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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546652/chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-flexibly-use-introduced-species-for-nesting-and-bark-feeding-in-a-human-dominated-habitat
#1
Maureen S McCarthy, Jack D Lester, Craig B Stanford
As habitat loss and fragmentation place growing pressure on endangered nonhuman primate populations, researchers find increasing evidence for novel responses in behavior. In western Uganda between the Budongo and Bugoma Forests, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) inhabit a mosaic landscape comprising forest fragments, human settlements, and agricultural land. We recorded nests and feeding evidence of unhabituated chimpanzees in this region over a 12-mo period. We found extensive evidence of nesting in introduced tree species, including eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis), guava (Psidium guajava), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), and Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea)...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544671/a-common-thermal-niche-among-geographically-diverse-populations-of-the-widely-distributed-tree-species-eucalyptus-tereticornis-no-evidence-for-adaptation-to-climate-of-origin
#2
John E Drake, Angelica Vårhammar, Dushan Kumarathunge, Belinda E Medlyn, Sebastian Pfautsch, Peter B Reich, David T Tissue, Oula Ghannoum, Mark G Tjoelker
Impacts of climate warming depend on the degree to which plants are constrained by adaptation to their climate-of-origin or exhibit broad climatic suitability. We grew cool-origin, central and warm-origin provenances of Eucalyptus tereticornis in an array of common temperature environments from 18 to 35.5°C to determine if this widely distributed tree species consists of geographically contrasting provenances with differentiated and narrow thermal niches, or if provenances share a common thermal niche. The temperature responses of photosynthesis, respiration, and growth were equivalent across the three provenances, reflecting a common thermal niche despite a 2,200 km geographic distance and 13°C difference in mean annual temperature at seed origin...
May 23, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541536/acclimation-of-light-and-dark-respiration-to-experimental-and-seasonal-warming-are-mediated-by-changes-in-leaf-nitrogen-in-eucalyptus-globulus
#3
K Y Crous, G Wallin, O K Atkin, J Uddling, A Af Ekenstam
Quantifying the adjustments of leaf respiration in response to seasonal temperature variation and climate warming is crucial because carbon loss from vegetation is a large but uncertain part of the global carbon cycle. We grew fast-growing Eucalyptus globulus Labill. trees exposed to +3 °C warming and elevated CO2 in 10-m tall whole-tree chambers and measured the temperature responses of leaf mitochondrial respiration, both in light (RLight) and in darkness (RDark), over a 20-40 °C temperature range and during two different seasons...
May 24, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535596/leaf-litter-leachate-concentration-promotes-heterotrophy-in-freshwater-biofilms-understanding-consequences-of-water-scarcity
#4
Aingeru Martínez, John Stephen Kominoski, Aitor Larrañaga
Climate change is increasing overall temporal variability in precipitation resulting in a seasonal water availability, both increasing periods of flooding and water scarcity. During low water availability periods, the concentration of leachates from riparian vegetation increases, subsequently increasing dissolved organic matter (DOM). Moreover, shifts in riparian vegetation by land use changes impact the quantity and quality of DOM. Our objective was to test effects of increasing DOM concentrations from Eucalyptus grandis (one of the most cultivated tree species in the world) leachates on the metabolism (respiration, R; gross primary productivity, GPP) and extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs) of freshwater biofilms...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532390/comparative-genomics-of-eucalyptus-and-corymbia-reveals-low-rates-of-genome-structural-rearrangement
#5
J B Butler, R E Vaillancourt, B M Potts, D J Lee, G J King, A Baten, M Shepherd, J S Freeman
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest genome structure is largely conserved between Eucalyptus species. However, it is unknown if this conservation extends to more divergent eucalypt taxa. We performed comparative genomics between the eucalypt genera Eucalyptus and Corymbia. Our results will facilitate transfer of genomic information between these important taxa and provide further insights into the rate of structural change in tree genomes. RESULTS: We constructed three high density linkage maps for two Corymbia species (Corymbia citriodora subsp...
