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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905879/transcriptome-profiling-in-the-damselfly-ischnura-elegans-identifies-genes-with-sex-biased-expression
#1
Pallavi Chauhan, Maren Wellenreuther, Bengt Hansson
BACKGROUND: Sexual dimorphism occurs widely across the animal kingdom and has profound effects on evolutionary trajectories. Here, we investigate sex-specific gene expression in Ischnura elegans (Odonata: dragonflies and damselflies), a species with pronounced sexual differences including a female-limited colour polymorphism with two female-like gynochrome morphs and one male-mimicking, androchrome morph. Whole-organism transcriptome profiling and sex-biased gene expression analysis was conducted on adults of both sexes (pooling all females as well as separating the three morphs) to gain insights into genes and pathways potentially associated with sexual development and sexual conflict...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903433/cold-acclimation-allows-drosophila-flies-to-maintain-mitochondrial-functioning-under-cold-stress
#2
Hervé Colinet, David Renault, Damien Roussel
Environmental stress generally disturbs cellular homeostasis. Researchers have hypothesized that chilling injury is linked to a shortage of ATP. However, previous studies conducted on insects exposed to nonfreezing low temperatures presented conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the mitochondrial bioenergetics of Drosophila melanogaster flies exposed to chronic cold stress (4 °C). We assessed mitochondrial oxygen consumption while monitoring the rate of ATP synthesis at various times (0, 1, 2, and 3 days) during prolonged cold stress and at two assay temperatures (25 and 4 °C)...
November 27, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902455/inaccurate-official-assessment-of-radiofrequency-safety-by-the-advisory-group-on-non-ionising-radiation
#3
Sarah J Starkey
The Advisory Group on Non-ionising Radiation (AGNIR) 2012 report forms the basis of official advice on the safety of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields in the United Kingdom and has been relied upon by health protection agencies around the world. This review describes incorrect and misleading statements from within the report, omissions and conflict of interest, which make it unsuitable for health risk assessment. The executive summary and overall conclusions did not accurately reflect the scientific evidence available...
December 1, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896730/scaling-up-the-phylogenetic-detection-of-lateral-gene-transfer-events
#4
Cheong Xin Chan, Robert G Beiko, Mark A Ragan
Lateral genetic transfer (LGT) is the process by which genetic material moves between organisms (and viruses) in the biosphere. Among the many approaches developed for the inference of LGT events from DNA sequence data, methods based on the comparison of phylogenetic trees remain the gold standard for many types of problem. Identifying LGT events from sequenced genomes typically involves a series of steps in which homologous sequences are identified and aligned, phylogenetic trees are inferred, and their topologies are compared to identify unexpected or conflicting relationships...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894691/application-of-the-lymphocyte-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-assay-to-populations-exposed-to-petroleum-and-its-derivatives-results-from-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Sabrina Angelini, Justo Lorenzo Bermejo, Gloria Ravegnini, Giulia Sammarini, Patrizia Hrelia
The lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay is applied in many different in vivo biomonitoring studies of human exposure to genotoxic chemicals. Among extensively chemicals investigated, we identified petroleum and its derivatives, in particular benzene and the most common mixture of benzene, toluene, and xylene. Although conflicting results have been reported on the effects of benzene exposure, the number of positive findings in independent studies suggests that occupational exposure to benzene causes DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894681/results-of-micronucleus-assays-with-individuals-who-are-occupationally-and-environmentally-exposed-to-mercury-lead-and-cadmium
#6
REVIEW
Armen Nersesyan, Michael Kundi, Monika Waldherr, Tahereh Setayesh, Miroslav Mišík, Georg Wultsch, Metka Filipic, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron Barcelos, Siegfried Knasmueller
Millions of humans are exposed occupationally and environmentally to lead, mercury and cadmium compounds. Mercury compounds are less abundant but some of them belong to the most toxic chemicals which are known. We evaluated the literature to find out if these metals act in humans as genotoxic carcinogens and if their health effects can be predicted by use of micronucleus (MN) assays with lymphocytes and/or with other genotoxicity tests. Numerous studies showed that lead and mercury induce cancer in humans and also in animals, in vitro experiments with cultured cells indicate that they cause DNA damage via different molecular mechanisms including release of reactive oxygen species and interactions with DNA repair processes...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878915/plant-phytopathogen-interactions-bacterial-responses-to-environmental-and-plant-stimuli
#7
REVIEW
Simon Leonard, Florence Hommais, William Nasser, Sylvie Reverchon
Plant pathogenic bacteria attack numerous agricultural crops, causing devastating effects on plant productivity and yield. They survive in diverse environments, both in plants, as pathogens, and also outside their hosts as saprophytes. Hence, they are confronted with numerous changing environmental parameters. During infection, plant pathogens have to deal with stressful conditions, such as acidic, oxidative and osmotic stresses; anaerobiosis; plant defenses; and contact with antimicrobial compounds. These adverse conditions can reduce bacterial survival and compromise disease initiation and propagation...
