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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933359/raccoons-procyon-lotor-as-sentinels-of-trace-element-contamination-and-physiological-effects-of-exposure-to-coal-fly-ash
#1
Felipe Hernández, Ricki E Oldenkamp, Sarah Webster, James C Beasley, Lisa L Farina, Samantha M Wisely
Anthropogenic pollutants disrupt global biodiversity, and terrestrial sentinels of pollution can provide a warning system for ecosystem-wide contamination. This study sought to assess whether raccoons (Procyon lotor) are sentinels of local exposure to trace element contaminants at a coal fly ash site and whether exposure resulted in health impairment or changes in the intestinal helminth communities. We compared trace element accumulation and the impact on health responses and intestinal helminth communities of raccoons inhabiting contaminated and reference sites of the U...
December 8, 2016: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933256/explaining-bioenergy-representations-of-jatropha-in-kenya-before-and-after-disappointing-results
#2
Carol Hunsberger
Proponents of Jatropha curcas portrayed the crop as a 'sustainable biofuel' that was less threatening to food security and forests than other energy crops, creating a reputation that helped jatropha projects to multiply quickly throughout the global South. However, many jatropha initiatives failed to thrive and ultimately collapsed. This paper investigates how actors involved with jatropha in Kenya explained their visions of bioenergy at two points in time. In 2009, when many activities were beginning, I interviewed small-scale farmers, NGO staff, researchers, donors, government officials and members of the private sector about their expectations of jatropha as an energy crop...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931881/pm2-5-source-attribution-for-seoul-in-may-from-2009-to-2013-using-geos-chem-and-its-adjoint-model
#3
Hyung-Min Lee, Rokjin J Park, Daven K Henze, Seungun Lee, Changsub Shim, Hye-Jung Shin, Kwang-Joo Moon, Jung-Hun Woo
Enforcement of an air quality standard for PM2.5 in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) was enacted in 2015. From May to June of 2016, an international airborne and surface measurement campaign took place to investigate air pollution mechanisms in the SMA. The total and speciated PM2.5 concentrations since 2008 have been measured at an intensive monitoring site for the SMA operated by the National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER). To gain insight on the trends and sources of PM2.5 in the SMA in May, we analyze PM2...
December 5, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931752/the-histology-of-ovarian-cancer-worldwide-distribution-and-implications-for-international-survival-comparisons-concord-2
#4
Melissa Matz, Michel P Coleman, Milena Sant, Maria Dolores Chirlaque, Otto Visser, Martin Gore, Claudia Allemani
OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancers comprise several histologically distinct tumour groups with widely different prognosis. We aimed to describe the worldwide distribution of ovarian cancer histology and to understand what role this may play in international variation in survival. METHODS: The CONCORD programme is the largest population-based study of global trends in cancer survival. Data on 681,759 women diagnosed during 1995-2009 with cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube, peritoneum and retroperitonum in 51 countries were included...
December 5, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930730/effects-of-recreation-on-animals-revealed-as-widespread-through-a-global-systematic-review
#5
Courtney L Larson, Sarah E Reed, Adina M Merenlender, Kevin R Crooks
Outdoor recreation is typically assumed to be compatible with biodiversity conservation and is permitted in most protected areas worldwide. However, increasing numbers of studies are discovering negative effects of recreation on animals. We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature and analyzed 274 articles on the effects of non-consumptive recreation on animals, across all geographic areas, taxonomic groups, and recreation activities. We quantified trends in publication rates and outlets, identified knowledge gaps, and assessed evidence for effects of recreation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930608/effective-interpersonal-health-communication-for-linkage-to-care-after-hiv-diagnosis-in-south-africa
#6
Tonderai Mabuto, Salome Charalambous, Christopher J Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Early in the global response to HIV, health communication was focused toward HIV prevention. More recently, the role of health communication along the entire HIV care continuum has been highlighted. We sought to describe how a strategy of interpersonal communication allows for precision health communication to influence behavior regarding care engagement. METHODS: We analyzed 1 to 5 transcripts from clients participating in longitudinal counseling sessions from a communication strategy arm of a randomized trial to accelerate entry into care in South Africa...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928050/smokeless-tobacco-and-oral-potentially-malignant-disorders-in-south-asia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Zohaib Khan, Sheraz Khan, Lara Christianson, Sara Rehman, Obinna Ekwunife, Florence Samkange-Zeeb
: Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMDs) are chronic lesions or conditions characterized by a potential for malignant transformation. While recent meta-analyses show that smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is a risk factor for oral cancer in South Asia, there is a lack of pooled evidence regarding SLT use and the development of OPMDs. We searched Medline via PubMed, the Science Citation Index (SCI) via Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, Global Index Medicus and Google Scholar databases for relevant literature using a combination of keywords and MeSH terms...