May 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514947/enhanced-chlorhexidine-skin-penetration-with-1-8-cineole
#6
A L Casey, T J Karpanen, B R Conway, T Worthington, P Nightingale, R Waters, T S J Elliott
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine (CHG) penetrates poorly into skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the depth of CHG skin permeation from solutions containing either 2% (w/v) CHG and 70% (v/v) isopropyl alcohol (IPA) or 2% (w/v) CHG, 70% (v/v) IPA and 2% (v/v) 1,8-cineole. METHODS: An ex-vivo study using Franz diffusion cells was carried out. Full thickness human skin was mounted onto the cells and a CHG solution, with or without 2% (v/v) 1,8-cineole was applied to the skin surface...
May 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512487/comparative-antimicrobial-efficacy-of-eucalyptus-galbie-and-myrtus-communis-l-extracts-chlorhexidine-and-sodium-hypochlorite-against-enterococcus-faecalis
#7
Mahdieh Nourzadeh, Arezu Amini, Farzaneh Fakoor, Maryam Raoof, Fariba Sharififar
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Eucalyptusgalbie and Myrtus communis L. methanolic extracts, chlorhexidine (CHX) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) as the predominant species isolated from infected root canals. METHODS AND MATERIALS: One hundred twenty mandibular premolars were randomly divided into 8 groups: Eucalyptusgalbie (E. galbie) 12.5 mg/mL, Myrtus communis L. (M. communis L...
2017: Iranian Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510252/assessing-non-additive-effects-in-gblup-model
#8
I C Vieira, J P R Dos Santos, L P M Pires, B M Lima, F M A Gonçalves, M Balestre
Understanding non-additive effects in the expression of quantitative traits is very important in genotype selection, especially in species where the commercial products are clones or hybrids. The use of molecular markers has allowed the study of non-additive genetic effects on a genomic level, in addition to a better understanding of its importance in quantitative traits. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of the GBLUP model in different genetic models and relationship matrices and their influence on the estimates of genetic parameters...
May 10, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500764/phylogeny-is-a-powerful-tool-for-predicting-plant-biomass-responses-to-nitrogen-enrichment
#9
Rachel C Wooliver, Zachary H Marion, Christopher R Peterson, Brad M Potts, John K Senior, Joseph K Bailey, Jennifer A Schweitzer
Increasing rates of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) enrichment to soils often lead to the dominance of nitrophilic plant species and reduce plant diversity in natural ecosystems. Yet, we lack a framework to predict which species will be winners or losers in soil N enrichment scenarios, a framework that current literature suggests should integrate plant phylogeny, functional trade-offs, and nutrient co-limitation. Using a controlled fertilization experiment, we quantified biomass responses to N enrichment for 23 forest tree species within the genus Eucalyptus that are native to Tasmania, Australia...
May 13, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500552/adsorption-of-terpenic-compounds-onto-organo-palygorskite
#10
Sana Ghrab, Mabrouk Eloussaief, Stéphanie Lambert, Samir Bouaziz, Mourad Benzina
Essential oils from aromatic plants are currently mentioned as suitable tools for excellent protection of stored grains from insect pest attacks. The present work aimed to study the processes of the synthesis insecticidal formulation with clay. The active terpenic compounds of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (Eg) were fixed in the palygorskite by adsorption process. Two sample types of palygorskites were used: raw and organo-palygorskite. The palygorskite clays were characterized by different physicochemical techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses, thermogravimetric analysis (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET), and scanning electron microscope (SEM)...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499078/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-lateral-organ-boundaries-domain-lbd-gene-family-in-eucalyptus-grandis-reveals-members-that-differentially-impact-secondary-growth
#11
Qiang Lu, Fenjuan Shao, Colleen Macmillan, Iain W Wilson, Karen van der Merwe, Steven G Hussey, Alexander A Myburg, Xiaomei Dong, Deyou Qiu
Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain (LBD) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors playing crucial roles in growth and development. However, the function of LBD proteins in Eucalyptus grandis remains largely unexplored. In the present study, LBD genes in E. grandis were identified and characterized using bioinformatics approaches. Gene expression patterns in various tissues and the transcriptional responses of EgLBDs to exogenous hormones were determined by qRT-PCR. Functions of the selected EgLBDs were studied by ectopically overexpressing in a hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa)...