November 23, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872028/monogamy-and-nonmonogamy-evolutionary-considerations-and-treatment-challenges
#8
REVIEW
Marianne Brandon
INTRODUCTION: Few topics generate such controversy and emotional reactivity as the nature of human mating behavior. Unfortunately, and potentially to the detriment of good patient care, sexual medicine practitioners have largely avoided this matter. An understanding of the scientific literature can empower practitioners to more effectively confront the inevitable monogamy and nonmonogamy challenges present in research and clinical practice. AIM: To review and summarize relevant scientific literature as a context to evaluate the more common myths and misunderstanding relating to the practice of monogamy and nonmonogamy in humans...
October 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871926/the-telomere-attrition-rate-is-not-accelerated-in-women-born-small-for-gestational-age-a-birth-cohort-study
#9
Anderson Sanches de Melo, Rosana Maria Dos Reis, Rodrigo do Tocantins Calado de Saloma Rodrigues, Ricardo de Carvalho Cavalli, Heloisa Bettiol, Viviane Cunha Cardoso, Rui Alberto Ferriani, Marco Antonio Barbieri, Carolina Sales Vieira
Physiologically, a reduction in telomere length (LTL) occurs with aging, but epigenetic changes may accelerate telomere shortening and also facilitate the onset of oxidative/inflammatory stress and the development of clinical/metabolic comorbidities in life spam. Although individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) may be related to those epigenetic changes, the assessment of LTL in individuals born SGA has yielded conflicting results (only cross-sectional studies) and has not been carried out in longitudinal studies...
November 18, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867217/avoidance-of-wind-farms-by-harbour-seals-is-limited-to-pile-driving-activities
#10
Debbie J F Russell, Gordon D Hastie, David Thompson, Vincent M Janik, Philip S Hammond, Lindesay A S Scott-Hayward, Jason Matthiopoulos, Esther L Jones, Bernie J McConnell
As part of global efforts to reduce dependence on carbon-based energy sources there has been a rapid increase in the installation of renewable energy devices. The installation and operation of these devices can result in conflicts with wildlife. In the marine environment, mammals may avoid wind farms that are under construction or operating. Such avoidance may lead to more time spent travelling or displacement from key habitats. A paucity of data on at-sea movements of marine mammals around wind farms limits our understanding of the nature of their potential impacts...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866995/an-integrated-decision-making-approach-for-assessing-healthcare-waste-treatment-technologies-from-a-multiple-stakeholder
#11
Hua Shi, Hu-Chen Liu, Ping Li, Xue-Guo Xu
With increased worldwide awareness of environmental issues, healthcare waste (HCW) management has received much attention from both researchers and practitioners over the past decade. The task of selecting the optimum treatment technology for HCWs is a challenging decision making problem involving conflicting evaluation criteria and multiple stakeholders. In this paper, we develop an integrated decision making framework based on cloud model and MABAC method for evaluating and selecting the best HCW treatment technology from a multiple stakeholder perspective...
November 17, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862532/spatio-temporal-genetic-structure-and-the-effects-of-long-term-fishing-in-two-partially-sympatric-offshore-demersal-fishes
#12
Romina Henriques, Sophie von der Heyden, Marek R Lipinski, Nina du Toit, Paulus Kainge, Paulette Bloomer, Conrad A Matthee
Environmental gradients have been shown to disrupt gene flow in marine species, yet their influence in structuring populations at depth remains poorly understood. The Cape hakes (Merluccius paradoxus and M. capensis) are demersal species co-occurring in the Benguela Current system, where decades of intense fishing resulted in severely depleted stocks in the past. Previous studies identified conflicting mtDNA genetic substructuring patterns and thus contrasting evolutionary trajectories for both species. Using 10 microsatellite loci, the control region of mtDNA and employing a seascape genetics approach, we investigated genetic connectivity and the impact of prolonged exploitation in the two species, which are characterized by different patterns of fishing pressure...
