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Xiudong Zhang, Yuanyuan Bai, Xuefei Cao, Runcang Sun
Herein, an efficient biphasic pretreatment process was developed to improve the production of furfural (FF) and glucose from Eucalyptus. The influence of formic acid and NaCl on FF production from xylose in water and various biphasic systems was investigated. Results showed that the addition of formic acid and NaCl significantly promoted the FF yield, and the biphasic system of MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone)/water exhibited the best performance for FF production. Then the Eucalyptus was pretreated in the MIBK/water system, and a maximum FF yield of 82...
April 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Siripireddy Balaji, Badal Kumar Mandal, Shivendu Ranjan, Nandita Dasgupta, Ramalingam Chidambaram
Bioactivity of nanomaterials largely depends on its size, shape and crystalline nature. In this work, the smaller sized spherical shaped nano-zirconia (ZrO2 NPs) (of ~9 to 11nm) was fabricated and studied its biological activity especially antioxidant and cytotoxicity against human colon carcinoma (HCT-116) and human lung carcinoma (A-549) cell lines. To have its real applications in biological aspects readily available Eucalyptus globulus (E. globulus) leaf extract was used as an effective capping and reducing agent for its synthesis...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Pablo Cid, Carlos Aguirre, Miguel Ángel Sánchez, Daniel Zamorano, Maritza Mihoc, Erika Salazar, Gustavo Chacón, Humberto Navarrete, Marcelo Rosas, Humberto Prieto
A national-scale study of outcrossing potential within Chilean vascular flora was conducted using an upgraded algorithm, which adds parameters such as pollinator agents, climate, and geographic conditions. Datasets were organized and linked in a Web platform (, in which the development of a total outcrossing potential (TOP) predictor was formulated. The TOP predictor is the engine in the Web platform, which models the effect of a type of agricultural practice on others (coexistence calculation mode) and on the environment (biodiversity calculation mode)...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Zhenyu Wang, Zhengbin He, Zijian Zhao, Songlin Yi, Jun Mu
In this study, the influence of ultrasound-assisted extraction on eucalyptus samples with special focus on pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic parameters was explored. Ultrasound and Soxhlet extraction were used to pretreat samples respectively, then samples were assayed by component analysis, TG-FTIR, and kinetic analysis. Ultrasound-assisted extraction did change the physiochemical characteristics of eucalyptus samples, particularly in regards to the quantity of extractives obtained. In TG and DTG curves, ultrasound-extracted samples reflected lower residual weight ratio (17...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Agustín Alvarez Costa, Cecilia V Naspi, Alejandro Lucia, Héctor M Masuh
Dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever are important vector-borne diseases transmitted by female mosquitoes when they feed on humans. The use of repellents based on natural products is an alternative for personal protection against these diseases. Application of chemicals with larvicidal activity is another strategy for controlling the mosquito population. The repellent and larvicidal activities of the essential oil from Eucalyptus nitens were tested against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the main vectors of these arboviruses...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Wenfei Liu, Jianping Wu, Houbao Fan, Honglang Duan, Qiang Li, Yinghong Yuan, Hao Zhang
Eucalyptus species are widely planted for reforestation in subtropical China. However, the effects of Eucalyptus plantations on the regional water use remain poorly understood. In an age sequence of 2-, 4- and 6-year-old Eucalyptus plantations, the tree water use and soil evaporation were examined by linking model estimations and field observations. Results showed that annual evapotranspiration of each age sequence Eucalyptus plantations was 876.7, 944.1 and 1000.7 mm, respectively, accounting for 49.81%, 53...
2017: PloS One
Antanas V Spokevicius, Josquin Tibbits, Philippe Rigault, Marc-Alexandre Nolin, Caroline Müller, Andrew Merchant
BACKGROUND: Climatic and edaphic conditions over geological timescales have generated enormous diversity of adaptive traits and high speciation within the genus Eucalyptus (L. Hér.). Eucalypt species occur from high rainfall to semi-arid zones and from the tropics to latitudes as high as 43°S. Despite several morphological and metabolomic characterizations, little is known regarding gene expression differences that underpin differences in tolerance to environmental change. Using species of contrasting taxonomy, morphology and physiology (E...
