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environmental perception

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927243/traditional-mapuche-ecological-knowledge-in-patagonia-argentina-fishes-and-other-living-beings-inhabiting-continental-waters-as-a-reflection-of-processes-of-change
#1
Juana Aigo, Ana Ladio
BACKGROUND: Understanding how people interpret environmental change and develop practices in response to such change is essential to comprehend human resource use. In the cosmology of the American indigenous peoples, as among the Mapuche people, freshwater systems are considered a living entity, where animals have an enormous role to play in the universe of meaning. However, human adaptive responses to freshwater system dynamics are scarcely examined. In this work a survey is carried out in three Mapuche communities of Argentine Patagonia to assess their traditional knowledge of the fishes and other non-human living beings that inhabit lakes and rivers...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923443/child-care-chaos-and-teachers-responsiveness-the-indirect-associations-through-teachers-emotion-regulation-and-coping
#2
Lieny Jeon, Eunhye Hur, Cynthia K Buettner
Teachers in early child-care settings are key contributors to children's development. However, the role of teachers' emotional abilities (i.e., emotion regulation and coping skills) and the role of teacher-perceived environmental chaos in relation to their responsiveness to children are understudied. The current study explored the direct and indirect associations between teachers' perceptions of child-care chaos and their self-reported contingent reactions towards children's negative emotions and challenging social interactions via teachers' emotional regulation and coping strategies...
December 2016: Journal of School Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922841/stress-resiliency-practices-in-neonatal-nurses
#3
Lisa M Pannell, Lynn Rowe, Salena Tully
BACKGROUND: Multiple environmental changes were experienced in a large level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) causing a perception of work-related stress leading to high nurse turnover, decreased engagement, and decreased satisfaction. PURPOSE: To identify a preintervention measure of perceived stress resiliency and ranking of interpretive styles in a population of neonatal, bedside registered nurses faced with a change in the physical practice environment...
December 5, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918797/going-nuclear-evidence-implicating-the-cell-nucleus-in-mechanotransduction
#4
Spencer E Szczesny, Robert L Mauck
Biophysical stimuli presented to cells via micro-environmental properties (e.g., alignment, stiffness) or external forces have a significant impact on their function and behavior. Recently, the cell nucleus has been identified as a mechano-responsive organelle that contributes to the perception and response to mechanical stimuli. However, the specific mechanotransduction mechanisms that mediate these effects have not been clearly defined. Here, we review the evidence supporting (and refuting) three hypothetical nuclear mechanotransduction mechanisms: physical reorganization of chromatin, signaling at the nuclear envelope, and altered cytoskeletal structure/tension due to nuclear remodeling...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914434/long-term-musical-experience-and-auditory-and-visual-perceptual-abilities-under-adverse-conditions
#5
Esperanza M Anaya, David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger
Musicians have been shown to have enhanced speech perception in noise skills. It is unclear whether these improvements are limited to the auditory modality, as no research has examined musicians' visual perceptual abilities under degraded conditions. The current study examined associations between long-term musical experience and visual perception under noisy or degraded conditions. The performance of 11 musicians and 11 age-matched nonmusicians was compared on several auditory and visual perceptions in noise measures...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908060/individual-differences-in-the-perception-of-regional-nonnative-and-disordered-speech-varieties
#6
Tessa Bent, Melissa Baese-Berk, Stephanie A Borrie, Megan McKee
Speech perception abilities vary substantially across listeners, particularly in adverse conditions including those stemming from environmental degradation (e.g., noise) or from talker-related challenges (e.g., nonnative or disordered speech). This study examined adult listeners' recognition of words in phrases produced by six talkers representing three speech varieties: a nonnative accent (Spanish-accented English), a regional dialect (Irish English), and a disordered variety (ataxic dysarthria). Semantically anomalous phrases from these talkers were presented in a transcription task and intelligibility scores, percent words correct, were compared across the three speech varieties...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900674/serotonergic-hallucinogen-induced-visual-perceptual-alterations
#7
Michael Kometer, Franz X Vollenweider
Serotonergic hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), are famous for their capacity to temporally and profoundly alter an individual's visual experiences. These visual alterations show consistent attributes despite large inter- and intra-individual variances. Many reports document a common perception of colors as more saturated, with increased brightness and contrast in the environment ("Visual Intensifications"). Environmental objects might be altered in size ("Visual illusions") or take on a modified and special meaning for the subject ("Altered self-reference")...