December 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856034/understanding-local-community-s-values-worldviews-and-perceptions-in-the-galloway-and-southern-ayrshire-biosphere-reserve-scotland
#13
Maya I Hernes, Marc J Metzger
Biosphere reserves have been studied around the world, but methods to elicit community's values, worldviews and perceptions are missing. A greater understanding of these can help avoid tension and improve successful management. This paper used a mixed-methods survey to elicit local community's environmental values, ecological world views and perceptions of the Galloway and Southern Ayrshire Biosphere Reserve (GSABR). Over three weeks, forty participants from three communities of the GSABR responded to a semi-structured mixed-methods survey...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849636/the-potential-role-of-wolbachia-in-controlling-the-transmission-of-emerging-human-arboviral-infections
#14
Joseph Kamtchum-Tatuene, Benjamin L Makepeace, Laura Benjamin, Matthew Baylis, Tom Solomon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Wolbachia is a genus of Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that is naturally found in more than half of all arthropod species. These bacteria cannot only reduce the fitness and the reproductive capacities of arthropod vectors, but also increase their resistance to arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). This article reviews the evidence supporting a Wolbachia-based strategy for controlling the transmission of dengue and other arboviral infections. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies conducted 1 year after the field release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes in Australia have demonstrated the suppression of dengue virus (DENV) replication in and dissemination by mosquitoes...
November 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846716/-mechanisms-of-protein-homeostasis-regulation-in-cancer-development
#15
F Trčka, P Müller, B Vojtěšek
BACKGROUND: The proteome of eukaryotic cells represents a complex system. Its components are exposed to various intrinsic and extrinsic stresses. Therefore, the function of the cellular proteome is dependent on the existence of compensatory mechanisms balancing the inner protein homeostasis - proteostasis. These mechanisms involve the network of molecular chaperones and transcriptional program regulating their expression. The process of cancerogenesis is accompanied by significant changes in the intracellular milieu of cancer cells - temperature, pH, availability of nutrients...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845371/core-shell-microstructured-nanocomposites-for-synergistic-adjustment-of-environmental-temperature-and-humidity
#16
Haiquan Zhang, Yanping Yuan, Nan Zhang, Qingrong Sun, Xiaoling Cao
The adjustment of temperature and humidity is of great importance in a variety of fields. Composites that can perform both functions are prepared by mixing phase change materials (PCMs) with hygroscopic materials. However, the contact area between the adsorbent and humid air is inevitably decreased in such structures, which reduces the number of mass transfer channels for water vapor. An approach entailing the increase in the mass ratio of the adsorbent is presented here to improve the adsorption capacity. A core-shell CuSO4/polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanomaterial was developed to satisfy the conflicting requirements of temperature control and dehumidification...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832185/bats-and-academics-how-do-scientists-perceive-their-object-of-study
#17
Christophe Boëte, Serge Morand
Bats are associated with conflicting perceptions among humans, ranging from affection to disgust. If these attitudes can be associated with various factors among the general public (e.g. social norms, lack of knowledge), it is also important to understand the attitude of scientists who study bats. Such reflexive information on the researchers community itself could indeed help designing adequate mixed communication tools aimed at protecting bats and their ecosystems, as well as humans living in their vicinity that could be exposed to their pathogens...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829142/sensory-conflict-disrupts-activity-of-the-drosophila-circadian-network
#18
Ross E F Harper, Peter Dayan, Joerg T Albert, Ralf Stanewsky
Periodic changes in light and temperature synchronize the Drosophila circadian clock, but the question of how the fly brain integrates these two input pathways to set circadian time remains unanswered. We explore multisensory cue combination by testing the resilience of the circadian network to conflicting environmental inputs. We show that misaligned light and temperature cycles can lead to dramatic changes in the daily locomotor activities of wild-type flies during and after exposure to sensory conflict...
November 8, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801860/using-virtual-street-audits-to-understand-the-walkability-of-older-adults-route-choices-by-gender-and-age
#19
Katherine Brookfield, Sara Tilley
Walking for physical activity can bring important health benefits to older adults. In this population, walking has been related to various urban design features and street characteristics. To gain new insights into the microscale environmental details that might influence seniors' walking, details which might be more amenable to change than neighbourhood level factors, we employed a reliable streetscape audit tool, in combination with Google Street View(™), to evaluate the 'walkability' of where older adults choose to walk...
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796487/participatory-multi-criteria-evaluation-methods-as-a-means-to-increase-the-legitimacy-and-sustainability-of-land-use-planning-processes-the-case-of-the-chaco-region-in-salta-argentina
#20
Lucas Seghezzo, Cristian Venencia, E Catalina Buliubasich, Martín A Iribarnegaray, José N Volante
Conflicts over land use and ownership are common in South America and generate frequent confrontations among indigenous peoples, small-scale farmers, and large-scale agricultural producers. We argue in this paper that an accurate identification of these conflicts, together with a participatory evaluation of their importance, will increase the social legitimacy of land use planning processes, rendering decision-making more sustainable in the long term. We describe here a participatory, multi-criteria conflict assessment model developed to identify, locate, and categorize land tenure and use conflicts...
October 28, 2016: Environmental Management
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