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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109602/strategies-to-gain-body-condition-score-in-pasture-based-dairy-cows-during-late-lactation-and-the-far-off-nonlactating-period-and-their-interaction-with-close-up-dry-matter-intake
#1
J R Roche, A Heiser, M D Mitchell, M A Crookenden, C G Walker, J K Kay, M Vailati Riboni, J J Loor, S Meier
In pasture-based systems, cows are generally thinner at the end of lactation than cows fed total mixed rations and, as a result, over-feeding of metabolizable energy (ME) during the far-off nonlactating period is a standard management policy to achieve optimum calving body condition score (BCS). An alternative would be to manage cows to gain BCS through late lactation, such that cows ended lactation close to optimum calving BCS and maintenance of BCS through to calving. We sought to quantify the effect of moderate or excessive ME intakes during the far-off nonlactating period in cows that had been managed to gain or maintain BCS through late lactation and whether the far-off management strategy interacted with close-up level of feeding...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109597/weather-influences-feed-intake-and-feed-efficiency-in-a-temperate-climate
#2
Davina L Hill, Eileen Wall
A key goal for livestock science is to ensure that food production meets the needs of an increasing global population. Climate change may heighten this challenge through increases in mean temperatures and in the intensity, duration, and spatial distribution of extreme weather events, such as heat waves. Under high ambient temperatures, livestock are expected to decrease dry matter intake (DMI) to reduce their metabolic heat production. High yielding dairy cows require high DMI to support their levels of milk production, but this may increase susceptibility to heat stress...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108095/indoor-temperature-and-humidity-in-new-york-city-apartments-during-winter
#3
Ashlinn Quinn, Jeffrey Shaman
BACKGROUND: Concerns about indoor residential humidity have largely centered on dampness prevention. Overly dry air, however, may favor the survival of some viruses and hence respiratory infections. Many residents employ portable humidifiers to humidify their home environment, yet the effect of these humidifiers on indoor humidity is not known. METHODS: We monitored indoor temperature and humidity in 34 apartments in New York City during winter 2014-2015. We combined information from the monitors with surveyed information on building, household, and apartment-level factors and with information on household humidifier use...
January 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107324/symptom-burden-experiences-of-puerto-rican-men-with-prostate-cancer-prior-to-external-beam-radiation-therapy
#4
Velda J Gonzalez, Susan C McMillan, Maureen Groer, Segundo Imbert, Elsa Pedro
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men in Puerto Rico, and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is a popular treatment. Although symptom management is a clinical priority of comprehensive oncology care, symptom assessment at the time of primary or adjuvant EBRT has received limited attention. OBJECTIVES: This article examines the prevalence and severity of symptoms experienced by 54 Puerto Rican men prior to EBRT. METHODS: Participants completed a demographic form and the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106698/do-the-angle-and-length-of-the-eustachian-tube-affect-the-success-rate-of-pediatric-cartilage-type-1-tympanoplasty
#5
Yakup Yegin, Mustafa Çelik, Ahmet Altintaş, Ceylan Çolak, Fatma Tülin Kayhan
