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environmental justice

Maya K Gislason, Holly K Andersen
We consider the case of intensive resource extractive projects in the Blueberry River First Nations in Northern British Columbia, Canada, as a case study. Drawing on the parallels between concepts of cumulative environmental and cumulative health impacts, we highlight three axes along which to gauge the effects of intensive extraction projects. These are environmental, health, and social justice axes. Using an intersectional analysis highlights the way in which using individual indicators to measure impact, rather than considering cumulative effects, hides the full extent by which the affected First Nations communities are impacted by intensive extraction projects...
October 18, 2016: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Álvaro Franco-Giraldo
This article presents a Latin American vision of global health from a counterhegemonic perspective, applicable to various countries of the world in similar circumstances. It begins by reviewing several concepts and trends in global health and outlining the differences between conventional public health, international health, and global health, but without seeing them as antagonistic, instead situating them in a model that is based on global health and also includes the other two disciplines. It is understood that global factors influenced earlier theories, schemes, and models of classic international health...
February 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Karen Bell
Gender continues to be a relatively marginal issue in environmental justice debates and yet it remains an important aspect of injustice. To help redress the balance, this article explores women's experience of environmental justice through a review of the existing literature and the author's prior qualitative research, as well as her experience of environmental activism. The analysis confirms that women tend to experience inequitable environmental burdens (distributional injustice); and are less likely than men to have control over environmental decisions (procedural injustice), both of which impact on their health (substantive injustice)...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kaitlyn Hornik, Bethany Cutts, Andrew Greenlee
Environmental justice and sustainability are compatible lenses, yet action toward equity is often missing from urban sustainability initiatives. This study aims to assess the cohesion of these frameworks in practice. To do this, we parse individuals' theories of change, or how they identify and propose to resolve environmental injustices in the pursuit of sustainability. We posit that these theories of change are comprised of three main components: (1) perceived environmental benefits and burdens; (2) the causal pathways of environmental and social injustice; and (3) visions for positive change...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kevin Drace, Adam M Kiefer, Marcello M Veiga
There is a variety of health and environmental issues associated with artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM), which includes concerns regarding mercury pollution. In many countries, intervention programs and policies emphasized the importance of reducing mercury use by focusing on viable alternative methods to amalgamation that may include a transition to cyanidation. ASGM communities that now employ a combination of both methods may be increasing health and environmental risks by using mercury-contaminated tailings in the cyanidation process...
September 30, 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
Maya Sabatello, S Appelbaum
This paper considers the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by the prospect of increasing use of psychiatric genetic data in child custody litigation. Although genetic tests cannot currently confirm a parent or child's psychiatric diagnosis, it is likely that as relevant findings emerge, they will be introduced in family courts to challenge parental capacity. Here, we draw on three projected, but plausible, scenarios for obtaining psychiatric data about parents -- imposed genetic testing, access to medical records, and genetic theft -- then consider the use of psychiatric genetic data of children, to highlight the issues that judges, child custody evaluators, and clinicians who may provide treatment for parents or children with mental health issues will need to consider...
September 2016: Current Genetic Medicine Reports
Carla Campbell, Rachael Greenberg, Deepa Mankikar, Ronald D Ross
The failure by the city of Flint, Michigan to properly treat its municipal water system after a change in the source of water, has resulted in elevated lead levels in the city's water and an increase in city children's blood lead levels. Lead exposure in young children can lead to decrements in intelligence, development, behavior, attention and other neurological functions. This lack of ability to provide safe drinking water represents a failure to protect the public's health at various governmental levels...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Lisa M McKenzie, William B Allshouse, Troy Burke, Benjamin D Blair, John L Adgate
We evaluated population size and factors influencing environmental justice near oil and gas (O&G) wells. We mapped nearest O&G well to residential properties to evaluate population size, temporal relationships between housing and O&G development, and 2012 housing market value distributions in three major Colorado O&G basins. We reviewed land use, building, real estate, and state O&G regulations to evaluate distributive and participatory justice. We found that by 2012 at least 378,000 Coloradans lived within 1 mile of an active O&G well, and this population was growing at a faster rate than the overall population...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Devon C Payne-Sturges, Katrina Smith Korfmacher, Deborah A Cory-Slechta, Maria Jimenez, Elaine Symanski, Jessie L Carr Shmool, Ogonnaya Dotson-Newman, Jane E Clougherty, Robert French, Jonathan I Levy, Robert Laumbach, Kathryn Rodgers, Roseann Bongiovanni, Madeleine K Scammell
Studies have documented cumulative health effects of chemical and nonchemical exposures, particularly chronic environmental and social stressors. Environmental justice groups have advocated for community participation in research that assesses how these interactions contribute to health disparities experienced by low-income and communities of color. In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a request for research applications (RFA), "Understanding the Role of Nonchemical Stressors and Developing Analytic Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessments...
December 1, 2015: Environmental Justice
Mindy G Kohsman
Neonatal nurses frequently care for babies who have been exposed in utero to potentially harmful substances, both licit and illicit. The risks to the fetus from nicotine, marijuana, alcohol, and opiates are significant. Adverse effects from environmental factors may confound pharmacologic effects of substances. Nurses are called to shift the perception of substance use disorder from that of willful harm to the fetus to that of an opportunity to provide treatment assistance that can positively affect child health and development...
