Read by QxMD icon Read

social conflict

Lenny R Vartanian, Samantha Spanos, C Peter Herman, Janet Polivy
Objective: Social factors have a powerful influence on people's food intake but people typically fail to acknowledge the influence of such external cues, instead explaining their food intake in terms of factors such as how hungry they are. We examined whether the tendency to explain one's food intake in terms of internal cues (i.e., hunger) rather than external cues (i.e., other people's behavior) would be apparent when those cues are in conflict with one another. Method: Female participants (n = 104) took part in a pizza taste test after having been food deprived for 18-hr or after consuming a meal-replacement preload...
October 17, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Sarah R Brand, Karen Fasciano, Jennifer W Mack
PURPOSE: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that healthcare providers communicate information to patients in a truthful and developmentally appropriate manner. However, there is limited guidance about how to translate these recommendations into clinical practice. The aim of this study was to explore how young cancer patients experienced communication around their illness, especially communication about possible outcomes from disease or treatment. METHODS: Participants included young people ages 8 to under 18 years with cancer (N = 16)...
October 17, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
L Guillod, S Habersaat, M Suter, T Jeanneret, C Bertoni, P Stéphan, S Urben
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
Abla Mehio Sibai, Anthony Rizk, Hiam Chemaitelly
OBJECTIVES: This paper examines differentials in self-rated health (SRH) among older adults (aged 60+ years) across three impoverished and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in post-conflict Lebanon and assesses whether variations are explained by social and economic factors. DESIGN: Data were drawn from the Older Adult Component (n = 740) of the Urban Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2003 in a formal community (Nabaa), an informal settlement (Hey El-Sellom), and a refugee camp for Palestinians (Burj El-Barajneh) in Beirut, Lebanon...
October 15, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Carsten Engelmann, Gudela Grote, Siegfried Geyer, Dzifa Ametowobla
PURPOSE: Algorithms for surgical operation planning are evidence-based. However, choices sometimes have to be made between medically equal solutions e.g. for staffing of sought-after operations. Such decisions are heavily influenced by micropolitics and power. The article examines the array of highly manipulated processes around operation theatre allocation of convenient time slots or staff, which play out in various ways in all of the world's main regional surgical cultures. METHOD: Essay supported by empiric data from an ethnographic power-analysis targeted to senior executive surgeons...
October 14, 2016: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Ana L Fernandez-Cruz, Ola Mohamed Ali, Gifty Asare, Morgan S Whyte, Ishan Walpola, Julia Segal, J Bruno Debruille
Some personal drives correspond to extraordinary social roles. Given that behavioral strategies associated with such drives may conflict with those associated with ordinary roles, they could cause behavioral disorganization. To test whether they do so independent of the factors responsible for full-blown schizotypy and schizophrenia, these drives were assessed in the general population. Two hundred and nine healthy volunteers were individually presented with hundreds of names of social roles in experimental psychology conditions...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Florian Landkammer, Kai Sassenberg
Numerous studies comparing the effects of competition and cooperation demonstrated that competition is detrimental on the social level. However, instead of purely competing, many social contexts require competing while cooperating with the same social target. The current work examined the consequences of such "co-opetition" situations between individuals. Because having to compete and to cooperate with the same social target constitutes conflicting demands, co-opetition should lead to more flexibility, such as (a) less rigid transfer effects of competitive behavior and (b) less rigidity/more flexibility in general...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Niro Kandasamy, Karen Soldatic, Dinesha Samararatne
This article draws on grounded qualitative research with rural Tamil women who acquired a disability during the civil war in Sri Lanka and conceptualizes an intersectionality-peace framework. Three main themes were developed from the interviews: narratives of conflict, survival outcomes of social assistance and mobilization of cross-ethnic relationships. With the support of a local women's disability advocacy organization, Tamil women with disabilities were enabled to overcome social stigma and claim a positive identity as women with disabilities...
October 13, 2016: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
Barbora Kubenova, Martina Konecna, Bonaventura Majolo, Petr Smilauer, Julia Ostner, Oliver Schülke
Social knowledge beyond one's direct relationships is a key in successfully manoeuvring the social world. Individuals gather information on the quality of social relationships between their group companions, which has been termed triadic awareness. Evidence of the use of triadic awareness in natural contexts is limited mainly to conflict management. Here we investigated triadic awareness in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in the context of bridging interactions defined as male-infant-male interactions whereby a male (initiator, holder) presents an infant to another male (receiver, non-holder) in order to initiate an affiliative interaction with that male...
October 12, 2016: Animal Cognition
Linda S Beeber, Samantha Meltzer-Brody, Maria Martinez, Yui Matsuda, Anne C Wheeler, Marcia Mandel, Dore LaForett, Julee Waldrop
Objective A higher rate of depressive symptoms is found among mothers of children with disabilities compared to other parents. However, there is a lack of study of mothers with children <3 years of age participating in Early Intervention (EI) programs. This study aims to more fully describe the extent of mood disorders in these mothers including estimated prevalence, severity and factors associated with maternal mental health, using gold standard clinical diagnostic and symptom measures, and test models associating depressive symptoms with contextual factors and child behavior...
