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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332417/-concise-history-of-toxicology-from-empiric-knowledge-to-science
#1
Anna Tompa, Péter Balázs
Toxicology is a science of poisonings by xenobiotics and endogenous physiological changes. Its empiric roots may be traced back to the emerging of the human race because the most important pledge of our predecessors' survival was the differentiation between eatable and poisonous plants and animals. In the course of social evolution, there were three main fields of using poisons: 1) hunting and warfare, 2) to settle social tensions by avoiding military conflicts through hiding strategy of eliminating enemies by toxic substances, 3) medicines applied first as anti-poisons and later by introducing strong substances to defeat diseases, but paradoxically active euthanasia is also a part of the whole story...
January 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329322/methylene-tetrahydrofolate-reductase-contributes-to-allergic-airway-disease
#2
Kenneth R Eyring, Brent S Pedersen, Kenneth N Maclean, Sally P Stabler, Ivana V Yang, David A Schwartz
RATIONALE: Environmental exposures strongly influence the development and progression of asthma. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to a diet enriched with methyl donors during vulnerable periods of fetal development can enhance the heritable risk of allergic airway disease through epigenetic changes. There is conflicting evidence on the role of folate (one of the primary methyl donors) in modifying allergic airway disease. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that blocking folate metabolism through the loss of methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr) activity would reduce the allergic airway disease phenotype through epigenetic mechanisms...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324492/life-cycle-assessment-and-costing-methods-for-device-procurement-comparing-reusable-and-single-use-disposable-laryngoscopes
#3
Jodi D Sherman, Lewis A Raibley, Matthew J Eckelman
BACKGROUND: Traditional medical device procurement criteria include efficacy and safety, ease of use and handling, and procurement costs. However, little information is available about life cycle environmental impacts of the production, use, and disposal of medical devices, or about costs incurred after purchase. Reusable and disposable laryngoscopes are of current interest to anesthesiologists. Facing mounting pressure to quickly meet or exceed conflicting infection prevention guidelines and oversight body recommendations, many institutions may be electively switching to single-use disposable (SUD) rigid laryngoscopes or overcleaning reusables, potentially increasing both costs and waste generation...
January 9, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312813/domestic-carnivore-interactions-with-wildlife-in-the-cape-horn-biosphere-reserve-chile-husbandry-and-perceptions-of-impact-from-a-community-perspective
#4
Elke Schüttler, Lorena Saavedra-Aracena, Jaime E Jiménez
Background: Hundreds of millions of domestic carnivores worldwide have diverse positive affiliations with humans, but can provoke serious socio-ecological impacts when free-roaming. Unconfined dogs (Canis familiaris) and cats (Felis catus) interact with wildlife as predators, competitors, and disease-transmitters; their access to wildlife depends on husbandry, perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors of pet owners and non-owners. Methods: To better understand husbandry and perceptions of impacts by unconfined, domestic carnivores, we administered questionnaires (n = 244) to pet owners and non-owners living in one of the last wilderness areas of the world, the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, located in southern Chile...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307066/prevention-of-landfill-pollution-by-multicriteria-spatial-decision-support-systems-mc-sdss-development-implementation-and-case-study
#5
Afshin Khoshand, Ali Hasani Bafrani, Mohammad Zahedipour, Seyed Ahmad Mirbagheri, Majid Ehtehsami
Landfilling of municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the serious environmental concerns as improper location of MSW landfill site can release the pollutants into the surrounding environment. The process of selecting MSW landfill site is a complicated decision making problem since it is subjected to simultaneous assessment of several environmental criteria, rules, and restrictions besides sociocultural and economic ones. The current study suggests a framework based on Multicriteria spatial decision support systems (MC-SDSS) to select landfill site...
January 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306998/aquaculture-expansion-in-brazilian-freshwaters-against-the-aichi-biodiversity-targets
#6
REVIEW
Dilermando Pereira Lima Junior, André Lincoln Barroso Magalhães, Fernando Mayer Pelicice, Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule, Valter M Azevedo-Santos, Mário Luís Orsi, Daniel Simberloff, Angelo Antônio Agostinho
The Convention on Biological Diversity proposed the Aichi Biodiversity Targets to improve conservation policies and to balance economic development, social welfare, and the maintenance of biodiversity/ecosystem services. Brazil is a signatory of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and is the most diverse country in terms of freshwater fish, but its national policies have supported the development of unsustainable commercial and ornamental aquaculture, which has led to serious disturbances to inland ecosystems and natural resources...
