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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342799/lost-in-processing-perceived-healthfulness-taste-and-caloric-content-of-whole-and-processed-organic-food
#1
Marília Prada, Margarida V Garrido, David Rodrigues
The "organic" claim explicitly informs consumers about the food production method. Yet, based on this claim, people often infer unrelated food attributes. The current research examined whether the perceived advantage of organic over conventional food generalizes across different organic food types. Compared to whole organic foods, processed organic foods are less available, familiar and prototypical of the organic food category. In two studies (combined N = 258) we investigated how both organic foods types were perceived in healthfulness, taste and caloric content when compared to their conventional alternatives...
March 23, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339829/perceived-office-environments-and-occupational-physical-activity-in-office-based-workers
#2
A Sawyer, L Smith, M Ucci, R Jones, A Marmot, A Fisher
Background: Individuals in office-based occupations have low levels of physical activity but there is little research into the socio-ecological correlates of workplace activity. Aims: To identify factors contributing to office-based workers' perceptions of the office environment and explore cross-sectional relationships between these factors and occupational physical activity. Methods: Participants in the Active Buildings study reported perceptions of their office environment using the Movement at Work Survey...
March 1, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339352/approaching-environmental-sustainability-perceptions-of-self-efficacy-and-changeability
#3
Nicola S Schutte, Navjot Bhullar
This paper describes a model focused on the role of self-efficacy and belief in changeability of behavior in motivating environmentally sustainable behavior. The model was tested in two studies. The first study found that participants who had greater self-efficacy for sustainability behavior and a greater belief in their changeability of sustainability behavior had a higher level of approach motivation toward sustainability behavior and reported more such actual behavior. The second study investigated the effect of brief interventions intended to increase perception of self-efficacy for sustainability-related purchasing and changeability of sustainability-related purchasing...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338943/dysfunction-of-large-scale-brain-networks-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#4
Debo Dong, Yulin Wang, Xuebin Chang, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with disorganized communication among large-scale brain networks, as demonstrated by impaired resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). Individual rsFC studies, however, vary greatly in their methods and findings. We searched for consistent patterns of network dysfunction in schizophrenia by using a coordinate-based meta-analysis. Fifty-six seed-based voxel-wise rsFC datasets from 52 publications (2115 patients and 2297 healthy controls) were included in this meta-analysis...
March 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335543/influence-of-transportation-noise-and-noise-sensitivity-on-annoyance-a-cross-sectional-study-in-south-korea
#5
Joo Hyun Sung, Jiho Lee, Kyoung Sook Jeong, Soogab Lee, Changmyung Lee, Min-Woo Jo, Chang Sun Sim
Environmental noise is known to cause noise annoyance. Since noise annoyance is a subjective indicator, other mediators-such as noise sensitivity-may influence its perception. However, few studies have thus far been conducted on noise annoyance in South Korea that consider noise sensitivity and noise level simultaneously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between noise sensitivity or noise level and noise annoyance on a large scale in South Korea. This study estimated the level of noise exposure based on a noise map created in 2014; identified and surveyed 1836 subjects using a questionnaire; and assessed the impact of transportation noise and noise sensitivity on noise annoyance...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334302/olfaction-warps-visual-time-perception
#6
Bin Zhou, Guo Feng, Wei Chen, Wen Zhou
Our perception of the world builds upon dynamic inputs from multiple senses with different temporal resolutions, and is threaded with the passing of subjective time. How time is extracted from multisensory inputs is scantly known. Utilizing psychophysical testing and electroencephalography, we show in healthy human adults that odors modulate object visibility around critical flicker-fusion frequency (CFF)-the limit at which chromatic flickers become perceived as a stable color-and effectively alter CFF in a congruency-based manner, despite that they afford no clear environmental temporal information...
March 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333493/bayesian-approaches-to-autism-towards-volatility-action-and-behavior
#7
Colin J Palmer, Rebecca P Lawson, Jakob Hohwy
Autism spectrum disorder currently lacks an explanation that bridges cognitive, computational, and neural domains. In the past 5 years, progress has been sought in this area by drawing on Bayesian probability theory to describe both social and nonsocial aspects of autism in terms of systematic differences in the processing of sensory information in the brain. The present article begins by synthesizing the existing literature in this regard, including an introduction to the topic for unfamiliar readers. The key proposal is that autism is characterized by a greater weighting of sensory information in updating probabilistic representations of the environment...
