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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722344/a-large-scale-assessment-of-european-rabbit-damage-to-agriculture-in-spain
#1
Miguel Delibes-Mateos, Miguel Ángel Farfán, Carlos Rouco, Jesús Olivero, Ana Luz Márquez, John E Fa, Juan Mario Vargas, Rafael Villafuerte
BACKGROUND: Numerous small and medium-sized mammal pests cause widespread and economically significant damage to crops all over the globe. However, most research on pest species has focused on accounts of the level of damage. There are fewer studies concentrating on the description of crop damage caused by pests at large geographical scales, or on analysing the ecological and anthropogenic factors correlated with these observed patterns. We investigated the relationship between agricultural damage by the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and environmental and anthropogenic variables throughout Spain...
July 19, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722026/reconciling-irrigated-food-production-with-environmental-flows-for-sustainable-development-goals-implementation
#2
Jonas Jägermeyr, Amandine Pastor, Hester Biemans, Dieter Gerten
Safeguarding river ecosystems is a precondition for attaining the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) related to water and the environment, while rigid implementation of such policies may hamper achievement of food security. River ecosystems provide life-supporting functions that depend on maintaining environmental flow requirements (EFRs). Here we establish gridded process-based estimates of EFRs and their violation through human water withdrawals. Results indicate that 41% of current global irrigation water use (997 km(3) per year) occurs at the expense of EFRs...
July 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721171/response-to-an-unusual-outbreak-in-a-high-risk-situation
#3
Mahmood Muazu Dalhat, Olufunmilayo Ibitola Fawole, Patrick Mboya Nguku, Meeyoung Mattie Park, Casey Daniel Hall, Nasir Sani-Gwarzo
In 2010, a series of lead poisoning outbreaks linked to artisanal gold processing killed at least 400 young children in Zamfara State in northwestern Nigeria. There were several efforts to respond to the outbreaks as they occurred. Subsequent recurrence of lead poisoning outbreaks within Zamfara and beyond suggested that there were no efforts to mitigate the outbreaks as recommended for disaster management. This case study, to be completed within 3 hours, is suitable for senior level public health officials and those training for such positions...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719336/infant-nutritional-status-feeding-practices-enteropathogen-exposure-socioeconomic-status-and-illness-are-associated-with-gut-barrier-function-as-assessed-by-the-lactulose-mannitol-test-in-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort
#4
Gwenyth O Lee, Benjamin J J McCormick, Jessica C Seidman, Margaret N Kosek, Rashidul Haque, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Aldo A M Lima, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Gagandeep Kang, Amidou Samie, Caroline Amour, Carl J Mason, Tahmeed Ahmed, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Domingos B Oliveira, Didar Alam, Sudhir Babji, Pascal Bessong, Estomih Mduma, Sanjaya K Shrestha, Ramya Ambikapathi, Dennis R Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Richard L Guerrant, Laura E Caulfield, For The Mal-Ed Network Investigators
The lactulose mannitol (LM) dual sugar permeability test is the most commonly used test of environmental enteropathy in developing countries. However, there is a large but conflicting literature on its association with enteric infection and host nutritional status. We conducted a longitudinal cohort using a single field protocol and comparable laboratory procedures to examine intestinal permeability in multiple, geographically diverse pediatric populations. Using a previously published systematic review to guide the selection of factors potentially associated with LM test results, we examined the relationships between these factors and mucosal breach, represented by percent lactulose excretion; absorptive area, represented by percent mannitol excretion; and gut barrier function, represented by the L/M ratio...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718391/corrigendum
#5
(no author information available yet)
Operating and environmental performances of commercial-scale waste gasification and melting technology by Nobuhiro Tanigaki, Yasuka Fujinaga, Hirohisa Kajiyama, and Yoshihiro Ishida. Waste Management & Research 2013; 31: 1118-1124, DOI: 10.1177/0734242X13502386. The authors regret that they omitted the following declaration of conflicting interest in the article: Declaration of Conflicting Interest At the time of publication, all authors were employed by Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd. Technology developed by Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co...
July 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715795/recycling-and-social-technologies-for-sustainability-the-brazilian-experience-of%C3%A2-wastepickers-inclusion-in-selective-collection-programs
#6
Francisco de Paula Antunes Lima, Fabiana Goulart de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Alternatives are being developed for waste treatment all over the world. Solidary selective collection is a recognized social technology for taking millions of people out of absolute poverty. However, this technology raises crucial questions regarding its nature and development perspective. What can be said of the legitimacy of a social technology that is born from misery and maintains wastepickers in precarious work conditions? OBJECTIVE: This article approaches issues based on the analysis of the wastepickers' work process, highlighting the difficulties and interpersonal conflicts, the strong social bonds and creativity that reveal the potential of efficiency and solidarity of this social technology...