December 7, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927852/frequency-of-viremic-episodes-in-hiv-infected-women-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-during-pregnancy-a-cohort-study
#8
Landon Myer, Lorna Dunning, Maia Lesosky, Nei-Yuan Hsiao, Tamsin Phillips, Greg Petro, Allison Zerbe, James A McIntyre, Elaine J Abrams
BACKGROUND: The numbers of HIV-infected women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy are increasing rapidly with global policy changes. There are widespread concerns about ART adherence during pregnancy and postpartum but few data on viral suppression (VS) over time in these populations. METHODS: We followed a cohort of 523 women in Cape Town, South Africa initiating ART in pregnancy (once daily tenofovir 300mg, emtracitabine 200mg and efavirenz 600mg) and achieving VS (<50 copies/mL)...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923010/effective-interpersonal-health-communication-for-linkage-to-care-after-hiv-diagnosis-in-south-africa
#9
Tonderai Mabuto, Salome Charalambous, Christopher J Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Early in the global response to HIV, health communication was focused toward HIV prevention. More recently, the role of health communication along the entire HIV care continuum has been highlighted. We sought to describe how a strategy of interpersonal communication allows for precision health communication to influence behavior regarding care engagement. METHODS: We analyzed 1 to 5 transcripts from clients participating in longitudinal counseling sessions from a communication strategy arm of a randomized trial to accelerate entry into care in South Africa...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921037/acute-kidney-injury-in-western-countries
#10
REVIEW
Josée Bouchard, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921036/acute-kidney-injury-in-asia
#11
REVIEW
Li Yang
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common disorder and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of the climate and of the socioeconomic and developmental status in Asia has a great influence on the etiology and presentation of AKI in different regions. In view of the International Society of Nephrology's 0by25 initiative, more and more attention has been paid to AKI in Asian countries. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the recent achievements with regard to the prevalence and clinical patterns of AKI in Asian countries...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919381/consumer-choice-of-on-demand-mhealth-app-services-context-and-contents-values-using-structural-equation-modeling
#12
Euehun Lee, Semi Han, Sang Hyun Jo
OBJECTIVE: As smartphone penetration increases and the technology advances, various mobile services have reached the market. mHealth Applications are specifically highlighted for phenomena such as global aging & well-being, but the technology-driven mHealth services have not been successful in the market because consumer needs have not been reflected in the services properly. This study developed a research model consisting of context/contents values to explain the intention of consumers over the age of 40 in using mHealth Applications...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919232/microrna-27a-rs895819-is-associated-with-obesity-in-hiv-infected-preeclamptic-black-south-african-women-on-haart
#13
Niren Ray Maharaj, Prithiksha Ramkaran, Siddharthiya Pillay, Anil Amichund Chuturgoon
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) and HIV/AIDS present a major health challenge globally. South Africa has the highest disease burden of both HIV/AIDS and PE in the world. Despite extensive research, the pathophysiology of these conditions is not completely understood, however a genetic predisposition in women may affect susceptibility. MiRNA-27a regulates adipogenesis and glucose metabolism. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in miRNA-27a (rs895819T > C) has shown to have disparate effects in various populations...
December 5, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918265/an-international-invasive-meningococcal-disease-outbreak-due-to-a-novel-and-rapidly-expanding-serogroup-w-strain-scotland-and-sweden-july-to-august-2015
#14
Jay Lucidarme, Kevin J Scott, Roisin Ure, Andrew Smith, Diane Lindsay, Bianca Stenmark, Susanne Jacobsson, Hans Fredlund, J Claire Cameron, Alison Smith-Palmer, Jim McMenamin, Steve J Gray, Helen Campbell, Shamez Ladhani, Jamie Findlow, Paula Mölling, Ray Borrow
The 23rd World Scout Jamboree in 2015 took place in Japan and included over 33,000 scouts from 162 countries. Within nine days of the meeting ending, six cases of laboratory-confirmed invasive serogroup W meningococcal disease occurred among scouts and their close contacts in Scotland and Sweden. The isolates responsible were identical to one-another by routine typing and, where known (4 isolates), belonged to the ST-11 clonal complex (cc11) which is associated with large outbreaks and high case fatality rates...