October 12, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Juan Manuel Leyva-Moral, Maria Feijoo-Cid
BACKGROUND: When conducting qualitative research, participants usually share lots of personal and private information with the researcher. As researchers, we must preserve participants' identity and confidentiality of the data. OBJECTIVE: To critically analyze an ethical conflict encountered regarding confidentiality when doing qualitative research. RESEARCH DESIGN: Case study. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION: one of the participants in a study aiming to explain the meaning of living with HIV verbalized his imminent intention to commit suicide because of stigma of other social problems arising from living with HIV...
October 11, 2016: Nursing Ethics
Clélia M Bianchi, Jean-François Huneau, Gaëlle Le Goff, Eric O Verger, François Mariotti, Patricia Gurviez
BACKGROUND: From a life course perspective, pregnancy leads to a rise in nutrition awareness and an increase in information flow in favour of adopting healthier eating behaviours. This qualitative study was designed to better understand the determinants of eating behaviours in French pregnant women by focusing on their concerns, attitudes and beliefs and their nutrition-related information seeking practices. METHODS: Seven focus groups were conducted, involving a total of 40 French pregnant women...
October 12, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
İbrahim Ömer Barlas, Orhan Sezgin, Collet Dandara, Gözde Türköz, Emre Yengel, Zinhle Cindi, Handan Ankaralı, Semra Şardaş
Pharmacogenomics harnesses the utility of a patient's genome (n = 1) in decisions on which therapeutic drugs and in what amounts should be administered. Often, patients with shared ancestry present with comparable genetic profiles that predict drug response. However, populations are not static, thus, often, population mobility through migration, especially enmasse as is seen for refugees, changes the pharmacogenetic profiles of resultant populations and therefore observed responses to commonly used therapeutic drugs...
October 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Michele Williams
We examine how demographic context influences the trust that boundary spanners experience in their dyadic relationships with clients. Because of the salience of age as a demographic characteristic as well as the increasing prevalence of age diversity and intergenerational conflict in the workplace, we focus on team age diversity as a demographic social context that affects trust between boundary spanners and their clients. Using social categorization theory and theories of social capital, we develop and test our contextual argument that a boundary spanner's experience of being trusted is influenced by the social categorization processes that occur in dyadic interactions with a specific client and, simultaneously, by similar social categorization processes that influence the degree to which the client team as a whole serves as a cooperative resource for demographically similar versus dissimilar boundary spanner-client dyads...
April 2016: Journal of Organizational Behavior
K Kessler, R A Seymour, G Rippon
Although atypical social behaviour remains a key characterisation of ASD, the presence of sensory and perceptual abnormalities has been given a more central role in recent classification changes. An understanding of the origins of such aberrations could thus prove a fruitful focus for ASD research. Early neurocognitive models of ASD suggested that the study of high frequency activity in the brain as a measure of cortical connectivity might provide the key to understanding the neural correlates of sensory and perceptual deviations in ASD...
October 5, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Adam Fusheini, John Eyles
BACKGROUND: Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has emerged as a major goal for health care delivery in the post-2015 development agenda. It is viewed as a solution to health care needs in low and middle countries with growing enthusiasm at both national and global levels. Throughout the world, however, the paths of countries to UHC have differed. South Africa is currently reforming its health system with UHC through developing a national health insurance (NHI) program. This will be practically achieved through a decentralized approach, the district health system, the main vehicle for delivering services since democracy...
October 7, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Dorina Winter
Interactions between attention and processing of emotional stimuli shed light on both sensitivity to emotional stimuli as well as emotion dysregulation. Both of the latter processes have been proposed as central characteristics of altered emotion processing in those with borderline personality disorder (BPD). This review first summarizes the conflicting behavioural, psychophysiological and neuroimaging evidence for the hypothesis that emotional dysregulation should be reflected by higher distractibility through emotional stimuli in those with BPD...
2016: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
Qi Wu, Wang Liu, Chen Li, Xiongfeng Li, Ping Zhou
From evolutionary reasoning, we derived a novel hypothesis that ingroup derogation is an adaptation to a special ecological condition in which the greater threat of aggression is incurred by ingroup members. This hypothesis was tested and supported across five studies. Specifically, the computational modeling found that ingroup derogation could easily evolve if the chance of death incurred by intragroup conflicts was no less than 10%. Further behavioral experiments on Chinese participants showed that the ingroup derogation mechanism responded to heuristic social category cues and it responded more strongly when participants subjectively felt more vulnerable to interpersonal aggression, or when there were contextual cues of aggression in the immediate environment...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Kelei Zhao, Xikun Zhou, Wujiao Li, Xiuyue Zhang, Bisong Yue
Bacteria use a cell-cell communication system termed quorum-sensing (QS) to adjust population size by coordinating the costly but beneficial cooperative behaviors. It has long been suggested that bacterial social conflict for expensive extracellular products may drive QS divergence and cause the "tragedy of the commons". However, the underlying molecular mechanism of social divergence and its evolutionary consequences for the bacterial ecology still remain largely unknown. By using the model bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, here we show that nutrient reduction can promote QS divergence for population fitness during evolution but requiring adequate cell density...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Martin Lindström
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 10, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"