vulnerable environmental justice population in New Jersey. Patients using New Jersey's Federally Qualified Health Centers were interviewed after Hurricane [Superstorm] Sandy because it is essential to understand the perceptions of uninsured, underinsured, and economically challenged people to better develop a resiliency strategy for the most vulnerable people...
December 2017: Urban Ecosystems
Chris G Buse, Jordan Sky Oestreicher, Neville R Ellis, Rebecca Patrick, Ben Brisbois, Aaron P Jenkins, Kaileah McKellar, Jonathan Kingsley, Maya Gislason, Lindsay Galway, Ro A McFarlane, Joanne Walker, Howard Frumkin, Margot Parkes
The impacts of global environmental change have precipitated numerous approaches that connect the health of ecosystems, non-human organisms and humans. However, the proliferation of approaches can lead to confusion due to overlaps in terminology, ideas and foci. Recognising the need for clarity, this paper provides a guide to seven field developments in environmental public health research and practice: occupational and environmental health; political ecology of health; environmental justice; ecohealth; One Health; ecological public health; and planetary health...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Dianne Quigley, Alana Levine, David A Sonnenfeld, Phil Brown, Qing Tian, Xiaofan Wei
Researchers of the Northeast Ethics Education Partnership (NEEP) at Brown University sought to improve an understanding of the ethical challenges of field researchers with place-based communities in environmental studies/sciences and environmental health by disseminating a questionnaire which requested information about their ethical approaches to these researched communities. NEEP faculty sought to gain actual field guidance to improve research ethics and cultural competence training for graduate students and faculty in environmental sciences/studies...
January 3, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Shannon Lea Watkins, Ed Gerrish
There is ample evidence that urban trees benefit the physical, mental, and social health of urban residents. The environmental justice hypothesis posits that environmental amenities are inequitably low in poor and minority communities, and predicts these communities experience fewer urban environmental benefits. Some previous research has found that urban forest cover is inequitably distributed by race, though other studies have found no relationship or negative inequity. These conflicting results and the single-city nature of the current literature suggest a need for a research synthesis...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Ed Gerrish, Shannon Lea Watkins
Urban trees provide substantial public health and public environmental benefits. However, scholarly works suggest that urban trees may be unequally distributed among poor and minority urban communities, meaning that these communities are potentially being deprived of public environmental benefits, a form of environmental injustice. The evidence of this problem is not uniform however, and evidence of inequity varies in size and significance across studies. This variation in results suggests the need for a research synthesis and meta-analysis...
February 2018: Landscape and Urban Planning
Ben K Greenfield, Jayant Rajan, Thomas E McKone
BACKGROUND: The health-risk assessment paradigm is shifting from single stressor evaluation towards cumulative assessments of multiple stressors. Recent efforts to develop broad-scale public health hazard datasets provide an opportunity to develop and evaluate multiple exposure hazards in combination. METHODS: We performed a multivariate study of the spatial relationship between 12 indicators of environmental hazard, 5 indicators of socioeconomic hardship, and 3 health outcomes...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Penelope J E Quintana, Mehdi Khalighi, Javier Emmanuel Castillo Quiñones, Zalak Patel, Jesus Guerrero Garcia, Paulina Martinez Vergara, Megan Bryden, Antoinette Mantz
At US-Mexico border Ports of Entry, vehicles idle for long times waiting to cross northbound into the US. Long wait times at the border have mainly been studied as an economic issue, however, exposures to emissions from idling vehicles can also present an exposure risk. Here we present the first data on in-vehicle exposures to driver and passengers crossing the US-Mexico border at the San Ysidro, California Port of Entry (SYPOE). Participants were recruited who regularly commuted across the border in either direction and told to drive a scripted route between two border universities, one in the US and one in Mexico...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jason Davies, Aisling O'Meara
BACKGROUND: In England and Wales, 'approved premises' offer 24-hour staffed accommodation for high-risk offenders, most of whom are returning to the community from prison. With a move towards a standardised operating model, it is essential to be able to measure outcomes. AIMS: Our aim is to collate and evaluate 'benchmarks' for approved premises. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to establish the impact of existing practice in all four approved premises in Wales...
November 29, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
A Qasim, M Turcotte, R J de Souza, M C Samaan, D Champredon, J Dushoff, J R Speakman, D Meyre
Genetic predisposition to obesity presents a paradox: how do genetic variants with a detrimental impact on human health persist through evolutionary time? Numerous hypotheses, such as the thrifty genotype hypothesis, attempt to explain this phenomenon yet fail to provide a justification for the modern obesity epidemic. In this critical review, we appraise existing theories explaining the evolutionary origins of obesity and explore novel biological and sociocultural agents of evolutionary change to help explain the modern-day distribution of obesity-predisposing variants...
November 16, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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