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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433963/schuklenk-s-critique-of-the-cioms-guidelines-all-procedure-no-substance
#1
Ruth Macklin
In his article on the 2016 revision of the CIOMS International Ethical Guidelines (​1), Udo Schuklenk criticises the guidelines but adds a few words of faint praise. His criticisms are primarily procedural, and comprise the following main points: the guidelines aren't really ethical guidelines; the process used by the work group that wrote the guidelines involves "appeals to authority"; the work group used a method of consensus to reach conclusions on controversial points; the work group consisted of twice the number of participants from the global North as from the global South, yet the guidelines are largely directed at low-resource countries...
March 29, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433817/climate-change-risks-extinction-debt-and-conservation-implications-for-a-threatened-freshwater-fish-carmine-shiner-notropis-percobromus
#2
Shubha N Pandit, Bryan M Maitland, Laxmi K Pandit, Mark S Poesch, Eva C Enders
Climate change is affecting many freshwater species, particularly fishes. Predictions of future climate change suggest large and deleterious effects on species with narrow dispersal abilities due to limited hydrological connectivity. In turn, this creates the potential for population isolation in thermally unsuitable habitats, leading to physiological stress, species declines or possible extirpation. The current extent of many freshwater fish species' spatio-temporal distribution patterns and their sensitivity to thermal impacts from climate change - critical information for conservation planning - are often unknown...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433768/response-of-evapotranspiration-to-changes-in-land-use-and-land-cover-and-climate-in-china-during-2001-2013
#3
Gen Li, Fangmin Zhang, Yuanshu Jing, Yibo Liu, Ge Sun
Land surface evapotranspiration (ET) is a central component of the Earth's global energy balance and water cycle. Understanding ET is important in quantifying the impacts of human influences on the hydrological cycle and thus helps improving water use efficiency and strengthening water use planning and watershed management. China has experienced tremendous land use and land cover changes (LUCC) as a result of urbanization and ecological restoration under a broad background of climate change. This study used MODIS data products to analyze how LUCC and climate change affected ET in China in the period 2001-2013...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433763/biomass-burning-sources-and-their-contributions-to-the-local-air-quality-in-hong-kong
#4
K L Chan
In this paper, we present a quantitative estimation of the impacts of biomass burning emissions from different source regions to the local air quality in Hong Kong in 2014 using global chemistry transport model simulations, sun photometer measurements, satellite observations and local monitoring network data. This study focuses on two major biomass burning pollutants, black carbon aerosols and carbon monoxide (CO). The model simulations of atmospheric black carbon and CO show excellent agreement with sun photometer aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, satellite CO columns observations and local monitoring stations data...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431521/a-reference-floral-transcriptome-of-sexual-and-apomictic-paspalum-notatum
#5
Juan Pablo A Ortiz, Santiago Revale, Lorena A Siena, Maricel Podio, Luciana Delgado, Juliana Stein, Olivier Leblanc, Silvina C Pessino
BACKGROUND: Paspalum notatum Flügge is a subtropical grass native to South America, which includes sexual diploid and apomictic polyploid biotypes. In the past decade, a number of apomixis-associated genes were discovered in this species through genetic mapping and differential expression surveys. However, the scarce information on Paspalum sequences available in public databanks limited annotations and functional predictions for these candidates. RESULTS: We used a long-read 454/Roche FLX+ sequencing strategy to produce robust reference transcriptome datasets from florets of sexual and apomictic Paspalum notatum genotypes and delivered a list of transcripts showing differential representation in both reproductive types...
April 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431502/inequalities-in-health-care-utilization-for-common-childhood-illnesses-in-ethiopia-evidence-from-the-2011-ethiopian-demographic-and-health-survey
#6
Asmamaw Atnafu Ayalneh, Dagnachew Muluye Fetene, Tae Jin Lee
BACKGROUND: Globally, 5.9 million children under the age of five died in 2015. More than half and almost one-third of those deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, respectively. Diarrhea and Pneumonia, which were the major causes of the problem, accounted for more than two million deaths of the world's youngest children every year. Like other developing countries, child health services utilization is low in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to identify the determinant factors for the inequalities in medical treatment seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses in Ethiopia...
April 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430830/assessment-of-global-kidney-health-care-status
#7
Aminu K Bello, Adeera Levin, Marcello Tonelli, Ikechi G Okpechi, John Feehally, David Harris, Kailash Jindal, Babatunde L Salako, Ahmed Rateb, Mohamed A Osman, Bilal Qarni, Syed Saad, Meaghan Lunney, Natasha Wiebe, Feng Ye, David W Johnson
Importance: Kidney disease is a substantial worldwide clinical and public health problem, but information about available care is limited. Objective: To collect information on the current state of readiness, capacity, and competence for the delivery of kidney care across countries and regions of the world. Design, Setting, and Participants: Questionnaire survey administered from May to September 2016 by the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) to 130 ISN-affiliated countries with sampling of key stakeholders (national nephrology society leadership, policy makers, and patient organization representatives) identified by the country and regional nephrology leadership through the ISN...
