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environmental conflict

Yuichi Yamashita, Norie Kawai, Osamu Ueno, Yui Matsumoto, Tsutomu Oohashi, Manabu Honda
We investigated the effect of acoustic environmental enrichment (EE) on the lifespans and behaviours of mice to the end of their natural lifespan in different acoustic environments. Acoustic EE induced a significantly prolonged natural lifespan (nearly 17% longer) and was associated with increased voluntary movements. However, no correlation between lifespan and voluntary movements was detected, suggesting that increased voluntary movements are not a primary cause of lifespan prolongation. Analyses of individual differences in lifespan demonstrated that lifespan extension induced by acoustic EE could be related to changes in social relationships (e...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lucie Nadeau, Vanessa Lecompte, Janique Johnson-Lafleur, Annie Pontbriand, Cécile Rousseau
Background: This article examines the association between immigration, poverty and family environment, and the emotional and behavioral problems reported by youth and their family receiving mental health (MH) services within a collaborative care model in a multiethnic neighborhood. Method: Participants in this study were 140 parent-child dyads that are part of an ongoing longitudinal project looking at the association between individual, familial, social and organizational factors, and outcomes of youth receiving MH services in local health and social service organizations in the Montreal area...
May 2018: Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Lou Lecuyer, Rehema M White, Birgit Schmook, Sophie Calmé
Conservation biology faces critical challenges that require collaborative approaches, including novel strategies to support interactions among actors in biodiversity conflicts. The goals of this study were to investigate the concept of common ground across multiple issues and to explore its practical application for the support of environmental management. We conceptually defined common ground as the areas of relevance underlying the suite of issues expressed by people regarding environmental management in a particular context...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Andrezza Graziella Veríssimo Pontes, Raquel Maria Rigotto, Jennifer Vale Silva
The transformations in the Brazilian agricultural scenario have reconfigured lifestyles in the countryside, with repercussions on the health of the rural population. The scope of this paper is to analyze health needs of farmers, identified by a collective of university actors, the Unified Health System and social movements. It is action-research, with a group comprised of community health workers, workers in a Reference Center in Occupational Health, a university professor and representatives of social movements...
May 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Asmaa A Salem, Gerardo G Mackenzie
Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease. It is estimated that about 90% of pancreatic cancer cases are due to environmental risk factors. Among these, approximately 50% of pancreatic cancer cases may be attributed to diet, which is largely modifiable. Given this large attribution to diet, there have been numerous epidemiological studies assessing the risk of various dietary factors on the incidence of pancreatic cancer. However, many of these studies present conflicting and/or inconclusive findings. The objective of this review is two-fold: (a) to summarize the current evidence on the association between various dietary factors and the risk of developing pancreatic cancer and (b) to discuss what additional studies are needed to better elucidate the role of diet as a potential risk factor for pancreatic cancer...
April 2018: Nutrition Research
Xiuying Liu, Tongran Liu, Fangfang Shangguan, Thomas Alrik Sørensen, Qian Liu, Jiannong Shi
Conflict adaptation is key in how children self-regulate and assert cognitive control in a given situation compared with a previous experience. In the current study, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify age-related differences in conflict adaptation. Participants of different ages (5-year-old children, 10-year-old children, and adults) were subjected to a stimulus-stimulus (S-S) conflict control task (the flanker task) and a stimulus-response (S-R) conflict control task (the Simon task). The behavioral results revealed that all age groups had reliable conflict adaptation effects (CAEs), with faster response times on current incongruent trials preceded by incongruent trials (iI trials) compared with current incongruent trials preceded by congruent trials (cI trials)...