November 30, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900353/survey-data-on-key-climate-and-environmental-drivers-of-farmers-migration-in-burkina-faso-west-africa
#8
Safiétou Sanfo, M William Fonta, Ibrahim Boubacar, P A John Lamers
This article describes two datasets generated from various sources in south western Burkina Faso to identify the key climate and environmental drivers that cause farmers to migrate. The survey sampling is random but reasoned and rational. The first dataset from 367 farm households contains data on farmers' perception of climate change risks or hazards, their impacts on farmland productivity and farm households' risk management strategies. The second dataset from 58 farm households contains data on agricultural practices, environmental changes, and environmental migration...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893791/toward-a-nonspeech-test-of-auditory-cognition-semantic-context-effects-in-environmental-sound-identification-in-adults-of-varying-age-and-hearing-abilities
#9
Valeriy Shafiro, Stanley Sheft, Molly Norris, George Spanos, Katherine Radasevich, Paige Formsma, Brian Gygi
OBJECTIVE: Sounds in everyday environments tend to follow one another as events unfold over time. The tacit knowledge of contextual relationships among environmental sounds can influence their perception. We examined the effect of semantic context on the identification of sequences of environmental sounds by adults of varying age and hearing abilities, with an aim to develop a nonspeech test of auditory cognition. METHOD: The familiar environmental sound test (FEST) consisted of 25 individual sounds arranged into ten five-sound sequences: five contextually coherent and five incoherent...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893281/the-effects-of-drug-and-alcohol-consumption-on-driver-injury-severities-in-single-vehicle-crashes
#10
Ali Behnood, Fred L Mannering
OBJECTIVE: It is well known that alcohol and drugs influence driving behavior by affecting the central nervous system, awareness, vision, and perception/reaction times, but the resulting effect driver-injuries in car crashes is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting the injury severities of unimpaired, alcohol-impaired and drug-impaired drivers Method: The current paper applies a random parameters logit model to study the differences in injury severities among unimpaired, alcohol-impaired and drug-impaired drivers...
November 28, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893160/integrating-household-risk-mitigation-behavior-in-flood-risk-analysis-an-agent-based-model-approach
#11
Toon Haer, W J Wouter Botzen, Hans de Moel, Jeroen C J H Aerts
Recent studies showed that climate change and socioeconomic trends are expected to increase flood risks in many regions. However, in these studies, human behavior is commonly assumed to be constant, which neglects interaction and feedback loops between human and environmental systems. This neglect of human adaptation leads to a misrepresentation of flood risk. This article presents an agent-based model that incorporates human decision making in flood risk analysis. In particular, household investments in loss-reducing measures are examined under three economic decision models: (1) expected utility theory, which is the traditional economic model of rational agents; (2) prospect theory, which takes account of bounded rationality; and (3) a prospect theory model, which accounts for changing risk perceptions and social interactions through a process of Bayesian updating...
November 28, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891621/animal-cryptochromes-divergent-roles-in-light-perception-circadian-timekeeping-and-beyond
#12
Alicia K Michael, Jennifer L Fribourgh, Russell N Van Gelder, Carrie L Partch
Cryptochromes are evolutionarily related to the light-dependent DNA repair enzyme photolyase, serving as major regulators of circadian rhythms in insects and vertebrate animals. There are two types of cryptochromes in the animal kingdom: Drosophila-like CRYs that act as non-visual photopigments linking circadian rhythms to the environmental light/dark cycle, and vertebrate-like CRYs that do not appear to sense light directly, but control the generation of circadian rhythms by acting as transcriptional repressors...
November 28, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890122/safety-in-passenger-ships-the-influence-of-environmental-design-characteristics-on-people-s-perception-of-safety
#13
Markus Ahola, Ruth Mugge
Although objective safety is a widely studied topic in ergonomics, subjective safety has received far less research attention. Nevertheless, most of human decision-making and behavior depends on how we perceive our environment. This study investigates the effects of various environmental design characteristics on people's safety perception in a passenger ship context. Five different environmental design characteristics were manipulated to increase the openness of the space or to create more clear navigation, resulting in 20 different cabin corridors for a passenger ship...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888889/skin-color-and-pigmentation-in-ethnic-skin
#14
REVIEW
Marty O Visscher
Skin coloration is highly diverse, partly due to the presence of pigmentation. Color variation is related to the extent of ultraviolet radiation exposure, as well as other factors. Inherent skin coloration arises from differences in basal epidermal melanin amount and type. Skin color is influenced by both the quantity and distribution of melanocytes. The effectiveness of inherent pigmentation for protecting living cells also varies. This article discusses skin color, pigmentation, and ethnicity in relation to clinical practice...
