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Ângelo Luís, Ana Paula Duarte, Luísa Pereira, Fernanda Domingues
Background: The last decades have seen an increased awareness by the scientific community of the extent of resistance to conventional antibiotics, particularly with respect to the emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Additionally, natural antioxidants have received significant attention among food professionals and consumers because of their assumed safety and potential therapeutic value. The aim of this work was to assess the antioxidant activities of eight selected commercial essential oils (EOs), together with the evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing properties...
June 5, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Hao Wu, Xianbo Cheng, Yongfeng Zhu, Wei Zeng, Guiguang Chen, Zhiqun Liang
Xylanase is an important enzyme involved in degrading xylan. In this study, an extracellular cellulase-free, thermostable endo-xylanase which was produced by Streptomyces griseorubens LH-3 with bagasse semi-cellulose as a carbon source was purified and characterized. The xylanase was purified 4-fold with a recovery yield of 21.6% by precipitation with 25-55% (NH4)2SO4, Mono Q ion exchange chromatography and sephacryl S-200 HR gel filtration chromatography. It appeared as a monomeric protein on SDS-PAGE gel and had an apparent molecular weight of 45...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Nathalya Kosinski Lima, André Romualdo Lopes, Palimecio Gimenes Guerrero, Carlos Itsuo Yamamoto, Fabricio Augusto Hansel
This paper reports a full evaporation (FE) headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method for the determination of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in bio-oil (i.e. methanol, ethanol, acetone, acetic acid and furfural). The method uses a 4μL sample of bio-oil in a headspace vial (ca. 20mL). Complete evaporation of the compounds was achieved after seven minutes at 90°C. The method showed good precision and accuracy for methanol, ethanol, acetone and acetic acid. The recovery of furfural was low (74.3%)...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
Samia Saleem, Bilal Ahmed, Mohammad Saghir Khan, Majed Al-Shaeri, Javed Musarrat
Nanotechnology based therapeutics has emerged as a promising approach for augmenting the activity of existing antimicrobials due to the unique physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs). Nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) have been suggested as prospective antibacterial and antitumor agent. In this study, NiO-NPs have been synthesized by a green approach using Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract and assessed for their bactericidal activity. The morphology and purity of synthesized NiO-NPs determined through various spectroscopic techniques like UV-Visible, FT-IR, XRD, EDX and electron microscopy differed considerably...
September 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
R T Resende, M D V Resende, F F Silva, C F Azevedo, E K Takahashi, O B Silva-Junior, D Grattapaglia
We report a genomic selection (GS) study of growth and wood quality traits in an outbred F2 hybrid Eucalyptus population (n=768) using high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Going beyond previous reports in forest trees, models were developed for different selection targets, namely, families, individuals within families and individuals across the entire population using a genomic model including dominance. To provide a more breeder-intelligible assessment of the performance of GS we calculated the expected response as the percentage gain over the population average expected genetic value (EGV) for different proportions of genomically selected individuals, using a rigorous cross-validation (CV) scheme that removed relatedness between training and validation sets...
October 2017: Heredity
Yun Li, Yu-Ling Xu, Yan-Ni Lai, Shang-Hui Liao, Ni Liu, Pei-Ping Xu
BACKGROUND: Vaccination is the most efficient means for protection against influenza. However, the various vaccines have low efficacy to protect against pandemic strains because of antigenic drift and recombination of influenza virus. Adjuvant therapy is one of the attempts to improve influenza vaccine effective cross-protection against influenza virus infection. Our previous study confirmed that 1,8-cineole inhibits the NF-κB, reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines, and relieves the pathological changes of viral pneumonia in mice infected with influenza virus...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Freya Richardson, Timothy J Brodribb, Gregory J Jordan, David Whitehead
The occurrence of amphistomatic leaves (stomata on both surfaces) versus hypostomatic leaves (stomata limited to the lower or abaxial surface) has strong associations with environment. Amphistomy provides the advantage of higher conductance of CO2 for photosynthesis, however, unless the stomata on both leaf surfaces can be independently controlled in response to environmental cues, amphistomy may lead to inefficient gas exchange. While previous studies have found evidence that stomata can operate independently across and between surfaces of dorsiventral leaves, we investigate whether an independent stomatal response can be induced for isobilateral leaves by largely natural conditions...