November 10, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917986/the-cultural-heritage-of-pastoralism-local-knowledge-state-identity-and-the-global-perspective-the-example-of-local-breeds-in-morocco
#15
Y Ben Hounet, A-M Brisebarre, S Guinand
Over the past few decades, the heritage designation process has come to impact on the way of life of many nomadic pastoralists across the world. Since the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage was adopted in 1972, policies for the conservation of protected areas have been implemented under the aegis of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), especially in countries of the South, with a varying impact on the practices and perceptions of pastoral communities...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917758/addressing-legal-and-policy-barriers-to-male-circumcision-for-adolescent-boys-in-south-africa
#16
A E Strode, J D Toohey, C M Slack
With millions of adolescents becoming infected with HIV globally, it is essential that barriers to much-needed interventions are reduced for at-risk adolescents. In this article we review the legal and policy framework in South Africa for adolescent access to male circumcision. We are of the view that the framework does confer protection for adolescent boys while enabling access to male circumcision; however, we identify ambiguities and tensions that exist between the Children's Act, regulations and national guidelines...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917196/five-years-retrospective-cohort-analysis-of-treatment-outcomes-of-tb-hiv-patients-at-a-pepfar-dots-centre-in-south-eastern-nigeria
#17
Omotowo I Babatunde, Ekwueme O Christiandolus, Eke C Bismarck, Obi I Emmanuel, Agunwa C Chike, Eyisi I Gabriel
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health challenge, with an estimated 1.4 million patients worldwide. Co-infection with HIV leads to challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess treatment outcomes of a cohort of smear positive TB-HIV co-infected patients over a five-year study period. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 600 smear-positive tuberculosis patients registered at the chest unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu from January 2008 to December 2012 was done...
September 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917167/potential-for-sulfate-reduction-in-mangrove-forest-soils-comparison-between-two-dominant-species-of-the-americas
#18
Melike Balk, Joost A Keuskamp, Hendrikus J Laanbroek
Avicennia and Rhizophora are globally occurring mangrove genera with different traits that place them in different parts of the intertidal zone. It is generally accepted that the oxidizing capacity of Avicennia roots is larger than that of Rhizophora roots, which initiates more reduced conditions in the soil below the latter genus. We hypothesize that the more reduced conditions beneath Rhizophora stands lead to more active sulfate-reducing microbial communities compared to Avicennia stands. To test this hypothesis, we measured sulfate reduction traits in soil samples collected from neighboring Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle stands at three different locations in southern Florida...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912848/postcolonial-theory-and-old-age-an-explorative-essay
#19
Rüdiger Kunow
In this paper, I will present a reading of senior life through the lens of postcolonial theory. Even while this body of theory is as varied as the life experience summarized under the label "old age", such a project promises mutually fruitful results. Postcolonialism's preoccupation with positional difference, subalternity and the abiding influence of the hegemon over what it discards as other can be helpful in overcoming the often merely chronological or individualized understanding of the last stages of the life course...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912766/non-random-distribution-of-child-undernutrition-in-ethiopia-spatial-analysis-from-the-2011-ethiopia-demographic-and-health-survey
#20
Zewdie Aderaw Alemu, Ahmed Ali Ahmed, Alemayehu Worku Yalew, Belay Simanie Birhanu
BACKGROUND: Child undernutrition showed geographical inequalities due to variations in contextual determinants from area to area which indicates that location is an important factor in child undernutrition. However, there are limited studies on spatial epidemiology of child undernutrition in Ethiopia. This study was aimed to identify the SaTScan spatial clusters of child undernutrition in Ethiopia. METHODS: Nutritional indices of children (0-59 months) with Global Positioning System (GPS) location data were accessed from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) after getting permission from the MEASURES Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) Program...
December 3, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
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