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Steven H Strauss, Kristin N Jones, Haiwei Lu, Joshua D Petit, Amy L Klocko, Matthew G Betts, Berry J Brosi, Robert J Fletcher, Mark D Needham
1000 I. 1000 II. 1001 III. 1014 IV. 1015 V. 1016 1016 References 1016 SUMMARY: Genetic engineering (GE) can be used to improve forest plantation productivity and tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, gene flow from GE forest plantations is a large source of ecological, social and legal controversy. The use of genetic technologies to mitigate or prevent gene flow has been discussed widely and should be technically feasible in a variety of plantation taxa. However, potential ecological effects of such modifications, and their social acceptability, are not well understood...
February 2017: New Phytologist
Rafael Tassinari Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela Resende, Fabyano Fonseca Silva, Camila Ferreira Azevedo, Elizabete Keiko Takahashi, Orzenil Bonfim Silva-Junior, Dario Grattapaglia
Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided valuable insights into the decoding of the relationships between sequence variation and complex phenotypes, they have explained little heritability. Regional heritability mapping (RHM) provides heritability estimates for genomic segments containing both common and rare allelic effects that individually contribute too little variance to be detected by GWAS. We carried out GWAS and RHM for seven growth, wood and disease resistance traits in a breeding population of 768 Eucalyptus hybrid trees using EuCHIP60K...
February 2017: New Phytologist
M Margiotta, S Bella, F Buffa, V Caleca, I Floris, V Giorno, G Lo Verde, C Rapisarda, R Sasso, P Suma, F Tortorici, S Laudonia
Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) is an invasive psyllid introduced into the Mediterranean area, where it affects several species of Eucalyptus Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is a specialized parasitoid of this psyllid that was accidentally introduced into Italy in 2011. We developed a model of this host-parasitoid system that accounts for the influence of environmental conditions on the G. brimblecombei population dynamics and P. bliteus parasitism rates in the natural ecosystem...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Adam B McKiernan, Brad M Potts, Mark J Hovenden, Timothy J Brodribb, Noel W Davies, Thomas Rodemann, Scott A M McAdam, Julianne M O'Reilly-Wapstra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Drought leading to soil water deficit can have severe impacts on plants. Water deficit may lead to plant water stress and affect growth and chemical traits. Plant secondary metabolite (PSM) responses to water deficit vary between compounds and studies, with inconsistent reports of changes to PSM concentrations even within a single species. This disparity may result from experimental water deficit variation among studies, and so multiple water deficit treatments are used to fully assess PSM responses in a single species...
January 10, 2017: Annals of Botany
Xiaozhen Ye, Hongyi Liu, Yajie Jin, Mengmeng Guo, Aizhen Huang, Quanzhu Chen, Wenshuo Guo, Feiping Zhang, Lizhen Feng
Eucalyptus leaf blight caused by Calonectria spp. is a serious disease in Eucalyptus seedling and plantations. However, the molecular mechanisms of the infection process and pathogenesis of Calonectria to Eucalyptus is not well-studied. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptomes of C. pseudoreteaudii at three stages of Eucalyptus leaf infection, and in mycelium grown in potato dextrose broth using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. We identified 161 differentially expressed genes between C. pseudoreteaudii from leaf and mycelium grown in potato dextrose broth...