January 6, 2018: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306828/integrating-ecosystem-services-trade-offs-with-paddy-land-to-dry-land-decisions-a-scenario-approach-in-erhai-lake-basin-southwest-china
#7
Yi'na Hu, Jian Peng, Yanxu Liu, Lu Tian
Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems, and ecosystem services trade-offs have been widely applied to the development of land-use policy. Although previous studies have focused on trade-offs of ecosystem services, a scenario approach has been seldom used. The scenario approach can reveal the changes of ecosystem services for different land-use patterns in the future, and is of great significance for land-use decisions and ecosystem management. Based on the actual situation of deteriorating water quality and dwindling water supply in the Erhai Lake Basin of southwest China, this study put forward to convert paddy land to dry land (PLDL) in the basin, and simulated its potential impact on ecosystem services...
January 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305043/the-parakeet-protectors-understanding-opposition-to-introduced-species-management
#8
Sarah L Crowley, Steve Hinchliffe, Robbie A McDonald
The surveillance and control of introduced and invasive species has become an increasingly important component of environmental management. However, initiatives targeting 'charismatic' wildlife can be controversial. Opposition to management, and the subsequent emergence of social conflict, present significant challenges for would-be managers. Understanding the substance and development of these disputes is therefore vital for improving the legitimacy and effectiveness of wildlife management. It also provides important insights into human-wildlife relations and the 'social dimensions' of wildlife management...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299244/identification-of-human-carnivore-conflict-hotspots-to-prioritize-mitigation-efforts
#9
Femke Broekhuis, Samuel A Cushman, Nicholas B Elliot
Human-carnivore conflict is a primary driver of carnivore declines worldwide and resolving these conflicts is a conservation priority. However, resources to mitigate conflicts are limited and should be focused on areas of highest priority. We conducted 820 semistructured interviews with community members living within Kenya's Maasai Mara ecosystem. A multiscale analysis was used to determine the influence of husbandry and environmental factors on livestock depredation inside livestock enclosures (bomas). Areas with a high proportion of closed habitat and protected areas had the highest risk of depredation...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298581/plurality-in-understandings-of-innovation-sociotechnical-progress-and-sustainable-development-an-analysis-of-oecd-expert-narratives
#10
Paulo Savaget, Liliana Acero
Deterministic theory and discourse on sociotechnical progress ignore the existence of multiple and equally viable pathways towards progress, obscure socioeconomic and environmental conflicting interests and values, and overshadow socially inclusive deliberative choices about policy strategies. Demystifying techno-determinism, by incorporating a plurality of understandings to policy appraisal, becomes a matter of not only democratic accountability but also of analytical rigour. This article analyses the normative and ontological understandings on scientific and technological pathways among a group of experts interviewed at one key Directorate of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, using Q-methodology...
March 1, 2017: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295782/immediate-and-delayed-effects-of-atmospheric-temperature-in-the-incidence-of-testicular-torsion
#11
Aderivaldo Cabral Dias Filho, Paulo Gonçalves de Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Ongoing controversy surrounds the role of atmospheric temperature in the incidence of intravaginal testicular torsion (iTT). This debate may be attributed to inadequate research methodology. As environmental risk factors have been successfully investigated with distributed lag non-linear model regression (DLNM), we applied this methodology to investigate the association between daily mean atmospheric temperatures (Tmean) and daily incidences of intravaginal testicular torsion (iTT) in our region...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294795/environmental-dysfunctions-childhood-maltreatment-and-women-s-intimate-partner-violence-victimization
#12
Maria Lo Cascio, Cinzia Guarnaccia, Maria Rita Infurna, Laura Mancuso, Anna Maria Parroco, Francesca Giannone
Childhood maltreatment is considered a crucial explanatory variable for intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. However, a developmental multifactorial model for the etiology of IPV is not shared by researchers yet. This study has investigated the role of a wide range of childhood maltreatments and family and social dysfunctions in predicting IPV; furthermore, it tests a model where childhood maltreatment mediates the relationship between environmental dysfunctions and IPV. The sample included 78 women: IPV (38) and non-IPV (40)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289843/the-relationship-between-urban-forests-and-race-a-meta-analysis
#13
Shannon Lea Watkins, Ed Gerrish
There is ample evidence that urban trees benefit the physical, mental, and social health of urban residents. The environmental justice hypothesis posits that environmental amenities are inequitably low in poor and minority communities, and predicts these communities experience fewer urban environmental benefits. Some previous research has found that urban forest cover is inequitably distributed by race, though other studies have found no relationship or negative inequity. These conflicting results and the single-city nature of the current literature suggest a need for a research synthesis...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259622/noni-morinda-citrifolia-modulates-the-hypothalamic-expression-of-stress-and-metabolic-related-genes-in-broilers-exposed-to-acute-heat-stress
#14
Hossein Rajaei-Sharifabadi, Laura Ellestad, Tom Porter, Annie Donoghue, Walter G Bottje, Sami Dridi
Heat stress (HS) adversely affects growth performance and inflicts heavy economic losses to the poultry industry. There is, therefore, a critical need to identify new alternative strategies to alleviate the negative effects induced by HS. The tropic medicinal plant, Morinda citrifolia (Noni), is being used in livestock nutrition, however the literature is limited and conflicting for its impact on growth performance. The present study aimed to determine the effect of Noni on feeding and drinking behavior as well as on the hypothalamic expression of stress- and metabolic-related genes in broiler chickens exposed to acute HS...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249050/a-fuzzy-logic-expert-system-for-evaluating-policy-progress-towards-sustainability-goals
#15
Andrés M Cisneros-Montemayor, Gerald G Singh, William W L Cheung
Evaluating progress towards environmental sustainability goals can be difficult due to a lack of measurable benchmarks and insufficient or uncertain data. Marine settings are particularly challenging, as stakeholders and objectives tend to be less well defined and ecosystem components have high natural variability and are difficult to observe directly. Fuzzy logic expert systems are useful analytical frameworks to evaluate such systems, and we develop such a model here to formally evaluate progress towards sustainability targets based on diverse sets of indicators...
