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global south

Naja I Beck, Issra Arif, Michelle F Paumier, Kathryn H Jacobsen
OBJECTIVES: The goals of this study were to identify the proportion of early adolescents in southern South America who were injured in the past year, to identify risk behaviours and other exposures associated with injuries, and to evaluate the most common types and causes of injury in this population. METHODS: We used complex samples analysis to examine cross-sectional data from more than 35,000 students from all four countries in South America that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) in 2012-2013...
October 6, 2016: Injury
Pierluca Vitale, Noemi Arena, Fabrizio Di Gregorio, Umberto Arena
The study investigates the potential environmental impacts related to the end-of-life phase of a residential building, identified in a multifamily dwelling of three levels, constructed in the South of Italy by utilizing conventional materials and up-to-date procedures. An attributional life cycle assessment has been utilised to quantify the contributions of each stage of the end-of-life phase, with a particular attention to the management of the demolition waste. The investigation takes into account the selective demolition, preliminary sorting and collection of main components of the building, together with the processes of sorting, recycling and/or disposal of main fractions of the demolition waste...
October 11, 2016: Waste Management
Adesola O Olumide, Emmanuel S Adebayo, Oladosu A Ojengbede
Photovoice is a participatory action research method in which people are given cameras and asked to take pictures of specific issues within their community. It is often used among marginalised populations. This method helps people capture specific issues within their community using photographs, critically discuss these issues within a group and present their findings to inform policies within their community. Photovoice has been used in developed countries and among adult participants; however, the extent to which it has been used in developing countries and among adolescent participants is yet to be extensively reported...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Akosua Sarpong Boakye-Ansah, Giuliana Ferrero, Maria Rusca, Pieter van der Zaag
Over past decades strategies for improving access to drinking water in cities of the Global South have mainly focused on increasing coverage, while water quality has often been overlooked. This paper focuses on drinking water quality in the centralized water supply network of Lilongwe, the capital of Malawi. It shows how microbial contamination of drinking water is unequally distributed to consumers in low-income (unplanned areas) and higher-income neighbourhoods (planned areas). Microbial contamination and residual disinfectant concentration were measured in 170 water samples collected from in-house taps in high-income areas and from kiosks and water storage facilities in low-income areas between November 2014 and January 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
(no author information available yet)
Avian influenza viruses affect both poultry production and public health. A subtype H5N8 (clade virus, following an outbreak in poultry in South Korea in January 2014, rapidly spread worldwide in 2014-2015. Our analysis of H5N8 viral sequences, epidemiological investigations, waterfowl migration, and poultry trade showed that long-distance migratory birds can play a major role in the global spread of avian influenza viruses. Further, we found that the hemagglutinin of clade virus was remarkably promiscuous, creating reassortants with multiple neuraminidase subtypes...
October 14, 2016: Science
Ludmila Juhásová, Ivica Králová-Hromadová, Eva Bazsalovicsová, Gabriel Minárik, Jan Štefka, Peter Mikulíček, Lenka Pálková, Margo Pybus
BACKGROUND: Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae) is an important liver parasite of a wide range of free-living and domestic ruminants; it represents a remarkable species due to its large spatial distribution, invasive character, and potential to colonize new territories. The present study provides patterns of population genetic structure and admixture in F. magna across all enzootic regions in North America and natural foci in Europe, and infers migratory routes of the parasite on both continents...
