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global south

Schalk J du Plooy, Akash Anandraj, Sarah White, Renzo Perissinotto, Derek R du Preez
Worldwide, cyanobacterial blooms are becoming more frequent, exacerbated by eutrophication, anthropogenic effects, and global climate change. Environmental factors play a direct role in photosynthesis of cyanobacteria and subsequent cellular changes, growth, and bloom dynamics. This study investigated the photosynthetic functioning of a persistent bloom-forming (18 months) cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp., isolated from Lake St Lucia, South Africa. DUAL-PAM fluorometric methods were used to observe physiological responses in Cyanothece sp...
April 12, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Holly R Hughes, Brandy J Russell, Eric C Mossel, John Kayiwa, Julius Lutwama, Amy J Lambert
Yellow fever (YF) is a reemerging public health threat with frequent outbreaks prompting large vaccination campaigns in endemic regions of Africa and South America. Specific detection of vaccine-related adverse events is resource-intensive, time-consuming and difficult to achieve during an outbreak. To address this, we have developed a highly transferable, rapid yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine-specific real-time RT-PCR assay that distinguishes vaccine from wild-type lineages. The assay utilizes a specific hydrolysis probe that includes locked nucleic acids to enhance specific discrimination of the YFV 17D vaccine strain genome...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Suman Chakrabarti, Nitya George, Moutushi Majumder, Neha Raykar, Samuel Scott
OBJECTIVE: Anaemia is a major contributor to the global disease burden and half of pregnant women in India were anaemic in 2016. The aetiology of anaemia is complex, yet anaemia determinants are frequently examined in isolation. We sought to explore how shifts in sociodemographic (wealth, age at pregnancy, education, open defecation, cooking fuel type, household size), programmatic (iron-folic acid tablet consumption, antenatal care visits) and dietary factors (intake of Fe, folic acid, vitamin B12, phytate) predicted changes in anaemia prevalence...
April 12, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
H A Adeola, A O Adefuye, S A Jimoh
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have alluded to a causal relationship between pathological entities and geographical variations, but there is a paucity of studies from Africa discussing the effect of latitudinal variation on orodigestive cancers in this region. It seems plausible that the burden of orodigestive cancer would differ as a result of variations in diet, cultural habits, climate and environmental conditions down the length of Africa. OBJECTIVES: To analyse regional variations in prevalence, incidence and mortality data in the global cancer statistics database (GLOBOCAN 2012) curated by the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Research on Cancer...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
J Gasson, M Blockman, B Willems
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of antibiotic prescribing practice in primary care in South Africa is limited. As 80% of human antibiotic use is in primary care, this knowledge is important in view of the global problem of antibiotic resistance. OBJECTIVES: To assess antibiotic prescribing in primary care facilities in the Cape Town Metro District and compare it with current national guidelines, and to assess the reasons why prescriptions were not adherent to guidelines. METHODS: A retrospective medical record review was performed in April/May 2016...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Jung Keun Park, Soo Lee, Ji Eun Lee, Kyung-Do Han, Ji Hyun Kim, Jin Hee Yoon, Suk Won Park, Yang-Hyun Kim, Kyung-Hwan Cho
Background: Globally, smoking is one of the biggest challenges in public health and is a known cause of several important diseases. Influenza is preventable via annual vaccination, which is the most effective and cost-beneficial method of prevention. However, subjects who smoke have some unhealthy behaviours such as alcohol, low physical activity, and low vaccination rate. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between smoking status and factors potentially related to the influenza vaccination coverage rate in the South Korean adult population...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
Andrew Gibbs, Kristin Dunkle, Laura Washington, Samantha Willan, Nwabisa Shai, Rachel Jewkes
Childhood traumas, in the form of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse and neglect, are globally widespread and highly prevalent, and associated with a range of subsequent poor health outcomes. This study sought to understand the relationship between physical, sexual and emotional childhood abuse and subsequent HIV-risk behaviours amongst young people (18-30) living in urban informal settlements in Durban, South Africa. Data came from self-completed questionnaires amongst 680 women and 677 men comprising the baseline of the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention trial...
