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Eisuke Kato, Kazuhiro Kawakami, Jun Kawabata
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are used for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus. Various synthetic inhibitors have been developed to date, and plants containing natural DPP-4 inhibitors have also been identified. Here, 13 plant samples were tested for their DPP-4 inhibitory activity. Macrocarpals A-C were isolated from Eucalyptus globulus through activity-guided fractionation and shown to be DPP-4 inhibitors. Of these, macrocarpal C showed the highest inhibitory activity, demonstrating an inhibition curve characterised by a pronounced increase in activity within a narrow concentration range...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Niket Yadav, Harish Chandra
Eucalyptus oil (EO) used in traditional medicine continues to prove useful for aroma therapy in respiratory ailments; however, there is a paucity of information on its mechanism of action and active components. In this direction, we investigated EO and its dominant constituent 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) using the murine lung alveolar macrophage (AM) cell line MH-S. In an LPS-induced AM inflammation model, pre-treatment with EO significantly reduced (P ≤0.01or 0.05) the pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1 (α and β), and NO, albeit at a variable rate and extent; 1,8-cineole diminished IL-1 and IL-6...
2017: PloS One
Mervat El-Hefny, Nader A Ashmawy, Mohamed Z M Salem, Abdelfattah Z M Salem
Three bacterial isolates were isolated from infected potato tubers showing soft and brown rots like symptoms as well as one isolate from infected peach tree showing crown gall symptom. The morphological, biochemical and molecular assays proved that bacterial isolates belonging to Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Ralstonia solanacearum, Dickeya spp. and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The acetone (AcE) and n-butanol (ButE) extracts of Callistemon viminalis flowers and essential oil from aerial parts of Conyza dioscoridis as well as ButE of Eucalyptus camaldulensis bark are evaluated at different concentrations against the growth of the isolated bacteria...
November 7, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Mona M Okba, Rania A El Gedaily, Rehab M Ashour
Eucalyptus is one of the most important and highly exploited genus in family Myrtaceae. An UPLC/PDA/ESI-qTOF-MS method was adopted to identify Eucalyptus sideroxylon Cunn. ex Woolls leaves phytoconstituents. Cytotoxicity of E. sideroxylon leaves phloroglucinol-rich extract (PGRE) on VERO cells was determined. The antiviral effect of PGRE against hepatitis A (HAV), herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-I), herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-II), coxsackie (CoxB4), and adenoviruses was in vitro evaluated using MTT assay (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Yoshinari Taguchi, Takanori Suzuki, Natsukaze Saito, Hiroshi Yokoyama, Masato Tanaka
The soft microcapsules containing Eucalyptus oil, Ubiquinone and the fine water droplets could be prepared with interfacial dehydration reaction between hydroxy methyl cellulose and tannic acid using the (W/O)/W emulsion. The diameters of the microcapsules and the content and the microencapsulation efficiency of the core materials were significantly affected by the revolution velocity (Nr1) to form the (W/O) emulsion and that (Nr2) to form the (W/O)/W emulsion and the lecithin concentration. The mean diameters of the inner water droplets and those of the microcapsules were proportional to Nr1(-1...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
Merryn G Smith, Rebecca E Miller, Stefan K Arndt, Sabine Kasel, Lauren T Bennett
Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) form a fundamental yet poorly quantified carbon pool in trees. Studies of NSC seasonality in forest trees have seldom measured whole-tree NSC stocks and allocation among organs, and are not representative of all tree functional types. Non-structural carbohydrate research has primarily focussed on broadleaf deciduous and coniferous evergreen trees with distinct growing seasons, while broadleaf evergreen trees remain under-studied despite their different growth phenology. We measured whole-tree NSC allocation and temporal variation in Eucalyptus obliqua L'Hér...
November 3, 2017: Tree Physiology
Maria Eguiluz, Priscila Mary Yuyama, Frank Guzman, Nureyev Ferreira Rodrigues, Rogerio Margis
Plinia trunciflora is a Brazilian native fruit tree from the Myrtaceae family, also known as jaboticaba. This species has great potential by its fruit production. Due to the high content of essential oils in their leaves and of anthocyanins in the fruits, there is also an increasing interest by the pharmaceutical industry. Nevertheless, there are few studies focusing on its molecular biology and genetic characterization. We herein report the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of P. trunciflora using high-throughput sequencing and compare it to other previously sequenced Myrtaceae genomes...
