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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434183/impacts-of-forestry-on-boreal-forests-an-ecosystem-services-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Tähti Pohjanmies, María Triviño, Eric Le Tortorec, Adriano Mazziotta, Tord Snäll, Mikko Mönkkönen
Forests are widely recognized as major providers of ecosystem services, including timber, other forest products, recreation, regulation of water, soil and air quality, and climate change mitigation. Extensive tracts of boreal forests are actively managed for timber production, but actions aimed at increasing timber yields also affect other forest functions and services. Here, we present an overview of the environmental impacts of forest management from the perspective of ecosystem services. We show how prevailing forestry practices may have substantial but diverse effects on the various ecosystem services provided by boreal forests...
April 22, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423928/engaging-parents-to-promote-children-s-nutrition-and-health
#2
Dipti A Dev, Courtney Byrd-Williams, Samantha Ramsay, Brent McBride, Deepa Srivastava, Ashleigh Murriel, Chrisa Arcan, Anna M Adachi-Mejia
PURPOSE: Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics benchmarks as a framework, this study examined childcare providers' (Head Start [HS], Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP] funded, and non-CACFP) perspectives regarding communicating with parents about nutrition to promote children's health. DESIGN: Qualitative. SETTING: State-licensed center-based childcare programs. PARTICIPANTS: Full-time childcare providers (n = 18) caring for children 2 to 5 years old from varying childcare contexts (HS, CACFP funded, and non-CACFP), race, education, and years of experience...
March 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421512/new-insights-into-cockroach-allergens
#3
REVIEW
Anna Pomés, Geoffrey A Mueller, Thomas A Randall, Martin D Chapman, L Karla Arruda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review addresses the most recent developments on cockroach allergen research in relation to allergic diseases, especially asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: The number of allergens relevant to cockroach allergy has recently expanded considerably up to 12 groups. New X-ray crystal structures of allergens from groups 1, 2, and 5 revealed interesting features with implications for allergen standardization, sensitization, diagnosis, and therapy. Cockroach allergy is strongly associated with asthma particularly among children and young adults living in inner-city environments, posing challenges for disease control...
April 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414022/cigarette-smoking-and-the-risks-of-basal-cell-carcinoma-and-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#4
J C Dusingize, C M Olsen, N P Pandeya, P Subramaniam, B S Thompson, R E Neale, A C Green, D C Whiteman
Sunlight is the principal environmental risk factor for keratinocyte cancers, but other carcinogens have also been implicated, including tobacco smoke. Findings have been conflicting however. We investigated associations between cigarette smoking and incidence of BCC or SCC in QSkin, a prospective study of skin cancer (n=43,794). Smoking history was self-reported at baseline; newly diagnosed BCCs and SCCs were ascertained through data linkage and verified by histopathology reports. We restricted analyses to white participants who at baseline reported no past history of skin cancer excisions and no more than 5 destructively-treated actinic skin lesions...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412622/population-production-pollution-nexus-based-air-pollution-management-model-for-alleviating-the-atmospheric-crisis-in-beijing-china
#5
X T Zeng, Y F Tong, L Cui, X M Kong, Y N Sheng, L Chen, Y P Li
In recent years, increscent emissions in the city of Beijing due to expanded population, accelerated industrialization and inter-regional pollutant transportation have led to hazardous atmospheric pollution issues. Although a number of anthropogenic control measures have been put into use, frequent/severe haze events have still challenged regional governments. In this study, a hybrid population-production-pollution nexus model (PPP) is proposed for air pollution management and air quality planning (AMP) with the aim to coordinate human activities and environmental protection...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408186/water-contamination-from-oil-extraction-activities-in-northern-peruvian-amazonian-rivers
#6
Raúl Yusta-García, Martí Orta-Martínez, Pedro Mayor, Carlos González-Crespo, Antoni Rosell-Melé
Oil extraction activities in the Northern Peruvian Amazon have generated a long-standing socio-environmental conflict between oil companies, governmental authorities and indigenous communities, partly derived from the discharge of produced waters containing high amounts of heavy metals and hydrocarbons. To assess the impact of produced waters discharges we conducted a meta-analysis of 2951 river water and 652 produced water chemical analyses from governmental institutions and oil companies reports, collected in four Amazonian river basins (Marañon, Tigre, Corrientes and Pastaza) and their tributaries...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404780/environmental-modification-via-a-quorum-sensing-molecule-influences-the-social-landscape-of-siderophore-production
#7
Roman Popat, Freya Harrison, Ana C da Silva, Scott A S Easton, Luke McNally, Paul Williams, Stephen P Diggle
Bacteria produce a wide variety of exoproducts that favourably modify their environment and increase their fitness. These are often termed 'public goods' because they are costly for individuals to produce and can be exploited by non-producers (cheats). The outcome of conflict over public goods is dependent upon the prevailing environment and the phenotype of the individuals in competition. Many bacterial species use quorum sensing (QS) signalling molecules to regulate the production of public goods. QS, therefore, determines the cooperative phenotype of individuals, and influences conflict over public goods...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402913/the-impacts-of-decision-uncertainty-on-municipal-solid-waste-management
