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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810514/multi-objective-spatial-tools-to-inform-maritime-spatial-planning-in-the-adriatic-sea
#1
Daniel Depellegrin, Stefano Menegon, Giulio Farella, Michol Ghezzo, Elena Gissi, Alessandro Sarretta, Chiara Venier, Andrea Barbanti
This research presents a set of multi-objective spatial tools for sea planning and environmental management in the Adriatic Sea Basin. The tools address four objectives: 1) assessment of cumulative impacts from anthropogenic sea uses on environmental components of marine areas; 2) analysis of sea use conflicts; 3) 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of nutrient dispersion (nitrogen and phosphorus) from riverine sources in the Adriatic Sea Basin and 4) marine ecosystem services capacity assessment from seabed habitats based on an ES matrix approach...
August 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783077/characterization-of-reconstructed-ancestral-proteins-suggests-a-change-in-temperature-of-the-ancient-biosphere
#2
REVIEW
Satoshi Akanuma
Understanding the evolution of ancestral life, and especially the ability of some organisms to flourish in the variable environments experienced in Earth's early biosphere, requires knowledge of the characteristics and the environment of these ancestral organisms. Information about early life and environmental conditions has been obtained from fossil records and geological surveys. Recent advances in phylogenetic analysis, and an increasing number of protein sequences available in public databases, have made it possible to infer ancestral protein sequences possessed by ancient organisms...
August 6, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778004/measuring-conflicts-in-the-management-of-anthropized-ecosystems-evidence-from-a-choice-experiment-in-a-human-created-mediterranean-wetland
#3
Ángel Perni, José Miguel Martínez-Paz
Economic valuation of ecosystem services provides valuable information for the management of anthropized environments, where individual preferences can be heterogeneous and even opposed. Here, we discuss how these ecosystem services were approached in the literature and we address the main issues in relation to their economic valuation. We consider that avoiding misspecifications in economic valuation surveys requires considering the linkages between anthropized ecosystems and human intervention. To illustrate, we analyse the case study of a human-created Mediterranean wetland (El Hondo, SE Spain) using a Choice Experiment...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770046/using-phylogeny-and-functional-traits-for-assessing-community-assembly-along-environmental-gradients-a-deterministic-process-driven-by-elevation
#4
Jinshi Xu, Yu Chen, Lixia Zhang, Yongfu Chai, Mao Wang, Yaoxin Guo, Ting Li, Ming Yue
Community assembly processes is the primary focus of community ecology. Using phylogenetic-based and functional trait-based methods jointly to explore these processes along environmental gradients are useful ways to explain the change of assembly mechanisms under changing world. Our study combined these methods to test assembly processes in wide range gradients of elevation and other habitat environmental factors. We collected our data at 40 plots in Taibai Mountain, China, with more than 2,300 m altitude difference in study area and then measured traits and environmental factors...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769759/the-insect-ortholog-of-the-human-orphan-cytokine-receptor-crlf3-is-a-neuroprotective-erythropoietin-receptor
#5
Nina Hahn, Debbra Y Knorr, Johannes Liebig, Liane Wüstefeld, Karsten Peters, Marita Büscher, Gregor Bucher, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Ralf Heinrich
The cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) mediates various cell homeostatic responses to environmental challenges and pathological insults. While stimulation of vertebrate erythrocyte production is mediated by homodimeric "classical" Epo receptors, alternative receptors are involved in neuroprotection. However, their identity remains enigmatic due to complex cytokine ligand and receptor interactions and conflicting experimental results. Besides the classical Epo receptor, the family of type I cytokine receptors also includes the poorly characterized orphan cytokine receptor-like factor 3 (CRLF3) present in vertebrates including human and various insect species...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763136/the-effects-of-stress-and-sex-on-selection-genetic-covariance-and-the-evolutionary-response
#6
Luke Holman, Frances Jacomb
The capacity of a population to adapt to selection (evolvability) depends on whether the structure of genetic variation permits the evolution of fitter trait combinations. Selection, genetic variance, and genetic covariance can change under environmental stress, and males and females are not genetically independent, yet the combined effects of stress and dioecy on evolvability are not well understood. Here, we estimate selection, genetic (co)variance, and evolvability in both sexes of Tribolium castaneum flour beetles under stressful and benign conditions, using a half-sib breeding design...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757935/cleft-palate-only-current-concepts
#7
L Tettamanti, A Avantaggiato, M Nardone, J Silvestre-Rangil, A Tagliabue
Cleft palate only (CPO) is one of the most common congenital malformations worldwide. The etiopathogenesis of CPO is not completely understood. Environmental factors, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, intake of drugs during pregnancy, advanced paternal age, have been demonstrated to be a risk of CPO, but conflicting results have also been published. Insufficient intake of folic acid during the pregnancy has been suggested to increase the risk for CPO. The demonstrated risk for siblings and the higher risk for monozygotic twins suggest a genetic etiopathogenesis for CPO...
