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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543954/health-professionals-personal-behaviours-hindering-health-promotion-a-study-of-nurses-who-smoke
#1
Agurtzane Mujika, María Arantzamendi, Olga Lopez-Dicastillo, Angus Forbes
AIM: To explore the views of current and ex-smoker nurses on their role in supporting patients to stop smoking. BACKGROUND: Long-term conditions are closely linked to harmful lifestyle behaviours, including smoking and overeating. Health professionals have an important role to play in promoting healthier lifestyles. It has been described that nurses' health behaviours may be a barrier to their health promotion practice. There is a need to gain further understanding on why nurses' health promotion activity is influenced by their own health behaviour...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543737/conflict-when-making-decisions-about-dialysis-modality
#2
Nien-Hsin Chen, Yu-Ping Lin, Shu-Yuan Liang, Heng-Hsin Tung, Shiow-Luan Tsay, Tsae-Jyy Wang
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: The two key aims of this study were to explore decisional conflict and its influencing factors on choosing dialysis modality in patients with end-stage renal diseases. The influencing factors investigated include demographics, pre-dialysis education, dialysis knowledge, decision self-efficacy, and social support. BACKGROUND: Making dialysis modality decisions can be challenging for patients with end-stage renal diseases; there are pros and cons to both haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543664/comparison-of-male-conflict-behavior-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-and-bonobos-pan-paniscus-with-specific-regard-to-coalition-and-post-conflict-behavior
#3
Martin Surbeck, Christophe Boesch, Cédric Girard-Buttoz, Catherine Crockford, Gottfried Hohmann, Roman M Wittig
Coalitions among males during within group conflicts have a strong influence on the competitive and social environment within social groups. To evaluate possible variation in the occurrence of such coalitions in our closest relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, we compared male aggression and coalitionary behavior in two natural communities, one of each species, with a similar size and composition. Furthermore we compared affiliative behavior that might be related to coalition formation among males. We found higher frequencies of aggression and a greater likelihood to form coalitions during within-group conflicts among wild male chimpanzees at Taï compared to wild male bonobos at LuiKotale...
June 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541056/visible-spatial-contiguity-of-social-information-and-reward-affects-social-learning-in-brown-capuchins-sapajus-apella-and-children-homo-sapiens
#4
Lara A Wood, Andrew Whiten
Animal social learning is typically studied experimentally by the presentation of artificial foraging tasks. Although productive, results are often variable even for the same species. We present and test the hypothesis that one cause of variation is that spatial distance between rewards and the means of reward release causes conflicts for participants' attentional focus. We investigated whether spatial contiguity between a visible reward and the means of release would affect behavioral responses that evidence social learning, testing 21 brown capuchins (Sapajus apella), a much-studied species with variant evidence for social learning, and one hundred eighty 2- to 4-year-old human children (Homo sapiens), a benchmark species known for a strong social learning disposition...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540259/conceptual-models-of-social-determinants-of-health-a-narrative-review
#5
REVIEW
Sayyed Morteza Hosseini Shokouh, Mohammad Arab, Sara Emamgholipour, Arash Rashidian, Ali Montazeri, Rouhollah Zaboli
BACKGROUND: There are several conflicting conceptual models to explain social determinants of health (SDH) as responsible for most health inequalities. This study aimed to present these models in historical perspective and provide main component of SDH models as an SES indicators. METHODS: This was a narrative study using international databases to retrieve literature dealing with conceptual models of SDH. All publication in English language until Mar 2015 was included...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538924/bioethics-of-protection-a-health-practice-evaluation-tool
#6
Fermin Roland Schramm
Bioethics of protection (BP) was proposed in the early 21st century in bioethics, built in Latin America following attempts by researchers to work on the possibilities of public health policies being morally legitimate, socially fair (equitable) and respectful of human rights, after noting the limits of traditional bioethical tools, essentially implemented in and restricted to interpersonal conflicts between moral agents and patients involved in the practice of biomedicine. Methodologically, BP tries to negotiate distinct problematic disciplinary realms that are, however, interlinked through interdisciplinary dialogue and common concern with the quality of life of the human population, considered in its natural, technological, social and cultural contexts: Public Health, concerned with the health and well-being of individuals and populations; Bioethics, concerned primarily with the moral legitimacy of practices that affect their quality of life; Biopolitics, concerned with the social effects of health policies...
