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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423049/inmap-a-model-for-air-pollution-interventions
#1
Christopher W Tessum, Jason D Hill, Julian D Marshall
Mechanistic air pollution modeling is essential in air quality management, yet the extensive expertise and computational resources required to run most models prevent their use in many situations where their results would be useful. Here, we present InMAP (Intervention Model for Air Pollution), which offers an alternative to comprehensive air quality models for estimating the air pollution health impacts of emission reductions and other potential interventions. InMAP estimates annual-average changes in primary and secondary fine particle (PM2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403738/a-critique-of-risk-disclosure-as-the-solution-for-minimizing-toxic-exposures-in-pregnancy
#2
Anne Rochon Ford, Dayna Nadine Scott
The issue of pregnant women's exposures to everyday chemicals and the implications for the health of future children are receiving increased attention in popular media and in the academic press. In response, health profession organizations are developing clinical practice guidelines for warning pregnant women about the risks associated with exposures to certain toxics. We evaluate different sides of a risk-avoidance approach for pregnant women in the context of a hypothetical case study involving phthalates and women who work in nail salons...
May 2017: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356035/environmental-factors-and-hypertension
#3
Rosa Maria Bruno, Marina Di Pilla, Carla Ancona, Mette Sørensen, Marco Gesi, Stefano Taddei, Thomas Munzel, Agostino Virdis
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors are a major cause of poor health worldwide. The most solid evidence is for air pollution, leading to increased disability-adjusted life years. Outdoor temperature and other seasonal climate changes may also influence cardiovascular health, according to their direct modulation of air pollution. Moreover, an increasing body of evidence associates environmental exposure to noise with poor cardiovascular outcome, and in particular with hypertension. METHODS: This review is aimed at reviewing current evidence about the role of these environmental factors in cardiovascular disease and specifically hypertension...
March 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323677/transferable-training-modules-building-environmental-education-opportunities-with-and-for-mexican-community-health-workers-promotores-de-salud
#4
Denise Moreno Ramírez, Lourdes Vea, James A Field, Paul B Baker, A Jay Gandolfi, Raina M Maier
Community health workers (promotores de salud) have the ability to empower communities to mitigate negative health outcomes. Current training efforts in environmental topics are lacking. This project addressed this gap by developing 4 transferable training modules on environmental health. By applying a series of surveys, interviews, and trainings, we evaluated their relevance. Partners provided favorable feedback for 3 of the 4 modules. It was also learned that the development method could be improved by engaging technically trained promotores de salud in the role of co-creators...
March 20, 2017: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289913/the-impacts-of-exposure-to-environmental-risk-on-physical-and-mental-health-in-a-small-geographic-community-in-houston-tx
#5
Garett Sansom, Juan Parras, Ana Parras, Yudith Nieto, Yvette Arellano, Philip Berke, Thomas McDonald, Eva Shipp, Jennifer A Horney
Previous research has shown that communities with low average socioeconomic status (SES) and majority minority populations are more likely to be exposed to industrial buildings, waste facilities, and poor infrastructure compared to white communities with higher average SES. While some studies have demonstrated linkages between exposures to specific environmental contaminates within these communities and negative health outcomes, little research has analyzed the effects of environmental contaminants on the mental and physical health of these populations...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274570/relationship-between-neighbourhood-socioeconomic-position-and-neighbourhood-public-green-space-availability-an-environmental-inequality-analysis-in-a-large-german-city-applying-generalized-linear-models
#6
Steffen Andreas Schüle, Katharina M A Gabriel, Gabriele Bolte
BACKGROUND: The environmental justice framework states that besides environmental burdens also resources may be social unequally distributed both on the individual and on the neighbourhood level. This ecological study investigated whether neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with neighbourhood public green space availability in a large German city with more than 1 million inhabitants. METHODS: Two different measures were defined for green space availability...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272334/improving-the-accuracy-of-urban-environmental-quality-assessment-using-geographically-weighted-regression-techniques
#7
Kamil Faisal, Ahmed Shaker
Urban Environmental Quality (UEQ) can be treated as a generic indicator that objectively represents the physical and socio-economic condition of the urban and built environment. The value of UEQ illustrates a sense of satisfaction to its population through assessing different environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. This paper elucidates the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Geographically-Weighted Regression (GWR) techniques to integrate various parameters and estimate the UEQ of two major cities in Ontario, Canada...