2018: PloS One
Suzanna M Evans, Kingsley J Griffin, Ray A J Blick, Alistair G B Poore, Adriana Vergés
Seagrasses are in decline globally due to sustained pressure from coastal development, water quality declines and the ongoing threat from climate change. The result of this decline has been a change in coastal productivity, a reduction in critical fisheries habitat and increased erosion. Attempts to slow this decline have included legislative protection of habitat and direct restoration efforts. Monitoring the success of these approaches requires tracking changes in the abundance of seagrasses, but such monitoring is frequently conducted at either too coarse a spatial scale, or too infrequently to adequately detect changes within individual meadows...
2018: PloS One
Zerihun Tadele
A changing climate, a growing world population, and a reduction in arable land devoted to food production are all problems facing the world food security. The development of crops that can yield under uncertain and extreme climatic and soil growing conditions can play a key role in mitigating these problems. Major crops such as maize, rice, and wheat are responsible for a large proportion of global food production but many understudied crops (commonly known as "orphan crops") including millets, cassava, and cowpea feed millions of people in Asia, Africa, and South America and are already adapted to the local environments in which they are grown...
2018: Scientifica
Florence Malongane, Lyndy J McGaw, Hlengilizwe Nyoni, Fhatuwani N Mudau
Increased preference to herbal drinks has led to global interest in the use and production of different plant species for the preparation of various drink formulations. Medicinal properties derived from bioactive compounds remain the main driver of choice for herbal teas. This study determined the chemical variation in honeybush, rooibos, special and bush tea, profiled compounds responsible for such differences and compared their peak areas. Nuclear magnetic resonance and high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to determine compound variation and profiling...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
I E Cock, M I Selesho, S F van Vuuren
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Worldwide, more than three billion cases of parasitic disease are reported yearly and it is likely that this figure is substantially under-estimated. Approximately one in six people globally are estimated to be infected with at least one parasite species annually. In South Africa, the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium (bilharzia) and intestinal worms and helminths are particularly high, especially in children and in crowded or poorer rural communities with inadequate sanitation and nutritional status...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Shailee Fotedar, Vikas Fotedar
Green tobacco sickness (GTS) is the condition that mainly affects the tobacco harvesters. The condition is prevalent in Asian and South American tobacco harvesters. The present review was conducted to discuss the etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, and prevention of GTS. It is caused by the absorption of nicotine through the skin while the workers are engaged in handling the uncured tobacco leaves. The symptoms include nausea, vomiting, pallor, dizziness, headaches, increased perspiration, chills, abdominal pain, diarrhea, increased salivation, prostration, weakness, breathlessness, and occasional lowering of blood pressure...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Catherine Lane, Robert C Bailey, Chewe Luo, Nida Parks
Global experts recognize the need to transform conventional models of healthcare to create adolescent responsive health systems. As countries near 80% coverage of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for those aged 15-49 years, prioritization of younger men becomes critical to VMMC sustainability. This special supplement reporting 9 studies focusing on adolescent VMMC programming and services comes at a critical time. Eight articles report how well adolescents are reached with the World Health Organization's minimum package for comprehensive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Tanzania, analyzing motivation, counseling, wound healing, parental involvement, female peer support, quality of in-service communication, and providers' perceptions, and one presents models for achieving high VMMC coverage by 2021...
April 3, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Pallavi Deol, Jobin Jose Kattoor, Shubhankar Sircar, Munish Batra, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik
Rotavirus D (RV-D) is gaining importance as a cause of gastroenteritis and runting and stunting syndrome (RSS) in poultry. To date, information is scarce on the molecular analysis of RV-D isolates worldwide. In this study, the VP7 gene, a major constituent of outer capsid structural protein, from a RV-D isolate (UKD48) obtained from Uttarakhand state was analyzed. Phylogenetically, the RV-D isolate was found to be closely related to a South Korean strain, and the nucleotide percent identity varied from 80.4–84...
