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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087943/rna-interference-in-fungi-retention-and-loss
#1
Francisco E Nicolás, Victoriano Garre
RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism conserved in eukaryotes, including fungi, that represses gene expression by means of small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) of about 20 to 30 nucleotides. Its discovery is one of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the past 20 years, and it has revolutionized our perception of the functioning of the cell. Initially described and characterized in Neurospora crassa, the RNAi is widespread in fungi, suggesting that it plays important functions in the fungal kingdom. Several RNAi-related mechanisms for maintenance of genome integrity, particularly protection against exogenous nucleic acids such as mobile elements, have been described in several fungi, suggesting that this is the main function of RNAi in the fungal kingdom...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087545/predictors-of-public-support-for-nutrition-focused-policy-systems-and-environmental-change-strategies-in-los-angeles-county-2013
#2
Brenda Robles, Tony Kuo
BACKGROUND: Since 2010, federal and local agencies have invested broadly in a variety of nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change (PSE) initiatives in Los Angeles County (LAC). To date, little is known about whether the public supports such efforts. We address this gap in the literature by examining predictors of support for a variety of PSEs. METHODS: Voters residing in LAC (n=1007) were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional telephone survey commissioned by the LAC Department of Public Health...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086971/characteristics-and-use-of-urban-health-indicator-tools-by-municipal-built-environment-policy-and-decision-makers-a-systematic-review-protocol
#3
Helen Pineo, Ketevan Glonti, Harry Rutter, Nicole Zimmermann, Paul Wilkinson, Michael Davies
BACKGROUND: There is wide agreement that there is a lack of attention to health in municipal environmental policy-making, such as urban planning and regeneration. Explanations for this include differing professional norms between health and urban environment professionals, system complexity and limited evidence for causality between attributes of the built environment and health outcomes. Data from urban health indicator (UHI) tools are potentially a valuable form of evidence for local government policy and decision-makers...
January 13, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086770/social-pediatrics-weaving-horizontal-and-vertical-threads-through-pediatric-residency
#4
Meta van den Heuvel, Maria Athina Tina Martimianakis, Rebecca Levy, Adelle Atkinson, Elizabeth Ford-Jones, Michelle Shouldice
BACKGROUND: Social pediatrics teaches pediatric residents how to understand disease within their patients' social, environmental and political contexts. It's an essential component of pediatric residency training; however there is very little literature that addresses how such a broad-ranging topic can be taught effectively. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize social pediatric education in our pediatric residency training in order to identify strengths and gaps. METHODS: A social pediatrics curriculum map was developed, attending to 3 different dimensions: (1) the intended curriculum as prescribed by the Objectives of Training for Pediatrics of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC), (2) the formal curriculum defined by rotation-specific learning objectives, and (3) the informal/hidden curriculum as reflected in resident and teacher experiences and perceptions...
January 13, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078754/evaluating-the-core-microbiota-in-complex-communities-a-systematic-investigation
#5
Carmen Astudillo-Garcia, James J Bell, Nicole S Webster, Bettina Glasl, Jamaluddin Jompa, Jose M Montoya, Michael W Taylor
The study of complex microbial communities poses unique conceptual and analytical challenges, with microbial species potentially numbering in the thousands. With transient or allochthonous microorganisms often adding to this complexity, a 'core' microbiota approach, focusing only on the stable and permanent members of the community, is becoming increasingly popular. Given the various ways of defining a core microbiota, it is prudent to examine whether the definition of the core impacts upon the results obtained...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072866/the-regulatory-roles-of-microrna-in-effects-of-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-bde47-on-the-transcriptome-of-zebrafish-larvae
#6
Jing Zhao, Ting Xu, Daqiang Yin, Bo Zhang, Jianfeng Bai
The developmental neurotoxicity caused by environmental pollutants has received great concern; however, there were still barely known about the underlying toxic mechanisms, especially the influence of varieties of regulatory factors such as microRNA (miRNA). A representative flame retardant, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47), was found to disrupt zebrafish development in visual perception and bone formation in previous study, thus here we investigated its effects on miRNA expression profiling of 6 days post fertilization (dpf) zebrafish larvae by deep sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070305/calling-at-the-highway-the-spatiotemporal-constraint-of-road-noise-on-pacific-chorus-frog-communication
#7
Danielle V Nelson, Holger Klinck, Alexander Carbaugh-Rutland, Codey L Mathis, Anita T Morzillo, Tiffany S Garcia
Loss of acoustic habitat due to anthropogenic noise is a key environmental stressor for vocal amphibian species, a taxonomic group that is experiencing global population declines. The Pacific chorus frog (Pseudacris regilla) is the most common vocal species of the Pacific Northwest and can occupy human-dominated habitat types, including agricultural and urban wetlands. This species is exposed to anthropogenic noise, which can interfere with vocalizations during the breeding season. We hypothesized that Pacific chorus frogs would alter the spatial and temporal structure of their breeding vocalizations in response to road noise, a widespread anthropogenic stressor...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070262/experiences-of-women-regarding-gaps-in-preconception-care-services-in-the-iranian-reproductive-health-care-system-a-qualitative-study
#8
Roghieh Bayrami, Robab Latifnejad Roudsari, Hamid Allahverdipour, Mojgan Javadnoori, Habibollah Esmaily
INTRODUCTION: Despite the beginnings of preconception care (PCC) delivery around a decade ago in Iran, there are still significant gaps in its service delivery. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of women as well as midwives toward gaps in PCC delivery in the Iranian reproductive health care system. METHODS: In this exploratory qualitative study, 27 married women and 13 midwives were recruited using purposive sampling from five health centers in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran...