March 7, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244280/the-association-between-involuntary-smoking-exposure-with-urine-cotinine-level-and-blood-cadmium-level-in-general-non-smoking-populations
#8
Wanhyung Lee, Seunghyun Lee, Jaehoon Roh, Jong Uk Won, Jin Ha Yoon
Unintentional environmental exposure to toxicants is associated with an aggravated health status of the general population. Involuntary smoking (IS) exposure is one of the main routes to involuntary toxicants exposure. However, few studies have attempted to understand the environmental cadmium exposure by IS exposure in the general, non-smoking population. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between blood cadmium level and IS level according to gender and age. We used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV-VI data that included heavy metal and urine cotinine sampling with IS exposure history...
April 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225843/-poverty-and-mental-disability-in-the-criminal-law-the-invisibles
#9
Ezequiel N Mercurio
In recent decades neuroscience research show the negative consequences of poverty in cognitive development. Environmental factors, such as material deprivation, exposure to stressful situations, violence, nutritional deprivation, environmental toxins may shape the developing brain. The changes of the structure and function of the brain since prenatal stages and their consequences can remain stable throughout the life cycle except early interventions are made. Research investigating have found significant link between child poverty and function and structural brain focusing on prefrontal cortex (i...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216769/the-insanity-defense-related-issues
#10
REVIEW
T V Asokan
For the past 150 years, there is no change in the understanding and knowledge other than autonomy and capacity to choose the right and wrong for criminal liability. The alternative concept that human behavior is the result of an interaction between biological and environmental factors other than free choice failed to impress the criminal justice system because of a direct threat to a society's deep seated need to blame someone than themselves for criminal harms that occur. The insanity defense has a long history, and is evolved after many tests that have been tried and tested...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214722/when-high-pressure-system-constraints-and-a-social-justice-mission-collide-a-socio-structural-analysis-of-emergency-department-social-work-services
#11
Megan Moore, Margaret Cristofalo, Danae Dotolo, Nicole Torres, Alexandra Lahdya, Leyna Ho, Mia Vogel, Mollie Forrester, Bonnie Conley, Susan Fouts
The emergency department (ED) can be a critical intervention point for many patients with multifaceted needs. Social workers have long been part of interdisciplinary ED teams. This study aimed to contribute to the limited understanding of social worker-patient interactions and factors influencing social work services in this setting. This paper reports a qualitative content analysis of social work medical record notes (N = 1509) of services provided to trauma patients in an urban, public, level 1 trauma center and an in-depth analysis of semi-structured interviews with ED social workers (N = 10)...
April 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164814/environmental-justice-and-underserved-communities
#12
REVIEW
Vincent Morelli, Carol Ziegler, Omotayo Fawibe
Underserved communities suffer from environmental inequities. Gases lead to hypoxia and respiratory compromise, ozone to increased respiratory illnesses and decreased mental acuity, and mercury to prenatal cognitive disabilities and antisocial behaviors. Lead toxicity is associated with developmental delays. Cadmium is linked with cancer. The smaller sizes of air pollution particulate matter are pathogenic and are associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary disease and nervous system disorders. Bisphenol A is being studied for possible links to cancer and pregnancy risks...
March 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134756/urban-place-and-health-equity-critical-issues-and-practices
#13
Jason Corburn
Urban places and health equity are two of the most challenging concepts for 21st century environmental health. More people live in cities than at any other time in human history and health inequities are increasing. Health inequities are avoidable differences in the social, environmental and political conditions that shape morbidity and mortality, and disproportionately burden the poor, racial, ethnic and religious minorities and migrants. By linking urban place and health inequities, research and action brings into sharp relief the challenges of achieving urban environmental justice...
