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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330164/public-health-guide-to-field-developments-linking-ecosystems-environments-and-health-in-the-anthropocene
#1
Chris G Buse, Jordan Sky Oestreicher, Neville R Ellis, Rebecca Patrick, Ben Brisbois, Aaron P Jenkins, Kaileah McKellar, Jonathan Kingsley, Maya Gislason, Lindsay Galway, Ro A McFarlane, Joanne Walker, Howard Frumkin, Margot Parkes
The impacts of global environmental change have precipitated numerous approaches that connect the health of ecosystems, non-human organisms and humans. However, the proliferation of approaches can lead to confusion due to overlaps in terminology, ideas and foci. Recognising the need for clarity, this paper provides a guide to seven field developments in environmental public health research and practice: occupational and environmental health; political ecology of health; environmental justice; ecohealth; One Health; ecological public health; and planetary health...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299754/survey-on-using-ethical-principles-in-environmental-field-research-with-place-based-communities
#2
Dianne Quigley, Alana Levine, David A Sonnenfeld, Phil Brown, Qing Tian, Xiaofan Wei
Researchers of the Northeast Ethics Education Partnership (NEEP) at Brown University sought to improve an understanding of the ethical challenges of field researchers with place-based communities in environmental studies/sciences and environmental health by disseminating a questionnaire which requested information about their ethical approaches to these researched communities. NEEP faculty sought to gain actual field guidance to improve research ethics and cultural competence training for graduate students and faculty in environmental sciences/studies...
January 3, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289843/the-relationship-between-urban-forests-and-race-a-meta-analysis
#3
Shannon Lea Watkins, Ed Gerrish
There is ample evidence that urban trees benefit the physical, mental, and social health of urban residents. The environmental justice hypothesis posits that environmental amenities are inequitably low in poor and minority communities, and predicts these communities experience fewer urban environmental benefits. Some previous research has found that urban forest cover is inequitably distributed by race, though other studies have found no relationship or negative inequity. These conflicting results and the single-city nature of the current literature suggest a need for a research synthesis...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249844/the-relationship-between-urban-forests-and-income-a-meta-analysis
#4
Ed Gerrish, Shannon Lea Watkins
Urban trees provide substantial public health and public environmental benefits. However, scholarly works suggest that urban trees may be unequally distributed among poor and minority urban communities, meaning that these communities are potentially being deprived of public environmental benefits, a form of environmental injustice. The evidence of this problem is not uniform however, and evidence of inequity varies in size and significance across studies. This variation in results suggests the need for a research synthesis and meta-analysis...
February 2018: Landscape and Urban Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237504/a-multivariate-analysis-of-calenviroscreen-comparing-environmental-and-socioeconomic-stressors-versus-chronic-disease
#5
Ben K Greenfield, Jayant Rajan, Thomas E McKone
BACKGROUND: The health-risk assessment paradigm is shifting from single stressor evaluation towards cumulative assessments of multiple stressors. Recent efforts to develop broad-scale public health hazard datasets provide an opportunity to develop and evaluate multiple exposure hazards in combination. METHODS: We performed a multivariate study of the spatial relationship between 12 indicators of environmental hazard, 5 indicators of socioeconomic hardship, and 3 health outcomes...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216464/traffic-pollutants-measured-inside-vehicles-waiting-in-line-at-a-major-us-mexico-port-of-entry
#6
Penelope J E Quintana, Mehdi Khalighi, Javier Emmanuel Castillo Quiñones, Zalak Patel, Jesus Guerrero Garcia, Paulina Martinez Vergara, Megan Bryden, Antoinette Mantz
At US-Mexico border Ports of Entry, vehicles idle for long times waiting to cross northbound into the US. Long wait times at the border have mainly been studied as an economic issue, however, exposures to emissions from idling vehicles can also present an exposure risk. Here we present the first data on in-vehicle exposures to driver and passengers crossing the US-Mexico border at the San Ysidro, California Port of Entry (SYPOE). Participants were recruited who regularly commuted across the border in either direction and told to drive a scripted route between two border universities, one in the US and one in Mexico...
