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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051999/comparative-early-life-stage-toxicity-of-the-african-clawed-frog-xenopus-laevis-following-exposure-to-selected-herbicide-formulations-applied-to-eradicate-alien-plants-in-south-africa
#1
Oluwaseun O Babalola, J H Van Wyk
The rise in pesticides application has increased the need for better understanding of their ecological impacts. The global amphibian declines, for example, have been positively correlated with pesticides use. The differential susceptibility in the developmental stages of amphibians to chemical substances are still largely unknown. We examined the 96-h differential toxicity responses of embryos, premetamorphic and transitional larval stage of Xenopus laevis, to six formulated aquatic herbicide products containing the active ingredients of diquat dibromide (Midstream), glufosinate ammonium (Basta), imazapyr (Arsenal), and three glyphosate formulations (Roundup, Kilo Max, and Environ Glyphosate)...
October 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051488/coralgal-reef-morphology-records-punctuated-sea-level-rise-during-the-last-deglaciation
#2
Pankaj Khanna, André W Droxler, Jeffrey A Nittrouer, John W Tunnell, Thomas C Shirley
Coralgal reefs preserve the signatures of sea-level fluctuations over Earth's history, in particular since the Last Glacial Maximum 20,000 years ago, and are used in this study to indicate that punctuated sea-level rise events are more common than previously observed during the last deglaciation. Recognizing the nature of past sea-level rises (i.e., gradual or stepwise) during deglaciation is critical for informing models that predict future vertical behavior of global oceans. Here we present high-resolution bathymetric and seismic sonar data sets of 10 morphologically similar drowned reefs that grew during the last deglaciation and spread 120 km apart along the south Texas shelf edge...
October 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050646/worldwide-incidence-and-prevalence-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-the-21st-century-a-systematic-review-of-population-based-studies
#3
Siew C Ng, Hai Yun Shi, Nima Hamidi, Fox E Underwood, Whitney Tang, Eric I Benchimol, Remo Panaccione, Subrata Ghosh, Justin C Y Wu, Francis K L Chan, Joseph J Y Sung, Gilaad G Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease is a global disease in the 21st century. We aimed to assess the changing incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease around the world. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and Embase up to and including Dec 31, 2016, to identify observational, population-based studies reporting the incidence or prevalence of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis from 1990 or later. A study was regarded as population-based if it involved all residents within a specific area and the patients were representative of that area...
October 13, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048512/excellent-treatment-outcomes-in-children-treated-for-tuberculosis-under-routine-operational-conditions-in-cape-town-south-africa
#4
Muhammad Osman, Kevin Lee, Karen Du Preez, Rory Dunbar, Anneke C Hesseling, James A Seddon
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death in children globally. It is recognized that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increases the risk of developing TB, but our understanding of the impact of HIV on risk of mortality for children treated for TB is limited. We aimed to identify predictors of mortality in children treated for drug-susceptible TB. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all children (<15 years of age) routinely treated between 2005 and 2012 for drug-susceptible TB in Cape Town was conducted using the programmatic electronic TB treatment database...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047381/a-critical-appraisal-of-guidelines-used-for-management-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-south-africa-s-referral-system
#5
Faith Nankasa Mambulu-Chikankheni, John Eyles, Ejemai Amaize Eboreime, Prudence Ditlopo
BACKGROUND: Focusing on healthcare referral processes for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in South Africa, this paper discusses the comprehensiveness of documents (global and national) that guide the country's SAM healthcare. This research is relevant because South African studies on SAM mostly examine the implementation of WHO guidelines in hospitals, making their technical relevance to the country's lower level and referral healthcare system under-explored. METHODS: To add to both literature and methods for studying SAM healthcare, we critically appraised four child healthcare guidelines (global and national) and conducted complementary expert interviews (n = 5)...
October 18, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045681/international-patterns-and-trends-in-endometrial-cancer-incidence-1978-2013
#6
Joannie Lortet-Tieulent, Jacques Ferlay, Freddie Bray, Ahmedin Jemal
Background: Cancers of the corpus uteri-primarily of the endometrium-rank as the sixth most common neoplasm in women worldwide. Analyses of the global patterns and trends of uterine cancer rates are needed in view of the ongoing obesity epidemic, a major risk factor for the disease. Methods: Data on endometrial cancer (ICD-10 C54) incidence from population-based cancer registries in 43 populations, published in CI5plus or by registries, were extracted for 1978 to 2013...
