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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920015/working-with-bacteria-and-putting-bacteria-to-work-the-biopolitics-of-synthetic-biology-for-energy-in-the-united-kingdom
#1
Carmen McLeod, Brigitte Nerlich, Alison Mohr
The UK government has made significant investment into so called 'fourth-generation' biofuel technologies. These biofuels are based on engineering the metabolic pathways of bacteria in order to create products compatible with existing infrastructure. Bacteria play an important role in what is promoted as a potentially new biological industrial revolution, which could address some of the negative environmental legacies of the last. This article presents results from ethnographic research with synthetic biologists who are challenged with balancing the curiosity-driven and intrinsically fulfilling scientific task of working with bacteria, alongside the policy-driven task of putting bacteria to work for extrinsic economic gains...
August 2017: Energy Research & Social Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915473/endocrine-disrupting-compounds-in-streams-in-israel-and-the-palestinian-west-bank-implications-for-transboundary-basin-management
#2
Pniela Dotan, Maayan Yeshayahu, Wa'd Odeh, Nina Gordon-Kirsch, Ludmila Groisman, Nader Al-Khateeb, Alfred Abed Rabbo, Alon Tal, Shai Arnon
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) frequently enter surface waters via discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as well as from industrial and agricultural activities, creating environmental and health concerns. In this study, selected EDCs were measured in water and sediments along two transboundary streams flowing from the Palestinian Authority (PA) into Israel (the Zomar-Alexander and Hebron-Beer Sheva Streams). We assessed how the complicated conflict situation between Israel and the PA and the absence of a coordinated strategy and joint stream management commission influence effective EDC control...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912490/the-interdependent-network-of-gene-regulation-and-metabolism-is-robust-where-it-needs-to-be
#3
David F Klosik, Anne Grimbs, Stefan Bornholdt, Marc-Thorsten Hütt
Despite being highly interdependent, the major biochemical networks of the living cell-the networks of interacting genes and of metabolic reactions, respectively-have been approached mostly as separate systems so far. Recently, a framework for interdependent networks has emerged in the context of statistical physics. In a first quantitative application of this framework to systems biology, here we study the interdependent network of gene regulation and metabolism for the model organism Escherichia coli in terms of a biologically motivated percolation model...
September 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903626/light-dominates-peripheral-circadian-oscillations-in-drosophila-melanogaster-during-sensory-conflict
#4
Ross E F Harper, Maite Ogueta, Peter Dayan, Ralf Stanewsky, Joerg T Albert
In Drosophila, as in other animals, the circadian clock is a singular entity in name and concept only. In reality, clock functions emerge from multiple processes and anatomical substrates. One distinction has conventionally been made between a central clock (in the brain) and peripheral clocks (e.g., in the gut and the eyes). Both types of clock generate robust circadian oscillations, which do not require external input. Furthermore, the phases of these oscillations remain exquisitely sensitive to specific environmental cues, such as the daily changes of light and temperature...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884117/the-role-of-mirnas-as-biomarkers-for-pregnancy-outcomes-a-comprehensive-review
#5
REVIEW
Martina Barchitta, Andrea Maugeri, Annalisa Quattrocchi, Ottavia Agrifoglio, Antonella Agodi
Several studies showed that altered expression of the miRNA-ome in maternal circulation or in placental tissue may reflect not only gestational disorders, such as preeclampsia, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, low birth weight, or macrosomia, but also prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants. Generally, the relationships between environmental exposure, changes in miRNA expression, and gestational disorders are explored separately, producing conflicting findings. However, validation of tissue-accessible biomarkers for the monitoring of adverse pregnancy outcomes needs a systematic methodological approach that takes also into account early-life environmental exposure...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883889/a-review-of-factors-affecting-the-transfer-of-sexual-and-reproductive-health-training-into-practice-in-low-and-lower-middle-income-country-humanitarian-settings
#6
Kristen Beek, Angela Dawson, Anna Whelan
BACKGROUND: A lack of access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among displaced women and girls of reproductive age. Efforts to address this public health emergency in humanitarian settings have included the widespread delivery of training programmes to address gaps in health worker capacity for SRH. There remains a lack of data on the factors which may affect the ability of health workers to apply SRH knowledge and skills gained through training programmes in humanitarian contexts...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882507/stochastic-noncooperative-and-cooperative-evolutionary-game-strategies-of-a-population-of-biological-networks-under-natural-selection
#7
REVIEW
Bor-Sen Chen, Chin-Hsun Yeh
We review current static and dynamic evolutionary game strategies of biological networks and discuss the lack of random genetic variations and stochastic environmental disturbances in these models. To include these factors, a population of evolving biological networks is modeled as a nonlinear stochastic biological system with Poisson-driven genetic variations and random environmental fluctuations (stimuli). To gain insight into the evolutionary game theory of stochastic biological networks under natural selection, the phenotypic robustness and network evolvability of noncooperative and cooperative evolutionary game strategies are discussed from a stochastic Nash game perspective...
