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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829266/a-bridge-back-to-the-future-public-health-ethics-bioethics-and-environmental-ethics
#1
Lisa M Lee
Contemporary biomedical ethics and environmental ethics share a common ancestry in Aldo Leopold's and Van Rensselaer Potter's initial broad visions of a connected biosphere. Over the past five decades, the two fields have become strangers. Public health ethics, a new subfield of bioethics, emerged from the belly of contemporary biomedical ethics and has evolved over the past 25 years. It has moved from its traditional concern with the tension between individual autonomy and community health to a wider focus on social justice and solidarity...
September 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822977/are-green-cities-healthy-and-equitable-unpacking-the-relationship-between-health-green-space-and-gentrification
#2
Helen V S Cole, Melisa Garcia Lamarca, James J T Connolly, Isabelle Anguelovski
While access and exposure to green spaces has been shown to be beneficial for the health of urban residents, interventions focused on augmenting such access may also catalyse gentrification processes, also known as green gentrification. Drawing from the fields of public health, urban planning and environmental justice, we argue that public health and epidemiology researchers should rely on a more dynamic model of community that accounts for the potential unintended social consequences of upstream health interventions...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822238/the-environmental-injustice-of-beauty-framing-chemical%C3%A2-exposures-from-beauty-products-as-a-health%C3%A2-disparities-concern
#3
Ami R Zota, Bhavna Shamasunder
The obstetrics-gynecology community has issued a call to action to prevent toxic environmental chemical exposures and their threats to healthy human reproduction. Recent committee opinions recognize that vulnerable and underserved women may be impacted disproportionately by environmental chemical exposures and recommend that reproductive health professionals champion policies that secure environmental justice. Beauty product use is an understudied source of environmental chemical exposures. Beauty products can include reproductive and developmental toxicants such as phthalates and heavy metals; however, disclosure requirements are limited and inconsistent...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818240/reducing-cancer-and-cancer-disparities-lessons-from-a-youth-generated-diabetes-prevention-campaign
#4
Dean Schillinger, Pamela M Ling, Sarah Fine, Cherrie B Boyer, Elizabeth Rogers, Roberto Ariel Vargas, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, Wen-Ying Sylvia Chou
Adolescence and young adulthood, a period essential for determining exposures over the life-course, is an ideal time to intervene to lower cancer risk. This demographic group can be viewed as both the target audience and generator of messages for cancer prevention, such as skin cancer, obesity-, tobacco-, and human papillomavirus-related cancers. The purpose of this paper is to encourage innovative health communications that target youth; youth behavior; and the structural, environmental, and social determinants of youth behavior as critical areas of focus for cancer prevention and disparities reduction...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810907/schr%C3%A3-dinger-s-microbes-tools-for-distinguishing-the-living-from-the-dead-in-microbial-ecosystems
#5
REVIEW
Joanne B Emerson, Rachel I Adams, Clarisse M Betancourt Román, Brandon Brooks, David A Coil, Katherine Dahlhausen, Holly H Ganz, Erica M Hartmann, Tiffany Hsu, Nicholas B Justice, Ivan G Paulino-Lima, Julia C Luongo, Despoina S Lymperopoulou, Cinta Gomez-Silvan, Brooke Rothschild-Mancinelli, Melike Balk, Curtis Huttenhower, Andreas Nocker, Parag Vaishampayan, Lynn J Rothschild
While often obvious for macroscopic organisms, determining whether a microbe is dead or alive is fraught with complications. Fields such as microbial ecology, environmental health, and medical microbiology each determine how best to assess which members of the microbial community are alive, according to their respective scientific and/or regulatory needs. Many of these fields have gone from studying communities on a bulk level to the fine-scale resolution of microbial populations within consortia. For example, advances in nucleic acid sequencing technologies and downstream bioinformatic analyses have allowed for high-resolution insight into microbial community composition and metabolic potential, yet we know very little about whether such community DNA sequences represent viable microorganisms...
August 16, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749710/first-food-justice-infant-feeding-disparities-and-the-first-food-system
#6
Erica Morrell
Breastfeeding and first foods--including human milk and infant formula--affect us all as individuals and a society of eaters and feeders. They also shape us in part through having significant effects on community health and well-being, workplace strength, and environmental integrity. In addition, we all affect breastfeeding and first foods. Society, the economy, and the environment constrain and enable breastfeeding success, for example, and they often do so differently by race, class, and other social categories...
