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environmental conflict

Mathias Basner, Sarah McGuire
To evaluate the quality of available evidence on the effects of environmental noise exposure on sleep a systematic review was conducted. The databases PSYCINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science and the TNO Repository were searched for non-laboratory studies on the effects of environmental noise on sleep with measured or predicted noise levels and published in or after the year 2000. The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria. Seventy four studies predominately conducted between 2000 and 2015 were included in the review...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Pablo Iribarren Anacona, Josie Kinney, Marius Schaefer, Stephan Harrison, Ryan Wilson, Alexis Segovia, Bruno Mazzorana, Felipe Guerra, David Farías, John M Reynolds, Neil F Glasser
The environmental, socioeconomic and cultural significance of glaciers has motivated several countries to regulate activities on glaciers and glacierized surroundings. However, laws written to specifically protect mountain glaciers have only recently been considered within national political agendas. Glacier Protection Laws (GPLs) originate in countries where mining has damaged glaciers and have been adopted with the aim of protecting the cryosphere from harmful activities. Here, we analyze GPLs in Argentina (approved) and Chile (under discussion) to identify potential environmental conflicts arising from law restrictions and omissions...
March 13, 2018: Ambio
Tianyi Xia, Sang Zhu, Yan Wen, Shouhong Gao, Mingming Li, Xia Tao, Feng Zhang, Wansheng Chen
Background: Nephrotoxicity of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) is the major concern for long-term allograft survival despite its predominant role in current immunosuppressive regime after renal transplantation. CNI nephrotoxicity is multifactorial with demographic, environmental, and pharmacogenetic flexibility, whereas studies indicating risk factors for CNI nephrotoxicity obtained incomplete or conflicting results. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factors for CNI nephrotoxicity was performed on all retrieved studies through a comprehensive research of network database...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Hossein Zanjanian, Hamid Abdolabadi, Mohammad Hossein Niksokhan, Amin Sarang
Allocating water to organizational stakeholders poses a vital challenge to water managers. Organizations which benefit from water as the primary factor input attempt to achieve their objectives using cost-effective and quick-return strategies, such as increasing the water rights. In such circumstances, lack of water probably results in the conflict. Recognizing the management approaches, organizational priorities, and the stakeholders' influence power can play a dominant role in analyzing the future of such conflicts...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Genny M Maupin, Anthony P Tvaryanas, Edward D White, Heather J Mahaney
Background: Recent military conflicts in Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom), Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom), and elsewhere have been associated with psychological impacts among military personnel. However, relatively little is known about the relationship between those conflicts and psychological health of military health care professionals. Previous work has shown certain demographic factors associated with diagnosed mental health conditions after deployment. However, unique exposures in the deployed environment may be present that are also associated...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
S E Lester, J M Stevens, R R Gentry, C V Kappel, T W Bell, C J Costello, S D Gaines, D A Kiefer, C C Maue, J E Rensel, R D Simons, L Washburn, C White
Marine spatial planning (MSP) seeks to reduce conflicts and environmental impacts, and promote sustainable use of marine ecosystems. Existing MSP approaches have successfully determined how to achieve target levels of ocean area for particular uses while minimizing costs and impacts, but they do not provide a framework that derives analytical solutions in order to co-ordinate siting of multiple uses while balancing the effects of planning on each sector in the system. We develop such a framework for guiding offshore aquaculture (bivalve, finfish, and kelp farming) development in relation to existing sectors and environmental concerns (wild-capture fisheries, viewshed quality, benthic pollution, and disease spread) in California, USA...
March 5, 2018: Nature Communications
Karen Luisa Haag
Symbioses are ubiquitous and have played an influential role in the evolution of life on Earth. Genomic studies are now revealing a huge diversity of associations among hosts and their microbiotas, allowing us to characterize their complex ecological and evolutionary dynamics. The different transmission modes and the asynchronous cell proliferation of the numerous symbionts associated with one host generate a genomic conflict ought to be solved. Two disputing views have been used to model and predict the outcome of such conflicts...