May 14, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Thorsten B H Reusch, Jan Dierking, Helen C Andersson, Erik Bonsdorff, Jacob Carstensen, Michele Casini, Mikolaj Czajkowski, Berit Hasler, Klaus Hinsby, Kari Hyytiäinen, Kerstin Johannesson, Seifeddine Jomaa, Veijo Jormalainen, Harri Kuosa, Sara Kurland, Linda Laikre, Brian R MacKenzie, Piotr Margonski, Frank Melzner, Daniel Oesterwind, Henn Ojaveer, Jens Christian Refsgaard, Annica Sandström, Gerald Schwarz, Karin Tonderski, Monika Winder, Marianne Zandersen
Coastal global oceans are expected to undergo drastic changes driven by climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressures in coming decades. Predicting specific future conditions and assessing the best management strategies to maintain ecosystem integrity and sustainable resource use are difficult, because of multiple interacting pressures, uncertain projections, and a lack of test cases for management. We argue that the Baltic Sea can serve as a time machine to study consequences and mitigation of future coastal perturbations, due to its unique combination of an early history of multistressor disturbance and ecosystem deterioration and early implementation of cross-border environmental management to address these problems...
May 2018: Science Advances
Emadodin Darchini-Maragheh, Mahdi Balali-Mood
Chemical warfare agents are the most brutal weapons among the weapons of mass destruction. Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent toxic alkylating agent known as "the King of the Battle Gases". SM has been the most widely used chemical weapon during the wars. It was widely used in World War I. Thereafter, it was extensively employed by the Iraqi troops against the Iranian military personnel and even civilians in the border cities of Iran and Iraq in the period between 1983 and 1988. Long-term incapacitating properties, significant environmental persistence, lack of an effective antidote, and relative ease of manufacturing have kept SM a potential agent for both terrorist and military uses...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Carina Zang, Juliane Dame, Marcus Nüsser
This case study examines the geological imprint and land use practices on water quality in the arid Huasco Valley against the backdrop of ongoing water conflicts surrounding competing demands for agriculture and mining. The study is based on a detailed analysis of spatial and temporal variations of monthly surface and bi-monthly groundwater quality samples measured during the Chilean summer of 2015/16. Additional information on source regions and river-groundwater interactions were collected using stable water isotopes...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Eric Toussirot, Matthieu Béreau, Charline Vauchy, Philippe Saas
Immune mediated diseases (IMDs) are complex chronic inflammatory diseases involving genetic and environmental factors. Salt intake has been proposed as a diet factor that can influence the immune response. Indeed, experimental data report the influence of sodium chloride on the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into IL-17 secreting T helper (Th) cells (Th17 cells), by a mechanism involving the serum glucocorticoid kinase-1 (SGK1) that promotes the expression of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R). The IL-23/IL-23R is critical for pathogenic inflammatory Th17 cell differentiation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Elizabeth P Baker, Elliott C Magnuson, Ashley M Dahly, Jessica A Siegel
Methamphetamine alters behavior and the stress response system. Relatively little research has examined the effects of methamphetamine in adolescents and compared these effects to those in adults. Housing in enriched environments has been explored as one way to protect against the effects of methamphetamine, but the findings are conflicting and no study has examined how enriched environment may alter the behavioral and corticosterone responses to methamphetamine in adolescent and adult rodents. We examined the long-term effects of methamphetamine exposure on anxiety, social behavior, behavioral despair, and corticosterone levels in adolescent and adult mice housed in enriched or isolated environments...
May 8, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Danielle M McLaughlin, Bethany B Cutts
The expansion of unconventional sources of natural gas across the world has generated public controversy surrounding fracking drilling methods. Public debates continue to reverberate through policy domains despite very inconclusive biophysical evidence of net harm. As a consequence, there is a need to test the hypothesis that resistance to fracking is due to the way it redistributes economic and environmental risks. As in many other communities, opposition to fracking is common in central Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, (USA) but the rationale underpinning opposition is poorly understood...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Management
Gehendra Kharel, Andrei Kirilenko
Background: Water level fluctuations in endorheic lakes are highly susceptible to even slight changes in climate and land use. Devils Lake (DL) in North Dakota, USA is an endorheic system that has undergone multi-decade flooding driven by changes in regional climate. Flooding mitigation strategies have centered on the release of lake water to a nearby river system through artificial outlets, resulting in legal challenges and environmental concerns related to water quality, downstream flooding, species migration, stakeholder opposition, and transboundary water conflicts between the US and Canada...