September 4, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873424/dual-specificity-phosphatase-6-deficiency-is-associated-with-impaired-systemic-glucose-tolerance-and-reversible-weight-retardation-in-mice
#8
Katrin Pfuhlmann, Paul T Pfluger, Sonja C Schriever, Timo D Müller, Matthias H Tschöp, Kerstin Stemmer
Here, we aimed to investigate the potential role of DUSP6, a dual specificity phosphatase, that specifically inactivates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), for the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. We further assessed whether metabolic challenges affect Dusp6 expression in selected brain areas or white adipose tissue. Hypothalamic Dusp6 mRNA levels remained unchanged in chow-fed lean vs. high fat diet (HFD) fed obese C57Bl/6J mice, and in C57Bl/6J mice undergoing prolonged fasting or refeeding with fat free diet (FFD) or HFD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866610/seasonality-in-oestrus-and-litter-size-in-an-assistance-dog-breeding-colony-in-the-united-kingdom
#9
Eleanor E Wigham, Rachel S Moxon, Gary C W England, James L N Wood, Michelle K Morters
Evidence of seasonality in oestrus in bitches within specialist breeding programmes, such as those for assistance dogs, may support colony management through tailoring the distribution of resources required for breeding throughout the year. However, at present there are conflicting data regarding seasonality in oestrus (and litter size) in domestic dogs. The primary objective of this study was to investigate seasonal variations in oestrus and litter size in a large assistance dog breeding colony in the UK in order to optimise colony management...
September 2, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864013/the-transformative-potential-of-an-integrative-approach-to-pregnancy
#10
Haley R Eidem, Kriston L McGary, John A Capra, Patrick Abbot, Antonis Rokas
BACKGROUND: Complex traits typically involve diverse biological pathways and are shaped by numerous genetic and environmental factors. Pregnancy-associated traits and pathologies are further complicated by extensive communication across multiple tissues in two individuals, interactions between two genomes-maternal and fetal-that obscure causal variants and lead to genetic conflict, and rapid evolution of pregnancy-associated traits across mammals and in the human lineage. Given the multi-faceted complexity of human pregnancy, integrative approaches that synthesize diverse data types and analyses harbor tremendous promise to identify the genetic architecture and environmental influences underlying pregnancy-associated traits and pathologies...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863339/treatments-of-asbestos-containing-wastes
#11
REVIEW
D Spasiano, F Pirozzi
Since the second half of the twentieth century, many studies have indicated inhalation of asbestos fibers as the main cause of deadly diseases including fibrosis and cancer. Consequently, since the beginning of the 80s, many countries started banning production and use of asbestos containing products (ACP), although still present in private and public buildings. Due to some extraordinary catastrophic events and/or the aging of these products, people's health and environmental risk associated with the inhalation of asbestos fibers keeps being high even in those countries where it was banned...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861904/equity-trade-offs-in-conservation-decision-making
#12
Elizabeth A Law, Nathan J Bennett, Christopher D Ives, Rachel Friedman, Katrina J Davis, Carla Archibald, Kerrie A Wilson
Conservation decisions increasingly involve multiple environmental and social objectives, which result in complex decision contexts with high potential for trade-offs. Improving social equity is one such objective that is often considered an enabler of successful outcomes and a virtuous ideal in itself. Despite its idealized importance in conservation policy, social equity is often highly simplified or ill-defined and is applied uncritically. What constitutes equitable outcomes and processes is highly normative and subject to ethical deliberation...
September 1, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846187/increased-fear-learning-spatial-learning-as-well-as-neophobia-in-rgs2-mice
#13
A Raab, S Popp, K-P Lesch, M J Lohse, M Fischer, J Deckert, L Hommers
Anxiety disorders result from a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors such as stress. On the level of cellular signaling, regulator of G protein signaling 2 (Rgs2) has been implicated in human and rodent anxiety. However, there is limited knowledge about the role of Rgs2 in fear learning and reactivity to stress. In the present study, Rgs2(-/-) mice showed increased fear learning, male mice displayed increased contextual and cued fear learning, while females showed selectively enhanced cued fear learning...
