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Isabel Cristina Padula Paz, Rita de Cássia Madail Santin, Alexandre Martins Guimarães, Osmar Paulo Pereira da Rosa, Maria Carolina Quecine, Michele de Cássia Pereira E Silva, João Lúcio Azevedo, Aida Terezinha Santos Matsumura
The clonal Eucalyptus plants are commonly obtained by vegetative propagation under a protected environment. This system improves the Botrytis cinerea and Calonectria spp infection on the young eucalypts plantings, resulting gray mold and cutting rot respectively. Currently, the unique available control method is based on chemicals. As alternative, novel methods to manage plant diseases, endophytic microorganisms could be an interesting alternative. Thus, we aimed to evaluate endophytic Bacillus isolated from eucalypts as a biocontrol agent against Botrytis cinerea and Calonectria gracilis, important fungal pathogens in the greenhouse, using clonal plantlets of E...
May 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ko Tahara, Mitsuru Nishiguchi, Andrej Frolov, Juliane Mittasch, Carsten Milkowski
In the highly aluminum-resistant tree Eucalyptus camaldulensis, hydrolyzable tannins are proposed to play a role in internal detoxification of aluminum, which is a major factor inhibiting plant growth on acid soils. To understand and modulate the molecular mechanisms of aluminum detoxification by hydrolyzable tannins, the biosynthetic genes need to be identified. In this study, we identified and characterized genes encoding UDP-glucose:gallate glucosyltransferase, which catalyzes the formation of 1-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (β-glucogallin), the precursor of hydrolyzable tannins...
May 15, 2018: Phytochemistry
Lucília Sousa Ribeiro, José J Melo Órfão, Manuel Fernando Ribeiro Pereira
The one-pot conversion of cellulose to ethylene glycol (EG) was investigated using a combination of a ruthenium catalyst supported on carbon nanotubes modified with nitric acid (Ru/CNT1 ) and a tungsten catalyst supported on commercial non-treated carbon nanotubes (W/CNT0 ). This physical mixture allowed to obtain an EG yield of 41% in just 5 h at 205 °C and 50 bar of H2 , which overcame the result obtained using a Ru-W bimetallic catalyst supported on commercial carbon nanotubes (35%) under the same conditions...
May 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
J M Kale Sniderman, Kia A Matley, Simon G Haberle, David J Cantrill
Pollen analysis is widely used to verify the geographic origin of honeys, but has never been employed in Australia. In this study, we analysed the pollen content of 173 unblended honey samples sourced from most of the commercial honey producing regions in southern Australia. Southern Australian vegetation is dominated by Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) forests and, as expected, most Australian honeys are palynologically dominated by Eucalyptus, while other important components include Myrtaceae taxa such as Corymbia/Angophora and the tribe Leptospermeae; plus Brassicaceae, Echium, Macadamia, and Acacia...
2018: PloS One
Sherif B Abdel Ghani, Suloiman Al-Rehiayani, Moustafa El Agamy, Luigi Lucini
BACKGROUND: The application of biochar to soil is supposed to alter its adsorption/desorption potential toward pesticides, thereby affecting their bioavailability and efficacy. These aspects are even more relevant in the case of nematicides because these pesticides are directly applied to soil. RESULTS: Biochar was produced from date palm (PB) and eucalyptus (EB) waste at 450 °C and added at a 1% rate to a sandy soil. The half-life (t½) of fenamiphos was increased from 2...
May 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Liubov Volkova, Stephen H Roxburgh, Christopher J Weston, Richard G Benyon, Andrew L Sullivan, Philip J Polglase
Analysis of growth and biomass turnover in natural forests of Eucalyptus regnans, the world's tallest angiosperm, reveals it is also the world's most productive forest type, with fire disturbance an important mediator of net primary productivity (NPP). A comprehensive empirical database was used to calculate the averaged temporal pattern of NPP from regeneration to 250 years age. NPP peaks at 23.1±3.8 (95% inter-quantile range) Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at age 14 years, and declines gradually to about 9.2±0.8 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at 130 years, with an average NPP over 250 years of 11...
May 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
Qiaochong He, Dongqing Zhang, Kevan Main, Chuanping Feng, Sarina J Ergas
There is a lack of information on denitrification of saline wastewaters, such as those from marine recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), ion exchange brines and wastewater in areas where sea water is used for toilet flushing. In this study, side-by-side microcosms were used to compare methanol, fish waste (FW), wood chips, elemental sulfur (S0 ) and a combination of wood chips and sulfur for saline wastewater denitrification. The highest denitrification rate was obtained with methanol (23.4 g N/(m3 ·d)), followed by FW (4...