October 13, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Donald R Hopkins, Ernesto Ruiz-Tiben, Mark L Eberhard, Sharon L Roy, Adam J Weiss
Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) is caused by Dracunculus medinensis, a parasitic worm. Approximately 1 year after a person acquires infection from drinking contaminated water, the worm emerges through the skin, usually on the leg. Pain and secondary bacterial infection can cause temporary or permanent disability that disrupts work and schooling. The campaign to eradicate dracunculiasis worldwide began in 1980 at CDC. In 1986, the World Health Assembly called for dracunculiasis elimination (1), and the global Guinea Worm Eradication Program, led by the Carter Center and supported by the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), CDC, and other partners, began assisting ministries of health in countries where dracunculiasis was endemic...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Mohammad Y Yakoob, Renata Micha, Shahab Khatibzadeh, Gitanjali M Singh, Peilin Shi, Habibul Ahsan, Nagalla Balakrishna, Ginnela N V Brahmam, Yu Chen, Ashkan Afshin, Saman Fahimi, Goodarz Danaei, John W Powles, Majid Ezzati, Dariush Mozaffarian
OBJECTIVES: To quantify cardiovascular disease and diabetes deaths attributable to dietary and metabolic risks by country, age, sex, and time in South Asian countries. METHODS: We used the 2010 Global Burden of Disease national surveys to characterize risk factor levels by age and sex. We derived etiological effects of risk factors-disease endpoints, by age, from meta-analyses. We defined optimal levels. We combined these inputs with cause-specific mortality rates to compute population-attributable fractions as a percentage of total cardiometabolic deaths...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Rachel Kidman
BACKGROUND: Studies in South Asia suggest that child marriage is a strong risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV), but evidence outside the region is lacking. METHODS: This study uses standardized data from demographic and health surveys in 34 countries to test the hypothesis that young women (age 20-24) who married as children are at increased risk of past year physical and/or sexual IPV as compared with those women who married as adults. RESULTS: Globally, 9% of respondents were married before they turned 15; another 25% were married between the ages of 15 and 17...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Andrew L Skowno, Mark W Thompson, Jens Hiestermann, Brad Ripley, Adam G West, William J Bond
Increases in woody plant cover in savanna-grassland environments have been reported on globally for over 50 years and are generally perceived as a threat to rangeland productivity and biodiversity. Despite this few attempts have been made to estimate the extent of woodland increase at a national scale, principally due to technical constraints such as availability of appropriate remote sensing products. In this study we aim to measure the extent to which woodlands have replaced grasslands in South Africa's grassy biomes...
October 12, 2016: Global Change Biology
F Sara Ceccarelli, Brent D Opell, Charles R Haddad, Robert J Raven, Eduardo M Soto, Martín J Ramírez
Closely related organisms with transoceanic distributions have long been the focus of historical biogeography, prompting the question of whether long-distance dispersal, or tectonic-driven vicariance shaped their current distribution. Regarding the Southern Hemisphere continents, this question deals with the break-up of the Gondwanan landmass, which has also affected global wind and oceanic current patterns since the Miocene. With the advent of phylogenetic node age estimation and parametric bioinformatic advances, researchers have been able to disentangle historical evolutionary processes of taxa with greater accuracy...
2016: PloS One
Zoë M McLaren, Kathryn Schnippel, Alana Sharp
OBJECTIVE: Identifying those infected with tuberculosis (TB) is an important component of any strategy for reducing TB transmission and population prevalence. The Stop TB Global Partnership recently launched an initiative with a focus on key populations at greater risk for TB infection or poor clinical outcomes, due to housing and working conditions, incarceration, low household income, malnutrition, co-morbidities, exposure to tobacco and silica dust, or barriers to accessing medical care...
2016: PloS One
Francisca Mutapi
Schistosomiasis, commonly known as bilharzia, is a parasitic disease prevalent in Africa, Asia and South America. The majority of the cases occur in Sub-Saharan Africa where schistosomiasis is a major public health problem impacting on child health and development as well as adult health when infections become chronic. Control of schistosomiasis is by treatment of infected people with the antihelminthic drug praziquantel. Current schistosome control programmes advocated by the World Health Assembly in 2001 are aimed at regular school-based integrated deworming strategies in order to reduce development of severe morbidity, promote school health and to improve cognitive potential of children...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology
Mona Sarfaty, Jennifer Kreslake, Gary Ewart, Tee L Guidotti, George D Thurston, John R Balmes, Edward W Maibach
The American Thoracic Society (ATS), in collaboration with George Mason University, surveyed international members of the society to assess perceptions, clinical experiences, and preferred policy responses related to global climate change. A recruitment email was sent by the ATS President in October 2015 to 5,013 international members. Subsequently, four reminder emails were sent to nonrespondents. Responses were received from 489 members in 68 countries; the response rate was 9.8%. Half of respondents reported working in countries in Asia (25%) or Europe (25%), with the remainder in South America (18%), North America (Canada and Mexico) (18%), Australia or New Zealand (9%), and Africa (6%)...