May 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536512/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-temporoparietal-junction-and-inferior-frontal-cortex-improves-imitation-inhibition-and-perspective-taking-with-no-effect-on-the-autism-spectrum-quotient-score
#7
Satoshi Nobusako, Yuki Nishi, Yuki Nishi, Takashi Shuto, Daiki Asano, Michihiro Osumi, Shu Morioka
Lesions to brain regions such as the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and inferior frontal cortex (IFC) are thought to cause autism-spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies indicated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the right TPJ improves social cognitive functions such as imitation-inhibition and perspective-taking. Although previous work shows that tDCS of the right IFC improves imitation-inhibition, its effects on perspective-taking have yet to be determined. In addition, the role of the TPJ and IFC in determining the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), which is a measure of autism spectrum traits, is still unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535861/elo-rating-for-tracking-rank-fluctuations-after-demographic-changes-involving-semi-free-ranging-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#8
Lauren J Wooddell, Stefano Sk Kaburu, Stephen J Suomi, Amanda M Dettmer
Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are gregarious primates that form despotic societies characterized by frequent and intense aggression. Within long-term social groups, demographic changes may influence hierarchical stability, potentially resulting in conflict and violently abrupt hierarchical changes. This conflict can result in serious implications for animal welfare, and thus, predictive tools would be invaluable to captive managers in determining social instabilities. Using the method Elo-rating to track rank changes and dominance stability, we predicted that demographic changes to a population of semi-free ranging rhesus macaques would result in changes in hierarchical stability...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535708/perceived-determinants-to-alcohol-consumption-and-misuse-a-survey-of-university-students
#9
Nicholas Muli, Briege M Lagan
AIM: Before an attempt is made to develop any population-specific behavioural change programme, it is important to know what the factors that influence behaviours are. The aim of this study was to identify what are the perceived determinants that attribute to young people's choices to both consume and misuse alcohol. METHOD: Using a descriptive survey design, a web-based questionnaire based on the Theory of Triadic Influence was administered to students aged 18-29 years at one university in Northern Ireland...
May 1, 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533530/the-impact-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-control-policies-in-singapore-a-qualitative-analysis-of-public-perceptions
#10
Karen Siegel, Alex R Cook, Hanh La
Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a widespread pediatric disease in Asia. Most cases are relatively mild and caused by Coxsackie viruses, but in epidemics caused by Enterovirus 71, severe complications can occur. In response to the deaths of dozens of children in a 1997 outbreak (Podin in BMC Public Health 6:180,1 Abubakar in Virus Res 61(1):1-9,2 WHO in3), Singapore practices childcare centre surveillance, case-isolation, and short-term closure of centres. We conducted 44 in-depth interviews with teachers, principals, and parents at four childcare centres in Singapore to better understand experiences with current control policies...
May 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532479/education-and-employment-in-patients-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-a-standardized-comparison-to-the-german-general-population
#11
Jenny Schlichtiger, Johannes-Peter Haas, Swaantje Barth, Betty Bisdorff, Lisa Hager, Hartmut Michels, Boris Hügle, Katja Radon
BACKGROUND: Although several studies show that JIA-patients have significantly lower employment rates than the general population, the research on educational and occupational attainments in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) remain conflicting most likely due to small sample sizes. Therefore, aim of this study is to compare the educational achievements and employment status of 3698 JIA-patients with the German general population (GGP). METHODS: "SEPIA" was a large cross-sectional study on the current status of a historic cohort of JIA-patients treated in a single center between 1952 and 2010...
May 22, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529028/ecology-of-problem-individuals-and-the-efficacy-of-selective-wildlife-management
#12
REVIEW
George J F Swan, Steve M Redpath, Stuart Bearhop, Robbie A McDonald
As a result of ecological and social drivers, the management of problems caused by wildlife is becoming more selective, often targeting specific animals. Narrowing the sights of management relies upon the ecology of certain 'problem individuals' and their disproportionate contribution to impacts upon human interests. We assess the ecological evidence for problem individuals and confirm that some individuals or classes can be both disproportionately responsible and more likely to reoffend. The benefits of management can sometimes be short-lived, and selective management can affect tolerance of wildlife for better or worse, but, when effectively targeted, selective management can bring benefits by mitigating impact and conflict, often in a more socially acceptable way...
May 18, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523116/obstacles-and-problems-of-ethical-leadership-from-the-perspective-of-nursing-leaders-a-qualitative-content-analysis
#13
Maasoumeh Barkhordari-Sharifabad, Tahereh Ashktorab, Foroozan Atashzadeh-Shoorideh
In the nursing profession, leadership plays a significant role in creating motivation and thus enabling nurses to provide high quality care. Ethics is an essential component of leadership qualifications and the ethical leader can help create an ethical atmosphere, offer ethical guidance, and ensure the occupational satisfaction of personnel through prioritizing moralities. However, some issues prevent the implementation of this type of leadership by nursing leaders. The aim of this study was to identify and describe some problems and obstacles in ethical leadership faced by nursing leaders, and to help them achieve more accurate information and broader perspective in this field...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522269/learning-from-moral-inconsistency
#14
Richmond Campbell
Moral inconsistency is an understudied phenomenon in cognitive moral psychology and deserves in depth empirical study. Moral inconsistency, as understood here, is not formal inconsistency but inconsistency in moral emotion and belief in response to particular cases. It occurs when persons treat cases as morally different that are really morally the same, even from their moral perspective. Learning to recognize and avoid such moral inconsistency in non-trivial but is a form of moral learning that complements and enhances other psychological and social mechanisms through which persons learn how to apply shared moral norms when their applications are uncertain and threaten to lapse into moral inconsistency...