November 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069779/jasmonate-signaling-and-manipulation-by-pathogens-and-insects
#9
REVIEW
Li Zhang, Feng Zhang, Maeli Melotto, Jian Yao, Sheng Yang He
Plants synthesize jasmonates (JAs) in response to developmental cues or environmental stresses, in order to coordinate plant growth, development or defense against pathogens and herbivores. Perception of pathogen or herbivore attack promotes synthesis of jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), which binds to the COI1-JAZ receptor, triggering the degradation of JAZ repressors and induction of transcriptional reprogramming associated with plant defense. Interestingly, some virulent pathogens have evolved various strategies to manipulate JA signaling to facilitate their exploitation of plant hosts...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067811/knowledge-and-attitudes-towards-handling-eggs-in-the-home-an-unexplored-food-safety-issue
#10
Harriet Whiley, Beverley Clarke, Kirstin Ross
Foodborne illness is a global public health issue, with food handling in the home identified as an underestimated source. In Australia, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of salmonellosis with the majority of outbreaks linked to eggs. This study investigated Australian eggs consumer attitudes, behaviours and risk perceptions associated with the handling of raw eggs in the home. It was identified that 67% of participants chose free range eggs, 11% kept poultry, 7% did not have any preference, 7% cage eggs, 4% barn eggs, 2% organic eggs and 1% pasteurized eggs...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063612/conserved-sequence-processing-in-primate-frontal-cortex
#11
REVIEW
Benjamin Wilson, William D Marslen-Wilson, Christopher I Petkov
An important aspect of animal perception and cognition is learning to recognize relationships between environmental events that predict others in time, a form of relational knowledge that can be assessed using sequence-learning paradigms. Humans are exquisitely sensitive to sequencing relationships, and their combinatorial capacities, most saliently in the domain of language, are unparalleled. Recent comparative research in human and nonhuman primates has obtained behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for evolutionarily conserved substrates involved in sequence processing...
January 4, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056495/novel-rosaceae-plant-elicitor-peptides-as-sustainable-tools-to-control-xanthomonas-arboricola-pv-pruni-in-prunus-spp
#12
Cristina Ruiz, Anna Nadal, Emilio Montesinos, Maria Pla
Fruit crops are regarded as important health promoters and constitute a major part of global agricultural production, and Rosaceae species are of high economic impact. Their culture is threatened by bacterial diseases, which control is only based on preventive treatment with compounds with limited efficacy and a negative environmental impact. One of the most economically relevant examples is the pathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) affecting Prunus spp. Plant immune response against pathogens can be triggered and amplified by plant elicitor peptides (Peps), perceived by specific receptors (PEPRs)...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054813/who-believes-in-the-gambler-s-fallacy-and-why
#13
George D Farmer, Paul A Warren, Ulrike Hahn
Humans possess a remarkable ability to discriminate structure from randomness in the environment. However, this ability appears to be systematically biased. This is nowhere more evident than in the Gambler's Fallacy (GF)-the mistaken belief that observing an increasingly long sequence of "heads" from an unbiased coin makes the occurrence of "tails" on the next trial ever more likely. Although the GF appears to provide evidence of "cognitive bias," a recent theoretical account (Hahn & Warren, 2009) has suggested the GF might be understandable if constraints on actual experience of random sources (such as attention and short term memory) are taken into account...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053026/self-grounded-vision-hand-ownership-modulates-visual-location-through-cortical-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-oscillations
#14
Nathan Faivre, Jonathan Dönz, Michele Scandola, Herberto Dhanis, Javier Bello Ruiz, Fosco Bernasconi, Roy Salomon, Olaf Blanke
: Vision is known to be shaped by context, defined by environmental and bodily signals. In the Taylor illusion, the size of an afterimage projected on one's hand changes according to proprioceptive signals conveying hand position. Here, we assessed whether the Taylor illusion does not just depend on the physical hand position, but also on bodily self-consciousness as quantified through illusory hand ownership. Relying on the somatic rubber hand illusion, we manipulated hand ownership, such that participants embodied a rubber hand placed next to their own hand...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046057/public-perceptions-of-aquaculture-evaluating-spatiotemporal-patterns-of-sentiment-around-the-world
#15
Halley E Froehlich, Rebecca R Gentry, Michael B Rust, Dietmar Grimm, Benjamin S Halpern