March 1, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Lou Lecuyer, Rehema M White, Birgit Schmook, Violaine Lemay, Sophie Calmé
A failure to address social concerns in biodiversity conservation can lead to feelings of injustice among some actors, and hence jeopardize conservation goals. The complex socio-cultural and political context of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Mexico, has historically led to multiple biodiversity conflicts. Our goal, in this case study, was to explore perceptions of justice held by local actors in relation to biodiversity conflicts. We then aimed to determine the following: 1) people's definitions of their feelings of justice; 2) the criteria used in this assessment; 3) variability in the criteria influencing them; and 4) implications for environmental management in the region and beyond...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Ilkwon Kim, Sebastian Arnhold
In mountainous watersheds, agricultural land use cause changes in ecosystem services, with trade-offs between crop production and erosion regulation. Management of these watersheds can generate environmental land use conflicts among regional stakeholders with different interests. Although several researches have made a start in mapping land use conflicts between human activities and conservation, spatial assessment of land use conflicts on environmental issues and ecosystem service trade-offs within agricultural areas has not been fully considered...
February 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jing Yu, Ling-Ling Pei
By employing the Graph Model for Conflict Resolution methodology, this paper models and analyzes a brownfield conflict that occurred at the Changzhou Foreign Language School in Jiangsu, China, in 2016. This conflict made national headlines when news reports revealed that a large number of students and staff suffered from health issues after the school moved to a new site that is built on recently restored land adjacent to the original "Chang Long Chemical" block. Since stakeholders in the conflict hold different strengths of preference, a new option prioritization technique is employed to elicit both crisp preferences and the strength of preferences for the decision-makers (DMs) in the conflict...
February 24, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Emma Zang, Cameron Campbell
In this study, we investigate the effect of early-life coresidence with paternal grandparents on male mortality risks in adulthood and older age in northeast China from 1789 to 1909. Despite growing interest in the influence of grandparents on child outcomes, few studies have examined the effect of coresidence with grandparents in early life on mortality in later life. We find that coresidence with paternal grandmothers in childhood is associated with higher mortality risks for males in adulthood. This may reflect the long-term effects of conflicts between mothers and their mothers-in-law...
February 28, 2018: Demography
Kirby Sainsbury, Emma P Halmos, Simon Knowles, Barbara Mullan, Jason A Tye-Din
INTRODUCTION: A strict lifelong gluten free diet (GFD) is the only treatment for coeliac disease (CD). Theory-based research has focused predominantly on initiation, rational, and motivational processes in predicting adherence. The aim of this study was to evaluate an expanded collection of theoretical constructs specifically relevant to the maintenance of behaviour change, in the understanding and prediction of GFD adherence. METHODS: Respondents with CD (N = 5573) completed measures of GFD adherence, psychological distress, intentions, self-efficacy, and the maintenance-relevant constructs of self-regulation, habit, temptation and intentional and unintentional lapses (cognitive and behavioural consequences of lowered or fluctuating psychological resources and self-control), motivation, social and environmental support, and goal priority, conflict, and facilitation...