2017: PloS One
Robert E Sharwood, Kristine Y Crous, Spencer M Whitney, David S Ellsworth, Oula Ghannoum
Leaf-level photosynthetic processes and their environmental dependencies are critical for estimating CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. These estimates use biochemical-based models of photosynthesis that require accurate Rubisco kinetics. We investigated the effects of canopy position, elevated atmospheric CO2 [eC; ambient CO2 (aC)+240 ppm] and elevated air temperature (eT; ambient temperature (aT)+3 °C) on Rubisco content and activity together with the relationship between leaf N and V cmax (maximal Rubisco carboxylation rate) of 7 m tall, soil-grown Eucalyptus globulus trees...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
De-Zhan Ye, Xi Zhang, Shaojin Gu, Yingshan Zhou, Weilin Xu
The nonisothermal crystallinization kinetic was performed on Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) mixed with eucalyptus lignosulfonate calcuim (HLS) as the biobased thermal stabilizer, which was systematically analyzed based on Jeziorny model, Ozawa equation and the Mo method. The results indicated that the entire crystallization process took place through two main stages involving the primary and secondary crystallization processes. The Mo method described nonisothermal crystallization behavior well. Based on the results of the half time for completing crystallization, kc value in Jeziorny model, F(T) value in Mo method and crystallization activation energy, it was concluded that low loading of HLS accelerated PVA crystallization process, however, the growth rate of PVA crystallization was impeded at high content of HLS...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Javier Agusti
Secondary xylem (wood) accounts for a large proportion of the terrestrial biomass. Understanding how secondary xylem develops and proliferates is a challenge to enhance our capacities for biomass production. Recent reports revealed that the plant hormone strigolactone is key for the development of secondary xylem. Here, I describe a protocol for strigolactone-mediated stimulation of secondary xylem proliferation in stems. The protocol has been tested in Arabidopsis and Eucalyptus and can be adjusted to other species...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Bernard Fungo, Johannes Lehmann, Karsten Kalbitz, Margaret Thionģo, Irene Okeyo, Moses Tenywa, Henry Neufeldt
Biochar (or pyrogenic organic matter) is increasingly proposed as a soil amendment for improving fertility, carbon sequestration and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, little is known about its effects on aggregation, an important indicator of soil quality and functioning. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Eucalyptus wood biochar (B, pyrolyzed at 550 °C, at 0 or 2.5 t ha(-1)), green manure (T, from Tithonia diversifolia at 0, 2.5 or 5.0 t ha(-1)) and mineral nitrogen (U, urea, at 0, or 120 kg N ha(-1)) on soil respiration, aggregate size distribution and SOC in these aggregate size fractions in a 2-year field experiment on a low-fertility Ultisol in western Kenya under conventional hand-hoe tillage...
January 2017: Soil & Tillage Research
Joseph T Miller, Cang Hui, Andrew Thornhill, Laure Gallien, Johannes J Le Roux, David M Richardson
For a plant species to become invasive it has to progress along the introduction-naturalization-invasion (INI) continuum which reflects the joint direction of niche breadth. Identification of traits that correlate with and drive species invasiveness along the continuum is a major focus of invasion biology. If invasiveness is underlain by heritable traits, and if such traits are phylogenetically conserved, then we would expect non-native species with different introduction status (i.e. position along the INI continuum) to show phylogenetic signal...
December 30, 2016: AoB Plants
Mona Sharififard, Farhad Safdari, Amir Siahpoush, Hamid Kassiri
BACKGROUND: Essential oils, as secondary plant compounds, present a safer alternative to conventional insecticides in insect control programs. So five essential oils including eucalyptus, mint, yarrow, oregano and rosemary oils were evaluated against the brown-banded cockroach Supella longipalpa. METHODS: Evaluation was done against the 3(rd) and 4(th) instar nymphs using three bioassay methods; continuous contact toxicity, fumigant toxicity and repellent activity...
December 2016: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
Eri Shibata, Izumi Shindo, Etsuko Miyakawa, Nobuhide Kido
Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are cautious animals, making supplemental feeding of neonates challenging because of disturbances to the normal routine. However, supplemental feeding is beneficial in improving juvenile nutrition using less formula than required for hand-rearing, and allowing maternal bonding to continue through suckling. In this study, two neonatal koalas, delivered by the same mother in 2 years, exhibited insufficient growth post-emergence from the pouch; supplemental feeding was therefore initiated...