May 12, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493951/properties-of-biochar-derived-from-wood-and-high-nutrient-biomasses-with-the-aim-of-agronomic-and-environmental-benefits
#12
Rimena R Domingues, Paulo F Trugilho, Carlos A Silva, Isabel Cristina N A de Melo, Leônidas C A Melo, Zuy M Magriotis, Miguel A Sánchez-Monedero
Biochar production and use are part of the modern agenda to recycle wastes, and to retain nutrients, pollutants, and heavy metals in the soil and to offset some greenhouse gas emissions. Biochars from wood (eucalyptus sawdust, pine bark), sugarcane bagasse, and substances rich in nutrients (coffee husk, chicken manure) produced at 350, 450 and 750°C were characterized to identify agronomic and environmental benefits, which may enhance soil quality. Biochars derived from wood and sugarcane have greater potential for improving C storage in tropical soils due to a higher aromatic character, high C concentration, low H/C ratio, and FTIR spectra features as compared to nutrient-rich biochars...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491943/data-on-spatiotemporal-land-use-land-cover-changes-in-peri-urban-addis-ababa-ethiopia-empirical-evidences-from-koye-feche-and-qilinto-peri-urban-areas
#13
Messay Mulugeta, Bechaye Tesfaye, Addis Ayano
Urban expansion is one of the key problems in Ethiopia resulting in displacement of the rural people inhabiting areas bordering the cities/towns. It is also resulting in land use land cover (LULC) changes affecting the livelihoods of the people and the ecosystems [1], [2]. The data presented in this article, therefore, shows the spatiotemporal LULC changes of peri-urban expansion areas known as Koye-Feche and Qilinto, around Addis Ababa City (the capital of Ethiopia). The data were generated from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images (with path/row numbers 168/054) by using ERDAS EMAGINE 2014 software...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490520/carbon-allocation-to-growth-and-storage-in-two-evergreen-species-of-contrasting-successional-status
#14
Frida I Piper, Paulina Sepúlveda, Angela Bustos-Salazar, Alejandra Zúñiga-Feest
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: A prevailing hypothesis in forest succession is that shade-tolerant species grow more slowly than shade-intolerant species, across light conditions, because they prioritize carbon (C) allocation to storage. We examined this hypothesis in a confamilial pair of species, including one of the fastest-growing tree species in the world (Eucalyptus globulus) and a shade-tolerant, slow-growing species (Luma apiculata). METHODS: Seedlings were subjected to one out of four combinations of light (high vs...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485107/low-doses-of-glyphosate-enhance-growth-co2-assimilation-stomatal-conductance-and-transpiration-in-sugarcane-and-eucalyptus
#15
Renan F Nascentes, Caio A Carbonari, Plinio S Simões, Marcela C Brunelli, Edivaldo D Velini, Stephen O Duke
INTRODUCTION: Sublethal doses of herbicides can enhance plant growth and stimulate other process, an effect known as hormesis. The magnitude of hormesis is dependent on the plant species, the herbicide and its dose, plant development stage, and environmental parameters. Glyphosate hormesis is well established, but relatively little is known of the mechanism of this phenomenon. The objective of this study was to determine if low doses of glyphosate that cause growth stimulation in sugarcane and eucalyptus concomitantly stimulate CO2 assimilation...
