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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457142/cross-country-association-of-press-freedom-and-lgbt-freedom-with-prevalence-of-persons-living-with-hiv-implication-for-global-strategy-against-hiv-aids
#1
Xinguang Chen, Amy L Elliott, Shuang Wang
Background: Human behaviors are affected by attitudes and beliefs, which in turn are shaped by higher-level values to which we have ascribed. In this study, we explore the relationship between two higher-level values, press freedom and LGBT freedom, and HIV infection with national data at the population level. Methods: Data were the number of persons living with HIV (PLWH, n = 35,468,911) for 148 countries during 2011-15, press freedom index (PFI) determined by the Reporters Without Borders, and LGBT freedom index (LGBT-FI) based on laws regulating same-sex relationships and expression...
2018: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457055/tuberculin-skin-test-conversion-and-primary-progressive-tuberculosis-disease-in-the-first-5-years-of-life-a-birth-cohort-study-from-cape-town-south-africa
#2
Leonardo Martinez, David M le Roux, Whitney Barnett, Attie Stadler, Mark P Nicol, Heather J Zar
Background: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality. However, the epidemiology and burden of tuberculosis in infancy is not well understood. We aimed to investigate tuberculin skin test conversion and tuberculosis in the Drakenstein Child Health study, a South African birth cohort in a community in which tuberculosis incidence is hyperendemic. Methods: In this prospective birth cohort study, we enrolled pregnant women older than 18 years who were between 20 and 28 weeks' gestation and who were attending antenatal care in a peri-urban, impoverished South African setting...
January 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456386/perception-of-patient-safety-culture-among-health-care-providers-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-south-india
#3
Adhisakthi Rajalatchumi, Thanjavur S Ravikumar, Kaliaperumal Muruganandham, Mahalakshmy Thulasingam, Kalaiselvi Selvaraj, Mahendra M Reddy, Balachander Jayaraman
Introduction: Patient safety is a global concern and is the most important domains of health-care quality. Medical error is a major patient safety concern, causing increase in health-care cost due to mortality, morbidity, or prolonged hospital stay. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the perceptions on patient safety culture among health-care providers (HCPs) at a public sector tertiary care hospital in South India. Settings and Design: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted 1 year after patient safety initiatives were implemented...
January 2018: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455678/cryptic-species-and-their-utilization-of-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-intermediate-hosts-in-the-acanthocephalan-polymorphus-minutus-sensu-lato-polymorphidae
#4
Maike Zittel, Daniel Grabner, Andre Wlecklik, Bernd Sures, Florian Leese, Horst Taraschewski, Alexander Martin Weigand
The bird-infecting acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus has been suggested to comprise different lineages or even cryptic species using different intermediate hosts. To clarify this open question, we investigated Polymorphus cf. minutus cystacanths originating from amphipod intermediate hosts from 27 sites in Germany and France. Parasites and hosts were identified using integrated datasets (COI and/or morphology for hosts and COI + ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 for parasites). Mitochondrial and nuclear data (ITS1) strongly support the existence of three cryptic species in Polymorphus cf...
February 19, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454518/use-of-a-new-global-indicator-for-vaccine-safety-surveillance-and-trends-in-adverse-events-following-immunization-reporting-2000-2015
#5
Jiayao Lei, Madhava Ram Balakrishnan, Jane F Gidudu, Patrick L F Zuber
Reporting of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) is a key component for functional vaccine safety monitoring system. The aim of our study is to document trends in the AEFI reporting ratio globally and across the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions. We describe the number of AEFI reports communicated each year through the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund Joint Reporting Form on Immunization from 2000 to 2015. The AEFI reporting ratios (annual AEFI reports per 100,000 surviving infants) were calculated to identify WHO countries (n = 191 in 2000 and n = 194 by 2015) that met a minimal reporting ratio of 10, a target set by the Global Vaccine Action Plan for vaccine safety monitoring as a proxy measure for a functional AEFI reporting system...
February 14, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454351/disparate-compensation-policies-for-research-related-injury-in-an-era-of-multinational-trials-a-case-study-of-brazil-russia-india-china-and-south-africa
#6
George Rugare Chingarande, Keymanthri Moodley
BACKGROUND: Compensation for research related injuries is a subject that is increasingly gaining traction in developing countries which are burgeoning destinations of multi center research. However, the existence of disparate compensation rules violates the ethical principle of fairness. The current paper presents a comparison of the policies of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS). METHODS: A systematic search of good clinical practice guidelines was conducted employing search strategies modeled in line with the recommendations of ADPTE Collaboration (2007)...
