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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214111/remediation-of-contaminated-lands-in-the-niger-delta-nigeria-prospects-and-challenges
#1
REVIEW
Nenibarini Zabbey, Kabari Sam, Adaugo Trinitas Onyebuchi
Contamination of the total environment (air, soil, water and biota) by crude oil has become a paramount interest in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Studies have revealed variable impacts of oil toxicity on the environment and exposed populations. The revelation gained much international attention in 2011 with the release of Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland report by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). This has up scaled local and international pressures for urgent clean-up and restoration of degraded bio-resource rich environments of the Niger Delta, starting from Ogoniland...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212642/beyond-cultural-stereotyping-views-on-end-of-life-decision-making-among-religious-and-secular-persons-in-the-usa-germany-and-israel
#2
Mark Schweda, Silke Schicktanz, Aviad Raz, Anita Silvers
BACKGROUND: End-of-life decision making constitutes a major challenge for bioethical deliberation and political governance in modern democracies: On the one hand, it touches upon fundamental convictions about life, death, and the human condition. On the other, it is deeply rooted in religious traditions and historical experiences and thus shows great socio-cultural diversity. The bioethical discussion of such cultural issues oscillates between liberal individualism and cultural stereotyping...
February 17, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209414/barriers-and-facilitators-to-the-implementation-of-evidence-based-practice-by-pediatric-surgeons
#3
Katrina J Sullivan, Carolyn Wayne, Andrea M Patey, Ahmed Nasr
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Evidence-based practice (EBP) has been identified as a foundation of mainstream medical practice, yet pediatric surgery has been slow in the acceptance and implementation of EBP. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews of 14 pediatric surgeons were conducted to determine barriers and facilitators to EBP. Resulting data were analyzed using a systematic 3-step approached of coding, generation of specific beliefs, and identification of domains relevant to practice change...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209282/intimate-partner-violence-screening-in-the-veterans-health-administration-demographic-and-military-service-characteristics
#4
Melissa E Dichter, Terri N Haywood, Anneliese E Butler, Scarlett L Bellamy, Katherine M Iverson
INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence (IPV) includes psychological, physical, or sexual aggression by a current or former intimate partner and is associated with a wide range of health and social impacts, especially for women. Women veterans may be at increased risk for experiencing IPV, and some Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities have initiated routine screening of female patients for past-year IPV. This study presents the first examination of clinical IPV screening responses recorded from female VHA patients across 13 facilities nationwide, and identifies associations with patient demographic and military service characteristics...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207821/relationship-of-work-family-conflict-self-reported-social-support-and-job-satisfaction-to-burnout-syndrome-among-medical-workers-in-southwest-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Shujuan Yang, Danping Liu, Hongbo Liu, Juying Zhang, Zhanqi Duan
BACKGROUND: Burnout is a psychosomatic syndrome widely observed in Chinese medical workers due to the increasing cost of medical treatment, excessive workload, and excessive prescribing behavior. No studies have evaluated the interrelationship among occupational burnout, work-family conflict, social support, and job satisfaction in medical workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate these relationships among medical workers in southwest China. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2013 and December 2013, and was based on the fifth National Health Service Survey (NHSS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205644/bribery-games-on-inter-dependent-regular-networks
#6
Prateek Verma, Anjan K Nandi, Supratim Sengupta
We examine a scenario of social conflict that is manifest during an interaction between government servants providing a service and citizens who are legally entitled to the service, using evolutionary game-theory in structured populations characterized by an inter-dependent network. Bribe-demands by government servants during such transactions, called harassment bribes, constitute a widespread form of corruption in many countries. We investigate the effect of varying bribe demand made by corrupt officials and the cost of complaining incurred by harassed citizens, on the proliferation of corrupt strategies in the population...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205087/-training-the-citizen-of-the-rising-republic-on-a-controversy-at-the-foundation-of-the-republican-school
#7
Christophe Miqueu
This paper looks at the original conflicting approach of the republican school, understood as a traning ground for citizenship. The separation between those who wish to develop a truly democratic school, and those who do not see in this objective a political priority for the emerging republic, embodies the most profound debate of this moment of political foundation of the Republican school. Behind the two visions of the Republican school (education vs instruction), two visions of Republican society are opposed...