#8
Atousa Soltani, Rehan Sadiq, Kasun Hewage
Municipal solid waste treatment options are not necessarily pragmatic if the stakeholders in the system don't mutually agree on their shares of liabilities. Stakeholders will select an option if their benefits are maximized and costs are minimized. A decision support framework is required to assess various waste treatment options and predict the optimal decision, considering multiple criteria and conflicting preferences of multiple stakeholders. Because of the inherent complexity, uncertainty is unavoidable and should be acknowledged to enhance the reliability in the decision-making process...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398257/the-life-course-implications-of-ready-to-use-therapeutic-food-for-children-in-low-income-countries
#9
Alessandra N Bazzano, Kaitlin S Potts, Lydia A Bazzano, John B Mason
The development of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) for the treatment of uncomplicated cases of severe acute malnutrition in young children from 6 months to 5 years old has greatly improved survival through the ability to treat large numbers of malnourished children in the community setting rather than at health facilities during emergencies. This success has led to a surge in demand for RUTF in low income countries that are frequently food insecure due to environmental factors such as cyclical drought...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397095/evidence-regarding-the-impact-of-conflicts-of-interest-on-environmental-and-occupational-health-research
#10
REVIEW
Ellen M Wells
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes published literature providing evidence for financial conflicts of interest in environmental and occupational health research. Secondary goals were to describe evidence that (a) utilized quantitative methods to evaluate the association of conflicts with study outcomes, and (b) assessed undisclosed as well as disclosed conflicts of interest. RECENT FINDINGS: Forty-three studies were identified which contained descriptions of the impact of financial conflicts of interest on research results; 11 of these conducted quantitative analyses to demonstrate these relationships...
April 10, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394937/the-brazilian-freshwater-wetscape-changes-in-tree-community-diversity-and-composition-on-climatic-and-geographic-gradients
#11
Florian Wittmann, Márcia C M Marques, Geraldo Damasceno Júnior, Jean Carlos Budke, Maria T F Piedade, Astrid de Oliveira Wittmann, Juan Carlos Montero, Rafael L de Assis, Natália Targhetta, Pia Parolin, Wolfgang J Junk, J Ethan Householder
Wetlands harbor an important compliment of regional plant diversity, but in many regions data on wetland diversity and composition is still lacking, thus hindering our understanding of the processes that control it. While patterns of broad-scale terrestrial diversity and composition typically correlate with contemporary climate it is not clear to what extent patterns in wetlands are complimentary, or conflicting. To elucidate this, we consolidate data from wetland forest inventories in Brazil and examine patterns of diversity and composition along temperature and rainfall gradients spanning five biomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394142/are-there-individual-and-sibling-differences-in-appraisals-of-interparental-conflict
#12
Rachel G Lucas-Thompson, Melissa W George
Despite decades of empirical literature documenting the harmful effects of frequent, intense, violent, and unresolved interparental conflict on children's adjustment, there is considerable variability in the extent to which marital conflict contributes to the development of children's emotional and behavioral problems. Past research has documented links between properties of interparental conflict itself (e.g., intensity, frequency), children's appraisals of conflict, and children's outcomes, yet less is known about the role of individual and family characteristics in predicting children's conflict appraisals...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390024/strategic-tillage-in-conservation-agricultural-systems-of-north-eastern-australia-why-where-when-and-how
#13
Yash Pal Dang, Anna Balzer, Mark Crawford, Vivian Rincon-Florez, Hongwei Liu, Alice Rowena Melland, Diogenes Antille, Shreevatsa Kodur, Michael John Bell, Jeremey Patrick Milroy Whish, Yunru Lai, Nikki Seymour, Lilia Costa Carvalhais, Peer Schenk
Farmers often resort to an occasional tillage (strategic tillage (ST)) operation to combat constraints of no-tillage (NT) farming systems. There are conflicting reports regarding impacts of ST and a lack of knowledge around when, where and how ST is implemented to maximise its benefits without impacting negatively on soil and environment. We established 14 experiments during 2012-2015 on farms with long-term history of continuous NT to (i) quantify the associated risks and benefits to crop productivity, soil and environmental health and (ii) explore key factors that need to be considered in decisions to implement ST in an otherwise NT system...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389155/integrative-taxonomy-of-ciliates-assessment-of-molecular-phylogenetic-content-and-morphological-homology-testing
#14
REVIEW
Peter Vďačný
The very diverse and comparatively complex morphology of ciliates has given rise to numerous taxonomic concepts. However, the information content of the utilized molecular markers has seldom been explored prior to phylogenetic analyses and taxonomic decisions. Likewise, robust testing of morphological homology statements and the apomorphic nature of diagnostic characters of ciliate taxa is rarely carried out. Four phylogenetic techniques that may help address these issues are reviewed. (1) Split spectrum analysis serves to determine the exact number and quality of nucleotide positions supporting individual nodes in phylogenetic trees and to discern long-branch artifacts that cause spurious phylogenies...