July 27, 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749596/climate-change-climate-justice-and-environmental-health-implications-for-the-nursing-profession
#7
Patrice K Nicholas, Suellen Breakey
PURPOSE: Climate change is an emerging challenge linked to negative outcomes for the environment and human health. Since the 1960s, there has been a growing recognition of the need to address climate change and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions implicated in the warming of our planet. There are also deleterious health outcomes linked to complex climate changes that are emerging in the 21st century. This article addresses the social justice issues associated with climate change and human health and discussion of climate justice...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741282/reproductive-health-concerns-among-substance-using-women-in-community-corrections-in-new-york-city-understanding-the-role-of-environmental-influences
#8
Anindita Dasgupta, Alissa Davis, Louisa Gilbert, Dawn Goddard-Eckrich, Nabila El-Bassel
Women living in urban settings who are engaged in the criminal justice system are disproportionately affected by HIV and also contend with poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH). While studies have examined environmental influences of HIV, few have examined how these influences relate to poor SRH among this population. We used baseline data from an HIV-risk reduction study among substance-using women with a pregnancy history in community corrections in New York City (N = 299). We examined risk environment factors typically associated with HIV, and SRH outcomes of abortion, and miscarriage...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741248/lessons-learned-from-arsenic-mitigation-among-private-well-households
#9
REVIEW
Yan Zheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many thousands of research papers have been published on the occurrence, health effects, and mitigation of arsenic in drinking water sourced from groundwater around the world. Here, an attempt is made to summarize this large body of knowledge into a small number of lessons. RECENT FINDINGS: This is an opinion paper reflecting on why we are far from the goal of eliminating this silent and widespread poison to protect the health of many millions...
July 24, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730067/practices-and-discourses-of-ubuntu-implications-for-an-african-model-of-disability
#10
Maria Berghs
BACKGROUND: Southern African scholars and activists working in disability studies have argued that ubuntu or unhu is a part of their world view. OBJECTIVES: Thinking seriously about ubuntu, as a shared collective humanness or social ethics, means to examine how Africans have framed a struggle for this shared humanity in terms of decolonisation and activism. METHOD: Three examples of applications of ubuntu are given, with two mainly linked to making explicit umaka...
2017: Afr J Disabil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686618/network-effects-in-environmental-justice-struggles-an-investigation-of-conflicts-between-mining-companies-and-civil-society-organizations-from-a-network-perspective
#11
Cem Iskender Aydin, Begum Ozkaynak, Beatriz Rodríguez-Labajos, Taylan Yenilmez
This paper examines conflicts that occur between mining companies and civil society organizations (CSOs) around the world and offers an innovative analysis of mining conflicts from a social network perspective. The analysis showed that, as the number of CSOs involved in a conflict increased, its outcome was more likely to be perceived as a success in terms of environmental justice (EJ); if a CSO was connected to other central CSOs, the average perception of EJ success was likely to increase; and as network distance between two conflicts increased (or decreased), they were more likely to lead to different (or similar) EJ outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682640/the-growth-of-peer-support-an-international-charter
#12
Anthony C Stratford, Matt Halpin, Keely Phillips, Frances Skerritt, Anne Beales, Vincent Cheng, Magdel Hammond, Mary O'Hagan, Catherine Loreto, Kim Tiengtom, Benon Kobe, Steve Harrington, Dan Fisher, Larry Davidson
OBJECTIVE: While mental health peer support originated in its contemporary form in English-speaking countries, it is now spreading rapidly across the globe. This rapid growth presents two major challenges. The first pertains to "role integrity" and the second to the possible culture-bound nature of peer support; a concern which has attended the emergence of peer support in countries that have significantly different worldviews. METHOD: Recognizing the growth of peer support and the resulting challenges, this report results from the convening of an international consortium of peer leaders from six continents (all but Antarctica)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672802/bioethical-considerations-of-advancing-the-application-of-marine-biotechnology-and-aquaculture
#13
Reginal M Harrell
Normative ethical considerations of growth of the marine biotechnology and aquaculture disciplines in biopharming, food production, and marine products commercialization from a bioethical perspective have been limited. This paucity of information begs the question of what constitutes a bioethical approach (i.e., respect for individuals or autonomy; beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice) to marine biotechnology and aquaculture, and whether it is one that is appropriate for consideration. Currently, thoughtful discussion on the bioethical implications of use, development, and commercialization of marine organisms or their products, as well as potential environmental effects, defaults to human biomedicine as a model...
June 24, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663932/enhancing-community-health-by-improving-physician-participation
#14
Casey Crump, Guedy Arniella, Neil S Calman
Leading medical associations have called for renewed standards of medical professionalism, including stronger public advocacy, a commitment to social justice in health care, and greater community engagement. New strategies are needed to enhance community participation among physicians, which can improve public trust in the medical profession and contribute needed expertise and teamwork to matters of community health. One strategy is to incorporate community participation and leadership in medical training through community-based organization (CBO) placement of residents...