January 2017: Oral & Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755681/ebv-and-ms-major-cause-minor-contribution-or-red-herring
#8
REVIEW
Sean Burnard, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Rodney J Scott
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease with genetic and environmental risk factors. Epstein Barr-Virus (EBV) has been closely associated with MS but with a significant amount of conflicting evidence. Some of the evidence for EBV involvement in MS includes: almost 100% of MS patients showing past EBV infection, an association with Infectious Mononucleosis (acute EBV infection), higher titres of EBV antibodies associated with an increased risk of MS development, and an overall altered immune response to EBV found in peripheral blood and the CNS of MS patients...
August 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754001/using-machine-learning-to-discover-latent-social-phenotypes-in-free-ranging-macaques
#9
Seth Madlon-Kay, Lauren Brent, Michael Montague, Katherine Heller, Michael Platt
Investigating the biological bases of social phenotypes is challenging because social behavior is both high-dimensional and richly structured, and biological factors are more likely to influence complex patterns of behavior rather than any single behavior in isolation. The space of all possible patterns of interactions among behaviors is too large to investigate using conventional statistical methods. In order to quantitatively define social phenotypes from natural behavior, we developed a machine learning model to identify and measure patterns of behavior in naturalistic observational data, as well as their relationships to biological, environmental, and demographic sources of variation...
July 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743947/match-between-soaring-modes-of-black-kites-and-the-fine-scale-distribution-of-updrafts
#10
Carlos D Santos, Frank Hanssen, Antonio-Román Muñoz, Alejandro Onrubia, Martin Wikelski, Roel May, João P Silva
Understanding how soaring birds use updrafts at small spatial scales is important to identify ecological constraints of movement, and may help to prevent conflicts between wind-energy development and the conservation of wildlife. We combined high-frequency GPS animal tracking and fine-spatial-scale uplift modelling to establish a link between flight behaviour of soaring birds and the distribution of updrafts. We caught 21 black kites (Milvus migrans) and GPS-tracked them while flying over the Tarifa region, on the Spanish side of the Strait of Gibraltar...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730915/burnout-among-danish-prison-personnel-a-question-of-quantitative-and-emotional-demands
#11
Dorte Raaby Andersen, Lars Peter Andersen, Charlotte Ann Gadegaard, Annie Høgh, Annick Prieur, Thomas Lund
Objectives The objective of this follow-up study was to investigate associations between individual, occupational and work environment factors and burnout among both uniformed and non-uniformed personnel working in the Danish Prison and Probation Service. Methods The participants (N = 4808) with client contact received a questionnaire in 2010 and again in 2011. In 2010, 2843 participants responded to the questionnaire (59.1%), and in 2011, 1741 responded to the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 61...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722344/a-large-scale-assessment-of-european-rabbit-damage-to-agriculture-in-spain
#12
Miguel Delibes-Mateos, Miguel Ángel Farfán, Carlos Rouco, Jesús Olivero, Ana Luz Márquez, John E Fa, Juan Mario Vargas, Rafael Villafuerte
BACKGROUND: Numerous small and medium-sized mammal pests cause widespread and economically significant damage to crops all over the globe. However, most research on pest species has focused on accounts of the level of damage. There are fewer studies concentrating on the description of crop damage caused by pests at large geographical scales, or on analysing the ecological and anthropogenic factors correlated with these observed patterns. We investigated the relationship between agricultural damage by the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and environmental and anthropogenic variables throughout Spain...
July 19, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722026/reconciling-irrigated-food-production-with-environmental-flows-for-sustainable-development-goals-implementation
#13
Jonas Jägermeyr, Amandine Pastor, Hester Biemans, Dieter Gerten
Safeguarding river ecosystems is a precondition for attaining the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) related to water and the environment, while rigid implementation of such policies may hamper achievement of food security. River ecosystems provide life-supporting functions that depend on maintaining environmental flow requirements (EFRs). Here we establish gridded process-based estimates of EFRs and their violation through human water withdrawals. Results indicate that 41% of current global irrigation water use (997 km(3) per year) occurs at the expense of EFRs...