December 27, 2016: Zoo Biology
Y Mendoza, S Diaz-Cetti, G Ramallo, E Santos, M Porrini, C Invernizzi
: In Uruguay, colonies of honey bees moving to Eucalyptus grandis plantation in autumn habitually become infected with the microsporidian Nosema ceranae, a parasite that attacks the digestive system of bees. Beekeepers attributed to N. ceranae depopulation of the colonies that often occurs at the end of the blooming period, and many use the antibiotic fumagillin to reduce the level of infection. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of four different fumagillin treatments and determine how this antibiotic affects the strength of the colonies during the winter season...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
María T Cieschi, Ana Benedicto, Lourdes Hernández-Apaolaza, Juan J Lucena
Zn-Lignosulfonates (LS) fertilizers are used as an eco-friendly alternative to chelate formulations. The mechanisms of Zn release in the rhizosphere by both types of products are compared. The ability to provide Zn to Phaseolus vulgaris L of non-modified and chemically modified ZnLS and ZnEDTA is compared in a hydroponic assay. Stable isotope (67)Zn was used to study Zn source (fertilizer, ZnFer, or native, ZnNat) uptake and distribution in plants in two soil pot experiments. ZnEDTA was the best treatment to provide both ZnFer and ZnNat to navy bean plants...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lalthazuali, Nisha Mathew
Essential oils from fresh leaves of four aromatic plants viz., Ocimum sanctum, Mentha piperita, Eucalyptus globulus and Plectranthus amboinicus were extracted by hydrodistillation. The test solutions were prepared as 20% essential oil in ethanol and positive control as 20% DEET in ethanol. Essential oil blend was prepared as 5% concentration. Nulliparous, 3-5-day-old female adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used for repellency screening as per ICMR protocol. The study showed that the repellency of 20% essential oil of O...
December 24, 2016: Parasitology Research
Casparus J Crous, Treena I Burgess, Johannes J Le Roux, David M Richardson, Bernard Slippers, Michael J Wingfield
Non-native trees have become dominant components of many landscapes, including urban ecosystems, commercial forestry plantations, fruit orchards, and as invasives in natural ecosystems. Often, these trees have been separated from their natural enemies (i.e. insects and pathogens) leading to ecological disequilibrium, that is, the immediate breakdown of historically co-evolved interactions once introduced into novel environments. Long-established, non-native tree plantations provide useful experiments to explore the dimensions of such ecological disequilibria...
December 23, 2016: AoB Plants
Cheng Cai, Xueqing Qiu, Meijun Zeng, Meilu Lin, Xuliang Lin, Hongming Lou, Xuejuan Zhan, Yuxia Pang, Jinhao Huang, Lingshan Xie
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is an antifouling polymer to resist the adsorption of protein on solid surface. Effects of PVP on the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocelluloses and its mechanism were studied. Adding 1g/L of PVP8000, the enzymatic digestibility of eucalyptus pretreated by dilute acid (Eu-DA) was increased from 28.9% to 73.4%, which is stronger than the classic additives, such as PEG, Tween and bovine serum albumin. Compared with PEG4600, the adsorption of PVP8000 on lignin was larger, and the adsorption layer was more stable and hydrophilic...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
Carlos E Costa, Aloia Romaní, Joana T Cunha, Björn Johansson, Lucília Domingues
In this work, four robust yeast chassis isolated from industrial environments were engineered with the same xylose metabolic pathway. The recombinant strains were physiologically characterized in synthetic xylose and xylose-glucose medium, on non-detoxified hemicellulosic hydrolysates of fast-growing hardwoods (Eucalyptus and Paulownia) and agricultural residues (corn cob and wheat straw) and on Eucalyptus hydrolysate at different temperatures. Results show that the co-consumption of xylose-glucose was dependent on the yeast background...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
M Shivakumar, K L Nagashree, S Yallappa, S Manjappa, K S Manjunath, M S Dharmaprakash
Herein, we described for the first time, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using pre-hydrolyzed liquor of Eucalyptus wood under ambient conditions. The pre-hydrolyzed liquor containing a high amount of metabolites such as polyphenols, hemicelluloses and its derivatives are mainly assisted for the reduction and stabilization process of Ag+ ions to AgNPs. The formation of AgNPs is monitored by recording the UV-vis spectrophotometer for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak observed at ∼415nm. The intensity of SPR increased linearly with increasing the reaction time at ambient condition...
February 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
L Akhvlediani, T Koiava, L Lomtadze, M Joxadze, L Msxiladze, D Berashvili, A Bakuridze
The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of individual medicines and containing sum of the phyto-extracts against the bacteria causing nosocomial infections in compare to antibiotics. In the investigation were involved four strains of gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter spp. Each object was investigated on antibiotic resistance using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method on 22 types of antibiotics. The objects of the study were: Sanguinarine, Chelerythrine and Berberine hydrochloride (of lab quality); essential oils and aromatic waters of Eucalyptus, Salvia and Lavanda...
November 2016: Georgian Medical News
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