April 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
Ruth M Castillo, Elena Stashenko, Jonny E Duque
We examined the pupicidal, adulticidal, repellent, and oviposition-deterrent activities of essential oils (EOs) from Lippia alba, L. origanoides, Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis , Cananga odorata , Swinglea glutinosa, and Tagetes lucida plants against Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. Pupicidal and adulticidal activities were assessed at exploratory concentrations of 250, 310, and 390 parts per million (ppm); and 30, 300, and 1,000 ppm, respectively...
March 2017: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
Joo Ran Kim
The purpose of this study was to develop acaricidal cotton fabrics grafted with eucalyptus oil-loaded microcapsules (EOMCs) produced from green resources. EOMCs showed a broad size distribution between 0.5 and 6.5 µm and had the average diameter 1.8 µm. EOMCs exhibited nonporous spherical shapes and individually remained on cotton fibers. Through AATCC mortality tests against HDMs (Dermatophagoides farinae), the treated cotton fabric containing EOMCs resulted in 98.7% mortality. Acaricidal efficiency was due to the large amount of oxygenated monoterpene, 1,8-eucalyptol (75...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
Courtney E Campany, Belinda E Medlyn, Remko A Duursma
Sink limitation is known to reduce plant growth, but it is not known how plant carbon (C) balance is affected, limiting our ability to predict growth under sink-limited conditions. We manipulated soil volume to impose sink limitation of growth in Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings. Seedlings were grown in the field in containers of different sizes and planted flush to the soil alongside freely rooted (Free) seedlings. Container volume negatively affected aboveground growth throughout the experiment, and light saturated rates of leaf photosynthesis were consistently lower in seedlings in containers (-26%) compared with Free seedlings...
April 4, 2017: Tree Physiology
Chenzhou Wang, Hanyin Li, Mingfei Li, Jing Bian, Runcang Sun
An integrated pretreatment process based on hydrothermal pretreatment (HTP) followed by alkaline pretreatment has been applied to treat Eucalyptus. The chemical composition and structure changes of lignin during the pretreatment were comprehensively characterized. The surface morphology of the cell walls and lignin distribution of the pretreated Eucalyptus were detected by scanning electron and confocal Raman microscopies. It was found that the chemical bonds between lignin and hemicelluloses were cleaved during the pretreatment...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
E N Bui, A H Thornhill, C E González-Orozco, N Knerr, J T Miller
Eucalypts cover most of Australia. Here, we investigate the relative contribution of climate and geochemistry to the distribution and diversity of eucalypts. Using geostatistics, we estimate major element concentrations, pH, and electrical conductivity at sites where eucalypts have been recorded. We compare the median predicted geochemistry and reported substrate for individual species that appear associated with extreme conditions; this provides a partial evaluation of the predictions. We generate a site-by-species matrix by aggregating observations to the centroids of 100-km-wide grid cells, calculate diversity indices, and use numerical ecology methods (ordination, variation partitioning) to investigate the ecology of eucalypts and their response to climatic and geochemical gradients...
April 3, 2017: Geobiology
Steve J Sinclair, Matthew J Bruce, Peter Griffioen, Amanda Dodd, Matthew D White
The evaluation of ecosystem quality is important for land management and land-use planning. Evaluation is unavoidably subjective, and robust metrics must be based on consensus and the structured use of observations. This paper presents a means of building and testing metrics based on expert evaluation data, using a transparent and repeatable process. We gather quantitative evaluation data from a defined expert group, about the quality of synthetic (fictional) grassy woodland sites. We use these data to train a model (an ensemble of thirty bagged regression trees) capable of predicting the perceived quality of similar synthetic woodlands using a set of thirteen site variables as inputs...
March 31, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Dominique Gérant, Morgane Pluchon, Louis Mareschal, Lydie Stella Koutika, Daniel Epron, Torgny Näsholm
Numerous studies have shown that internal nitrogen (N) translocation in temperate tree species is governed by photoperiod duration and temperature. For tropical tree species, the seasonality of rainfall is known to affect growth and foliage production, suggesting that efficient internal N recycling also occurs throughout the year. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the N budgets and N partitioning (non-structural vs structural N) in the different organs of 7-year-old Eucalyptus urophylla (S.T. Blake) × E...