May 8, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Ximeng Li, Chris J Blackman, Paul D Rymer, Desi Quintans, Remko A Duursma, Brendan Choat, Belinda E Medlyn, David T Tissue
Manipulative experiments have suggested that embolism-induced hydraulic impairment underpins widespread tree mortality during extreme drought, yet in situ evidence is rare. One month after drought-induced leaf and branch dieback was observed in field populations of Eucalyptus piperita Sm. in the Blue Mountains (Australia), we measured the level of native stem embolism and characterized the extent of leaf death in co-occurring dieback and healthy (non-dieback) trees. We found that canopy dieback-affected trees showed significantly higher levels of native embolism (26%) in tertiary order branchlets than healthy trees (11%)...
May 11, 2018: Tree Physiology
Kalori Baana, Harriet Angwech, Geoffrey Maxwell Malinga
BACKGROUND: The housefly, Musca domestica L., is a major public health and domestic pest that spoils food and causes irritation and is a vector of many infectious disease pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Currently, its control relies largely on chemical pesticides. However, the adverse health and environmental effects of pesticides, risk of development of insect resistance, and bioaccumulation through the food chain emphasize the need to search for environmentally friendly alternatives...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Xiaozhen Ye, Zhenhui Zhong, Hongyi Liu, Lianyu Lin, Mengmeng Guo, Wenshuo Guo, Zonghua Wang, Qinghua Zhang, Lizhen Feng, Guodong Lu, Feiping Zhang, Quanzhu Chen
BACKGROUND: Leaf blight caused by Calonectria spp. is one of the most destructive diseases to affect Eucalyptus nurseries and plantations. These pathogens mainly attack Eucalyptus, a tree with a diversity of secondary metabolites employed as defense-related phytoalexins. To unravel the fungal adaptive mechanisms to various phytoalexins, we examined the genome of C. pseudoreteaudii, which is one of the most aggressive pathogens in southeast Asia. RESULTS: A 63.7 Mb genome with 14,355 coding genes of C...
May 10, 2018: BMC Genomics
Murugan Sumathi, Vijaya Kumar Waman Bachpai, A Mayavel, Modhumita Ghosh Dasgupta, Binai Nagarajan, D Rajasugunasekar, Veerasamy Sivakumar, Ramasamy Yasodha
The eucalypt species, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis , show tolerance to drought and salinity conditions, respectively, and are widely cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of tropical countries. In this study, genetic linkage map was developed for interspecific cross E. tereticornis  ×  E. camaldulensis using pseudo-testcross strategy with simple sequence repeats (SSRs), intersimple sequence repeats (ISSRs), and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. The consensus genetic map comprised totally 283 markers with 84 SSRs, 94 ISSRs, and 105 SRAP markers on 11 linkage groups spanning 1163...
May 2018: 3 Biotech
Karthik Periyasamy, Laishram Santhalembi, Gerard Mortha, Marc Aurousseau, Agnes Boyer, Sivanesan Subramanian
Enzyme cocktails of reusable, highly-stable cellulolytic enzymes play an inevitable role in bioconversion of biomass to biofuels economically. Cellulase, xylanase and β-1,3-glucanase bound silica-amine functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (ISN-CLEAs) were prepared and used as the biocatalyst for the depolymerization of cellulosic biomass into monomeric sugar in the present study. The Fe3 O4 -NPs and Fe3 O4 @SiO2 -NH2 -NPs and ISN-CLEAs had an average hydrodynamic size of 82.2 nm, 86.4 nm and 976...
May 9, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Michael J Aspinwall, Chris J Blackman, Víctor Resco de Dios, Florian A Busch, Paul D Rymer, Michael E Loik, John E Drake, Sebastian Pfautsch, Renee A Smith, Mark G Tjoelker, David T Tissue
Intraspecific variation in biomass production responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (eCO2) could influence tree species' ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying genotypic variation in responsiveness to eCO2 remain poorly understood. In this study, we grew 17 Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. subsp. camaldulensis genotypes (representing provenances from four different climates) under ambient atmospheric CO2 and eCO2. We tested whether genotype leaf-scale photosynthetic and whole-tree carbon (C) allocation responses to eCO2 were predictive of genotype biomass production responses to eCO2...