February 24, 2018: Appetite
Julie G Zaehringer, Grace Wambugu, Boniface Kiteme, Sandra Eckert
Africa has been heavily targeted by large-scale agricultural investments (LAIs) throughout the last decade, with scarcely known impacts on local social-ecological systems. In Kenya, a large number of LAIs were made in the region northwest of Mount Kenya. These large-scale farms produce vegetables and flowers mainly for European markets. However, land use in the region remains dominated by small-scale crop and livestock farms with less than 1 ha of land each, who produce both for their own subsistence and for the local markets...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jemma Lonsdale, Rose Nicholson, Keith Weston, Michael Elliott, Andrew Birchenough, Roxana Sühring
Estuaries are amongst the most socio-economically and ecologically important environments however, due to competing and conflicting demands, management is often challenging with a complex legislative framework managed by multiple agencies. To facilitate the understanding of this legislative framework, we have developed a GISbased Estuarine Planning Support System tool. The tool integrates the requirements of the relevant legislation and provides a basis for assessing the current environmental state of an estuary as well as informing and assessing new plans to ensure a healthy estuarine state...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Mariève Pouliot, Dipesh Pyakurel, Carsten Smith-Hall
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) G.H.Sung, J.M.Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora, a high altitude Himalayan fungus-caterpillar product found in alpine meadows in China, Bhutan, Nepal, and India, has been used in the Traditional Chinese Medicine system for over 2000 years. Heightened demand in China over the past 15 years, coupled with limited production, has led to a price hike and increased economic importance of harvests to rural households throughout the species' range...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Nancy Beauregard, Alain Marchand, Jaunathan Bilodeau, Pierre Durand, Andrée Demers, Victor Y Haines
Aim: Burnout is a pervasive mental health problem in the workforce, with mounting evidence suggesting ties with occupational and safety outcomes such as work injuries, critical events and musculoskeletal disorders. While environmental [work and non-work, work-to-family conflict (WFC)] and individual (personality) pathways to burnout are well documented, little is known about how gender comes to influence such associative patterns. The aim of the study consisted in examining gendered pathways to burnout...
February 19, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Luiz Angelo Vieira, Aline Amaro Dos Santos, Carla Peluso, Caio Parente Barbosa, Bianca Bianco, Luciano Miller Reis Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Intervertebral disc degeneration (DD) is an important cause of low back pain and its precise aetiology is not fully understood, being attributed to cumulative environmental, biomechanical and genetic effects. The vitamin D plays a key role in regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization, exerting its biological activities by binding to a high-affinity receptor (VDR). Polymorphisms in VDR gene were previously associated with DD process, however with conflicting results...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Medical Research
Alice Mado Proverbio, Francesco De Benedetto, Maria Vittoria Ferrari, Giorgia Ferrarini
Studies in the literature have provided conflicting evidence about the effects of background noise or music on concurrent cognitive tasks. Some studies have shown a detrimental effect, while others have shown a beneficial effect of background auditory stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of agitating, happy or touching music, as opposed to environmental sounds or silence, on the ability of non-musician subjects to perform arithmetic operations. Fifty university students (25 women and 25 men, 25 introverts and 25 extroverts) volunteered for the study...
2018: PloS One
Antje Gimpel, Vanessa Stelzenmüller, Sandra Töpsch, Ibon Galparsoro, Matthew Gubbins, David Miller, Arantza Murillas, Alexander G Murray, Kemal Pınarbaşı, Guillem Roca, Robert Watret
The increasing demand for protein from aquaculture will trigger a global expansion of the sector in coastal and offshore waters. While contributing to food security, potential conflicts with other traditional activities such as fisheries or tourism are inevitable, thus calling for decision-support tools to assess aquaculture planning scenarios in a multi-use context. Here we introduce the AquaSpace tool, one of the first Geographic Information System (GIS)-based planning tools empowering an integrated assessment and mapping of 30 indicators reflecting economic, environmental, inter-sectorial and socio-cultural risks and opportunities for proposed aquaculture systems in a marine environment...
February 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Antonio Planchart, Adrian Green, Cathrine Hoyo, Carolyn J Mattingly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic syndrome (MS) describes the co-occurrence of conditions that increase one's risk for heart disease and other disorders such as diabetes and stroke. The worldwide increase in the prevalence of MS cannot be fully explained by lifestyle factors such as sedentary behavior and caloric intake alone. Environmental exposures, such as heavy metals, have been implicated, but results are conflicting and possible mechanisms remain unclear. To assess recent progress in determining a possible role between heavy metal exposure and MS, we reviewed epidemiological and model system data for cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) from the last decade...
February 19, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
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