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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215020/climate-change-and-national-crop-wild-relative-conservation-planning
#1
Jade Phillips, Joana Magos Brehm, Bob van Oort, Åsmund Asdal, Morten Rasmussen, Nigel Maxted
Climate change is likely to be one of the most important factors affecting our future food security. To mitigate negative impacts, we will require our crops to be more genetically diverse. Such diversity is available in crop wild relatives (CWRs), the wild taxa relatively closely related to crops and from which diverse traits can be transferred to the crop. Conservation of such genetic resources resides within the nation where they are found; therefore, national-level conservation recommendations are fundamental to global food security...
February 18, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213870/molecular-characterization-of-bovine-leukemia-virus-from-moldovan-dairy-cattle
#2
Aneta Pluta, Marzena Rola-Łuszczak, Piotr Kubiś, Svetlana Balov, Roman Moskalik, Bhudipa Choudhury, Jacek Kuźmak
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), a disease that has worldwide distribution. Whilst it has been eradicated in most of Western Europe and Scandinavia, it remains a problem in other regions, particularly Eastern Europe and South America. For this study, in 2013, 24 cattle from three farms in three regions of Moldova were screened by ELISA and nested PCR. Of these cattle, 14 which were PCR positive, and these were molecularly characterized based on the nucleotide sequence of the env gene and the deduced amino acid sequence of the encoded gp51 protein...
February 17, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211329/first-report-of-perfluoroalkyl-substances-in-south-african-odonata
#3
Velesia Lesch, Hindrik Bouwman, Ayako Kinoshita, Yasuyuki Shibata
Perfluorinated substances are global and ubiquitous pollutants. However, very little is known about these substances in invertebrates, and even less in terrestrial invertebrates in particular. We analysed adult male dragonflies from six sites in South Africa for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluro-n-undecanoic acid (PFUnA), perfluoro-n-dodecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS)...
February 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210295/global-impact-of-bronchiectasis-and-cystic-fibrosis
#4
REVIEW
Margarida Redondo, Holly Keyt, Raja Dhar, James D Chalmers
EDUCATIONAL AIMS: To recognise the clinical and radiological presentation of the spectrum of diseases associated with bronchiectasis.To understand variation in the aetiology, microbiology and burden of bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis across different global healthcare systems. : Bronchiectasis is the term used to refer to dilatation of the bronchi that is usually permanent and is associated with a clinical syndrome of cough, sputum production and recurrent respiratory infections...
September 2016: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209131/support-for-the-feasibility-of-the-ages-and-stages-questionnaire-as-a-developmental-screening-tool-a-cross-sectional-study-of-south-african-and-zambian-children-aged-2-60-months
#5
Alastair van Heerden, Celia Hsiao, Beatrice Matafwali, Julia Louw, Linda Richter
BACKGROUND: There is a growing global acknowledgement that improving child survival rates is no longer sufficient. Emphasis is shifting to the improvement of health and developmental trajectories in early childhood. Screening and measurement of these trajectories in low and middle income countries is difficult, however, as they currently rely on developmental tests standardised among populations of children growing up in resource rich environments. METHODS: This paper presents a comparison of one such tool adapted for use with children living in Southern Africa to children from the United States, Norway, Korea and Spain...
February 16, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208968/school-based-multicomponent-intervention-for-obese-children-in-udupi-district-south-india-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Baby S Nayak, Vinod H Bhat
INTRODUCTION: Childhood obesity and overweight is a global epidemics and has been increasing in the developing countries. Childhood obesity is linked with increased mortality and morbidity independent of adult obesity. Declining physical activity, access to junk food and parenting style are the major determinants of overweight in children. Thus, there is a need for increasing the physical activity of children, educating the parents as well as the children on lifestyle modification. This can be achieved through implementation of multicomponent intervention...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208657/fto-genotype-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-spatial-analysis-and-meta-analysis-of-62-case-control-studies-from-different-regions
#7
Ying Yang, Boyang Liu, Wei Xia, Jing Yan, Huan-Yu Liu, Ling Hu, Song-Mei Liu
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global health problem that results from the interaction of environmental factors with genetic variants. Although a number of studies have suggested that genetic polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are associated with T2DM risk, the results have been inconsistent. To investigate whether FTO polymorphisms associate with T2DM risk and whether this association is region-related, we performed this spatial analysis and meta-analysis. More than 60,000 T2DM patients and 90,000 controls from 62 case-control studies were included in this study...