April 4, 2018: Pathogens
Thomas Pickett, Andrew A David
OBJECTIVE: The invasive mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis has established invasive populations across the globe and in some regions, have completely displaced native mussels through competitive exclusion. The objective of this study was to elucidate global connectivity patterns of M. galloprovincialis strictly using archived cytochrome c oxidase 1 sequence data obtained from public databases. Through exhaustive mining and the development of a systematic workflow, we compiled the most comprehensive global CO1 dataset for M...
April 3, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Renee Zahnow, Adam R Winstock, Larissa J Maier, Jay Levy, Jason Ferris
BACKGROUND: Research demonstrates gender related differences in drug-use practices and risk behaviours. Females' structural vulnerability stemming from traditional gender roles and gender-power relations may enhance their propensity to experience injecting related risk. In this paper we explore gender differences in injection practices at the initiation event, during the first year of injecting and in the most recent 12-month period, to inform more effective harm reduction strategies...
March 31, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Steven A Conrad, L Mikael Broman, Fabio S Taccone, Roberto Lorusso, Maximilian V Malfertheiner, Federico Pappalardo, Matteo Di Nardo, Mirko Belliato, Lorenzo Grazioli, Ryan P Barbaro, D Michael McMullan, Vincent Pellegrino, Daniel Brodie, Melania M Bembea, Eddy Fan, Malaika Mendonca, Rodrigo Diaz, Robert H Bartlett
Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) was developed more than 50 years ago initially with venoarterial (VA) and subsequently venovenous (VV) configurations. As the technique of ECLS has significantly improved and newer skills developed, complexity in terminology and advances in cannula design led to some misunderstanding and inconsistency in definitions both in clinical practice and scientific research. This document is a consensus of multispecialty international representatives of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization, including the North American, Latin American, European, South and West Asian, and Asian-Pacific chapters, imparting a global perspective on ECLS...
April 3, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Danielle O Moreira, Sky K Alibhai, Zoe C Jewell, Cristina J da Cunha, Jardel B Seibert, Andressa Gatti
Background: As a landscape architect and a major seed disperser, the lowland tapir ( Tapirus terrestris ) is an important indicator of the ecological health of certain habitats. Therefore, reliable data regarding tapir populations are fundamental in understanding ecosystem dynamics, including those associated with the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. Currently, many population monitoring studies use invasive tagging with radio or satellite/Global Positioning System (GPS) collars. These techniques can be costly and unreliable, and the immobilization required carries physiological risks that are undesirable particularly for threatened and elusive species such as the lowland tapir...
2018: PeerJ
Richard A Betts, Lorenzo Alfieri, Catherine Bradshaw, John Caesar, Luc Feyen, Pierre Friedlingstein, Laila Gohar, Aristeidis Koutroulis, Kirsty Lewis, Catherine Morfopoulos, Lamprini Papadimitriou, Katy J Richardson, Ioannis Tsanis, Klaus Wyser
We projected changes in weather extremes, hydrological impacts and vulnerability to food insecurity at global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C relative to pre-industrial, using a new global atmospheric general circulation model HadGEM3A-GA3.0 driven by patterns of sea-surface temperatures and sea ice from selected members of the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) ensemble, forced with the RCP8.5 concentration scenario. To provide more detailed representations of climate processes and impacts, the spatial resolution was N216 (approx...
May 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Giovanni Forzieri, Alessandra Bianchi, Filipe Batista E Silva, Mario A Marin Herrera, Antoine Leblois, Carlo Lavalle, Jeroen C J H Aerts, Luc Feyen
Extreme climatic events are likely to become more frequent owing to global warming. This may put additional stress on critical infrastructures with typically long life spans. However, little is known about the risks of multiple climate extremes on critical infrastructures at regional to continental scales. Here we show how single- and multi-hazard damage to energy, transport, industrial, and social critical infrastructures in Europe are likely to develop until the year 2100 under the influence of climate change...
January 2018: Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions
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