December 2016: Revue de Synthèse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204909/reincarceration-risk-among-men-with-mental-illnesses-leaving-prison-a-risk-environment-analysis
#8
Stacey L Barrenger, Jeffrey Draine, Beth Angell, Daniel Herman
Reentry interventions for persons with mental illness leaving prison have consisted primarily of linkage to mental health services and have produced mixed results on psychiatric and criminal recidivism. These interventions primarily focus on intra-individual risk factors. However, social and environmental factors may also increase risk of reincarceration by constraining choices and pro-social opportunities for community reintegration upon release from prison. In order to add to the knowledge base on understanding reincarceration risk for men with mental illnesses leaving prison, we examined interpersonal and environmental factors that exposed men to heightened risk for reincarceration...
February 15, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202151/when-contact-counts-intergroup-contact-on-business-and-intermarriage-resistance-in-the-caucasus-region
#9
Benjamin T Gurrentz, Roger Finke
Intergroup contact theory has been empirically supported in a variety of social contexts, but few samples have been drawn from rapidly developing nations undergoing severe political and sociocultural conflict. Using 2012 Caucasus Barometer data from the three nations of the South Caucasus - Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia - we test the effect of interreligious contact on various forms of out-group resistance in a region of the world that is both historically and presently marked with severe religious and ethnic conflict...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196536/community-engagement-and-the-social-context-of-targeted-malaria-treatment-a-qualitative-study-in-kayin-karen-state-myanmar
#10
Kate Sahan, Christopher Pell, Frank Smithuis, Aung Kyaw Phyo, Sai Maung Maung, Chanida Indrasuta, Arjen M Dondorp, Nicholas J White, Nicholas P J Day, Lorenz von Seidlein, Phaik Yeong Cheah
BACKGROUND: The spread of artemisinin-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is a threat to current global malaria control initiatives. Targeted malaria treatment (TMT), which combines mass anti-malarial administration with conventional malaria prevention and control measures, has been proposed as a strategy to tackle this problem. The effectiveness of TMT depends on high levels of population coverage and is influenced by accompanying community engagement activities and the local social context...
February 14, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193368/-becoming-another-transformations-in-the-therapist-who-works-with-gay-and-lesbian-couples
#11
María Victoria Builes Correa, María Teresa Anderson Gómez, Beatriz Helena Arango Arbeláez
OBJECTIVE: To recognise the changes experienced by the therapist who works with gay and lesbian couples. METHOD: Qualitative with biographical-narrative method. Seven therapists were interviewed in Medellin. RESULTS: Three moments in the life trajectory of the participants were identified: Before: closeness and distances between families and the school were found (distances, makes reference, among others, to discourses about homosexuality...
January 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190944/when-task-conflict-becomes-personal-the-impact-of-perceived-team-performance
#12
Hannes Guenter, Hetty van Emmerik, Bert Schreurs, Tom Kuypers, Ad van Iterson, Guy Notelaers
Although potentially beneficial, task conflict may threaten teams because it often leads to relationship conflict. Prior research has identified a set of interpersonal factors (e.g., team communication, team trust) that help attenuate this association. The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative perspective that focuses on the moderating role of performance-related factors (i.e., perceived team performance). Using social identity theory, we build a model that predicts how task conflict associates with growth in relationship conflict and how perceived team performance influences this association...
October 2016: Small Group Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185589/synergies-strengths-and-challenges-findings-on-community-capability-from-a-systematic-health-systems-research-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Asha S George, Kerry Scott, Vrinda Mehra, Veena Sriram
BACKGROUND: Community capability is the combined influence of a community's social systems and collective resources that can address community problems and broaden community opportunities. We frame it as consisting of three domains that together support community empowerment: what communities have; how communities act; and for whom communities act. We sought to further understand these domains through a secondary analysis of a previous systematic review on community participation in health systems interventions in low and middle income countries (LMICs)...