October 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Kumiko Ninomiya
 Umami is a basic tastes, along with sweet, salty, bitter and sour, which is imparted by glutamate, one of the free amino acids in foods. Since its discovery of umami by a Japanese scientist in 1908, umami is now perceived globally a basic taste. Recent collaboration among chefs and researchers on traditional soup stocks showed a difference in taste profiles of Japanese soup stock 'dashi' and Western style soup stock. The free amino acids profile's in dashi and soup stock showed how Japanese have traditionally adopted a simple umami taste...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Salla Atkins, Sophie Marsden, Vishal Diwan, Merrick Zwarenstein
BACKGROUND: Research capacity enhancement is needed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) for improved health, wellbeing, and health systems' development. In this article, we discuss two capacity-building projects, the African/Asian Regional Capacity Development (ARCADE) in Health Systems and Services Research (HSSR) and Research on Social Determinants of Health (RSDH), implemented from 2011 to 2015. The two projects focussed on providing courses in HSSR and social determinants of health research, and on developing collaborations between universities, along with capacity in LMIC universities to manage research grant submissions, financing, and reporting...
2016: Global Health Action
Rosanna Färnman, Vishal Diwan, Merrick Zwarenstein, Salla Atkins
INTRODUCTION: Increasing efforts are being made globally on capacity building. North-south research partnerships have contributed significantly to enhancing the research capacity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the past few decades; however, a lack of skilled researchers to inform health policy development persists, particularly in LMICs. The EU FP7 funded African/Asian Regional Capacity Development (ARCADE) projects were multi-partner consortia aimed to develop a new generation of highly trained researchers from universities across the globe, focusing on global health-related subjects: health systems and services research and research on social determinants of health...
2016: Global Health Action
Salla Atkins, Dinansha Varshney, Elnta Meragia, Merrick Zwarenstein, Vishal Diwan
BACKGROUND: Capacity development in health research is high on the agenda of many low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE: The ARCADE projects, funded by the EU, have been working in Africa and Asia since 2011 in order to build postgraduate students' health research capacity. In this short communication, we describe one initiative in these projects, that of research clinics - online journal clubs connecting southern and northern students and experts. DESIGN: We describe the implementation of these research clinics together with student and participant experiences...
2016: Global Health Action
Myroslava Protsiv, Salla Atkins
BACKGROUND: Growing demand for Global Health (GH) training and the internationalisation of education requires innovative approaches to training. Blended learning (BL, a form of e-learning combining face-to-face or real-time interaction with computer-assisted learning) is a promising approach for increasing GH research capacity in low- to middle-income countries. Implementing BL, however, requires additional skills and efforts from lecturers. This paper explores lecturers' views and experiences of delivering BL courses within the context of two north-south collaborative research capacity building projects, ARCADE HSSR and ARCADE RSDH...
2016: Global Health Action
Minna Kumpu, Salla Atkins, Merrick Zwarenstein, Lungiswa Nkonki
BACKGROUND: Novel research training approaches are needed in global health, particularly in sub-Saharan African universities, to support strengthening of health systems and services. Blended learning (BL), combining face-to-face teaching with computer-based technologies, is also an accessible and flexible education method for teaching global health and related topics. When organised as inter-institutional collaboration, BL also has potential for sharing teaching resources. However, there is insufficient data on the costs of BL in higher education...
2016: Global Health Action
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