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationships between the angle and length of the Eustachian tube (ET) (the ETa and the ETl) and the success rates of pediatric type 1 tympanoplasty. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective clinical chart review. METHODS: In total, 51 children (31 females and 20 males; average age, 11.92 ± 3.46 years; age range: 7-18 years) who underwent cartilage type 1 tympanoplasty were included. Demographics and anatomical outcomes were recorded...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100603/digestion-resistant-dextrin-derivatives-are-moderately-digested-in-the-small-intestine-and-contribute-more-to-energy-production-than-predicted-from-large-bowel-fermentation-in-rats
#6
Takashi Kondo, Kei Handa, Tomomi Genda, Shingo Hino, Norihisa Hamaguchi, Tatsuya Morita
BACKGROUND: Digestion-resistant dextrin derivatives (DRDDs), including resistant maltodextrin (RM), polydextrose, and resistant glucan (RG), have been developed as low-energy foods. However, data on the resistance of DRDDs to small-intestinal digestion are scarce. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the site and extent of DRDD breakdown in the rat intestine and to predict its energy contributions. METHODS: In vitro small-intestinal resistance of DRDDs was evaluated by the AOAC method for dietary fiber measurement and by artificial digestion with the use of pancreatic α-amylase and brush-boarder membrane vesicles...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098207/using-13-c-isotopes-to-explore-denitrification-dependent-anaerobic-methane-oxidation-in-a-paddy-peatland
#7
Yao Shi, Zhongqiang Wang, Chunguang He, Xinyu Zhang, Lianxi Sheng, Xiaodong Ren
Peatlands are organic-matter-rich but nitrogen-limited natural systems, the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) status of which are subject to increasing exposure from long-term nitrate (NO3(-)) fertilizer inputs and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposits. To manage and protect these unique environments, an improved understanding of denitrification-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane (DAMO) in peatlands is needed. In this study, we used stable isotope measurements and incubation with NO3(-) additions to facilitate an investigation and comparison of the potential DAMO rates in a paddy-peatland that has been influenced by N fertilizer over 40 years and an undisturbed peatland in northeast China...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095916/insecticide-treated-net-effectiveness-at-preventing-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-varies-by-age-and-season
#8
Andrea G Buchwald, Jenna E Coalson, Lauren M Cohee, Jenny A Walldorf, Nelson Chimbiya, Andy Bauleni, Kondwani Nkanaunena, Andrew Ngwira, John D Sorkin, Don P Mathanga, Terrie E Taylor, Miriam K Laufer
BACKGROUND: After increasing coverage of malaria interventions, malaria prevalence remains high in Malawi. Previous studies focus on the impact of malaria interventions among children under 5 years old. However, in Malawi, the prevalence of infection is highest in school-aged children (SAC), ages 5 to 15 years. This study examined the interaction between age group and insecticide-treated net (ITN) use for preventing individual and community-level infection in Malawi. METHODS: Six cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the rainy and dry seasons in southern Malawi from 2012 to 2014...
January 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094899/identification-of-glyphosate-resistance-in-salsola-tragus-in-northeastern-oregon
#9
Judit Barroso, Jennifer A Gourlie, Larry K Lutcher, Mingyang Liu, Carol A Mallory-Smith
BACKGROUND: Farmers in the low-rainfall region of eastern Oregon rely on repeated applications of non-selective herbicides, predominately glyphosate, to control Salsola tragus in no-till fallow systems. Reports of poor glyphosate effectiveness have increased in recent years. Reduced efficacy is often attributed to dust, water stress, or generally poor growing conditions during application. Inadequate control also may be the result of the evolution of glyphosate resistance. Therefore, studies were undertaken to determine if glyphosate-resistant S...