August 28, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839314/reusing-dialyzer-in-low-income-countries-a-good-cost-saving-tactic-with-complex-ethics
#14
Murtaza Fakhruddin Dhrolia, Salman Imtiaz, Ruqaya Qureshi, Aasim Ahmed
Despite almost universal practice of dialyzer reuse from the earliest days of haemodialysis, reusing dialyzer always remains a controversial issue and several ethical concerns have been raised. Some of the important are safety of reuse over single use, informed consent of the patient, conflict of interest on the part of physician or manufacturer, fiscal responsibility and environmental stewardship. Indeed, at the beginning of this century, there was a drastic shift of practice in favour of single use in developed countries due to availability of biocompatible haemodialyzers, at favourable price...
August 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828745/optimal-combination-of-environmental-cues-and-path-integration-during-navigation
#15
Lori A Sjolund, Jonathan W Kelly, Timothy P McNamara
Navigation is influenced by body-based self-motion cues that are integrated over time, in a process known as path integration, as well as by environmental cues such as landmarks and room shape. In two experiments we explored whether humans combine path integration and environmental cues (Exp. 1: room shape; Exp. 2: room shape, single landmark, and multiple landmarks) to reduce response variability when returning to a previously visited location. Participants walked an outbound path in an immersive virtual environment before attempting to return to the path origin...
August 21, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816488/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-child-abuse-and-environmental-stress-a-lifecourse-perspective-on-adversity-and-depressive-symptoms
#16
Cindy Sousa, W Alex Mason, Todd I Herrenkohl, Dana Prince, Roy C Herrenkohl, M Jean Russo
There is a great deal of evidence about the mental health implications of physical child abuse and environmental stressors, or hardships that people experience at the household and neighborhood level (e.g., neighborhood violence; economic hardship, substance abuse, or conflict among family members). Yet, studies often focus on either abuse or environmental stress, not both, or examine abuse and environmental stressors as a combined set of experiences. Less is known, therefore, about how child abuse and environmental stress might work as either distinct or interrelated risks to diminish mental health over time...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810514/multi-objective-spatial-tools-to-inform-maritime-spatial-planning-in-the-adriatic-sea
#17
Daniel Depellegrin, Stefano Menegon, Giulio Farella, Michol Ghezzo, Elena Gissi, Alessandro Sarretta, Chiara Venier, Andrea Barbanti
This research presents a set of multi-objective spatial tools for sea planning and environmental management in the Adriatic Sea Basin. The tools address four objectives: 1) assessment of cumulative impacts from anthropogenic sea uses on environmental components of marine areas; 2) analysis of sea use conflicts; 3) 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of nutrient dispersion (nitrogen and phosphorus) from riverine sources in the Adriatic Sea Basin and 4) marine ecosystem services capacity assessment from seabed habitats based on an ES matrix approach...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783077/characterization-of-reconstructed-ancestral-proteins-suggests-a-change-in-temperature-of-the-ancient-biosphere
#18
REVIEW
Satoshi Akanuma
Understanding the evolution of ancestral life, and especially the ability of some organisms to flourish in the variable environments experienced in Earth's early biosphere, requires knowledge of the characteristics and the environment of these ancestral organisms. Information about early life and environmental conditions has been obtained from fossil records and geological surveys. Recent advances in phylogenetic analysis, and an increasing number of protein sequences available in public databases, have made it possible to infer ancestral protein sequences possessed by ancient organisms...
August 6, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778004/measuring-conflicts-in-the-management-of-anthropized-ecosystems-evidence-from-a-choice-experiment-in-a-human-created-mediterranean-wetland
#19
Ángel Perni, José Miguel Martínez-Paz
Economic valuation of ecosystem services provides valuable information for the management of anthropized environments, where individual preferences can be heterogeneous and even opposed. Here, we discuss how these ecosystem services were approached in the literature and we address the main issues in relation to their economic valuation. We consider that avoiding misspecifications in economic valuation surveys requires considering the linkages between anthropized ecosystems and human intervention. To illustrate, we analyse the case study of a human-created Mediterranean wetland (El Hondo, SE Spain) using a Choice Experiment...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770046/using-phylogeny-and-functional-traits-for-assessing-community-assembly-along-environmental-gradients-a-deterministic-process-driven-by-elevation
#20
Jinshi Xu, Yu Chen, Lixia Zhang, Yongfu Chai, Mao Wang, Yaoxin Guo, Ting Li, Ming Yue
Community assembly processes is the primary focus of community ecology. Using phylogenetic-based and functional trait-based methods jointly to explore these processes along environmental gradients are useful ways to explain the change of assembly mechanisms under changing world. Our study combined these methods to test assembly processes in wide range gradients of elevation and other habitat environmental factors. We collected our data at 40 plots in Taibai Mountain, China, with more than 2,300 m altitude difference in study area and then measured traits and environmental factors...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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