May 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484603/recognition-of-endophytic-trichoderma-species-by-leaf-cutting-ants-and-their-potential-in-a-trojan-horse-management-strategy
#16
Silma L Rocha, Harry C Evans, Vanessa L Jorge, Lucimar A O Cardoso, Fernanda S T Pereira, Fabiano B Rocha, Robert W Barreto, Adam G Hart, Simon L Elliot
Interactions between leaf-cutting ants, their fungal symbiont (Leucoagaricus) and the endophytic fungi within the vegetation they carry into their colonies are still poorly understood. If endophytes antagonistic to Leucoagaricus were found in plant material being carried by these ants, then this might indicate a potential mechanism for plants to defend themselves from leaf-cutter attack. In addition, it could offer possibilities for the management of these important Neotropical pests. Here, we show that, for Atta sexdens rubropilosa, there was a significantly greater incidence of Trichoderma species in the vegetation removed from the nests-and deposited around the entrances-than in that being transported into the nests...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481401/genetic-divergence-among-psidium-accessions-based-on-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-developed-for-eucalyptus
#17
S R Costa, C A F Santos
The goal of this study was to analyze the genetic divergence among Psidium species accessions based on SNPs developed for Eucalyptus. Fifty-three Psidium accessions, including 47 P. guajava, were genotyped with EUCHIP60K. The dendrogram similarity ranged from 0.58 to 1.00, with a cophenetic value of 0.97. Five groups were identified at dendrogram cut point of 0.7: the first with 44 guava accessions, the second with 1 guava accession, the third with 3 P. guineense accessions, the forth with 2 guava accessions, and the fifth with 3 P...
May 4, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480398/ethnobotanical-study-of-plants-used-to-treat-asthma-in-the-maritime-region-in-togo
#18
Holaly E Gbekley, Gnatoulma Katawa, Simplice D Karou, SKokou Anani, Tchacondo Tchadjobo, Yaovi Ameyapoh, Komlan Batawila, Jacques Simpore
BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in modern society and it is evident that its incidence and severity are increasing, however very little is known about the plants used in the management of the disease. This study therefore aimed to document the plants usage in the Togolese traditional medicine to treat asthma. METHODOLOGY: From January to June 2015, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire with traditional healers (THs) in the southern region of Togo...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476704/attenuation-of-palmitate-induced-insulin-resistance-in-muscle-cells-by-harmala-clove-and-river-red-gum
#19
Safina Ghaffar, Shabbir Khan Afridi, Meha Fatima Aftab, Munazza Murtaza, Saqib Ali Syed, Sabira Begum, Rizwana Sanaullah Waraich
The present study aimed to decipher the mechanism of action of selected anti-diabetic plants extracts on palmitic acid mediated insulin resistance in muscle cells. Our results showed that extract from Peganum harmala seeds, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Syzygium aromaticum leaves, showed significant antioxidant activity. We found that these extracts were able to affect stress signalling by reducing p-38 MAP kinase phosphorylation. They also reduced phosphorylation of substrate for insulin receptor (IRS) at serine residues and increased its phosphorylation at tyrosine residues and also enhanced PKB phosphorylation...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463536/effect-of-competitive-adsorption-on-zinc-removal-from-aqueous-solution-and-zinc-smelting-effluent-by-eucalyptus-leaf-based-magnetic-biosorbent
#20
Cheng Chen, Yankui Tang, Yuyang Liu, Yuanzhang Liang, Kaixuan Zhang, Shengye Wang, Yan Liang
The objectives of this study were to investigate the competitive sorption behaviors and mechanisms of heavy metals onto ELMB, a novel eucalyptus-leaf-based magnetic biosorbent, and to study the potential application of ELMB in the treatment of actual zinc smelting effluent after a necessary pretreatment process. ELMB and ELMB-metals systems were characterized using several techniques. Competitive sorption of Zn(2+) with Pb(2+), Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) onto ELMB was studied by batch experiments and the used sorbent was separated under a magnetic field...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
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