December 16, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248739/maf1-phenotypes-and-cell-physiology
#16
REVIEW
Ian M Willis
As a master regulator of transcription by RNA polymerase (Pol) III, Maf1 represses the synthesis of highly abundant non-coding RNAs as anabolic signals dissipate, as the quality or quantity of nutrients decreases and under a wide range of cellular and environmental stress conditions. Thus, Maf1 responds to changes in cell physiology to conserve metabolic energy and to help maintain appropriate levels of tRNAs and other essential non-coding RNAs. Studies in different model organisms and cell-based systems show that perturbations of Maf1 can also impact cell physiology and metabolism...
December 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241137/improving-post-detonation-energetics-residues-estimations-for-the-life-cycle-environmental-assessment-process-for-munitions
#17
Michael Walsh, Brian Gullett, Marianne Walsh, Matthew Bigl, Johanna Aurell
The Life Cycle Environmental Assessment (LCEA) process for military munitions tracks possible environmental impacts incurred during all phases of the life of a munition. The greatest energetics-based emphasis in the current LCEA process is on manufacturing. A review of recent LCEAs indicates that energetics deposition on ranges from detonations and disposal during training is only peripherally examined through assessment of combustion products derived from closed-chamber testing or models. These assessments rarely report any measurable energetic residues...
November 15, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239623/environmental-scaling-influences-the-use-of-local-but-not-global-geometric-cues-during-spatial-reorientation
#18
Bradley R Sturz, Z Kade Bell, Kent D Bodily
During spatial reorientation, the use of local geometric cues (e.g., corner angles) and global geometric cues (e.g., principal axis) is differentially influenced by enclosure size. Local geometric cues exert more influence in large enclosures compared to small enclosures, whereas the use of global geometric cues is not influenced by changes in enclosure size. Such effects are suggested to occur because of differences in training enclosures sizes or differences in testing enclosure sizes, but investigations of enclosure-size effects on spatial cue use have been confounded by environmental scaling between training and testing...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238970/the-consequences-of-sexual-selection-in-well-adapted-and-maladapted-populations-of-bean-beetles
#19
Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Uroš Savković, Mirko Đorđević, Göran Arnqvist, Biljana Stojković, David Berger
Whether sexual selection generally promotes or impedes population persistence remains an open question. Intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) can render sexual selection in males detrimental to the population by increasing the frequency of alleles with positive effects on male reproductive success but negative effects on female fecundity. Recent modelling based on fitness landscape theory, however, indicates that the relative impact of IaSC may be reduced in maladapted populations and that sexual selection therefore might promote adaptation when it is most needed...
December 14, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238540/variation-in-the-benefits-of-multiple-mating-on-female-fertility-in-wild-stalk-eyed-flies
#20
Lara Meade, Elisabeth Harley, Alison Cotton, James M Howie, Andrew Pomiankowski, Kevin Fowler
Polyandry, female mating with multiple males, is widespread across many taxa and almost ubiquitous in insects. This conflicts with the traditional idea that females are constrained by their comparatively large investment in each offspring, and so should only need to mate once or a few times. Females may need to mate multiply to gain sufficient sperm supplies to maintain their fertility, especially in species in which male promiscuity results in division of their ejaculate among many females. Here, we take a novel approach, utilizing wild-caught individuals to explore how natural variation among females and males influences fertility gains for females...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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