May 15, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514988/how-latina-mothers-navigate-a-food-swamp-to-feed-their-children-a-photovoice-approach
#15
Uriyoán Colón-Ramos, Rafael Monge-Rojas, Elena Cremm, Ivonne M Rivera, Elizabeth L Andrade, Mark C Edberg
OBJECTIVE: To understand how mothers who recently migrated from Central America to the USA feed their children in a neighbourhood saturated with unhealthful food choices ('food swamp') and to formulate a mother-driven plan of action to facilitate their acquisition of foods. Design/Setting/Subjects We purposively sampled mothers with children (<10 years old) who were recent immigrants/refugees from Central America and lived in a 'food swamp' neighbourhood. We used the photovoice approach to elicit textual data from thirty in-depth interviews, a participatory workshop, and visual data from photographs...
May 18, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514883/bioethical-analysis-to-the-therapeutic-use-of-cannabis-integrative-review
#16
Selene Cordeiro Vasconcelos, Antonia Oliveira Silva, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes Moreira, Analine de Souza Bandeira Correia, Ana Luisa Antunes Gonçalves Guerra, Adrielle Rodrigues Dos Santos, Iracema da Silva Frazão
INTRODUCTION: Despite being considered as a contravention under some countries' legislation, the therapeutic use of Cannabis sativa has been growing in Brazil, due to the promising results observed in many pathologies. Such a scenario has fostered the need to deepen discussions on the subject and possibly revise legislation governing the substance use and access. OBJECTIVES: Identify the types of stigma related to the therapeutic use of Cannabis and describe the strategies people use to overcome stigma...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514634/convergent-reversion-to-single-mating-in-a-wasp-social-parasite
#17
Kevin J Loope, Federico Lopez-Osorio, Libor Dvořák
While eusociality arose in species with single-mating females, multiple mating by queens has evolved repeatedly across the social ants, bees, and wasps. Understanding the benefits and costs of multiple mating of queens is important because polyandry results in reduced relatedness between siblings, reducing kin-selected benefits of helping while also selecting for secondary social traits that reduce intracolony conflict. The leading hypothesis for the benefits of polyandry in social insects emphasizes advantages of a genetically diverse workforce...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512075/public-trust-in-vaccination-an-analytical-framework
#18
Vijayaprasad Gopichandran
While vaccination is one of the most successful public health interventions, there has always been a parallel movement against vaccines. Apart from scientific factors, the uptake of vaccinations is influenced by historical, political, sociocultural and economic factors. In India, the health system is struggling with logistical weaknesses in taking vaccination to the remotest corners; while on the other hand, some people in places where vaccination is available resist it. Unwillingness to be vaccinated is a growing problem in the developed world...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511243/-emotional-arousal-voice-stress-and-posttraumatic-growth-as-well-as-relationship-satisfaction-of-partners-of-women-with-breast-cancer-in-the-context-of-social-support
#19
Tanja Zimmermann, Jan H Krüger, Sarah Weusthoff
Introduction Breast cancer is associated with significant psychosocial strains for both patients and partners. Constructive social support and positive communication behavior have been shown to be protective against the burdens associated with breast cancer. Individual levels of emotional arousal during social support interactions with one's spouse are an important aspect of couples' support behaviors and can be assessed via vocal fundamental frequency (f0). Methods N=44 couples had standardized seven-minute long interactions asking the male partner to describe his thoughts and feelings with regard to their wives' breast cancer...
May 16, 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510719/trajectories-of-glycemic-control-over-adolescence-and-emerging-adulthood-an-11-year-longitudinal-study-of-youth-with-type-1%C3%A2-diabetes
#20
Vicki S Helgeson, Abigail Kunz Vaughn, Howard Seltman, Trevor Orchard, Ingrid Libman, Dorothy Becker
To identify trajectories of glycemic control over adolescence and emerging adulthood and to test whether demographic and psychosocial variables distinguished these trajectories. We enrolled 132 youth with type 1 diabetes when they were average age 12 and followed them for 11 years. We used group-based trajectory modeling to identify distinct patterns of glycemic control, and examined whether age 12 demographic and psychosocial variables distinguished the subsequent trajectories. We identified 5 trajectories of glycemic control: stable on target, stable above target, volatile late peak, stable high, and inverted U...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
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