January 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129409/justice-is-the-missing-link-in-one-health-results-of-a-mixed-methods-study-in-an-urban-city-state
#14
Tamra Lysaght, Benjamin Capps, Michele Bailey, David Bickford, Richard Coker, Zohar Lederman, Sangeetha Watson, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah
BACKGROUND: One Health (OH) is an interdisciplinary collaborative approach to human and animal health that aims to break down conventional research and policy 'silos'. OH has been used to develop strategies for zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID). However, the ethical case for OH as an alternative to more traditional public health approaches is largely absent from the discourse. To study the ethics of OH, we examined perceptions of the human health and ecological priorities for the management of zoonotic EID in the Southeast Asia country of Singapore...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108712/where-s-welfare-redesigning-our-food-for-the-future
#15
(no author information available yet)
While there is a need to feed a growing global population, this must be done in a way that is compatible with achieving climate change objectives and promoting social justice and environmental stewardship, while also accounting for the interests of animals farmed for food. A session at the BVA Congress during the London Vet Show in November asked where animal welfare might lie within future food production systems. Olivia Azouaghe reports.
January 21, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101730/concepts-for-studying-urban-environmental-justice
#16
REVIEW
Jason Corburn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper offers research frameworks for understanding and acting to address urban environmental justice. Urban neighborhoods tend to concentrate and colocate vulnerable people and toxic environments. Cities are also where the poor and people of color tend to be disproportionately exposed to environmental hazards, such as air pollution, lead in paint and water, and polluting industries. RECENT FINDINGS: Researchers and government agencies are increasingly recognizing the need to document cumulative exposures that the urban poor and people of color experience in addition to environmental hazards...
January 18, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097613/stakeholder-contributions-to-assessment-monitoring-and-conservation-of-threatened-species-black-skimmer-and-red-knot-as-case-studies
#17
Joanna Burger, Michael Gochfeld, Larry Niles, Nellie Tsipoura, David Mizrahi, Amanda Dey, Christian Jeitner, Taryn Pittfield
Stakeholder contributions to conservation projects often occur during the problem formulation stage, yet the role of stakeholders throughout the process is seldom considered. We examine the diversity of state and federal agencies, conservation organizations, other non-governmental organizations, environmental justice communities, consultants, industry, and the general public in the conservation of red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) and black skimmer (Rynchops niger) in New Jersey. We suggest that (1) governmental agencies provide the legal, regulatory, and management framework, but it is often the universities, conservation organizations, consultants, and the public that conduct the research and perform activities that lead to increased research and conservation efforts; (2) departments within agencies may have conflicting mandates, making it difficult to resolve differences in actions; (3) there is often conflict among and within state agencies and conservation organizations about roles and priorities; and (4) the role of the public is critical to ongoing research and conservation efforts...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092709/the-centrality-of-philosophical-anthropology-to-a-future-environmental-ethics
#18
Arran Gare
While environmental ethics has successfully established itself in philosophy, as presently conceived it is still largely irrelevant to grappling the global ecological crisis because, as Alasdair MacIntyre has argued, ethical philosophy itself is in grave disorder. MacIntyre's historically oriented recovery of virtue ethics is defended, but it is argued that even MacIntyre was too constrained by received assumptions to overcome this disorder. As he himself realized, his ideas need to be integrated and defended through philosophical anthropology...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036053/connecting-the-dots-linking-environmental-justice-indicators-to-daily-dose-model-estimates
#19
Hongtai Huang, Timothy M Barzyk
Many different quantitative techniques have been developed to either assess Environmental Justice (EJ) issues or estimate exposure and dose for risk assessment. However, very few approaches have been applied to link EJ factors to exposure dose estimate and identify potential impacts of EJ factors on dose-related variables. The purpose of this study is to identify quantitative approaches that incorporate conventional risk assessment (RA) dose modeling and cumulative risk assessment (CRA) considerations of disproportionate environmental exposure...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991976/carbon-pollution-increases-health-inequities-lessons-in-resilience-from-the-most-vulnerable
#20
Kristie L Ebi, Stephen B Fawcett, Jerry Spiegel, Horacio Tovalin
Climate change is a social justice as well as an environmental issue. The magnitude and pattern of changes in weather and climate variables are creating differential exposures, vulnerabilities, and health risks that increase stress on health systems while exacerbating existing and creating new health inequities. Examples from national and local health adaptation projects highlight that developing partnerships across sectors and levels are critical for building climate-resilient health systems and communities...
September 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
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