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industrial forestry

Andrea Thorenz, Lars Wietschel, Dennis Stindt, Axel Tuma
The biobased chemical industry is characterised by strong growth. Innovative products and materials such as biopolymers have been developed, and current European demand for biopolymers exceeds the domestic supply. Agroforestry residues can serve as main sources of the basic building blocks for chemicals and materials. This work assesses sustainably available agroforestry residues to feed a high added-value materials and product bioeconomy. To evaluate bioeconomic potential, a structured three-step approach is applied...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Cleaner Production
Rangaswamy Madugundu, Khalid A Al-Gaadi, ElKamil Tola, Abdalhaleem A Hassaballa, Ahmed G Kayad
The crop Water Footprint (WF) can provide a comprehensive knowledge of the use of water through the demarcation of the amount of the water consumed by different crops. The WF has three components: green (WFg), blue (WFb) and grey (WFgr) water footprints. The WFg refers to the rainwater stored in the root zone soil layer and is mainly utilized for agricultural, horticultural and forestry production. The WFb, however, is the consumptive use of water from surface or groundwater resources and mainly deals with irrigated agriculture, industry, domestic water use, etc...
2018: PloS One
Steven Arthurs, Surendra K Dara
Microbial pesticides based on bacteria, fungi and viruses or their bioactive compounds have long been developed as alternatives for synthetic pesticides to control invertebrate pests. However, concern for environmental and human health from excessive reliance on chemical pesticides, changes in residue standards, and increased demand for organically grown produce has contributed to a considerable growth in their use in recent years. There are currently 356 registered biopesticide active ingredients in the U...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Zhen Xu, Y Jun Xu
Forestry best management practices (BMPs) have proven to be very effective in protecting adjacent stream water quality at the plot scale. However, our knowledge is incomplete about the effectiveness of forestry BMPs in large watersheds where industrial forests are intensively managed. In this study, we compared long-term concentrations and loadings of total suspended solids (TSS), nitrate/nitrite nitrogen (NO3NO2-N), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and total phosphorus (TP) before (1978-1988) and after extensive implementation of forestry BMPs (1994-2008) at the outlet of a 5000-km2 river basin that is predominately covered by intensively managed pine forests in Central Louisiana, USA...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Bryan Weichelt, Serap Gorucu
BACKGROUND: Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting industry is the most hazardous occupational sector in the USA. Even with this level of occupational risk, several national and state-level occupational injury surveillance programmes have been eliminated, leaving regional efforts to analyse multiple sources and compile data on agricultural injuries and fatalities. No up-to-date centralised national database for agricultural injuries/fatalities in the USA currently exists. OBJECTIVE: Using the public data on AgInjuryNews...
January 31, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Micah E Stevens, Keith E Woeste, Paula M Pijut
Cutting propagation plays a large role in the forestry and horticulture industries where superior genotypes need to be clonally multiplied. Integral to this process is the ability of cuttings to form adventitious roots. Recalcitrance to adventitious root development is a serious hurdle for many woody plant propagation systems including black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), an economically valuable species. The inability of black walnut to reliably form adventitious roots limits propagation of superior genotypes...
January 25, 2018: Tree Physiology
Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Zohaib Nawaz, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Jialin Hou, Shahid Mahboob, Khalid A Al-Ghanim, Cheng Hairong
Raising environmental concerns and recent global scenario of cleaner production and consumption are leading the world to design green industrial processes to produce alternative fuels and chemicals. Lignocellulosic biomass is enormous and renewable biological resource to produce ethanol and chemicals on sustainable and environmentally basis. Although, bioethanol is one of the most promising and eco-friendly alternatives to fossil fuels yet its production from food and feed has received much negative criticism...
January 21, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Taylor M Shockey, Sara E Luckhaupt, Matthew R Groenewold, Ming-Lun Lu
Repeated exposure to occupational ergonomic hazards, such as frequent exertion (repetitive bending or twisting) and frequent standing, can lead to injuries, most commonly musculoskeletal disorders (1). Work-related musculoskeletal disorders have been estimated to cost the United States approximately $2.6 billion in annual direct and indirect costs (2). A recent literature review provided evidence that prolonged standing at work also leads to adverse health outcomes, such as back pain, physical fatigue, and muscle pain (3)...
January 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Judy Bowen, Annika Hinze, Christopher Griffiths
The New Zealand forestry industry has one of the highest fatality and injury rates of any industrial sector in the country. Worker fatigue has been identified as one of the main contributing factors. Currently no independent and objective large data source is available that might support an analysis of this, or provide the basis for ongoing monitoring to further investigate. In order to successfully manage fatigue in the forestry workplace, we must identify suitable ways of detecting it. Industry partners are increasingly looking at monitoring solutions (particularly lightweight, wearable technology) that aim to measure worker activities and physiological metrics in order to determine if they are fatigued...
December 27, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Marcus Yung, Angelica E Lang, Jamie Stobart, Aaron M Kociolek, Stephan Milosavljevic, Catherine Trask
Many occupations in agriculture, construction, transportation, and forestry are non-routine, involving non-cyclical tasks, both discretionary and non-discretionary work breaks, and a mix of work activities. Workers in these industries are exposed to seated whole body vibration (WBV) and tasks consisting of physical, mental, or a combination of demands. Risk assessment tools for non-routinized jobs have emerged but there remains a need to understand the combined effects of different work demands to improve risk assessment methods and ultimately inform ergonomists and workers on optimum work arrangement and scheduling strategies...