July 14, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696468/the-effect-of-probe-choice-and-solution-conditions-on-the-apparent-photoreactivity-of-dissolved-organic-matter
#7
Andrew C Maizel, Christina K Remucal
Excited triplet states of dissolved organic matter ((3)DOM) are quantified directly with the species-specific probes trans,trans-hexadienoic acid (HDA) and 2,4,6-trimethylphenol (TMP), and indirectly with the singlet oxygen ((1)O2) probe furfuryl alcohol (FFA). Although previous work suggests that these probe compounds may be sensitive to solution conditions, including dissolved organic carbon concentration ([DOC]) and pH, and may quantify different (3)DOM subpopulations, the probes have not been systematically compared...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693568/anorexia-nervosa-and-cancer-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#8
Ferrán Catalá-López, Brian Hutton, Jane A Driver, Manuel Ridao, José M Valderas, Ricard Gènova-Maleras, Jaume Forés-Martos, Adolfo Alonso-Arroyo, Diego Macías Saint-Gerons, Eduard Vieta, Alfonso Valencia, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa is characterized by a severe restriction of caloric intake, low body weight, fear of gaining weight or of becoming fat, and disturbance of body image. Pathogenesis of the disorder may include genetic predisposition, hormonal changes and a combination of environmental, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. At present, no systematic reviews and meta-analyses have evaluated the risk of cancer in people with anorexia nervosa...
July 11, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693105/path-analysis-of-prenatal-mercury-levels-and-birth-weights-in-korean-and-taiwanese-birth-cohorts
#9
Byung-Mi Kim, Mei-Huei Chen, Pau-Chung Chen, Hyesook Park, Mina Ha, Yangho Kim, Yun-Chul Hong, Young Ju Kim, Eun-Hee Ha
Prospective cohort studies of the effect of mercury (Hg) exposure on birth weight have shown conflicting results. We combined data from Taiwanese and Korean birth cohorts, and assessed the effects of Hg exposure on birth weight. The first cohort was drawn from the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study performed in Korea from 2006 to 2010. The second cohort was enrolled from 2004 to 2005 and included singleton term births from the Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS). In total, 1147 pregnant women were included in this study...
July 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691738/examining-the-impacts-of-disaster-resettlement-from-a-livelihood-perspective-a-case-study-of-qinling-mountains-china
#10
Xuesong Guo, Naim Kapucu
Disaster resettlement, as a mitigation and preparedness measure, entails significant economic, physical, and social impacts, which continue to challenge understanding of recovery from major events, especially regarding the extent of the context and environmental efforts to rebuild livelihoods. Based on a case study of Qinling Mountains, China, this research investigates the effects of disaster resettlement from a livelihoods perspective. Methodologically, it proposes a framework that combines the pressure-state-response framework and the sustainable livelihoods approach, and it employs a structural equation model to examine how specific factors affect disaster resettlement...
July 10, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689691/variability-of-homozygous-sickle-cell-disease-the-role-of-alpha-and-beta-globin-chain-variation-and-other-factors
#11
Graham R Serjeant, Elliott Vichinsky
The single base molecular substitution characterizing sickle cell haemoglobin, β(6)glu→val, might be expected to result in predictable haematological and clinical features. However, the disease manifests remarkable diversity believed to reflect the interaction with other genetic and environmental factors. Some of the genetic modifiers include the beta globin haplotypes, alpha thalassaemia, factors influencing the persistence of fetal haemoglobin and the effects of the environment are addressed in this review...
June 21, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686618/network-effects-in-environmental-justice-struggles-an-investigation-of-conflicts-between-mining-companies-and-civil-society-organizations-from-a-network-perspective
#12
Cem Iskender Aydin, Begum Ozkaynak, Beatriz Rodríguez-Labajos, Taylan Yenilmez
This paper examines conflicts that occur between mining companies and civil society organizations (CSOs) around the world and offers an innovative analysis of mining conflicts from a social network perspective. The analysis showed that, as the number of CSOs involved in a conflict increased, its outcome was more likely to be perceived as a success in terms of environmental justice (EJ); if a CSO was connected to other central CSOs, the average perception of EJ success was likely to increase; and as network distance between two conflicts increased (or decreased), they were more likely to lead to different (or similar) EJ outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677504/always-look-on-the-bright-side-anti-tumor-functions-of-neutrophils
#13
Sandra Völs, Ronit Vogt Sionov, Zvi Granot
Neutrophils are the most abundant population of white blood cells in the human circulation playing a critical role in inflammation and in host defense against microbial infections. In recent years there has been growing interest in understanding the role the tumor microenvironment plays in tumor growth and progression. In this context, the role neutrophils play has been a matter of debate as neutrophils were shown to possess both tumor promoting and tumor limiting properties. These conflicting observations stem from differences in how neutrophils respond to environmental cues as well as from the existence of distinct tumor-promoting and tumor-limiting neutrophil populations...