October 2016: Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652920/perception-of-and-attitude-toward-ethical-issues-among-korean-occupational-physicians
#15
Junghye Choi, Chunhui Suh, Jong-Tae Lee, Segyeong Lee, Chae-Kwan Lee, Gyeong-Jin Lee, Taekjoong Kim, Byung-Chul Son, Jeong-Ho Kim, Kunhyung Kim, Dae Hwan Kim, Ji Young Ryu
BACKGROUND: Occupational physicians (OPs) have complex relationships with employees, employers, and the general public. OPs may have simultaneous obligations towards third parties, which can lead to variable conflicts of interests. Among the various studies of ethical issues related to OPs, few have focused on the Korean OPs. The aim of the present survey was to investigate the ethical contexts, the practical resolutions, and the ethical principles for the Korean OPs. METHODS: An email with a self-administered questionnaire was sent to members of the Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, comprising 150 specialists and 130 residents...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627155/-environmental-justice-in-the-epidemiological-surveillance-system-of-residents-in-italian-national-priority-contaminated-sites-sentieri-project
#16
Roberto Pasetto, Nicolás Zengarini, Nicola Caranci, Marco De Santis, Fabrizio Minichilli, Michele Santoro, Roberta Pirastu, Pietro Comba
OBJECTIVES: descriptive evaluation of distributional justice in the epidemiological surveillance system of populations residing in Italian National priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs) of SENTIERI project. Analysis of the feasibility of monitoring different Environmental Justice dimensions in SENTIERI. DESIGN: descriptive study and ecological meta-analysis. SETTING AN PARTICIPANTS: residents in 298 municipalities included in 44 NPCSs in SENTIERI. Description of their level of deprivation and mortality analysis by deprivation level in the first period evaluated in SENTIERI, years 1995-2002...
March 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526013/human-biomonitoring-from-an-environmental-justice-perspective-supporting-study-participation-of-women-of-turkish-and-moroccan-descent
#17
Bert Morrens, Elly Den Hond, Greet Schoeters, Dries Coertjens, Ann Colles, Tim S Nawrot, Willy Baeyens, Stefaan De Henauw, Vera Nelen, Ilse Loots
BACKGROUND: Environmental justice research shows how socially disadvantaged groups are more exposed and more vulnerable to environmental pollution. At the same time, these groups are less represented and, thus, less visible in biomedical studies. This socioeconomic participation bias is a form of environmental injustice within research practice itself. METHODS: We designed, implemented and evaluated a targeted recruitment strategy to enhance the participation of socially disadvantaged pregnant women in a human biomonitoring study in Belgium...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525551/who-among-the-elderly-is-most-vulnerable-to-exposure-and-health-risks-of-pm2-5-from-wildfire-smoke
#18
Jia Coco Liu, Ander Wilson, Loretta J Mickley, Keita Ebisu, Melissa P Sulprizio, Yun Wang, Roger D Peng, Xu Yue, Francesca Dominici, Michelle L Bell
Wildfires burn over 7 million US acres annually, according to the US Forest Service. Little is known regarding which subpopulations are more vulnerable to health risks from wildfire smoke, including fine particles. We estimated exposure to fine particles specifically from wildfires and associations between wildfire-specific fine particles and respiratory hospital admissions for subpopulations > 65 years in the Western US (2004-2009). Higher fractions of Blacks and people in urban counties and in California are exposed to > 1 smoke wave (high-pollution episodes from wildfire smoke) compared to other populations...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467206/photovoice-and-youth-empowerment-in-environmental-justice-research-a-pilot-study-examining-woodsmoke-pollution-in-a-pacific-northwest-community
#19
Mattie B Brickle, Robin Evans-Agnew
Woodsmoke pollution is an environmental justice issue for youth living in certain Pacific Northwest cities. Participatory methods such as Citizen Science and Photovoice are effective ways to involve youth in environmental justice research. Little is understood about how youth may be empowered to address woodsmoke issues in their communities. We examined youth empowerment in a citizen science study on woodsmoke, using Photovoice methodology. Ten diverse youth collected and analyzed indoor air samples and photos, then presented their findings to the community and policy makers...
April 2017: Journal of Community Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452606/a-phenomenological-understanding-of-residents-emotional-distress-of-living-in-an-environmental-justice-community
#20
Gabriela Dory, Zeyuan Qiu, Christina M Qiu, Mei R Fu, Caitlin E Ryan
Deteriorative environmental conditions in environmental justice (EJ) communities not only post direct health risks such as chronic illnesses, but also cause emotional distress such as anxiety, fear, and anger among residents, which may further exacerbate health risks. This study applies a descriptive phenomenological method to explore and describe the emotional experience of residents living in Ironbound, a known EJ community located in Newark, New Jersey. Twenty-three residents participated in the study. Four essential themes regarding the residents' emotional experiences were elicited from 43 interviews: (1) being worried about the harmful effects of the surrounding pollution; (2) being distressed by the known historical pollution sources; (3) being frustrated by the unheard voices and/or lack of responses; and (4) being angered by the ongoing pollution sources...
December 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
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