February 2017: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888336/ocean-acidification-alters-temperature-and-salinity-preferences-in-larval-fish
#15
Jennifer C A Pistevos, Ivan Nagelkerken, Tullio Rossi, Sean D Connell
Ocean acidification alters the way in which animals perceive and respond to their world by affecting a variety of senses such as audition, olfaction, vision and pH sensing. Marine species rely on other senses as well, but we know little of how these might be affected by ocean acidification. We tested whether ocean acidification can alter the preference for physicochemical cues used for dispersal between ocean and estuarine environments. We experimentally assessed the behavioural response of a larval fish (Lates calcarifer) to elevated temperature and reduced salinity, including estuarine water of multiple cues for detecting settlement habitat...
November 25, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886528/neighborhood-social-stressors-fine-particulate-matter-air-pollution-and-cognitive-function-among-older-u-s-adults
#16
Jennifer Ailshire, Amelia Karraker, Philippa Clarke
A growing number of studies have found a link between outdoor air pollution and cognitive function among older adults. Psychosocial stress is considered an important factor determining differential susceptibility to environmental hazards and older adults living in stressful neighborhoods may be particularly vulnerable to the adverse health effects of exposure to hazards such as air pollution. The objective of this study is to determine if neighborhood social stress amplifies the association between fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2...
November 14, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881191/policies-for-healthy-and-sustainable-edible-oil-consumption-a-stakeholder-analysis-for-thailand
#17
Bhavani Shankar, Nalitra Thaiprasert, Shabbir Gheewala, Richard Smith
OBJECTIVE: Palm oil is a cheap and versatile edible oil in widespread use as a food ingredient that has been linked to negative health and environmental outcomes. The current study aimed to understand the prospects for future health-focused policy development to limit food use of palm oil and promote a greater diversity of oils in Thailand's food system. DESIGN: Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with a range of stakeholders. The interviews probed views on the economic, health and environmental dimensions of the issue, the prospects for health-focused policy development and the policy development process...
November 24, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878597/the-sweet-cherry-prunus-avium-flowering-locus-t-gene-is-expressed-during-floral-bud-determination-and-can-promote-flowering-in-a-winter-annual-arabidopsis-accession
#18
Antonia Yarur, Esteban Soto, Gabriel León, Andrea Miyasaka Almeida
FT gene is expressed in leaves and buds and is involved in floral meristem determination and bud development in sweet cherry. In woody fruit perennial trees, floral determination, dormancy and bloom, depends on perception of different environmental and endogenous cues which converge to a systemic signaling gene known as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). In long-day flowering plants, FT is expressed in the leaves on long days. The protein travels through the phloem to the shoot apical meristem, where it induces flower determination...
December 2016: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876848/novel-structure-in-sciaenid-fish-skulls-indicates-continuous-production-of-the-cephalic-neuromast-cupula
#19
Maíra Pombo, Alexander Turra
The presence of a conspicuous and frequent but never-described structure in the skull cavities of sciaenid fish was noted during population studies in an urbanized bay. The ultrastructure closely resembles the cupula of neuromasts, an organ associated with the perception of the environment in teleost fish. The bodies were recorded detached in both preserved and freshly sampled individuals and without associated cilia. Prominent characteristics are acellularity, the elliptic-conic shape composed of stack-like protein lamellas, and a mesh-like appearance in cross section...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876324/developing-a-questionnaire-to-evaluate-college-students-knowledge-attitude-behavior-self-efficacy-and-environmental-factors-related-to-canned-foods
#20
Rickelle Richards, Lora Beth Brown, D Pauline Williams, Dennis L Eggett
OBJECTIVE: Develop a questionnaire to measure students' knowledge, attitude, behavior, self-efficacy, and environmental factors related to the use of canned foods. METHODS: The Knowledge-Attitude-Behavior Model, Social Cognitive Theory, and Canned Foods Alliance survey were used as frameworks for questionnaire development. Cognitive interviews were conducted with college students (n = 8). Nutrition and survey experts assessed content validity. Reliability was measured via Cronbach α and 2 rounds (1, n = 81; 2, n = 65) of test-retest statistics...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
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