February 17, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451915/synchronic-historical-patterns-of-species-diversification-in-seasonal-aplocheiloid-killifishes-of-the-semi-arid-brazilian-caatinga
#7
Wilson J E M Costa, Pedro F Amorim, José Leonardo O Mattos
The Caatinga is the largest nucleus of seasonally dry tropical forests in South America, but little is known about the evolutionary history and biogeography of endemic organisms. Evolutionary diversification and distribution of terrestrial vertebrates endemic to the Caatinga have been explained by palaeogeographical Neogene episodes, mostly related to changes in the course of the São Francisco River, the largest river in the region. Our objective is to estimate the timing of divergence of two endemic groups of short-lived seasonal killifishes inhabiting all ecoregions of the Caatinga, testing the occurrence of synchronic events of spatial diversification in light of available data on regional palaeogeography...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451911/carbon-stock-of-moso-bamboo-phyllostachys-pubescens-forests-along-a-latitude-gradient-in-the-subtropical-region-of-china
#8
Mengjie Xu, Haibao Ji, Shunyao Zhuang
Latitude is an important factor that influences the carbon stock of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forests. Accurate estimation of the carbon stock of Moso bamboo forest can contribute to sufficient evaluation of forests in carbon sequestration worldwide. Nevertheless, the effect of latitude on the carbon stock of Moso bamboo remains unclear. In this study, a field survey with 36 plots of Moso bamboo forests along a latitude gradient was conducted to investigate carbon stock. Results showed that the diameter at breast height (DBH) of Moso bamboo culms increased from 8...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449287/global-influenza-hospital-based-surveillance-network-gihsn-results-of-surveillance-of-influenza-and-other-respiratory-viruses-in-hospitalised-patients-in-brazil-2015
#9
Sonia M Raboni, Fernanda E A Moura, Braulia C Caetano, Valéria M Avanzi, Luciane A Pereira, Meri B Nogueira, Luine R Vidal, Isabel C F Tavares, Florence K Pradel, Valentina S Picot, Joan Puig-Barbera, Marilda M Siqueira
BACKGROUND: Influenza-like illness occurs annually worldwide, with peak timing and severity varying seasonally, resulting in significant annual mortality. OBJECTIVES: There were three objectives: (1) to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of hospitalised patients with severe acute respiratory infection caused by influenza and other respiratory viruses (ORVs); (2) to report the influenza seasonality in the region and (3) to correlate findings of influenza circulation and immunisation time in Brazil...
February 15, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449105/comparing-cryptomarkets-for-drugs-a-characterisation-of-sellers-and-buyers-over-time
#10
Meropi Tzanetakis
INTRODUCTION: Cryptomarkets operating on the darknet are a recent phenomenon that has gained importance only over the last couple of years (Barratt, 2012). However, they now constitute an evolving part of illicit drug markets. Although selling and buying a variety of psychoactive substances on the Internet has a long history, new technological developments enable systematic drug trading on the net.These technological innovations on the Internet allow users to proceed with (illicit) drug transactions with almost completely anonymous identities and locations...
February 12, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444280/prevalence-of-dementia-in-mainland-china-hong-kong-and-taiwan-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Yu-Tzu Wu, Gemma-Claire Ali, Maëlenn Guerchet, A Matthew Prina, Kit Yee Chan, Martin Prince, Carol Brayne
Background: There are several existing systematic reviews of prevalence of dementia for mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, but several studies have been newly reported. The aim of this study is to update prevalence data in this region and test for variation across geographical areas and time periods using the new dataset. Methods: Twenty prevalence studies identified from World Alzheimer Report 2015 (January 2011-March 2015) and an updated search (March 2015-February 2017) were added to the original dataset (N = 76)...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442413/ongoing-changes-in-migration-phenology-and-winter-residency-at-bracken-bat-cave
#12
Phillip M Stepanian, Charlotte E Wainwright
Bats play an important role in agroecology and are effective bioindicators of environmental conditions, but little is known about their fundamental migration ecology, much less how these systems are responding to global change. Some of the world's largest bat populations occur during the summer in the south-central United States, when millions of pregnant females migrate from lower latitudes to give birth in communal maternity colonies. Despite a relatively large volume of research into these colonies, many fundamental questions regarding their abundance-including their intra- and interseasonal variability-remain unanswered, and even estimating the size of individual populations has been a long-running challenge...