November 6, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Úrsula Fillat, Bernd Wicklein, Raquel Martín-Sampedro, David Ibarra, Eduardo Ruiz-Hitzky, Concepción Valencia, Andrés Sarrión, Eulogio Castro, María Eugenia Eugenio
Pruning operation in olive trees generates a large amount of biomass that is normally burned causing severe environmental concern. Therefore, the transformation of this agricultural residue into value-added products is imperative but still remains as a technological challenge. In this study, olive tree pruning (OTP) residue is evaluated for the first time to produce cellulose nanofibers (CNF). The OTP bleached pulp was treated by TEMPO-mediated oxidation and subsequent defibrillation in a microfluidizer. The resulting CNF was characterized and compared to CNF obtained from a commercial bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp using the same chemi-mechanical procedure...
January 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Aastha Tiwari, Preeti Singh, Pooja Jaitley, Sushant Sharma, Atul Prakash, Rajesh Mandil, Soumen Choudhury, Neeraj Kumar Gangwar, Satish K Garg
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bacterial endometritis is one of the major causes of reproductive disorders including infertility in farm animals. Antibiotics are generally used for treatment of such disorders but now a days residues of antibiotics are of great public health concern, therefore, phytoremediation is being considered as an alternative to use of antibiotics. AIM OF THE STUDY: Present study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of Eucalyptus robusta leaves methanolic extract against endometritis along with the possible mechanism of action especially targeting inflammatory biomarkers...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Bikram Pratap Banerjee, Simit Raval, Hao Zhai, Patrick Joseph Cullen
Recent advancements in hyperspectral remote sensing technology now provide improved diagnostic capabilities to assess vegetation health conditions. This paper uses a set of 13 vegetation health indices related to chlorophyll, xanthophyll, blue/green/red ratio and structure from airborne hyperspectral reflectance data collected around a derelict mining area in Yerranderie, New South Wales, Australia. The studied area has ten historic mine shafts with a legacy of heavy metals and acidic contamination in a pristine ecosystem now recognised as Great Blue Mountain World Heritage Area...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jérôme Muchembled, Caroline Deweer, Karin Sahmer, Patrice Halama
The antifungal activity of seven essential oils (eucalyptus, clove, mint, oregano, savory, tea tree, and thyme) was studied on Venturia inaequalis, the fungus responsible for apple scab. The composition of the essential oils was checked by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Each essential oil had its main compound. Liquid tests were performed to calculate the IC50 of essential oils as well as their majority compounds. The tests were made on two strains with different sensitivities to tebuconazole: S755, the sensitive strain, and rs552, the strain with reduced sensitivity...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lírio Cosme, Marcelo M Haro, Nelsa Maria P Guedes, Terezinha Maria C Della Lucia, Raul Narciso C Guedes
BACKGROUND: The importance and impact of invasive species are usually considered based on their economic implications, particularly their direct damage. The West Indian drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) is an example and concern in structural lumber, furniture, and other wood products. Despite its importance, its tropical wood preferences and wood physical characteristics contributing to resistance were not yet investigated. Here we developed wood testing units to allow the X-ray recording of termite colonization and then subsequently tested tropical wood resistance to the termite through free-choice and no-choice bioassays using these wood testing units...
November 2, 2017: Pest Management Science
Eduardo de Souza Araújo, Alexandre Santos Pimenta, Francisco M C Feijó, Renato Vinicius Oliveira Castro, Maíra Fasciotti, Thays V C Monteiro, Kássio Michel Gomes de Lima
AIMS: The present work aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of two types of pyroligneous acid (PA) obtained from slow pyrolysis of wood of Mimosa tenuiflora and of a hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wood wedges were carbonized on a heating rate of 1.25°C/min until 450°C. Pyrolysis smoke was trapped and condensed to yield liquid products. Crude pyrolysis liquids were bi-distilled under 5 mmHg vacuum yielding purified PA...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
M Rodopoulou, C Tananaki, M Dimou, V Liolios, D Kanelis, G Goras, A Thrasyvoulou
BACKGROUND: Pollen analysis of honey is the basic method for the determination of its botanical origin. However, the presence of over-represented pollen in honeys may lead the analysis to false results. This can be more severe if this pollen is present in unifloral under-represented honeys of commercial importance, for instance thyme honey. In this study, we investigated the abundance of over-represented pollen grains on several quality characteristics in honey samples. In particular, we mixed honeys characterised as over-represented, specifically chestnut and eucalyptus, with thyme honeys in different analogies; and we analysed the melissopalynological, organoleptic, physicochemical (water content, electrical conductivity, colour) and volatile characteristics of the blends...
