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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223085/global-platinum-group-element-resources-reserves-and-mining-a-critical-assessment
#1
Gavin M Mudd, Simon M Jowitt, Timothy T Werner
The platinum group elements (PGEs) are used in many technologies and products in modern society, especially auto-catalysts, chemical process catalysts and specialty alloys, yet supply is dominated by South Africa. This leads PGEs to be assessed as 'critical metals', signalling concern about the likelihood and consequences of social, environmental and economic impacts from disruptions to supply. In order to better understand the global PGE situation, this paper presents a comprehensive global assessment of PGE reserves and resources and the key mining trends which can affect supply...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222506/an-assessment-of-the-global-impact-of-21st-century-land-use-change-on-soil-erosion
#2
Pasquale Borrelli, David A Robinson, Larissa R Fleischer, Emanuele Lugato, Cristiano Ballabio, Christine Alewell, Katrin Meusburger, Sirio Modugno, Brigitta Schütt, Vito Ferro, Vincenzo Bagarello, Kristof Van Oost, Luca Montanarella, Panos Panagos
Human activity and related land use change are the primary cause of accelerated soil erosion, which has substantial implications for nutrient and carbon cycling, land productivity and in turn, worldwide socio-economic conditions. Here we present an unprecedentedly high resolution (250 × 250 m) global potential soil erosion model, using a combination of remote sensing, GIS modelling and census data. We challenge the previous annual soil erosion reference values as our estimate, of 35.9 Pg yr-1 of soil eroded in 2012, is at least two times lower...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222064/evolution-in-the-amphi-atlantic-tropical-genus-guibourtia-fabaceae-detarioideae-combining-ngs-phylogeny-and-morphology
#3
Félicien Tosso, Olivier J Hardy, Jean-Louis Doucet, Kasso Daïnou, Esra Kaymak, Jérémy Migliore
Tropical rain forests support a remarkable diversity of tree species, questioning how and when this diversity arose. The genus Guibourtia (Fabaceae, Detarioideae), characterized by two South American and 13 African tree species growing in various tropical biomes, is an interesting model to address the role of biogeographic processes and adaptation to contrasted environments on species diversification. Combining whole plastid genome sequencing and morphological characters analysis, we studied the timing of speciation and diversification processes in Guibourtia through molecular dating and ancestral habitats reconstruction...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221890/22nd-international-conference-on-medical-physics-2016-bangkok-thailand-medical-physics-propelling-global-health
#4
EDITORIAL
Virginia Tsapaki, Geoff Ibbott, Anchali Krisanachinda, Kwan-Hoong Ng, Tae-Suk Suh, Slavik Tabakov, John Damilakis
As medical technology evolves and patient needs increase, the need for well-trained and highly professional medical physicists (MPs) becomes even more urgent. The roles and responsibilities of MPs in various departments within the hospital are diverse and demanding. It is obvious that training, continuing education and professional development of MPs have become essential. One of the ways for an MP to advance his or her knowledge is to participate in conferences and congresses. Last year, the 22nd International Conference of Medical Physics (ICMP 2016) took place in Bangkok, Thailand...
December 6, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221539/partnership-conference
#5
John A Bartlett, Sarah Cao, Blandina Mmbaga, Xu Qian, Michael Merson, Randall Kramer
BACKGROUND: The Duke Global Health Institute (DGHI) was founded in 2006 with a goal to foster interdisciplinary global health education and research across Duke University and Duke Medical Center. Critical to achieving this goal is the need to develop and sustain strong international partnerships. OBJECTIVE: To host a conference with multiple international partners and strengthen existing relationships. METHODS: After a deliberate year-long planning process, DGHI convened a Partnership Conference with its international partners on the Duke University campus in conjunction with its 10th Anniversary Celebration...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221510/theory-from-the-south-a-decolonial-approach-to-the-psychology-of-global-inequality
#6
REVIEW
Glenn Adams, Sara Estrada-Villalta
Hegemonic understandings rooted in the epistemic perspectives of the Global North explain global inequality (i.e., unequal relations between Global North and South) as a developmental gap in progress toward Eurocentric modernity. From this perspective, global inequality exists because Northern societies have created modern institutions and mentalities (e.g., independent selfways) that have enabled them to achieve development, and Southern societies suffer from poverty because their institutions and associated mentalities (e...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219088/the-health-effects-of-hotter-summers-and-heat-waves-in-the-population-of-the-united-kingdom-a-review-of-the-evidence
#7
REVIEW
Katherine G Arbuthnott, Shakoor Hajat
It is widely acknowledged that the climate is warming globally and within the UK. In this paper, studies which assess the direct impact of current increased temperatures and heat-waves on health and those which project future health impacts of heat under different climate change scenarios in the UK are reviewed.This review finds that all UK studies demonstrate an increase in heat-related mortality occurring at temperatures above threshold values, with respiratory deaths being more sensitive to heat than deaths from cardiovascular disease (although the burden from cardiovascular deaths is greater in absolute terms)...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218784/intraspecific-genetic-structure-divergence-and-high-rates-of-clonality-in-an-amphi-atlantic-starfish
#8
Alex Garcia-Cisneros, Creu Palacín, Carlos Renato Rezende Ventura, Barbara Feital, Paulo Cesar Paiva, Rocío Pérez-Portela