May 8, 2018: Tree Physiology
Ankita Gupta, Sonal K Thengane, Sanjay Mahajani
In this study, the dry leaves litter from jackfruit, raintree, mango and eucalyptus trees, lignin, and cellulose were characterized, pyrolysed, and evaluated for their char reactivity towards CO2 gasification using TGA. The differences in char reactivity were attributed to the difference in char morphology and the varying inorganic contents. The mineral analysis of biomass ash showed the presence of alkali minerals some of which could act as catalysts. The adverse effect of high silica content was also evident through the experimental results...
April 25, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Giovanni Correia Vieira, Adriano Ribeiro de Mendonça, Gilson Fernandes da Silva, Sidney Sára Zanetti, Mayra Marques da Silva, Alexandre Rosa Dos Santos
Models of individual trees are composed of sub-models that generally estimate competition, mortality, and growth in height and diameter of each tree. They are usually adopted when we want more detailed information to estimate forest multiproduct. In these models, estimates of growth in diameter at 1.30m above the ground (DBH) and total height (H) are obtained by regression analysis. Recently, artificial intelligence techniques (AIT) have been used with satisfactory performance in forest measurement. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of two AIT, artificial neural networks and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, to estimate the growth in DBH and H of eucalyptus trees...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sanushka Naidoo, Nanette Christie, Juan José Acosta, Makobatjatji M Mphahlele, Kitt G Payn, Alexander A Myburg, Carsten Külheim
Leptocybe invasa is an insect pest causing gall formation on oviposited shoot tips and leaves of Eucalyptus trees leading to leaf deformation, stunting and death in severe cases. We previously observed different constitutive and induced terpenes, plant specialised metabolites that may act as attractants or repellents to insects, in a resistant and susceptible clone of Eucalyptus challenged with L. invasa. We tested the hypothesis that specific terpenes are associated with pest resistance in a Eucalyptus grandis half-sib population...
April 30, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
L Collins, M M Boer, V Resco de Dios, S A Power, E R Bendall, S Hasegawa, R Ochoa Hueso, J Piñeiro Nevado, R A Bradstock
A trend of increasing woody plant density, or woody thickening, has been observed across grassland and woodland ecosystems globally. It has been proposed that increasing atmospheric [CO2 ] is a major driver of broad scale woody thickening, though few field-based experiments have tested this hypothesis. Our study utilises a Free Air CO2 Enrichment experiment to examine the effect of elevated [CO2 ] (eCO2 ) on three mechanisms that can cause woody thickening, namely (i) woody plant recruitment, (ii) seedling growth, and (iii) post-disturbance resprouting...
April 27, 2018: Oecologia
Honglang Duan, Brian Chaszar, James D Lewis, Renee A Smith, Travis E Huxman, David T Tissue
Despite a wealth of eco-physiological assessments of plant response to extreme drought, few studies have addressed the interactive effects of global change factors on traits driving mortality. To understand the interaction between hydraulic and carbon metabolic traits influencing tree mortality, which may be independently influenced by atmospheric [CO2] and temperature, we grew Eucalyptus sideroxylon A. Cunn. ex Woolls from seed in a full-factorial [CO2] (280, 400 and 640 μmol mol-1, Cp, Ca and Ce, respectively) and temperature (ambient and ambient +4 °C, Ta and Te, respectively) experiment...
April 26, 2018: Tree Physiology
Nayara Vilela Avelar, Benício Costa Ribeiro, Ana Augusta Passos Rezende, Cláudio Mudadu Silva, Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro, Márcio Arêdes Martins
This study investigated an industrial biosludge drying system using hot gases from a coal furnace, seeking to increase the solids content of the biosludge above 50% (w.b.), considered suitable for combustion in biomass boilers. Biosludge was collected from a paper mill activated sludge plant. Biosludge mixtures with eucalyptus chips and eucalyptus bark in two different proportions (15% and 25%), were placed into a drying chamber. Hot gases generated by the furnace, with a flowrate of 0.64 ± 0.02 m3 .s-1 at 100 ± 20°C, were applied to the piles through a blowing system...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Technology
Samantha A Setterfield, Peter J Clifton, Lindsay B Hutley, Natalie A Rossiter-Rachor, Michael M Douglas
Andropogon gayanus Kunth. is a large African tussock grass invading Australia's tropical savannas. Invasion results in more intense fires which increases the mortality rate of adult woody plants. Invasion may also affect community structure by altering the recruitment potential of woody plants. We investigated the effects of A. gayanus invasion on ground-level microclimate, and the carbon assimilation potential and recruitment potential of two Eucalyptus species. We compared microclimatic variables from the early wet-season and into the mid-dry season to coincide with the period of growth of A...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
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