November 15, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183852/incarceration-and-exposure-to-internally-displaced-persons-camps-associated-with-reproductive-rights-abuses-among-sex-workers-in-northern-uganda
#14
Margaret Erickson, Shira M Goldenberg, Monica Akello, Godfrey Muzaaya, Paul Nguyen, Josephine Birungi, Kate Shannon
BACKGROUND: While female sex workers (FSWs) face a high burden of violence and criminalisation, coupled with low access to safe, non-coercive care, little is known about such experiences among FSWs in conflict-affected settings, particularly as they relate to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and rights. We explored factors associated with lifetime abortions among FSWs in northern Uganda; and separately modelled the independent effect of lifetime exposures to incarceration and living in internally displaced persons (IDP) camps on coerced and unsafe abortions...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183347/application-of-incident-command-structure-to-clinical-trial-management-in-the-academic-setting-principles-and-lessons-learned
#15
Penny S Reynolds, Mary J Michael, Bruce D Spiess
BACKGROUND: Clinical trial success depends on appropriate management, but practical guidance to trial organisation and planning is lacking. The Incident Command System (ICS) is the 'gold standard' management system developed for managing diverse operations in major incident and public health arenas. It enables effective and flexible management through integration of personnel, procedures, resources, and communications within a common hierarchical organisational structure. Conventional ICS organisation consists of five function modules: Command, Planning, Operations, Logistics, and Finance/Administration...
February 9, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179628/the-impact-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-control-policies-in-singapore-a-qualitative-analysis-of-public-perceptions
#16
Karen Siegel, Alex R Cook, Hanh La
Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a widespread pediatric disease in Asia. Most cases are relatively mild and caused by Coxsackie viruses, but in epidemics caused by Enterovirus 71, severe complications can occur. In response to the deaths of dozens of children in a 1997 outbreak (Podin in BMC Public Health 6:180,1 Abubakar in Virus Res 61(1):1-9,2 WHO in3), Singapore practices childcare centre surveillance, case-isolation, and short-term closure of centres. We conducted 44 in-depth interviews with teachers, principals, and parents at four childcare centres in Singapore to better understand experiences with current control policies...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178272/psychobiological-factors-affecting-cortisol-variability-in-human-dog-dyads
#17
Iris Schöberl, Manuela Wedl, Andrea Beetz, Kurt Kotrschal
Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100) over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173849/rigour-and-rapport-a-qualitative-study-of-parents-and-professionals-experiences-of-joint-agency-infant-death-investigation
#18
Joanna Garstang, Frances Griffiths, Peter Sidebotham
BACKGROUND: In many countries there are now detailed Child Death Review (CDR) processes following unexpected child deaths. CDR can lead to a fuller understanding of the causes for each child's death but this potentially intrusive process may increase the distress of bereaved families. In England, a joint agency approach (JAA) is used where police, healthcare and social services investigate sudden child deaths together and a key part of this is the joint home visit (JHV) where specialist police and paediatricians visit the home with the parents to view the scene of death...
February 7, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170406/youth-as-contested-sites-of-culture-the-intergenerational-acculturation-gap-amongst-new-migrant-communities-parental-and-young-adult-perspectives
#19
Andre M N Renzaho, Nidhi Dhingra, Nichole Georgeou
BACKGROUND: Immigration often results in changes in family dynamics, and within this process of dynamic relational adjustment youth can be conceptualised as contested sites of culture and associated intergenerational conflicts. This paper considers the experiences of migrant youth in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia using conflict as a useful lens through which to view issues of migrant youth identity and their sense of social connectedness, belonging, and agency. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to explore how migrant youth cope with acculturative stress and intergenerational conflicts, and 2) to better understand the systemic and family-related factors that facilitate positive settlement experiences for migrant youth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170090/parents-attitudes-toward-genetic-testing-of-children-for-health-conditions-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Qishan Lim, Brittany C McGill, Veronica F Quinn, Katherine M Tucker, David Mizrahi, Andrea Farkas Patenaude, Meera Warby, Richard J Cohn, Claire E Wakefield
This review assessed parents' attitudes toward childhood genetic testing for health conditions, with a focus on perceived advantages and disadvantages. We also evaluated the factors that influence parents' attitudes toward childhood genetic testing. We searched Medline, Medline In-Process, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstracts and CINAHL. We screened 945 abstracts and identified 21 studies representing the views of 3934 parents. Parents reported largely positive attitudes toward childhood genetic testing across different genetic tests with varying medical utility...
February 7, 2017: Clinical Genetics
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