Aquaculture is developing rapidly at a global scale and sustainable practices are an essential part of meeting the protein requirements of the ballooning human population. Locating aquaculture offshore is one strategy that may help address some issues related to nearshore development. However, offshore production is nascent and distinctions between the types of aquatic farming may not be fully understood by the public-important for collaboration, research, and development. Here we evaluate and report, to our knowledge, the first multinational quantification of the relative sentiments and opinions of the public around distinct forms of aquaculture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043180/the-effect-of-body-and-mind-stress-releasing-techniques-on-the-breastfeeding-of-full-term-babies-a-critical-analysis-of-published-interventional-studies
#16
Catherine Fotiou, Tania Siahanidou, Petros V Vlastarakos, Evangelia Filothei Tavoulari, George Chrousos
OBJECTIVE: To critically assess the effectiveness of complementary/alternative medicine modalities, comprising body/mind stress-releasing techniques, on the breastfeeding (BF) success of mothers of full-term newborns. METHODS: Literature review in Medline and other available database sources until December 2015, and critical analysis of pooled data. The study selection included randomized-controlled trials, case-control studies, and case-series. RESULTS: The total number of analyzed studies was 9...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042926/the-potential-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-your-health-current-status-and-future-challenges
#17
Stitaya Sirisinha
Our health and probably also our behaviors and mood depend not only on what we eat or what we do (lifestyle behaviors), but also on what we host. It is well established for decades that all vertebrates including humans are colonized by a wide array of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses, and that, at steady state (homeostasis), this community of microbes establishes a friendly mutual relationship with the host. The term microbiota was originally meant to represent an ecological community of commensals and potentially pathogenic microbes that live within our bodies, but it is now used interchangeably with the term microbiome which was initially meant to represent a collective genome of the microbiota...
December 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031208/perception-of-first-respiratory-infection-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-people-with-cystic-fibrosis-and-those-close-to-them-an-online-qualitative-study
#18
Sally C Palser, Oliver C Rayner, Paul A Leighton, Alan R Smyth
BACKGROUND: People with cystic fibrosis (CF) are susceptible to respiratory infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), which may become chronic if initial eradication fails. Environmental acquisition and person-to-person transmission can occur. Respiratory PA infection is associated with increased mortality and more hospitalisations. This may cause patients and families anxiety and lead them to adopt preventive measures which may be ineffectual and intrusive. It is not possible to hold a conventional focus group to explore these issues because people with CF cannot meet together due to the risk of cross-infection...
December 28, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025249/glucosylglycerate-metabolism-bioversatility-and-mycobacterial-survival
#19
REVIEW
Daniela Nunes-Costa, Ana Maranha, Mafalda Costa, Susana Alarico, Nuno Empadinhas
Despite the progressive decline in tuberculosis mortality, strains resistant to our dated antibiotics remain a global threat, as are the emerging nontuberculous mycobacteria, ubiquitous in natural and human environments. This pressing situation boosted by debilitated immune systems, chronic illness and the aged population calls for efficient strategies to fight these successful organisms, and identifying pathways critical for their survival is a crucial step towards this goal. In this context, the glycoside glucosylglycerate (GG) has been implicated in the adaptation of mycobacteria to nitrogen starvation and to thermal stress, and the key gene for GG synthesis has been considered essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth...
December 26, 2016: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013033/differential-sensitivity-to-estrogen-induced-opsin-expression-in-two-poeciliid-freshwater-fish-species
#20
Caitlin N Friesen, Mary E Ramsey, Molly E Cummings
The sensory system shapes an individual's perception of the world, including social interactions with conspecifics, habitat selection, predator detection, and foraging behavior. Sensory signaling can be modulated by steroid hormones, making these processes particularly vulnerable to environmental perturbations. Here we examine the influence of exogenous estrogen manipulation on the visual physiology of female western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) and sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna), two poeciliid species that inhabit freshwater environments across the southern United States...
December 21, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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