October 16, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044812/roads-to-ruin-conservation-threats-to-a-sentinel-species-across-an-urban-gradient
#7
Blake E Feist, Eric R Buhle, David H Baldwin, Julann A Spromberg, Steven E Damm, Jay W Davis, Nathaniel L Scholz
Urbanization poses a global challenge to species conservation. This is primarily understood in terms of physical habitat loss, as agricultural and forested lands are replaced with urban infrastructure. However, aquatic habitats are also chemically degraded by urban development, often in the form of toxic stormwater runoff. Here we assess threats of urbanization to coho salmon throughout developed areas of the Puget Sound Basin in Washington, USA. Puget Sound coho are a sentinel species for freshwater communities and also a species of concern under the U...
October 18, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044149/development-and-evaluation-of-a-rapid-molecular-diagnostic-test-for-zika-virus-infection-by-reverse-transcription-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#8
Yohei Kurosaki, Danyelly Bruneska Gondim Martins, Mayuko Kimura, Andriu Dos Santos Catena, Maria Amélia Carlos Souto Maior Borba, Sandra da Silva Mattos, Haruka Abe, Rokusuke Yoshikawa, José Luiz de Lima Filho, Jiro Yasuda
The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) disease caused an enormous number of infections in Central and South America, and the unusual increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection aroused global concern. Here, we developed a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay using a portable device for the detection of ZIKV. The assay specifically detected ZIKV strains of both Asian and African genotypes without cross-reactivity with other arboviruses, including Dengue and Chikungunya viruses...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043611/quantifying-anthropogenic-threats-to-orchids-using-the-iucn-red-list
#9
Jenna Wraith, Catherine Pickering
Orchids are diverse, occur in a wide range of habitats and dominate threatened species lists, but which orchids are threatened, where and by what? Using the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, we assessed the range and diversity of threats to orchids globally including identifying four threat syndromes: (1) terrestrial orchids in forests that are endemic to a country and threatened by illegal collecting; (2) orchids threatened by climate change, pollution, transportation and disturbance/development for tourism, and recreation activities, often in East Asia; (3) epiphytic orchids in Sub-Saharan Africa including Madagascar with diverse threats; and (4) South and Southeast Asia orchids threatened by land clearing for shifting agriculture...
October 17, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042287/the-genus-lycium-as-food-and-medicine-a-botanical-ethnobotanical-and-historical-review
#10
REVIEW
Ruyu Yao, Michael Heinrich, Caroline S Weckerle
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lycium is widely distributed in the arid to semi-arid environments of North and South America, Africa, and Eurasia. In recent years, Lycium barbarum and L. chinense have been advertised as "superfood" with healthy properties. Despite of its popularity, there is a lack of an integrated and critical appraisal of the existing evidence for the use of Lycium. AIM OF THE STUDY: There is a need to understand: 1) Which species were used and how the uses of Lycium developed spatially and over time, 2) how uses differ among regions with different culture backgrounds, and 3) how traditional and current therapeutic and preventive health claims correlate with pharmacological findings...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037185/research-involvement-among-undergraduate-health-sciences-students-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
J Bovijn, N Kajee, T M Esterhuizen, S C Van Schalkwyk
BACKGROUND: The development of research capacity among undergraduates is an important intervention in countering the documented decrease in medical and health sciences researchers. The literature on undergraduate research generally emanates from smaller scale studies that have been conducted in high income countries, with a focus on medical students. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a Sub-Saharan country, included a population of medical and allied health professions (AHP) students, and aimed to improve our understanding of the factors influencing undergraduate student research...
October 16, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037005/stroke-epidemiology-in-south-east-and-south-east-asia-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Byung Woo Yoon, Jeyaraj Pandian, Jose C Navarro
Asia, which holds 60% of the world's population, comprises some developing countries which are in economic transition. This paper reviews the epidemiology of stroke in South, East and South-East Asia. Data on the epidemiology of stroke in South, East, and South-East Asia were derived from the Global Burden of Disease study (mortality, disability-adjusted life-years [DALYs] lost because of stroke), World Health Organization (vascular risk factors in the community), and publications in PubMed (incidence, prevalence, subtypes, vascular risk factors among hospitalized stroke patients)...
September 2017: Journal of Stroke
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036387/uncovering-exposures-responsible-for-birth-season-disease-effects-a-global-study
#13
Mary Regina Boland, Pradipta Parhi, Li Li, Riccardo Miotto, Robert Carroll, Usman Iqbal, Phung-Anh Alex Nguyen, Martijn Schuemie, Seng Chan You, Donahue Smith, Sean Mooney, Patrick Ryan, Yu-Chuan Jack Li, Rae Woong Park, Josh Denny, Joel T Dudley, George Hripcsak, Pierre Gentine, Nicholas P Tatonetti
Objective: Birth month and climate impact lifetime disease risk, while the underlying exposures remain largely elusive. We seek to uncover distal risk factors underlying these relationships by probing the relationship between global exposure variance and disease risk variance by birth season. Material and Methods: This study utilizes electronic health record data from 6 sites representing 10.5 million individuals in 3 countries (United States, South Korea, and Taiwan)...