March 22, 2017: Tree Physiology
Sepideh Zolfaghar, Randol Villalobos-Vega, Melanie Zeppel, James Cleverly, Rizwana Rumman, Matthew Hingee, Nicolas Boulain, Zheng Li, Derek Eamus, Roberto Tognetti
Water resources and their management present social, economic and environmental challenges, with demand for human consumptive, industrial and environmental uses increasing globally. However, environmental water requirements, that is, the allocation of water to the maintenance of ecosystem health, are often neglected or poorly quantified. Further, transpiration by trees is commonly a major determinant of the hydrological balance of woodlands but recognition of the role of groundwater in hydrological balances of woodlands remains inadequate, particularly in mesic climates...
March 23, 2017: Tree Physiology
Aimee E Bourne, Danielle Creek, Jennifer M R Peters, David S Ellsworth, Brendan Choat
Background and Aims: Plant hydraulic traits influence the capacity of species to grow and survive in water-limited environments, but their comparative study at a common site has been limited. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether selective pressures on species originating in drought-prone environments constrain hydraulic traits among related species grown under common conditions. Methods: Leaf tissue water relations, xylem anatomy, stomatal behaviour and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism were measured on six Eucalyptus species growing in a common garden to determine whether these traits were related to current species climate range and to understand linkages between the traits...
March 27, 2017: Annals of Botany
Karen J Marsh, Wufeng Zhou, Hannah J Wigley, William J Foley
Insect folivores can cause extensive damage to plants. However, different plant species, and even individuals within species, can differ in their susceptibility to insect attack. Polyphenols that readily oxidize have recently gained attention as potential defenses against insect folivores. We tested the hypothesis that variation in oxidizable phenolic concentrations in Eucalyptus foliage influences feeding and survival of Paropsis atomaria (Eucalyptus leaf beetle) larvae. First we demonstrated that oxidizable phenolic concentrations vary both within and between Eucalyptus species, ranging from 0 to 61 mg...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
A M Couto, P E Teodoro, P F Trugilho
Path analysis has been used for establishing selection criteria in genetic breeding programs for several crops. However, it has not been used in eucalyptus breeding programs yet. In the present study, we aimed to identify the wood technology traits that could be used as the criteria for direct and indirect selection of eucalyptus genotypes with high energy density of wood. Twenty-four eucalyptus clones were evaluated in a completely randomized design with five replications. The following traits were assessed: basic wood density, total extractives, lignin content, ash content, nitrogen content, carbon content, hydrogen content, sulfur content, oxygen content, higher calorific power, holocellulose, and energy density...
March 16, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Soudani Leila, Maatoug Mhamed, Heilmeier Hermann, Kharytonov Mykola, Wiche Oliver, Moschner Christin, Onyshchenkoc Elena, Bouchenafa Nadia
The wastewater treatment produces a large amount of sludge. The different uses of eliminations sludge such as landfills or incineration have consequences negative for the environment, the agricultural use has increased worldwide, especially in crops and few or no studies have been conducted with forest plantations in Algeria. The objective of this study is to assess fertilizing characteristics of the sludge from the wastewater treatment plant of Tiaret (Algeria). One-year-old saplings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were transplanted into pots with sludge/soil mixtures where sludge content was 20%, 40% and 60%...
March 2017: Biotechnology Reports
Lizahn Zwart, Dave Kenneth Berger, Lucy Novungayo Moleleki, Nicolaas A van der Merwe, Alexander A Myburg, Sanushka Naidoo
Eucalyptus species are cultivated for forestry and are of economic importance. The fungal stem canker pathogen Chrysoporthe austroafricana causes disease of varying severity on E. grandis. The Eucalyptus grandis-Chrysoporthe austroafricana interaction has been established as a model system for studying Eucalyptus antifungal defence. Previous studies revealed that the phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) affects the levels of resistance in highly susceptible (ZG14) and moderately resistant (TAG5) clones. The aims of this study were to examine histochemical changes in response to wounding and inoculation as well as host responses at the protein level...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
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