Intraspecific genetic diversity and divergence have a large influence on the adaption and evolutionary potential of species. The widely distributed starfish, Coscinasterias tenuispina, combines sexual reproduction with asexual reproduction via fission. Here we analyse the phylogeography of this starfish to reveal historical and contemporary processes driving its intraspecific genetic divergence. We further consider whether asexual reproduction is the most important method of propagation throughout the distribution range of this species...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216890/in-silico-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-partial-bbrap-1-bbcp2-bbsbp-4-and-bb%C3%AE-tub-gene-sequences-of-babesia-bovis-isolates-from-cattle-in-south-africa
#9
Phillip Senzo Mtshali, Moses Sibusiso Mtshali
BACKGROUND: Bovine babesiosis is one of the most economically important tick-borne diseases threatening the livestock industry globally including South Africa. This disease is induced by members of Babesia bovis species. Antigenic variations among geographical strains of B. bovis, and these heterogeneities are cited as the mechanism by which parasites evade from host immune system and they hamper the successful development of a single vaccine that could confer absolute protection. Given the economic importance of livestock industry in South Africa, the extent of genetic diversity among field isolates of B...
December 8, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216028/progress-toward-global-eradication-of-dracunculiasis-january-2016-june-2017
#10
Donald R Hopkins, Ernesto Ruiz-Tiben, Mark L Eberhard, Sharon L Roy, Adam J Weiss
Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) is caused by Dracunculus medinensis, a parasitic worm. Approximately 1 year after a person acquires infection from contaminated drinking water, the worm emerges through the skin, usually on a lower limb (1). Pain and secondary bacterial infection can cause temporary or permanent disability that disrupts work and schooling. The campaign to eradicate dracunculiasis worldwide began in 1980 at CDC. In 1986, the World Health Assembly called for dracunculiasis elimination,* and the global Guinea Worm Eradication Program, led by the Carter Center and supported by the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund, CDC, and other partners, began assisting ministries of health in countries with endemic dracunculiasis...
December 8, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215604/dietary-factors-and-female-breast-cancer-risk-a-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Ji Hyun Kim, Jeonghee Lee, So-Youn Jung, Jeongseon Kim
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer in females and has become a major global health priority. This prospective cohort study investigated the association of dietary factors, including food items and dietary habits, with the risk of breast cancer in Korean women. Study participants were women aged 30 years or older, recruited from the National Cancer Center in South Korea between August 2002 and May 2007. They were followed until December 2014 using the Korea Central Cancer Registry to identify breast cancer cases...
December 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214899/paid-staff-or-volunteers-does-it-make-a-difference-the-impact-of-staffing-on-child-outcomes-for-children-attending-community-based-programmes-in-south-africa-and-malawi
#12
Mark Tomlinson, Lorraine Sherr, Ana Macedo, Xanthe Hunt, Sarah Skeen
BACKGROUND: Globally, and in low and middle income countries (LMIC) specifically, there is a critical shortage of workers. The use of volunteers to support such care delivery systems has been examined, there is scant literature on the impact of volunteers on child outcome in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected communities. OBJECTIVES: To examine the differential impact of paid versus volunteer workforce in Community Based Organisations (CBOs) providing care to children and families affected by the HIV epidemic in South Africa and Malawi on child outcomes over time...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214801/increases-of-total-mercury-and-methylmercury-releases-from-municipal-sewage-into-environment-in-china-and-implications
#13
Maodian Liu, Peng Du, Chenghao Yu, Yipeng He, Haoran Zhang, Xuejun Sun, Huiming Lin, Yao Luo, Han Xie, Junming Guo, Yindong Tong, Qianggong Zhang, Long Chen, Wei Zhang, Xiqing Li, Xuejun Wang
As a globally transported pollutant, mercury (Hg) released from human activity and methylmercury (MeHg) in the food web are global concerns due to their increasing presence in the environment. In this study, we found that Hg released from municipal sewage into the environment in China is a substantial anthropogenic source based on mass sampling throughout China. In total, 160 Mg (140-190 Mg, from the 20th percentile to the 80th percentile) of Hg (THg) and 280 kg (240-330 kg) of MeHg were released from municipal sewage in China in 2015...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213301/including-refugees-in-disease-elimination-challenges-observed-from-a-sleeping-sickness-programme-in-uganda
#14
Jennifer J Palmer, Okello Robert, Freddie Kansiime
Background: Ensuring equity between forcibly-displaced and host area populations is a key challenge for global elimination programmes. We studied Uganda's response to the recent refugee influx from South Sudan to identify key governance and operational lessons for national sleeping sickness programmes working with displaced populations today. A refugee policy which favours integration of primary healthcare services for refugee and host populations and the availability of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect sleeping sickness at this health system level makes Uganda well-placed to include refugees in sleeping sickness surveillance...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212454/ice-age-unfrozen-severe-effect-of-the-last-interglacial-not-glacial-climate-change-on-east-asian-avifauna
#15
Feng Dong, Chih-Ming Hung, Xin-Lei Li, Jian-Yun Gao, Qiang Zhang, Fei Wu, Fu-Min Lei, Shou-Hsien Li, Xiao-Jun Yang
BACKGROUND: The glacial-interglacial cycles in the Pleistocene caused repeated range expansion and contraction of species in several regions in the world. However, it remains uncertain whether such climate oscillations had similar impact on East Asian biota, despite its widely recognized importance in global biodiversity. Here we use both molecular and ecological niche profiles on 11 East Asian avian species with various elevational ranges to reveal their response to the late Pleistocene climate changes...