September 28, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036214/the-fate-of-endemic-insects-of-the-andean-region-under-the-effect-of-global-warming
#14
Sara I Montemayor, María Cecilia Melo, María Celeste Scattolini, Martina E Pocco, María Guadalupe Del Río, Gimena Dellapé, Erica E Scheibler, Sergio A Roig, Carla G Cazorla, Pablo M Dellapé
Three independent but complementary lines of research have provided evidence for the recognition of refugia: paleontology, phylogeography and species distributional modelling (SDM). SDM assesses the ecological requirements of a species based on its known occurrences and enables its distribution to be projected on past climatological reconstructions. One advantage over the other two approaches is that it provides an explicit link to environment and geography, thereby enabling the analysis of a large number of taxa in the search for more general refugia patterns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034826/voice-of-the-clinician-the-case-of-an-australian-health-system
#15
Mark J Lock, Amber L Stephenson, Jill Branford, Jonathan Roche, Marissa S Edwards, Kathleen Ryan
Purpose The Voice of the Clinician project commenced during an era when practitioner burnout, dissatisfaction, and turnover became an increasingly global health workforce concern. One key problem is clinical staff not being empowered to voice their concerns to decision-makers, as was found in this case study of an Australian public health organization. The following research question informed the present study: What is a better committee system for clinician engagement in decision-making processes? The paper aims to discuss this issue...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034665/-the-origin-of-ebola-biomedical-approach-versus-popular-interpretations-in-macenta-guinea
#16
Séverine Thys, Marleen Boelaert
In December 2013, a two-year-old child died from viral haemorrhagic fever in Méliandou village in the South-East of Guinea, and constituted the likely index case of a major epidemic. When the virus was formally identified as Ebola, epidemiologists started to investigate the chains of transmission, while local people were trying to make sense out of these deaths. The epidemic control measures taken by national and international health agencies were soon faced by strong reluctance and a sometimes aggressive attitude of the affected communities...
October 2, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033137/the-global-problem-of-early-deaths-in-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia-a-strategy-to-decrease-induction-mortality-in-the-most-curable-leukemia
#17
REVIEW
A P Jillella, V K Kota
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a hyper-acute illness and presents with profound cytopenias in most patients and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Excellent treatment options are now available with drugs such as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), arsenic trioxide (ATO), anthracyclines and cytarabine. The outcome in APL has improved tremendously in the last 50years due to better understanding of the disease, development of effective targeted agents and improvement in supportive care. Carefully selected groups of patients treated in large multi-center trials on a protocol and in experienced centers have shown survival rates in excess of 85%...
September 18, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031011/a-framework-for-the-identification-of-hotspots-of-climate-change-risk-for-mammals
#18
Michela Pacifici, Piero Visconti, Carlo Rondinini
As rates of global warming increase rapidly, identifying species at risk of decline due to climate impacts and the factors affecting this risk have become key challenges in ecology and conservation biology. Here we present a framework for assessing three components of climate-related risk for species: vulnerability, exposure and hazard. We used the relationship between the observed response of species to climate change and a set of intrinsic traits (e.g., weaning age) and extrinsic factors (e.g., precipitation seasonality within a species geographic range) to predict, respectively, the vulnerability and exposure of all data-sufficient terrestrial non-volant mammals (3953 species)...
October 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029897/worldwide-trends-in-body-mass-index-underweight-overweight-and-obesity-from-1975-to-2016-a-pooled-analysis-of-2416-population-based-measurement-studies-in-128%C3%A2-9-million-children-adolescents-and-adults
#19
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years...
October 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028681/polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-concentrations-in-human-breast-milk-specimens-worldwide
#20
Jiyan Zhang, Lu Chen, Lin Xiao, Fengxiu Ouyang, Qing-Ying Zhang, Zhong-Cheng Luo
BACKGROUND: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardants of ubiquitous presence in numerous consumer products. PBDEs may impair neurodevelopment in infants. There is a lack of meta-analysis on PBDE concentrations in human breast milk worldwide. We aimed to summarize global research data on PBDE concentrations in human breast milk specimens in recent years. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review through PubMed search of original studies on PBDE concentrations in human individual breast milk specimens collected in the general population over the recent 15-year period (2000-2015) worldwide...
October 2017: Epidemiology
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