July 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677244/endocrine-disruption-in-silico-interactions-between-phthalate-plasticizers-and-corticosteroid-binding-globulin
#14
Ishfaq A Sheikh, Mohd A Beg
Endocrine disruption is a phenomenon when a man-made or natural compound interferes with normal hormone function in human or animal body systems. Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) have assumed considerable importance as a result of industrial activity, mass production of synthetic chemicals and environmental pollution. Phthalate plasticizers are a group of chemicals used widely and diversely in industry especially in the plastic industry, and many of the phthalate compounds have endocrine-disrupting properties...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668746/the-abolition-of-war-as-a-goal-of-environmental-policy
#15
REVIEW
Brian F Snyder, Leslie E Ruyle
Since the 1950s, select military and political leaders have had the capacity to kill all or nearly all human life on Earth. The number of people entrusted with this power grows each year through proliferation and the rise of new political leaders. If humans continue to maintain and develop nuclear weapons, it is highly probable that a nuclear exchange will occur again at some point in the future. This nuclear exchange may or may not annihilate the human species, but it will cause catastrophic effects on the biosphere...
June 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658423/-from-environmental-ethics-to-environmental-bioethics-antecedents-trajectories-and-perspectives
#16
Marta Luciane Fischer, Thiago Cunha, Valquiria Renk, Anor Sganzerla, Juliana Zacarkin Dos Santos
The relationship between humans and the environment became an ethical problem in the twentieth century, when accelerated economic and scientific development was accompanied by profound alterations in global ecological systems. In response, environmental ethics called for limits in the dichotomous relationship between man and nature. In 1970, Van Potter proposed bioethics as the interdisciplinary study of "human survival." Subsequently, the discipline focused on clinical and hospital conflicts. Environmental bioethics is analyzed in this article as a theoretical perspective that has historically drawn on Van Potter's approach to bioethics, marked by the interpersonal, socioeconomic, and political dimensions of environmental ethical dilemmas...
April 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654930/understanding-the-inter-disciplinary-and-institutional-diversity-of-citizen-science-a-survey-of-current-practice-in-germany-and-austria
#17
Lisa Pettibone, Katrin Vohland, David Ziegler
Citizen science has become more popular in recent years, quickly taking on a variety of potentially conflicting characteristics: a way to collect massive data sets at relatively low cost, a way to break science out of the ivory tower and better engage the public, an approach to educate lay people in scientific methods. But the extent of current citizen science practice-the types of actors and scientific disciplines who take part-is still poorly understood. This article builds on recent surveys of citizen science in PLOS One by analyzing citizen science practice in Germany and Austria through the projects on two online platforms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652920/perception-of-and-attitude-toward-ethical-issues-among-korean-occupational-physicians
#18
Junghye Choi, Chunhui Suh, Jong-Tae Lee, Segyeong Lee, Chae-Kwan Lee, Gyeong-Jin Lee, Taekjoong Kim, Byung-Chul Son, Jeong-Ho Kim, Kunhyung Kim, Dae Hwan Kim, Ji Young Ryu
BACKGROUND: Occupational physicians (OPs) have complex relationships with employees, employers, and the general public. OPs may have simultaneous obligations towards third parties, which can lead to variable conflicts of interests. Among the various studies of ethical issues related to OPs, few have focused on the Korean OPs. The aim of the present survey was to investigate the ethical contexts, the practical resolutions, and the ethical principles for the Korean OPs. METHODS: An email with a self-administered questionnaire was sent to members of the Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, comprising 150 specialists and 130 residents...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649636/interplay-of-space-radiation-and-microgravity-in-dna-damage-and-dna-damage-response
#19
María Moreno-Villanueva, Michael Wong, Tao Lu, Ye Zhang, Honglu Wu
In space, multiple unique environmental factors, particularly microgravity and space radiation, pose constant threat to the DNA integrity of living organisms. Specifically, space radiation can cause damage to DNA directly, through the interaction of charged particles with the DNA molecules themselves, or indirectly through the production of free radicals. Although organisms have evolved strategies on Earth to confront such damage, space environmental conditions, especially microgravity, can impact DNA repair resulting in accumulation of severe DNA lesions...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645870/impact-on-environment-ecosystem-diversity-and-health-from-culturing-and-using-gmos-as-feed-and-food
#20
REVIEW
Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Victor A Tutelyan, Kirill S Golokhvast, Olga-Ioanna Kalantzi, Duck Hwa Chung, Sung Jo Kang, Michael D Coleman, Nadia Tyshko, Seung Hwan Yang, Gyuhwa Chung
Modern agriculture provides the potential for sustainable feeding of the world's increasing population. Up to the present moment, genetically modified (GM) products have enabled increased yields and reduced pesticide usage. Nevertheless, GM products are controversial amongst policy makers, scientists and the consumers, regarding their possible environmental, ecological, and health risks. Scientific-and-political debates can even influence legislation and prospective risk assessment procedure. Currently, the scientifically-assessed direct hazardous impacts of GM food and feed on fauna and flora are conflicting; indeed, a review of literature available data provides some evidence of GM environmental and health risks...
June 20, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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