March 23, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333344/probing-the-evolutionary-history-of-human-bitter-taste-receptor-pseudogenes-by-restoring-their-function
#8
Davide Risso, Maik Behrens, Eduardo Sainz, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Dennis Drayna
Lineage-specific gene losses can be driven by selection or environmental adaptations. However, a lack of studies on the original function of species-specific pseudogenes leaves a gap in our understanding of their role in evolutionary histories. Pseudogenes are of particular relevance for taste perception genes, which encode for receptors that confer the ability to both identify nutritionally valuable substances and avoid potentially harmful substances. To explore the role of bitter taste pseudogenization events in human origins, we restored the open reading frames of the three human-specific pseudogenes and synthesized the reconstructed functional hTAS2R2, hTAS2R62 and hTAS2R64 receptors...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333110/stakeholder-perceptions-of-welfare-issues-and-indicators-for-extensively-managed-sheep-in-australia
#9
Amanda K Doughty, Grahame J Coleman, Geoff N Hinch, Rebecca E Doyle
An online survey was designed to form the basis of a framework for the welfare assessment of extensively managed sheep in Australia. The survey focused on welfare compromise and useful welfare indicators. A total of 952 people completed the survey in its entirety, representing four stakeholder groups: Public (53.6%), Producer (27.4%), Scientist (9.9%), and Service provider (9.1%). Animal welfare was considered to be important by all participating groups in this survey (average score of 3.78/4). Respondents felt the welfare of grazing sheep was generally adequate but improvement was desired (2...
March 23, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331120/color-functionality-used-in-visual-display-for-occupational-and-environmental-safety-and-managing-color-vision-deficiency
#10
Nobuhisa Ochiai, Hiroyuki Kondo
The effects of color perception are utilized in visual displays for the purpose of safety in the workplace and in daily life. These effects, generally known as color functionality, are divided into four classifications: visibility, legibility, conspicuity and discriminability. This article focuses on the relationship between the color functionality of color schemes used in visual displays for occupational and environmental safety and color vision deficiency (particularly congenital red-green color deficiency), a critical issue in ophthalmology, and examines the effects of color functionality on the perception of the color red in individuals with protan defects...
2017: Journal of UOEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330935/the-role-of-enhanced-responses-to-aba1-era1-in-arabidopsis-stomatal-responses-is-beyond-aba-signaling
#11
Pirko Jalakas, Yi-Chun Huang, Yu-Hung Yeh, Laurent Zimmerli, Ebe Merilo, Hannes Kollist, Mikael Brosche
Proper stomatal responses are essential for plant function in an altered environment. The core signaling pathway for abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure involves perception of the hormone that leads to the activation of guard cell anion channels by the protein kinase OPEN STOMATA1 (OST1). Several other regulators are suggested to modulate the ABA signaling pathway, including the protein ENHANCED RESPONSE TO ABA 1 (ERA1), that encodes the farnesyl transferase beta subunit. The era1 mutant is hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination and shows a more closed stomata phenotype...
March 22, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328265/student-nurses-perceptions-of-dignity-in-the-care-of-older-people
#12
Leah Macaden, Richard G Kyle, Wayne Medford, Julie Blundell, Sarah-Anne Munoz, Elaine Webster
AIM: The aim of this research was to investigate student nurses' perceptions of the concept of dignity in the care of older people. Student nurses regularly move between the classroom and the clinical setting and are thus ideally placed to cast light on the barriers that exist to providing dignity in care and the way in which their theoretical understanding of dignity is shaped by exposure to the practice setting. METHOD: All student nurses on a three-year undergraduate nursing programme at one university were invited to participate in an online questionnaire survey and focus groups...
March 9, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327225/accurate-perceptions-do-not-need-complete-information-to-reflect-reality
#13
Shabnam Mousavi, David C Funder
Social reality of a group emerges from interpersonal perceptions and beliefs put to action under a host of environmental conditions. By extending the study of fast-and-frugal heuristics, we view social perceptions as judgment tools and assert that perceptions are ecologically rational to the degree that they adapt to the social reality. We maintain that the veracity of both stereotypes and base rates, as judgment tools, can be determined solely by accuracy research.
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323457/n-of-1-study-of-weight-loss-maintenance-assessing-predictors-of-physical-activity-adherence-to-weight-loss-plan-and-weight-change
#14
Dominika Kwasnicka, Stephan U Dombrowski, Martin White, Falko F Sniehotta
OBJECTIVE: Behaviour change interventions are effective in supporting individuals to achieve clinically significant weight loss, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) is less often attained. This study examined predictive variables associated with WLM. DESIGN: N-of-1 study with daily ecological momentary assessment combined with objective measurement of weight and physical activity, collected with wireless devices (Fitbit™) for six months. Eight previously obese adults who had lost over 5% of their body weight in the past year took part...