December 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193438/routine-practice-in-staffed-community-accommodation-approved-premises-in-england-and-wales-quantitative-benchmarking-from-the-first-year-of-a-longitudinal-study
#7
Jason Davies, Aisling O'Meara
BACKGROUND: In England and Wales, 'approved premises' offer 24-hour staffed accommodation for high-risk offenders, most of whom are returning to the community from prison. With a move towards a standardised operating model, it is essential to be able to measure outcomes. AIMS: Our aim is to collate and evaluate 'benchmarks' for approved premises. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to establish the impact of existing practice in all four approved premises in Wales...
November 29, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144594/on-the-origin-of-obesity-identifying-the-biological-environmental-and-cultural-drivers-of-genetic-risk-among-human-populations
#8
REVIEW
A Qasim, M Turcotte, R J de Souza, M C Samaan, D Champredon, J Dushoff, J R Speakman, D Meyre
Genetic predisposition to obesity presents a paradox: how do genetic variants with a detrimental impact on human health persist through evolutionary time? Numerous hypotheses, such as the thrifty genotype hypothesis, attempt to explain this phenomenon yet fail to provide a justification for the modern obesity epidemic. In this critical review, we appraise existing theories explaining the evolutionary origins of obesity and explore novel biological and sociocultural agents of evolutionary change to help explain the modern-day distribution of obesity-predisposing variants...
November 16, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140663/a-recipe-for-justice-support-for-a-federal-food-justice-interagency-working-group
#9
Melanie Pugh
Systemic social justice issues are characterized as having complex and far-reaching causes. Food justice is one such an issue. Food justice is defined as “justice for all [people] in the food system,” from agricultural production to consumer products. Policies seeking to remedy systemic social justice issues often need to include the attention of many levels of government and coordination across multiple agencies to move issues forward. That is why finding a model for interagency collaboration that has evidenced success, especially over the long-term, is inspiring and worth mirroring...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107462/each-meal-matters-in-the-exposome-biological-and-community-considerations-in-fast-food-socioeconomic-associations
#10
Susan L Prescott, Alan C Logan
Advances in omics and microbiome technology have transformed the ways in which the biological consequences of life in the 'ecological theatre' can be visualized. Exposome science examines the total accumulated environmental exposures (both detrimental and beneficial) as a means to understand the response of the 'total organism to the total environment' over time. The repetitive stimulation of compensatory physiological responses (immune, cardiovascular, neuroendocrine) in response to stress - including sources of stress highly relevant to socioeconomic disadvantage - may lead to metabolic dysregulation and cellular damage, ultimately influencing behavior and disease...
November 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098204/sexual-orientation-gender-and-environmental-injustice-unequal-carcinogenic-air-pollution-risks-in-greater-houston
#11
Timothy W Collins, Sara E Grineski, Danielle X Morales
Disparate residential hazard exposures based on disadvantaged gender status (e.g., among female-headed households) have been documented in the distributive environmental justice literature, yet no published studies have examined whether disproportionate environmental risks exist based on minority sexual orientation. To address this gap, we use data from the US Census, American Community Survey and the Environmental Protection Agency at the 2010 census tract level to examine the spatial relationships between same-sex partner households and cumulative cancer risk from exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted by all ambient emission sources in Greater Houston (Texas)...
2017: Annals of the American Association of Geographers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048385/disease-and-health-inequalities-attributable-to-air-pollutant-exposure-in-detroit-michigan
#12
Sheena E Martenies, Chad W Milando, Guy O Williams, Stuart A Batterman
The environmental burden of disease is the mortality and morbidity attributable to exposures of air pollution and other stressors. The inequality metrics used in cumulative impact and environmental justice studies can be incorporated into environmental burden studies to better understand the health disparities of ambient air pollutant exposures. This study examines the diseases and health disparities attributable to air pollutants for the Detroit urban area. We apportion this burden to various groups of emission sources and pollutants, and show how the burden is distributed among demographic and socioeconomic subgroups...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028567/accessibility-of-prison-healthcare-for-elderly-inmates-a-qualitative-assessment
#13
Raheleh Heidari, Tenzin Wangmo, Serena Galli, David M Shaw, Bernice S Elger
Aging in custody and the rising population of elderly prisoners are creating compelling challenges for criminal justice, prison and public healthcare systems. Geriatric syndrome and higher prevalence of co-morbidities amongst older inmates result in heightened vulnerability in prison environments. Empirical research addressing older adults' access to medical care in detention is scarce; therefore, this study assessed access to medical care in prison from the perspective of older prisoners in Switzerland. We interviewed a sample of 35 older inmates (average age 61 years) on their experience of healthcare accessibility in prison; data were qualitatively analysed and major themes regarding evaluation of their access to medical services were extracted...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028233/ethics-in-public-health-call-for-shared-moral-public-health-literacy