April 21, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428699/putative-role-of-cardio-metabolic-risk-among-poorly-controlled-asthmatics-in-south-indian-population
#8
Murugaiyan Sathish Babu, K P Sreesoorya, Surendra K Menon, Subiman Saha, A R Srinivasan, S Arul Vijaya Vani, R Reeta, V Kuzhandai Velu
Mortality and morbidity attributed to asthma remains to be the biggest nightmare worldwide. Hence, the study was aimed to compare the cardio metabolic risk factors as assessed by Body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR), serum triacylglycerol and uric acid in well controlled and poorly controlled asthmatics and to correlate these parameters with the severity of asthma. A case control study was conducted on 90 subjects who were segregated into well controlled asthmatics (n = 30) and poorly controlled asthmatics (n = 30) who were diagnosed based on Global initiative for Asthma management guidelines and healthy volunteers (n = 30)...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428164/zika-in-twitter-temporal-variations-of-locations-actors-and-concepts
#9
Anthony Stefanidis, Emily Vraga, Georgios Lamprianidis, Jacek Radzikowski, Paul L Delamater, Kathryn H Jacobsen, Dieter Pfoser, Arie Croitoru, Andrew Crooks
BACKGROUND: The recent Zika outbreak witnessed the disease evolving from a regional health concern to a global epidemic. During this process, different communities across the globe became involved in Twitter, discussing the disease and key issues associated with it. This paper presents a study of this discussion in Twitter, at the nexus of location, actors, and concepts. OBJECTIVE: Our objective in this study was to demonstrate the significance of 3 types of events: location related, actor related, and concept related, for understanding how a public health emergency of international concern plays out in social media, and Twitter in particular...
April 20, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428159/development-of-a-culturally-tailored-text-message-maternal-health-program-textmatch
#10
Rosie Dobson, Robyn Whittaker, Hannah Bartley, Augusta Connor, Ruyan Chen, Mairead Ross, Judith McCool
BACKGROUND: Mobile phones are increasingly being used to deliver health information and health services globally. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions may be well-suited for minority groups with greater barriers to accessing traditional health services. However, little has been written about the process of culturally adapting interventions for multiple ethnic and cultural minorities within a population. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the process of developing a culturally tailored text message-based maternal health program (TextMATCH: Text for MATernal and Child Health) for Māori, Pacific, Asian, and South Asian families living in New Zealand...
April 20, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427451/household-level-spatio-temporal-analysis-of-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-in-ethiopia
#11
Dinberu Seyoum, Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Luc Duchateau, Patrick Brandt, Angel Rosas-Aguirre, Niko Speybroeck
BACKGROUND: The global decline of malaria burden and goals for elimination has led to an increased interest in the fine-scale epidemiology of malaria. Micro-geographic heterogeneity of malaria infection could have implications for designing targeted small-area interventions. METHODS: Two-year longitudinal cohort study data were used to explore the spatial and spatio-temporal distribution of malaria episodes in 2040 children aged < 10 years in 16 villages near the Gilgel-Gibe hydropower dam in Southwest Ethiopia...
April 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427380/the-stepping-stones-and-creating-futures-intervention-to-prevent-intimate-partner-violence-and-hiv-risk-behaviours-in-durban-south-africa-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-control-trial-and-baseline-characteristics
#12
Andrew Gibbs, Laura Washington, Samantha Willan, Nolwazi Ntini, Thobani Khumalo, Nompumelelo Mbatha, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Nwabisa Shai, Esnat Chirwa, Michael Strauss, Giulia Ferrari, Rachel Jewkes
BACKGROUND: Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV) remains a global public health challenge. Studies suggest urban informal settlements have particularly high levels of IPV and HIV-prevalence and these settlements are rapidly growing. The current evidence base of effective approaches to preventing IPV recognizes the potential of combining economic strengthening and gender transformative interventions. However, few of these interventions have been done in urban informal settlements, and almost none have included men as direct recipients of these interventions...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425995/widespread-movement-of-meltwater-onto-and-across-antarctic-ice-shelves
#13
Jonathan Kingslake, Jeremy C Ely, Indrani Das, Robin E Bell
Surface meltwater drains across ice sheets, forming melt ponds that can trigger ice-shelf collapse, acceleration of grounded ice flow and increased sea-level rise. Numerical models of the Antarctic Ice Sheet that incorporate meltwater's impact on ice shelves, but ignore the movement of water across the ice surface, predict a metre of global sea-level rise this century in response to atmospheric warming. To understand the impact of water moving across the ice surface a broad quantification of surface meltwater and its drainage is needed...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425424/spatial-distribution-of-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-in-south-american-caecilians
#14
Carolina Lambertini, C Guilherme Becker, Cecilia Bardier, Domingos da Silva Leite, Luís Felipe Toledo
The amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is linked to population declines in anurans and salamanders globally. To date, however, few studies have attempted to screen Bd in live caecilians; Bd-positive caecilians have only been reported in Africa and French Guiana. Here, we performed a retrospective survey of museum preserved specimens to (1) describe spatial patterns of Bd infection in Gymnophiona across South America and (2) test whether areas of low climatic suitability for Bd in anurans predict Bd spatial epidemiology in caecilians...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424465/predicting-the-potential-distribution-in-china-of-euwallacea-fornicates-eichhoff-under-current-and-future-climate-conditions
#15
Xuezhen Ge, Chao Jiang, Linghong Chen, Shuang Qiu, Yuxiang Zhao, Tao Wang, Shixiang Zong
Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff) is an important forest pest that has caused serious damage in America and Vietnam. In 2014, it attacked forests of Acer trialatum in the Yunnan province of China, creating concern in China's Forestry Bureau. We used the CLIMEX model to predict and compare the potential distribution for E. fornicates in China under current (1981-2010) and projected climate conditions (2011-2040) using one scenario (RCP8.5) and one global climate model (GCM), CSIRO-Mk3-6-0. Under both current and future climate conditions, the model predicted E...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423426/the-invasive-liriomyza-huidobrensis-diptera-agromyzidae-understanding-its-pest-status-and-management-globally
#16
Phyllis G Weintraub, Sonja J Scheffer, Diedrich Visser, Graciela Valladares, Alberto Soares Correa, B Merle Shepard, Aunu Rauf, Sean T Murphy, Norma Mujica, Charles MacVean, Jürgen Kroschel, Miriam Kishinevsky, Ravindra C Joshi, Nina S Johansen, Rebecca H Hallett, Hasan S Civelek, Bing Chen, Helga Blanco Metzler
Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) is native to South America but has expanded its range and invaded many regions of the world, primarily on flowers and to a lesser extent on horticultural product shipments. As a result of initial invasion into an area, damage caused is usually significant but not necessarily sustained. Currently, it is an economic pest in selected native and invaded regions of the world. Adults cause damage by puncturing abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces for feeding and egg laying sites. Larvae mine the leaf parenchyma tissues which can lead to leaves drying and wilting...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422184/sea-level-proxies-in-holocene-raised-beach-ridge-deposits-greenland-revealed-by-ground-penetrating-radar
#17
Lars Nielsen, Mette Bendixen, Aart Kroon, Mikkel Ulfeldt Hede, Lars B Clemmensen, Ronny Weβling, Bo Elberling
Identification of sea-level proxies is important for reconstruction of past sea-level variation. Methods for reconstructing Holocene relative sea-level curves are crucial for quantification of the impact of Greenland ice thickness variation on global sea level and vertical land movement. Arctic beach ridges constitute important potential archives of sea-level variation. However, their surface morphology may have undergone modification since deposition due to freezing/thawing processes and erosion, and their morphology may therefore not be trustworthy for sea-level reconstruction...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419432/a-global-synthesis-of-managing-groundwater-dependent-ecosystems-under-sustainable-groundwater-policy
#18
Melissa M Rohde, Ray Froend, Jeanette Howard
Groundwater is a vital water supply worldwide for people and nature. However, species and ecosystems that depend on groundwater for some or all of their water needs, known as groundwater dependent ecosystems (GDEs), are increasingly becoming threatened worldwide due to growing human water demands. Over the past two decades, the protection and management of GDEs have been incorporated into several water management policy initiatives worldwide including jurisdictions within Australia, the European Union, South Africa, and the United States...
April 17, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419352/dermatophytes-and-dermatophytosis-in-the-eastern-and-southern-parts-of-africa
#19
E I Nweze, I E Eke
Dermatophytosis is currently a disease of global importance and a public health burden. It is caused by dermatophytes, which attack and grow on dead animal keratin. Dermatophytes belong to three genera, namely, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. The predominant clinical forms and causative agents vary from one region of the world to another. Poor socioeconomic status, high population densities, and poor sanitary conditions are some of the factors responsible for the high prevalence of dermatophytosis in many developing countries, which include countries in southern and eastern Africa, the focus of this review...
April 17, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419127/effects-of-nitrogen-application-rate-nitrogen-synergist-and-biochar-on-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-vegetable-field-in-south-china
#20
Qiong Yi, Shuanghu Tang, Xiaolin Fan, Mu Zhang, Yuwan Pang, Xu Huang, Qiaoyi Huang
Globally, vegetable fields are the primary source of greenhouse gas emissions. A closed-chamber method together with gas chromatography was used to measure the fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in typical vegetable fields planted with four vegetables sequentially over time in the same field: endive, lettuce, cabbage and sweet corn. Results showed that N2O fluxes occurred in pulses with the N2O emission peak varying greatly among the crops. In addition, N2O emissions were linearly associated with the nitrogen (N) application rate (r = 0...
2017: PloS One
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