July 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721171/response-to-an-unusual-outbreak-in-a-high-risk-situation
#14
Mahmood Muazu Dalhat, Olufunmilayo Ibitola Fawole, Patrick Mboya Nguku, Meeyoung Mattie Park, Casey Daniel Hall, Nasir Sani-Gwarzo
In 2010, a series of lead poisoning outbreaks linked to artisanal gold processing killed at least 400 young children in Zamfara State in northwestern Nigeria. There were several efforts to respond to the outbreaks as they occurred. Subsequent recurrence of lead poisoning outbreaks within Zamfara and beyond suggested that there were no efforts to mitigate the outbreaks as recommended for disaster management. This case study, to be completed within 3 hours, is suitable for senior level public health officials and those training for such positions...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719336/infant-nutritional-status-feeding-practices-enteropathogen-exposure-socioeconomic-status-and-illness-are-associated-with-gut-barrier-function-as-assessed-by-the-lactulose-mannitol-test-in-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort
#15
Gwenyth O Lee, Benjamin J J McCormick, Jessica C Seidman, Margaret N Kosek, Rashidul Haque, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Aldo A M Lima, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Gagandeep Kang, Amidou Samie, Caroline Amour, Carl J Mason, Tahmeed Ahmed, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Domingos B Oliveira, Didar Alam, Sudhir Babji, Pascal Bessong, Estomih Mduma, Sanjaya K Shrestha, Ramya Ambikapathi, Dennis R Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Richard L Guerrant, Laura E Caulfield, For The Mal-Ed Network Investigators
The lactulose mannitol (LM) dual sugar permeability test is the most commonly used test of environmental enteropathy in developing countries. However, there is a large but conflicting literature on its association with enteric infection and host nutritional status. We conducted a longitudinal cohort using a single field protocol and comparable laboratory procedures to examine intestinal permeability in multiple, geographically diverse pediatric populations. Using a previously published systematic review to guide the selection of factors potentially associated with LM test results, we examined the relationships between these factors and mucosal breach, represented by percent lactulose excretion; absorptive area, represented by percent mannitol excretion; and gut barrier function, represented by the L/M ratio...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718391/corrigendum
#16
(no author information available yet)
Operating and environmental performances of commercial-scale waste gasification and melting technology by Nobuhiro Tanigaki, Yasuka Fujinaga, Hirohisa Kajiyama, and Yoshihiro Ishida. Waste Management & Research 2013; 31: 1118-1124, DOI: 10.1177/0734242X13502386. The authors regret that they omitted the following declaration of conflicting interest in the article: Declaration of Conflicting Interest At the time of publication, all authors were employed by Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co., Ltd. Technology developed by Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering Co...
July 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715795/recycling-and-social-technologies-for-sustainability-the-brazilian-experience-of-wastepickers-inclusion-in-selective-collection-programs
#17
Francisco de Paula Antunes Lima, Fabiana Goulart de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Alternatives are being developed for waste treatment all over the world. Solidary selective collection is a recognized social technology for taking millions of people out of absolute poverty. However, this technology raises crucial questions regarding its nature and development perspective. What can be said of the legitimacy of a social technology that is born from misery and maintains wastepickers in precarious work conditions? OBJECTIVE: This article approaches issues based on the analysis of the wastepickers' work process, highlighting the difficulties and interpersonal conflicts, the strong social bonds and creativity that reveal the potential of efficiency and solidarity of this social technology...
2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696468/the-effect-of-probe-choice-and-solution-conditions-on-the-apparent-photoreactivity-of-dissolved-organic-matter
#18
Andrew C Maizel, Christina K Remucal
Excited triplet states of dissolved organic matter ((3)DOM) are quantified directly with the species-specific probes trans,trans-hexadienoic acid (HDA) and 2,4,6-trimethylphenol (TMP), and indirectly with the singlet oxygen ((1)O2) probe furfuryl alcohol (FFA). Although previous work suggests that these probe compounds may be sensitive to solution conditions, including dissolved organic carbon concentration ([DOC]) and pH, and may quantify different (3)DOM subpopulations, the probes have not been systematically compared...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693568/anorexia-nervosa-and-cancer-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#19
Ferrán Catalá-López, Brian Hutton, Jane A Driver, Manuel Ridao, José M Valderas, Ricard Gènova-Maleras, Jaume Forés-Martos, Adolfo Alonso-Arroyo, Diego Macías Saint-Gerons, Eduard Vieta, Alfonso Valencia, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa is characterized by a severe restriction of caloric intake, low body weight, fear of gaining weight or of becoming fat, and disturbance of body image. Pathogenesis of the disorder may include genetic predisposition, hormonal changes and a combination of environmental, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. At present, no systematic reviews and meta-analyses have evaluated the risk of cancer in people with anorexia nervosa...
July 11, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693105/path-analysis-of-prenatal-mercury-levels-and-birth-weights-in-korean-and-taiwanese-birth-cohorts
#20
Byung-Mi Kim, Mei-Huei Chen, Pau-Chung Chen, Hyesook Park, Mina Ha, Yangho Kim, Yun-Chul Hong, Young Ju Kim, Eun-Hee Ha
Prospective cohort studies of the effect of mercury (Hg) exposure on birth weight have shown conflicting results. We combined data from Taiwanese and Korean birth cohorts, and assessed the effects of Hg exposure on birth weight. The first cohort was drawn from the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study performed in Korea from 2006 to 2010. The second cohort was enrolled from 2004 to 2005 and included singleton term births from the Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS). In total, 1147 pregnant women were included in this study...
July 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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