#14
Els L M Maeckelberghe, Peter Schröder-Bäck
Public Health (PH) in Europe has become much more vocal about its moral understandings since 1992. The rising awareness that PH issues were inseparable from issues of human rights and social justice almost self-evidently directed the agenda of EUPHA and the European Public Health (EPH)-conferences. Problems of cultural and behavioural change, and environmental issues on a global scale were also added. The Section Ethics in PH invited the EPH community to join in 'arm chair thinking': coming together at conferences not only to share the 'how' and 'what' of PH research, practices and policies but also the 'why'...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994744/multi-contextual-segregation-and-environmental-justice-research-toward-fine-scale-spatiotemporal-approaches
#15
REVIEW
Yoo Min Park, Mei-Po Kwan
Many environmental justice studies have sought to examine the effect of residential segregation on unequal exposure to environmental factors among different social groups, but little is known about how segregation in non-residential contexts affects such disparity. Based on a review of the relevant literature, this paper discusses the limitations of traditional residence-based approaches in examining the association between socioeconomic or racial/ethnic segregation and unequal environmental exposure in environmental justice research...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948883/the-maternal-body-as-environment-in-autism-science
#16
Martine Lappé
Research on autism and environmental risk factors has expanded substantially in recent years. My analysis draws attention to the regimes of perceptibility that shape how the environment is materialized in post-genomic science. I focus on how more complex narratives of autism's causes and social anxieties surrounding child development have helped situate autism risk in women's bodies before and during pregnancy. This has resulted in what I call the maternal body as environment in autism science. I show that this figure involves three characteristics: the molecularization of the environment, an individualization of risk, and the internalization of responsibility...
October 2016: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944245/the-socio-exposome-advancing-exposure-science-and-environmental-justice-in-a-post-genomic-era
#17
Laura Senier, Phil Brown, Sara Shostak, Bridget Hanna
We propose the socio-exposome as a conceptual framework for integrative environmental health research. Environmental scientists coined the term "exposome" with the goal of inventorying and quantifying environmental exposures as precisely as scientists measure genes and gene expression. To date, the exposome's proponents have not thoroughly engaged social scientific theoretical and methodological expertise, although the exclusion of sociological expertise risks molecularizing complex social phenomena and limiting the possibility of collective action to improve environmental conditions...
2017: Environmental Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829266/a-bridge-back-to-the-future-public-health-ethics-bioethics-and-environmental-ethics
#18
Lisa M Lee
Contemporary biomedical ethics and environmental ethics share a common ancestry in Aldo Leopold's and Van Rensselaer Potter's initial broad visions of a connected biosphere. Over the past five decades, the two fields have become strangers. Public health ethics, a new subfield of bioethics, emerged from the belly of contemporary biomedical ethics and has evolved over the past 25 years. It has moved from its traditional concern with the tension between individual autonomy and community health to a wider focus on social justice and solidarity...
September 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822977/are-green-cities-healthy-and-equitable-unpacking-the-relationship-between-health-green-space-and-gentrification
#19
Helen V S Cole, Melisa Garcia Lamarca, James J T Connolly, Isabelle Anguelovski
While access and exposure to green spaces has been shown to be beneficial for the health of urban residents, interventions focused on augmenting such access may also catalyse gentrification processes, also known as green gentrification. Drawing from the fields of public health, urban planning and environmental justice, we argue that public health and epidemiology researchers should rely on a more dynamic model of community that accounts for the potential unintended social consequences of upstream health interventions...
November 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822238/the-environmental-injustice-of-beauty-framing-chemical%C3%A2-exposures-from-beauty-products-as-a-health%C3%A2-disparities-concern
#20
Ami R Zota, Bhavna Shamasunder
The obstetrics-gynecology community has issued a call to action to prevent toxic environmental chemical exposures and their threats to healthy human reproduction. Recent committee opinions recognize that vulnerable and underserved women may be impacted disproportionately by environmental chemical exposures and recommend that reproductive health professionals champion policies that secure environmental justice. Beauty product use is an understudied source of environmental chemical exposures. Beauty products can include reproductive and developmental toxicants such as phthalates and heavy metals; however, disclosure requirements are limited and inconsistent...
October 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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