February 24, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381446/cutaneous-trpm8-expressing-sensory-afferents-are-a-small-population-of-neurons-with-unique-firing-properties
#15
Michael P Jankowski, Kristofer K Rau, H Richard Koerber
It has been well documented that the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) receptor is involved in environmental cold detection. The role that this receptor plays in nociception however, has been somewhat controversial since conflicting reports have shown different neurochemical identities and responsiveness of TRPM8 neurons. In order to functionally characterize cutaneous TRMP8 fibers, we used two ex vivo somatosensory recording preparations to functionally characterize TRPM8 neurons that innervate the hairy skin in mice genetically engineered to express GFP from the TRPM8 locus...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379457/pedigree-analysis-reveals-a-generational-decline-in-reproductive-success-of-captive-tasmanian-devil-sarcophilus-harrisii-implications-for-captive-management-of-threatened-species
#16
Katherine A Farquharson, Carolyn J Hogg, Catherine E Grueber
Captive breeding programs are an increasingly popular tool to augment the conservation of threatened wild populations. Many programs keep detailed pedigrees, which are used to prescribe breeding targets to meet demographic and genetic goals. Annual breeding targets are based on previous productivity, but do not account for changes in reproductive success that may occur over generations in captivity and which may impair the ability of a program to meet its goals. We utilise a large studbook from the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) captive breeding program to investigate biological, genetic and environmental factors that affect variation in reproductive success among individuals and over generations of captive breeding...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376065/chikungunya-virus-and-autoimmunity
#17
Amir Tanay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus. Fever, rash and severe arthralgia are the hallmarks of chikungunya fever (CHIKF), the disease caused by this virus. The acute course of the disease usually lasts few weeks to months. Chronic, relapsing or persistent arthralgia and arthritis have been described mimicking rheumatoid arthritis (RA), requiring immunosuppressive drugs.The purpose of this review is to characterize both the chronic clinical course of CHIKF-associated arthritis and the immunological pathogenic mechanisms involved...
April 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361207/antibody-response-to-paramyxoviruses-in-paget-s-disease-of-bone
#18
Micaela Rios Visconti, Ricardo Usategui-Martín, Stuart H Ralston
Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a common skeletal disorder characterised by focal abnormalities of increased and disorganised bone turnover. Genetic factors play a central role in the pathogenesis of PDB but environmental factors also contribute. Measles virus (MV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) have all been implicated as potential disease triggers but the data are conflicting. Since chronic paramyxovirus infection with measles is known to be accompanied by increased production of antiviral antibodies, we have analysed circulating concentrations of antibodies to MV, CDV, and RSV as well as mumps, rubella and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in 463 patients with PDB and 220 aged and gender-matched controls...
March 31, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350368/pathways-to-suicide-in-australian-farmers-a-life-chart-analysis
#19
Lisa Kunde, Kairi Kõlves, Brian Kelly, Prasuna Reddy, Diego De Leo
Farmers have been found to be at increased risk of suicide in Australia. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behaviour suggests that the proximal factors leading to the suicidal desire or ideation include an individual's experiences of both perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. Suicidal desire with acquired capability to engage in lethal self-injury is predictive of suicidal behaviour. This study investigates the pathways to suicide of 18 Australian male farmers in order to understand the suicidal process and antecedents to suicide in Australian male farmers...
March 28, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347319/applying-the-theoretical-domains-framework-to-identify-barriers-and-targeted-interventions-to-enhance-nurses-use-of-electronic-medication-management-systems-in-two-australian-hospitals
#20
Deborah Debono, Natalie Taylor, Wendy Lipworth, David Greenfield, Joanne Travaglia, Deborah Black, Jeffrey Braithwaite
BACKGROUND: Medication errors harm hospitalised patients and increase health care costs. Electronic Medication Management Systems (EMMS) have been shown to reduce medication errors. However, nurses do not always use EMMS as intended, largely because implementation of such patient safety strategies requires clinicians to change their existing practices, routines and behaviour. This study uses the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify barriers and targeted interventions to enhance nurses' appropriate use of EMMS in two Australian hospitals...
March 27, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
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