July 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
Weiqi Wei, Shubin Wu
Enhancement of eucalyptus enzymatic saccharification by synergy of ZnCl2 hydrate pretreatment and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated in this study. The result showed that the ZnCl2 hydrate pretreatment could not only selectively extract up to ∼100% of the hemicellulose from eucalyptus, but also convert portion of high crystalline cellulose I into low crystalline cellulose II, which both beneficial for enhancing subsequent pretreated solids enzymatic saccharification. The addition of BSA into enzymatic hydrolysis step could significantly promote the glucose release from pretreated solids, especially, under the low enzyme loading...
August 24, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Lena Barra, Paul Barac, Gabriele M König, Max Crüsemann, Jeroen S Dickschat
The volatiles emitted by five fungal strains previously isolated from the marine sponge Callyspongia cf. flammea were captured with a closed-loop stripping apparatus (CLSA) and analyzed by GC-MS. Besides several widespread compounds, a series of metabolites with interesting bioactivities were found, including the quorum sensing inhibitor protoanemonin, the fungal phytotoxin 3,4-dimethylpentan-4-olide, and the insect attractant 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene. In addition, the aromatic polyketides isotorquatone and chartabomone that are both known from Eucalyptus and a new O-desmethyl derivative were identified...
September 13, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Rebecca Jordan, Ary A Hoffmann, Shannon K Dillon, Suzanne M Prober
Understanding whether populations can adapt in situ or whether interventions are required is of key importance for biodiversity management under climate change. Landscape genomics is becoming an increasingly important and powerful tool for rapid assessments of climate adaptation, especially in long-lived species such as trees. We investigated climate adaptation in Eucalyptus microcarpa using the DArTseq genomic approach. A combination of FST outlier and environmental association analyses were performed using > 4,200 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 26 populations spanning climate gradients in south-eastern Australia...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Winanda Himaman, Paweena Suksaard, Ratchanee Mingma, Atsuko Matsumoto, Kannika Duangmal
A novel actinomycete, designated strain EURKPP3H10T, was isolated from surface-sterilized roots of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., collected from Kamphaengphet Silvicultural Research Station, Kamphaengphet province, Thailand. The taxonomic position of strain EURKPP3H10T was studied using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic evaluation based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain EURKPP3H10T belongs to the genus Cryptosporangium, with the highest sequence similarity to Cryptosporangium cibodasense LIPI11-2-Ac046T (99...
August 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Jie Luo, Limei Cai, Shihua Qi, Jian Wu, Xiaowen Sophie Gu
Multiple techniques for soil decontamination were combined to enhance the phytoremediation efficiency of Eucalyptus globulese and alleviate the corresponding environmental risks. The approach constituted of chelating agent using, electrokinetic remediation, plant hormone foliar application and phytoremediation was designed to remediate multi-metal contaminated soils from a notorious e-waste recycling town. The decontamination ability of E. globulese increased from 1.35, 58.47 and 119.18 mg per plant for Cd, Pb and Cu in planting controls to 7...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Aidan A G Hall, Scott N Johnson, James M Cook, Markus Riegler
Insect herbivore outbreaks frequently occur and this may be due to factors that restrict top-down control by parasitoids, for example, host-parasitoid asynchrony, hyperparasitisation, resource limitation and climate. Few studies have examined host-parasitoid density relationships during an insect herbivore outbreak in a natural ecosystem with diverse parasitoids. We studied parasitisation patterns of Cardiaspina psyllids during an outbreak in a Eucalyptus woodland. First, we established the trophic roles of the parasitoids through a species-specific multiplex PCR approach on mummies from which parasitoids emerged...