February 11, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207967/the-synonymy-of-the-toxic-dinoflagellates-prorocentrum-mexicanum-and-p-rhathymum-and-the-description-of-p-steidingerae-sp-nov-prorocentrales-dinophyceae
#8
Fernando Gómez, Dajun Qiu, Senjie Lin
Prorocentrum mexicanum and P. rhathymum are toxicologically important dinoflagellates, but their relationship is not well defined. We investigated strains from Puerto Rico and Brazil by light and scanning electron microscopies. We provide molecular data from a strain isolated near the type locality of P. rhathymum, and the first morphological and molecular data from the South Atlantic Ocean. The rRNA gene (rDNA) sequences of the Puerto Rican and Brazilian strains were identical, and their morphologies fit the description of P...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207570/international-survey-of-critically-ill-children-with-acute-neurologic-insults-the-prevalence-of-acute-critical-neurological-disease-in-children-a-global-epidemiological-assessment-study
#9
Ericka L Fink, Patrick M Kochanek, Robert C Tasker, John Beca, Michael J Bell, Robert S B Clark, Jamie Hutchison, Monica S Vavilala, Anthony Fabio, Derek C Angus, R Scott Watson
OBJECTIVE: The international scope of critical neurologic insults in children is unknown. Our objective was to assess the prevalence and outcomes of children admitted to PICUs with acute neurologic insults. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Multicenter (n = 107 PICUs) and multinational (23 countries, 79% in North America and Europe). PATIENTS: Children 7 days to 17 years old admitted to the ICU with new traumatic brain injury, stroke, cardiac arrest, CNS infection or inflammation, status epilepticus, spinal cord injury, hydrocephalus, or brain mass...
February 15, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202089/suicidal-ideation-and-behaviour-among-community-and-health-care-seeking-populations-in-five-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
M Jordans, S Rathod, A Fekadu, G Medhin, F Kigozi, B Kohrt, N Luitel, I Petersen, R Shidhaye, J Ssebunnya, V Patel, C Lund
: Aims Suicidal behaviour is an under-reported and hidden cause of death in most low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) due to lack of national systematic reporting for cause-specific mortality, high levels of stigma and religious or cultural sanctions. The lack of information on non-fatal suicidal behaviour (ideation, plans and attempts) in LMIC is a major barrier to design and implementation of prevention strategies. This study aims to determine the prevalence of non-fatal suicidal behaviour within community- and health facility-based populations in LMIC...
February 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198933/applying-a-southern-solvent-an-interview-with-warwick-anderson
#11
Warwick Anderson, Marcos Cueto, Ricardo Ventura Santos
An interview by the editor and a member of the scientific board of História, Ciências, Saúde - Manguinhos with Warwick Anderson, a leading historian of science and race from Australia. He talks about his training, positions he held at US universities, his publications, and his research at the University of Sydney. He discusses his current concern with the circulation of racial knowledge and biological materials as well as with the construction of networks of racial studies in the global south during the twentieth century...
December 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196630/preterm-birth-associated-with-maternal-fine-particulate-matter-exposure-a-global-regional-and-national-assessment
#12
Christopher S Malley, Johan C I Kuylenstierna, Harry W Vallack, Daven K Henze, Hannah Blencowe, Mike R Ashmore
Reduction of preterm births (<37 completed weeks of gestation) would substantially reduce neonatal and infant mortality, and deleterious health effects in survivors. Maternal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure has been identified as a possible risk factor contributing to preterm birth. The aim of this study was to produce the first estimates of ambient PM2.5-associated preterm births for 183 individual countries and globally. To do this, national, population-weighted, annual average ambient PM2.5 concentration, preterm birth rate and number of livebirths were combined to calculate the number of PM2...
February 10, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195582/regional-cooling-caused-recent-new-zealand-glacier-advances-in-a-period-of-global-warming
#13
Andrew N Mackintosh, Brian M Anderson, Andrew M Lorrey, James A Renwick, Prisco Frei, Sam M Dean
Glaciers experienced worldwide retreat during the twentieth and early twenty first centuries, and the negative trend in global glacier mass balance since the early 1990s is predominantly a response to anthropogenic climate warming. The exceptional terminus advance of some glaciers during recent global warming is thought to relate to locally specific climate conditions, such as increased precipitation. In New Zealand, at least 58 glaciers advanced between 1983 and 2008, and Franz Josef and Fox glaciers advanced nearly continuously during this time...
February 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195535/the-unfair-trade-why-organ-sale-is-indefensible
#14
Siby K George
This paper argues against the proposal of a system of compensated living donation in the global south, especially India, without recourse to essentialist ethics. It relies on the anti-essentialist ethical-ontology of Levinas for the claim that it is the concrete vulnerability of the suffering other, rather than any absolute moral imperative, that makes a market for organs unethical.