October 30, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Dianini Hüttner Kringel, Mariana Dias Antunes, Bruna Klein, Rosane Lopes Crizel, Roger Wagner, Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira, Alvaro Renato Guerra Dias, Elessandra da Rosa Zavareze
The aim of this study was to produce and characterize inclusion complexes (IC) between β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and orange essential oil (OEO) or eucalyptus essential oil (EEO), and to compare these with their pure compounds and physical mixtures. The samples were evaluated by chemical composition, morphology, thermal stability, and volatile compounds by static headspace-gas chromatography (SH-GC). Comparing the free essential oil and physical mixture with the inclusion complex, of both essential oils (OEO and EEO), it was observed differences occurred in the chemical composition, thermal stability, and morphology...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Márcio L Aumond, Artur T de Araujo, Camila F de Oliveira Junkes, Márcia R de Almeida, Hélio N Matsuura, Fernanda de Costa, Arthur G Fett-Neto
The development of adventitious roots is affected by several factors, including the age of the cutting donor plant, which negatively affects rooting capacity. Eucalyptus globulus quickly loses rooting capacity of cuttings as the donor plant ages, although the molecular and biochemical mechanisms behind this process are still unclear. To better understand the bases of rooting competence loss in E. globulus, the time required for a significant decline in rhizogenic ability without exogenous auxin was determined in microcuttings derived from donor plants of different ages after sowing...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
M Soler, X Úbeda
Few studies to date have examined the effect of the high temperatures attained during wildfire events on the pigments present in forest foliage. Here, we seek to analyse the main photosynthetic pigments in the leaves of the oak, cork oak and eucalyptus following a wildfire. We also subject leaves of these last two species to a range of contact temperatures (100-500 °C) in the laboratory using a muffle furnace. The samples were left in the muffle for two hours at 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400 and 500 °C, in line with other soil study models (Úbeda et al...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Yoseph T Delelegn, Witoon Purahong, Amila Blazevic, Birru Yitaferu, Tesfaye Wubet, Hans Göransson, Douglas L Godbold
Land use change alters biodiversity and soil quality and thus affects ecosystem functions. This study investigated the effects of changes in land use on major soil quality indicators. Soil samples were taken from a depth of 0-10 cm (top soil) under four major land uses (cropland, grassland, area exclosure, eucalyptus plantation) with similar land use change histories for analysis, and soil from a nearby natural forest was used as a reference. Land use change from natural forest to cropland and grassland significantly decreased major soil quality indicators such as soil organic C (SOC), total soil N (TSN), molybdate-reactive bicarbonate-extractable P, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spore density, but compared to the cropland, change to area exclosure and eucalyptus plantation significantly improved SOC, TSN and soil aggregate stability (SAS)...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gilvano E Brondani, Leandro S DE Oliveira, Enéas R Konzen, André L L DA Silva, Jefferson L Costa
We addressed a major challenge in the in vitro clonal propagation of Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus urophylla and E. benthamii by using an ex vitro adventitious rooting strategy in a mini-incubator. Mini-incubators were placed in four environments for rooting. A shade house with no fogging system and a greenhouse with no ventilation but with a fogging environment had the best performance in terms of rooting, root growth and survival of microcuttings. Daily recording of the temperature within each mini-incubator in each environment allowed the verification of negative correlations between the maximum average temperature and the survival, adventitious rooting and root growth...
October 16, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Talitha C Santini, Yong G Peng
Globally, mineral processing activities produce an estimated 680 GL/yr of alkaline wastewater. Neutralizing pH and removing dissolved elements are the main goals of wastewater treatment prior to discharge. Here, we present the first study to explicitly evaluate the role of microbial communities in driving pH neutralization and element removal in alkaline wastewaters by fermentation of organic carbon, using bauxite residue leachate as a model system, and evaluate the effects of organic carbon complexity and microbial inoculum addition rates on the performance of these treatment systems at laboratory scale...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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