March 21, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322666/parks-as-social-and-cultural-spaces-among-u-s-and-foreign-born-latinas
#15
Frances Munet-Vilaró, Sabrina Marie Chase, Sandra Echeverria
Parks provide opportunities for people to engage in activities that can promote physical and emotional well-being. Using focus groups and personal interviews conducted in select neighborhoods of a Northeastern city with a high rate of obesity, we examined perceptions of barriers and facilitators regarding the use of parks and park features that would promote physical activity among Latina women ( N = 39). Foreign-born Latinas emphasized the environmental characteristics of parks and the types of amenities that can support preferred cultural and social activities, while U...
February 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322525/-la-percezione-del-rapporto-ambiente-salute-secondo-i-dati-della-sorveglianza-progressi-delle-aziende-sanitarie-per-la-salute-in-italia-passi
#16
Letizia Sampaolo, Giulia Tommaso, Bianca Gherardi, Giuliano Carrozzi, Anna Freni Sterrantino, Marta Ottone, Carlo Alberto Goldoni, Nicoletta Bertozzi, Meri Scaringi, Lara Bolognesi, Maria Masocco, Stefania Salmaso, Paolo Lauriola
"OBJECTIVES: to identify groups of people in relation to the perception of environmental risk and to assess the main characteristics using data collected in the environmental module of the surveillance network Italian Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (PASSI). METHODS: perceptive profiles were identified using a latent class analysis; later they were included as outcome in multinomial logistic regression models to assess the association between environmental risk perception and demographic, health, socio-economic and behavioural variables...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321819/the-perceptual-basis-of-vast-space
#17
Roberta L Klatzky, William B Thompson, Jeanine K Stefanucci, Devin Gill, D Kevin McGee
"Vast" is a word often applied to environmental terrain that is perceived to have large spatial extent. This judgment is made even at viewing distances where traditional metric depth cues are not useful. This paper explores the perceptual basis of vast experience, including reliability and visual precursors. Experiment 1 demonstrated strong agreement in ratings of the spatial extent of two-dimensional (2D) scene images by participants in two countries under very different viewing conditions. Image categories labeled "vast" often exemplified scene attributes of ruggedness and openness (Oliva & Torralba, 2001)...
March 20, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321132/the-outcomes-of-health-promoting-communities-being-active-eating-well-initiative-a-community-based-obesity-prevention-intervention-in-victoria-australia
#18
K A Bolton, P Kremer, L Gibbs, E Waters, B Swinburn, A de Silva
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the Health Promoting Communities: Being Active Eating Well (HPC:BAEW, 2007-2010) initiative which comprised of community-based multi-component interventions adapted to community context in five separate communities. The intervention aimed to promote healthy eating, physical activity and stronger, healthier communities. METHODS: A mixed method and multi-level quasi-experimental evaluation of the HPC:BAEW initiative captured process, impact and outcome data...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320967/self-identity-reprogrammed-by-a-single-residue-switch-in-a-cell-surface-receptor-of-a-social-bacterium
#19
Pengbo Cao, Daniel Wall
The ability to recognize close kin confers survival benefits on single-celled microbes that live in complex and changing environments. Microbial kinship detection relies on perceptible cues that reflect relatedness between individuals, although the mechanisms underlying recognition in natural populations remain poorly understood. In myxobacteria, cells identify related individuals through a polymorphic cell surface receptor, TraA. Recognition of compatible receptors leads to outer membrane exchange among clonemates and fitness consequences...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316774/glutathione-metabolism-in-the-prefrontal-brain-of-adults-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-mrs-study
#20
Dominique Endres, Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Simon A Meyer, Bernd Feige, Kathrin Nickel, Anna Bubl, Andreas Riedel, Dieter Ebert, Thomas Lange, Volkmar Glauche, Monica Biscaldi, Alexandra Philipsen, Simon J Maier, Evgeniy Perlov
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by difficulties in social communication, unusually restricted, repetitive behavior and interests, and specific abnormalities in language and perception. The precise etiology of ASD is still unknown and probably heterogeneous. In a subgroup of patients, toxic environmental exposure might lead to an imbalance between oxidative stress and anti-oxidant systems. Previous serum and postmortem studies measuring levels of glutathione (GSH), the main cellular free radical scavenger in the brain, have supported the hypothesis that this compound might play a role in the pathophysiology of autism...
2017: Molecular Autism
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