August 26, 2017: Insect Science
E B Castro, O C Zanardi, J Garlet, R Ochoa, R J F Feres
We verified infestation of Oligonychus milleri (McGregor) on plantations of Pinus caribaea (Pinaceae) and of Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) on plantations of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtaceae) in State of Rondônia, Northern region of Brazil. This represents the first record of O. milleri in Brazil. Oligonychus ununguis was recorded previously, on cypress. The damage caused by these two spider mites in the plantations is described herein.
August 24, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
Patrick B Finnerty, Rebecca S Stutz, Catherine J Price, Peter B Banks, Clare McArthur
Searching for food is the first critical stage of foraging, and search efficiency is enhanced when foragers use cues from foods they seek. Yet we know little about food cues used by one major group of mammals, the herbivores, a highly-interactive component of most ecosystems. How herbivores forage and what disrupts this process both have significant ecological and evolutionary consequences beyond the animals themselves. Our aim was to investigate how free-ranging mammalian herbivores exploit leaf odour cues to find food plants amongst a natural and complex vegetation community...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
S Pupin, L N Rosse, I C G Souza, J Cambuim, C L Marino, M L T Moraes, A M Sebbenn
Eucalyptus urophylla is an important species in the Brazilian forest sector due to its rapid growth rates and resistance to disease. The aim of this study was to verify Mendelian inheritance, genetic linkage, and genotypic disequilibrium for 15 microsatellite loci, with the goal of producing a robust set of genetic markers. Mendelian inheritance and genetic linkage analyses were carried out using genotypes from maternal trees, and their open-pollinated seeds and genotypic disequilibrium were assessed using adult trees...
August 17, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
H B Oliveira, M I A Silva, F R Mesquita
This study aimed to evaluate the supplementation levels of an exogenous alpha-amylase in broilers diets and compare two indicators in determining the diets energy. The experiment was divided into two parallel evaluations, being one of performance and the other of metabolism. In performance assay, 1,700 one-day-old Cobb-500 male chicks were used. The animals were distributed in 50 experimental plots and evaluated five treatments with ten replicates in a completely randomized design (CRD). The treatments were: a positive control (PC), a negative control (NC) and three alpha-amylase supplementation levels 200, 400 and 600 g/t, and the NC was formulated with 50 and 90 kcal of energy reduction in relation to the PC to the phases from 1 to 21 days and from 22 to 42 days, respectively...
August 17, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Merih Şimşek, Reşat Duman
BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine belongs to a group of medicines called antiseptic antibacterial agents. Chlorhexidine is commonly used for the care and clean off the skin, hands, and wounds. In recent years, medicinal and aromatic plants have been used for prevention of disease, maintaining health, and improving disease in traditional and modern medicine as a medicament. According to recent research, cineole is the isolated active agent of eucalyptus oil and possesses antimicrobial activity...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
Jiraporn Yongpisanphop, Sandhya Babel, Maleeya Kruatrachue, Prayad Pokethitiyook
Using trees as phytoremediators has become a powerful tool to remediate lead from contaminated environments. This study aims to identify potential candidates among fast-growing trees by comparing their ability to tolerate and accumulate Pb. Cuttings from Acacia mangium, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Senna siamea were cultured in 25% modified Hoagland's solutions supplemented with 10, 30, and 50 mg/L Pb for 15 days. Lead concentrations were determined by a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer...
August 20, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Delne Domingos da Silva Parize, Juliano Elvis de Oliveira, Tina Williams, Delilah Wood, Roberto de Jesús Avena-Bustillos, Artur Piotr Klamczynski, Gregory Melvin Glenn, José Manoel Marconcini, Luiz Henrique Capparelli Mattoso
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were extracted from Eucalyptus kraft pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, and esterified with maleic anhydride (CNCMA). The incorporation of sulfate ester groups on the cellulose surface resulted in higher stability of the nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions and lower thermal stability. Then, PLA/CNC and PLA/CNCMA nanocomposites were successfully obtained by solution blow spinning (SBS) using dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as solvent. CNC and CNCMA indicated to be acting both as nucleating agents or growth inhibitors of PLA crystal and tends to favor the formation of PLA crystals of higher stability...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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