December 6, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212052/biotic-diversity-of-benthic-macroinvertebrates-at-contrasting-glacier-fed-systems-in-patagonia-mountains-the-role-of-environmental-heterogeneity-facing-global-warming
#16
María Laura Miserendino, Cecilia Brand, Luis B Epele, Cecilia Y Di Prinzio, Guillermo H Omad, Miguel Archangelsky, Oscar Martínez, Adriana M Kutschker
Patagonia is by far the largest glacierized area in South America. However, little is known about ecology, functioning and biodiversity of glacier-fed streams facing global warming. We investigated changes in environmental features and macroinvertebrate communities along a longitudinal gradient of glacier influence of two Patagonian systems that differ in glacier cover magnitude and the spatial sequence of lotic and lentic phases. Both glaciers, Torrecillas (~5.5km2, Torrecillas system) and Cónico (~0.44km2, Baggilt system), are retreating...
December 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211038/prevalence-of-self-reported-diagnosed-cataract-and-associated-risk-factors-among-elderly-south-africans
#17
Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya, Karl Peltzer, Amelia Crampin, Edmund Ahame, Zinhle Sokhela
This paper estimates the prevalence of self-reported cataract and associated risk factors among individuals aged ≥50 years in South Africa. Data from a nationally-representative cross-sectional Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) (N = 3646) conducted in South Africa from 2007-2008 was analyzed. The primary outcome was self-reported cataract, and exposures included socio-demographics, self-reported co-morbidities, and behavioral factors. Linearized multivariate logistic regression models were used...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210951/health-burden-and-socioeconomic-disparities-from-hearing-loss-a-global-perspective
#18
Tam Ramsey, Peter F Svider, Adam J Folbe
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To characterize the disability-related health burden of hearing loss (HL) at a global level, with a focus on socioeconomic health disparities. METHODS: The global burden of HL, as calculated by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per 100,000 individuals, was evaluated for 184 countries. Data from 5-year intervals encompassing 1990 to 2015 were organized by human development index (HDI) categorizations as specified by the U.N. Development Program (UNDP)...
November 28, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209855/osteoporotic-hip-fractures-in-black-south-africans-a-regional-study
#19
F Paruk, G Matthews, B Cassim
Osteoporotic hip fractures are thought to be rare in Blacks however, this study from South Africa shows a significant increase in the number of hip fracture in Blacks. With the expected increase in older people, osteoporotic fractures will pose a major health problem and screening guidelines needed to be implemented. INTRODUCTION: Developing countries are predicted to bear the burden of osteoporosis in the coming decades. This study was undertaken to review earlier reports that osteoporotic hip fractures are rare in Black Africans...
December 5, 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205924/genomic-epidemiology-of-the-emerging-pathogen-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-from-native-and-invasive-amphibian-species-in-chile
#20
A Valenzuela-Sánchez, S J O'Hanlon, M Alvarado-Rybak, D E Uribe-Rivera, A A Cunningham, M C Fisher, C Soto-Azat
Emerging fungal diseases represent a threat to food security, animal and human health worldwide. Amphibian chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has been associated with catastrophic and well-documented amphibian population declines and extinctions. For the first time, Bd was cultured from native and non-native wild amphibians in Chile. Phylogenomic analyses revealed that Chilean isolates AVS2, AVS4 and AVS7 group within the global panzootic lineage of Bd (BdGPL) in a single highly supported clade that includes a genotype previously isolated from the United Kingdom...
December 5, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
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