January 4, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191016/incidence-and-molecular-characterization-of-hepatitis-e-virus-from-swine-in-eastern-cape-south-africa
#15
Olusesan Adeyemi Adelabu, Benson Chuks Iweriebor, U U Nwodo, Larry Chikwelu Obi, Anthony Ifeanyi Okoh
Hepatitis E virus-mediated infection is a serious public health concern in economically developing nations of the world. Globally, four major genotypes of HEV have been documented. Hepatitis E has been suggested to be zoonotic owing to the increase of evidence through various studies. Thus far, this paper reports on prevalence of hepatitis E virus among swine herd in selected communal and commercial farms in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A total of 160 faecal samples were collected from swine herds in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities of Eastern Cape Province for the presence of HEV...
2017: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188649/a-survey-of-microparasites-present-in-adult-migrating-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha-in-south-western-british-columbia-determined-by-high-throughput-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction
#16
A L Bass, S G Hinch, A K Teffer, D A Patterson, K M Miller
Microparasites play an important role in the demography, ecology and evolution of Pacific salmonids. As salmon stocks continue to decline and the impacts of global climate change on fish populations become apparent, a greater understanding of microparasites in wild salmon populations is warranted. We used high-throughput, quantitative PCR (HT-qRT-PCR) to rapidly screen 82 adult Chinook salmon from five geographically or genetically distinct groups (mostly returning to tributaries of the Fraser River) for 45 microparasite taxa...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187575/stalked-jellyfishes-cnidaria-staurozoa-of-south-africa-with-the-description-of-i-calvadosia-i-i-lewisi-i-sp-nov
#17
Lucília S Miranda, George M Branch, Allen G Collins, Yayoi M Hirano, Antonio C Marques, Charles L Griffiths
Stalked jellyfishes (Cnidaria: Staurozoa) are cryptic, benthic animals, known mainly from polar and temperate waters of the Northern Hemisphere. We describe a new species, Calvadosia lewisi, from South Africa and review the staurozoan fauna of the region. Three other species are previously known from South Africa: Calvadosia capensis (Carlgren, 1938); Depastromorpha africana Carlgren, 1935; and Lipkea stephensoni Carlgren, 1933, but all of these are known from very few records and have been poorly illustrated and documented to date...
February 3, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187324/differential-impacts-of-global-change-variables-on-coastal-south-atlantic-phytoplankton-role-of-seasonal-variations
#18
Marco J Cabrerizo, Presentación Carrillo, Virginia E Villafañe, E Walter Helbling
Global change is associated to the increase in temperature (T), nutrient inputs (Nut) and solar radiation in the water column. To address their joint impact on the net community production [NCP], respiration [CR] and PSII performance (ΦPSII) of coastal phytoplankton communities from the South Atlantic Ocean over a seasonal succession, we performed a factorial design. For this, we used a 2 × 2 × 2 matrix set-up, with and without UVR, ambient and enriched nutrients, and in situ T and in situ T + 3 °C...
January 24, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186122/half-metre-sea-level-fluctuations-on-centennial-timescales-from-mid-holocene-corals-of-southeast-asia
#19
Aron J Meltzner, Adam D Switzer, Benjamin P Horton, Erica Ashe, Qiang Qiu, David F Hill, Sarah L Bradley, Robert E Kopp, Emma M Hill, Jędrzej M Majewski, Danny H Natawidjaja, Bambang W Suwargadi
Sea-level rise is a global problem, yet to forecast future changes, we must understand how and why relative sea level (RSL) varied in the past, on local to global scales. In East and Southeast Asia, details of Holocene RSL are poorly understood. Here we present two independent high-resolution RSL proxy records from Belitung Island on the Sunda Shelf. These records capture spatial variations in glacial isostatic adjustment and paleotidal range, yet both reveal a RSL history between 6850 and 6500 cal years BP that includes two 0...
February 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179069/development-and-evaluation-of-a-web-based-software-for-crash-data-collection-processing-and-analysis
#20
Alfonso Montella, Salvatore Chiaradonna, Giorgio Criscuolo, Salvatore De Martino
First step of the development of an effective safety management system is to create reliable crash databases since the quality of decision making in road safety depends on the quality of the data on which decisions are based. Improving crash data is a worldwide priority, as highlighted in the Global Plan for the Decade of Action for Road Safety adopted by the United Nations, which recognizes that the overall goal of the plan will be attained improving the quality of data collection at the national, regional and global levels...
February 5, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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