2018: PeerJ
Jiuping Xu, Shuhua Hou, Heping Xie, Chengwei Lv, Liming Yao
In this study, an integrated water and waste load allocation model is proposed to assist decision makers in better understanding the trade-offs between economic growth, resource utilization, and environmental protection of coal chemical industries which characteristically have high water consumption and pollution. In the decision framework, decision makers in a same park, each of whom have different goals and preferences, work together to seek a collective benefit. Similar to a Stackelberg-Nash game, the proposed approach illuminates the decision making interrelationships and involves in the conflict coordination between the park authority and the individual coal chemical company stockholders...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Gianluca Sarà, Tarik C Gouhier, Daniele Brigolin, Erika M D Porporato, M Cristina Mangano, Simone Mirto, Antonio Mazzola, Roberto Pastres
Defining sustainability goals is a crucial but difficult task because it often involves the quantification of multiple interrelated and sometimes conflicting components. This complexity may be exacerbated by climate change, which will increase environmental vulnerability in aquaculture and potentially compromise the ability to meet the needs of a growing human population. Here, we developed an approach to inform sustainable aquaculture by quantifying spatio-temporal shifts in critical trade-offs between environmental costs and benefits using the time to reach the commercial size as a possible proxy of economic implications of aquaculture under climate change...
May 3, 2018: Global Change Biology
M A Holly, P J Kleinman, R B Bryant, D L Bjorneberg, C A Rotz, J M Baker, M V Boggess, D K Brauer, R Chintala, G W Feyereisen, J D Gamble, A B Leytem, K F Reed, P A Vadas, H M Waldrip
Nutrient management on US dairy farms must balance an array of priorities, some of which conflict. To illustrate nutrient management challenges and opportunities across the US dairy industry, the USDA Agricultural Research Service Dairy Agroecosystems Working Group (DAWG) modeled 8 confinement and 2 grazing operations in the 7 largest US dairy-producing states using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM). Opportunities existed across all of the dairies studied to increase on-farm feed production and lower purchased feed bills, most notably on large dairies (>1,000 cows) with the highest herd densities...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Jamie K Wardman, Ragnar Löfstedt
Regulatory use of the precautionary principle (PP) tends to be broadly characterized either as a responsible approach for safeguarding against health and environmental risks in the face of scientific uncertainties, or as "state mismanagement" driven by undue political bias and public anxiety. However, the "anticipatory" basis upon which governments variably draw a political warrant for adopting precautionary measures often remains ambiguous. Particularly, questions arise concerning whether the PP is employed preemptively by political elites from the "top down," or follows from more conventional democratic pressures exerted by citizens and other stakeholders from the "bottom up...
April 26, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Lixin Zhu, Robert D Baker, Ruixin Zhu, Susan S Baker
Semi-synthetic bile acid (BA) obeticholic acid (OCA), a potent farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist, exhibited beneficial effects on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, OCA did not cause a resolution of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Here we discuss several prominent knowledge gaps in BA/FXR biology. Firstly, although many groups reported elevated serum BA levels, there are reports of decreased or normal serum BA levels in NAFLD, underlining the complexity of BA regulation by environmental and genetic factors...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Karim N Daou, Maram B Hakoum, Assem M Khamis, Lama Bou-Karroum, Ahmed Ali, Joseph R Habib, Aline T Semaan, Gordon Guyatt, Elie A Akl
BACKGROUND: Public health journals need to have clear policies for reporting the funding of studies and authors' personal financial and non-financial conflicts of interest (COI) disclosures. This study aims to assess the policies of public health journals on reporting of study funding and the disclosure of authors' COIs. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of "Public, Environmental & Occupational Health" journals. Teams of two researchers abstracted data in duplicate and independently using REDCap software...
April 23, 2018: BMC Public Health
Craig E Colten, Jessica R Z Simms, Audrey A Grismore, Scott A Hemmerling
Louisiana faces extensive coastal land loss which threatens the livelihoods of marginalized populations. These groups have endured extreme disruptive events in the past and have survived in the region by relying on several resilient practices, including mobility. Facing environmental changes that will be wrought by deliberate coastal restoration programs, elderly residents are resisting migration while younger residents continue a decades-long inland migration. Interviews and historical records illustrate a complex intersection of resilient practices and environmental migration...
February 2018: Regional Environmental Change
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