February 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441490/zika-virus-outbreak-a-review-of-neurological-complications-diagnosis-and-treatment-options
#13
REVIEW
Veerendra Koppolu, T Shantha Raju
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted mainly by mosquitos of Aedes species. The virus has emerged in recent years and spread throughout North and South Americas. The recent outbreak of ZIKV started in Brazil (2015) has resulted in infections surpassing a million mark. Contrary to the previous beliefs that Zika causes mildly symptomatic infections fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, the recent outbreak associated ZIKV to serious neurological complications such as microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and eye infections...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440422/climate-for-women-in-climate-science-women-scientists-and-the-intergovernmental-panel-on-climate-change
#14
Miriam Gay-Antaki, Diana Liverman
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an authoritative and influential source of reports on climate change. The lead authors of IPCC reports include scientists from around the world, but questions have been raised about the dominance of specific disciplines in the report and the disproportionate number of scholars from the Global North. In this paper, we analyze the as-yet-unexamined issue of gender and IPCC authorship, looking at changes in gender balance over time and analyzing women's views about their experience and barriers to full participation, not only as women but also at the intersection of nationality, race, command of English, and discipline...
February 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440414/changing-character-of-rainfall-in-eastern-china-1951-2007
#15
Jesse A Day, Inez Fung, Weihan Liu
The topography and continental configuration of East Asia favor the year-round existence of storm tracks that extend thousands of kilometers from China into the northwestern Pacific Ocean, producing zonally elongated patterns of rainfall that we call "frontal rain events." In spring and early summer (known as "Meiyu Season"), frontal rainfall intensifies and shifts northward during a series of stages collectively known as the East Asian summer monsoon. Using a technique called the Frontal Rain Event Detection Algorithm, we create a daily catalog of all frontal rain events in east China during 1951-2007, quantify their attributes, and classify all rainfall on each day as either frontal, resulting from large-scale convergence, or nonfrontal, produced by local buoyancy, topography, or typhoons...
February 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440385/a-moment-for-compassion-emerging-rhetorics-in-end-of-life-care
#16
Shahaduz Zaman, Alexander Whitelaw, Naomi Richards, Hamilton Inbadas, David Clark
Compassion is an emotional response to the suffering of others. Once felt, it entails subsequent action to ameliorate their suffering. Recently, 'compassion' has become the flagship concept to be fostered in the delivery of end-of-life care, and a rallying call for social action and public health intervention. In this paper, we examine the emerging rhetorics of compassion as they relate to end-of-life care and offer a critique of the expanding discourse around it. We argue that, even where individuals 'possess' compassion or are 'trained' in it, there are difficulties for compassion to flow freely, particularly within Western society...
February 10, 2018: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439582/diversity-of-hiv-1-in-aquitaine-south-western-france-2012-2016
#17
Camille Tumiotto, Pantxika Bellecave, Patricia Recordon-Pinson, Alexi Groppi, Macha Nikolski, Herve J Fleury
We have estimated the prevalence of the different viral subtypes between January 2012 and December 2016 in HIV-1-infected patients of the Aquitaine region (south-west part of France) who had a routine HIV-1 genotype resistance testing (GRT) centralized at the Bordeaux University Hospital. GRT was performed on viral RNA (1784 samples) before treatment initiation or at failure whereas proviral DNA was used as template (1420 samples) in the event of a treatment switch in patients with viral load below 50 copies/mL...
February 14, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439233/open-data-sharing-and-the-global-south-who-benefits
#18
David Serwadda, Paul Ndebele, M Kate Grabowski, Francis Bajunirwe, Rhoda K Wanyenze
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438396/children-s-peer-violence-perpetration-and-victimization-prevalence-and-associated-factors-among-school-children-in-afghanistan
#19
Julienne Corboz, Osman Hemat, Wahid Siddiq, Rachel Jewkes
BACKGROUND: Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts children's physical and psychological health, and their education outcomes. There are few research studies on children's peer violence available in South Asian countries, particularly in Afghanistan. This paper describes the prevalence of children's peer violence perpetration and victimization and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan. METHODS: A total of 770 children were recruited into a baseline study conducted as part of an intervention evaluation in 11 schools (seven girls' and four boys' schools)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434532/reflections-on-the-ethics-of-participatory-visual-methods-to-engage-communities-in-global-health-research
#20
Gillian F Black, Alun Davies, Dalia Iskander, Mary Chambers
There is a growing body of literature describing conceptual frameworks for working with participatory visual methods (PVM). Through a global health lens, this paper examines some key themes within these frameworks. We reflect on our experiences of working with with an array of PVM to engage community members in Vietnam, Kenya, the Philippines and South Africa in biomedical research and public health. The participants that we have engaged in these processes live in under-resourced areas with high prevalence of communicable and non-communicable diseases...
2018: Global Bioethics, Problemi di Bioetica
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