2017: PloS One
Hao Cheng, Suocheng Dong, Fujia Li, Yang Yang, Shantong Li, Yu Li
In the counties with rapid economy and carbon emissions (CEs) growth, CEs embodied in interprovincial trade (CEs-PT) significantly impacts the CEs amount and structure and represents a key issue to consider in CEs reduction policies formulation. This study applied EEBT and two-stage SDA model to analyze the characteristics and driving force of spatial-temporal evolution for net CEs-PT outflow in the Northeast Industrial District of China (NID). We found that, during 1997-2007, the net CEs-PT flowed out from NID to 16 south and east provinces, then to 23 provinces all over China, and its amount has increased 216...
January 2, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Elizabeth A Masterson, Christa L Themann, Geoffrey M Calvert
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss among noise-exposed US workers within the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting (AFFH) sector. METHODS: Audiograms for 1.4 million workers (17 299 within AFFH) from 2003 to 2012 were examined. Prevalence, and the adjusted risk for hearing loss as compared with the reference industry (Couriers and Messengers), were estimated. RESULTS: The overall AFFH sector prevalence was 15% compared to 19% for all industries combined, but many of the AFFH sub-sectors exceeded the overall prevalence...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Tao Zhang, Fang Liang, Wanhe Hu, Xiaomeng Yang, Hongzhong Xiang, Ge Wang, Benhua Fei, Zhijia Liu
Significant quantities of bamboo waste are generated in Zhejiang province, China. Many small businesses in this area convert this waste to biochar for use as a cooking fuel (in residential barbecues). This case study was conducted to evaluate the potential economic benefits of building and operating an industrial-sized plant in this province, yielding 500 tonnes per year. The researchers developed a conceptual design for a hypothetical biochar plant and then calculated net present value (NPV), investment payback period (PBP), internal rate of return (IRR), and sensitivity analysis...
October 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Elisane Silveira Moraes, Marcia Sarpa de Campos Mello, Fernanda de Albuquerque Melo Nogueira, Ubirani Barros Otero, Flávia Nascimento de Carvalho
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world with great impact on public health and leukemia is a hematological cancer directly related to different exposures at work. This study aimed to describe the occupational profile of individuals diagnosed with leukemia. This is a cross-sectional study of cases registered between 2007 and 2011 in the Integrador RHC database. Individuals from 26 Brazilian states, aged 20 years or older, were included. Of the 7,807 cases of leukemia, Minas Gerais recorded the highest occurrence (1,351)...
October 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Kaleem Anwar Mir, Pallav Purohit, Shahbaz Mehmood
In this study, an attempt has been made to develop inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for Pakistan at the national and sectoral level. The emission profile includes carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O). In 2012, GHG emissions from different sectors of economy are estimated at 367 Tg CO2 eq. Out of this, CO2 emissions were 179 Tg; CH4 emissions were 107 Tg CO2 eq; and N2 O emissions were 81 Tg CO2 eq. Energy and agriculture sectors contribute approximately 89% of national GHG emissions...
December 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bridget Kool, Shanthi Ameratunga, Nina Scott, Ross Lawrenson, Grant Christey
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of patients with work-related injuries (WRI) admitted to hospitals in New Zealand's Midland Trauma System (MTS) during a four year period. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of trauma registry records for adults (≥15years) admitted to four hospitals in the MTS as a result of WRI between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2015. We describe the patterns of injury incidence by demographic characteristics, employment industry, mechanism of injury, body regions injured, injury severity score (ISS), month, day and time of injury, duration of hospital stay, domicile District Health Board (DHB), and discharge destination...
November 2017: Injury
Jan J Lyczakowski, Krzysztof B Wicher, Oliver M Terrett, Nuno Faria-Blanc, Xiaolan Yu, David Brown, Kristian B R M Krogh, Paul Dupree, Marta Busse-Wicher
BACKGROUND: Plant lignocellulosic biomass can be a source of fermentable sugars for the production of second generation biofuels and biochemicals. The recalcitrance of this plant material is one of the major obstacles in its conversion into sugars. Biomass is primarily composed of secondary cell walls, which is made of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Xylan, a hemicellulose, binds to the cellulose microfibril and is hypothesised to form an interface between lignin and cellulose. Both softwood and hardwood xylan carry glucuronic acid side branches...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Sung Uk Lee
OBJECTIVES: Scrub typhus is the most common febrile disease in Korea during the autumn. Jeju Island is the largest island in South Korea and has a distinctive oceanic climate. This study aimed to identify epidemiologic characteristics of scrub typhus on Jeju Island. METHODS: From January 2011 to December 2016, 446 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus on Jeju Island. The patients' personal data and the environmental factors that might be related to scrub typhus were investigated and retrospectively analyzed...
2017: Epidemiology and Health
Dave Kendal, Rebecca M Ford
"Threatened species programs need a social license to justify public funding" (Zander et al. 2014). Or do they? There is growing acceptance within conservation science that community support for and engagement in ecosystem management programs is likely to lead to better conservation outcomes (Marvier & Wong 2012). However, the language used to characterize relations between conservation and the community is important, and use of the term social license may not always be a useful way to describe this relationship...
August 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Bruce E Dale
A sustainable chemical industry cannot exist at scale without both sustainable feedstocks and feedstock supply chains to provide the raw materials. However, most current research focus is on producing the sustainable chemicals and materials. Little attention is given to how and by whom sustainable feedstocks will be supplied. In effect, we have put the bioproducts cart before the sustainable feedstocks horse. For example, bulky, unstable, non-commodity feedstocks such as crop residues probably cannot supply a large-scale sustainable industry...
September 21, 2017: Faraday Discussions
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