2016: Neonatal Network: NN
Ronald Pope, Jianguo Wu, Christopher Boone
Quantifying spatial distribution patterns of air pollutants is imperative to understand environmental justice issues. Here we present a landscape-based hierarchical approach in which air pollution variables are regressed against population demographics on multiple spatiotemporal scales. Using this approach, we investigated the potential problem of distributive environmental justice in the Phoenix metropolitan region, focusing on ambient ozone and particulate matter. Pollution surfaces (maps) are evaluated against the demographics of class, age, race (African American, Native American), and ethnicity (Hispanic)...
November 2016: Environmental Management
Melanie Boeckmann, Hajo Zeeb
Climate change affects human health, and climate change adaptation aims to reduce these risks through infrastructural, behavioral, and technological measures. However, attributing direct human health effects to climate change adaptation is difficult, causing an ethical dilemma between the need for evidence of strategies and their precautionary implementation before such evidence has been generated. In the absence of conclusive evidence for individual adaptation strategies, alternative approaches to the measurement of adaptation effectiveness need to be developed...
September 7, 2016: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Stephanie E Clark-Reyna, Sara E Grineski, Timothy W Collins
Concerns about children's weight have steadily risen alongside the manufacture and use of myriad chemicals in the US. One class of chemicals, known as metabolic disruptors, interfere with human endocrine and metabolic functioning and are of specific concern to children's health and development. This article examines the effect of residential concentrations of metabolic disrupting chemicals on children's school performance for the first time. Census tract-level ambient concentrations for known metabolic disruptors come from the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxics Assessment...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Viniece Jennings, Jessica Yun, Lincoln Larson
Decades of research have documented continuous tension between anthropocentric needs and the environment's capacity to accommodate those needs and support basic human welfare. The way in which society perceives, manages, and ultimately utilizes natural resources can be influenced by underlying environmental ethics, or the moral relationship that humans share with the natural world. This discourse often centers on the complex interplay between the tangible and intangible benefits associated with nonhuman nature (e...
August 25, 2016: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Margaret Carrel, Sean G Young, Eric Tate
Given the primacy of Iowa in pork production for the U.S. and global markets, we sought to understand if the same relationship with traditional environmental justice (EJ) variables such as low income and minority populations observed in other concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) studies exists in the relationship with swine CAFO densities in Iowa. We examined the potential for spatial clustering of swine CAFOs in certain parts of the state and used spatial regression techniques to determine the relationships of high swine concentrations to these EJ variables...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Samantha Teixeira, Anita Zuberi
Black youth are more likely than white youth to grow up in poor, segregated neighborhoods. This racial inequality in the neighborhood environments of black youth increases their contact with hazardous neighborhood environmental features including violence and toxic exposures that contribute to racial inequality in youth health and well-being. While the concept of neighborhood effects has been studied at length by social scientists, this work has not been as frequently situated within an environmental justice (EJ) paradigm...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Penn Loh
Community-university collaborations for environmental justice have pushed the boundaries of the modern research university, yet remain rooted in a research frame. This article lays out a transformative co-learning model, which aspires to cultivate long-term, place-based, reciprocal partnerships where university and community co-produce knowledge and action toward a more just, sustainable, and democratic society. Starting with joint inquiry and planning, community and university integrate teaching, research, and service activities over a cycle of three to five years and, if sustained, co-evolve in place over the decades...
August 17, 2016: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
Vivek Shandas, Jackson Voelkel, Meenakshi Rao, Linda George
Reducing exposure to degraded air quality is essential for building healthy cities. Although air quality and population vary at fine spatial scales, current regulatory and public health frameworks assess human exposures using county- or city-scales. We build on a spatial analysis technique, dasymetric mapping, for allocating urban populations that, together with emerging fine-scale measurements of air pollution, addresses three objectives: (1) evaluate the role of spatial scale in estimating exposure; (2) identify urban communities that are disproportionately burdened by poor air quality; and (3) estimate reduction in mobile sources of pollutants due to local tree-planting efforts using nitrogen dioxide...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alejandra Maldonado, Timothy W Collins, Sara E Grineski, Jayajit Chakraborty
Although numerous studies have been conducted on the vulnerability of marginalized groups in the environmental justice (EJ) and hazards fields, analysts have tended to lump people together in broad racial/ethnic categories without regard for substantial within-group heterogeneity. This paper addresses that limitation by examining whether Hispanic immigrants are disproportionately exposed to risks from flood hazards relative to other racial/ethnic groups (including US-born Hispanics), adjusting for relevant covariates...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Constance A Flanagan, Rachel Byington, Erin Gallay, Allison Sambo
In this chapter, we build on the scholarship on youth civic engagement by turning attention to the environmental commons as a space for political action. We begin with a definition of the term and arguments about ways that social justice is implied in it. Following that, we raise several psychological challenges to motivating action on behalf of the environmental commons and discuss the critical experiences and actions that can defy those challenges. Finally, drawing from Ostrom's empirical evidence opposing a tragedy of the commons, we discuss practices consistent with a social justice approach that nurture in younger generations an identification with and commitment to the environmental commons and discuss how this orientation would benefit human beings, democracies, and the earth...
2016: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
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