January 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091883/ground-penetrating-radar-gpr-responses-for-sub-surface-salt-contamination-and-solid-waste-modeling-and-controlled-lysimeter-studies
#10
Y N S Wijewardana, A T Shilpadi, M I M Mowjood, K Kawamoto, L W Galagedara
The assessment of polluted areas and municipal solid waste (MSW) sites using non-destructive geophysical methods is timely and much needed in the field of environmental monitoring and management. The objectives of this study are (i) to evaluate the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) wave responses as a result of different electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater and (ii) to conduct MSW stratification using a controlled lysimeter and modeling approach. A GPR wave simulation was carried out using GprMax2D software, and the field test was done on two lysimeters that were filled with sand (Lysimeter-1) and MSW (Lysimeter-2)...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089606/parasacral-transcutaneous-electrical-neural-stimulation-ptens-once-a-week-for-the-treatment-of-overactive-bladder-in-children-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Lidyanne Ilidia da Silva de Paula, Liliana Fajardo de Oliveira, Brysa Paiva Cruz, Dayana Maria de Oliveira, Laís Maini Miranda, Mauro de Moraes Ribeiro, Raphaela Ornellas Duque, André Avarese de Figueiredo, José de Bessa, José Murillo Bastos Netto
INTRODUCTION: Overactive bladder (OAB) is the most prevalent voiding disorder in childhood, and its main manifestation is urinary urgency. In general, urotherapy and anticholinergics are the first choices of treatment. Parasacral Transcutaneous Electrical Neural Stimulation (PTENS) was introduced as an alternative for the treatment of detrusor overactivity in children, but treatment protocols described to date require several sessions per week or long-lasting sessions, making it difficult for the child to adhere to the treatment...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087923/enhanced-aerobic-sludge-granulation-by-seeding-concentrated-activated-sludge-with-ca-alginate-gel
#12
Can Sun
The present study focuses on the effect of Ca-alginate gel on aerobic sludge granulation. Three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) seeded with different mixtures of Ca-alginate gel and activated sludge with the fraction (weight/weight of dry biomass) of 0%, 5.5% and 15.5% respectively. The granulation time of 14 days was obtained with 5.5% additive, whilst 32 days were needed to adapt aerobic granules developed with 0% Ca-alginate gel. Full granulation was achieved in the trial with 15.5% additive from the 20th day...
December 9, 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076259/almond-appetizer-effect-on-glucose-tolerance-test-gtt-results
#13
Michael A Crouch, Robert T Slater
BACKGROUND: The extent to which glucose intolerance can be acutely improved with dietary modification is unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of ingesting a low-calorie almond preload ("appetizer") 30 minutes before oral glucose tolerance testing in glucose-intolerant individuals without diabetes. METHODS: Twenty adults with prediabetes or isolated 1-hour glucose ≥160 mg/dL underwent 2 fasting oral glucose tolerance tests (GTTs)-1 standard GTT and 1 GTT 30 minutes after eating a half ounce (12) of dry-roasted almonds...
November 2016: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075384/monitoring-lead-pb-pollution-and-identifying-pb-pollution-sources-in-japan-using-stable-pb-isotope-analysis-with-kidneys-of-wild-rats
#14
Hokuto Nakata, Shouta M M Nakayama, Balazs Oroszlany, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Hazuki Mizukawa, Kazuyuki Tanaka, Tsunehito Harunari, Tsutomu Tanikawa, Wageh Sobhy Darwish, Yared B Yohannes, Aksorn Saengtienchai, Mayumi Ishizuka
Although Japan has been considered to have little lead (Pb) pollution in modern times, the actual pollution situation is unclear. The present study aims to investigate the extent of Pb pollution and to identify the pollution sources in Japan using stable Pb isotope analysis with kidneys of wild rats. Wild brown (Rattus norvegicus, n = 43) and black (R. rattus, n = 98) rats were trapped from various sites in Japan. Mean Pb concentrations in the kidneys of rats from Okinawa (15.58 mg/kg, dry weight), Aichi (10...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072458/liana-effects-on-biomass-dynamics-strengthen-during-secondary-forest-succession
#15
Hao Ran Lai, Jefferson S Hall, Benjamin L Turner, Michiel van Breugel
Secondary forests are important carbon sinks, but their biomass dynamics vary markedly within and across landscapes. The biotic and abiotic drivers of this variation are still not well understood. We tested the effects of soil resource availability and competition by lianas on the biomass dynamics of young secondary tropical forests in Panama and assessed the extent to which liana effects were mediated by soil resource availability. Over a five year period, growth, mortality, and recruitment of woody plants of ≥1 cm diameter were monitored in 84 plots in 3-30 y-old secondary forests across the Agua Salud site in central Panama...
January 10, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070319/development-of-a-nutrient-dense-complementary-food-using-amaranth-sorghum-grains
#16
Judith Kanensi Okoth, Sophie Atieno Ochola, Nicholas K Gikonyo, Anselimo Makokha
Thin porridge from cereals and starchy tubers is a common complementary food in Sub Saharan Africa. It may be high in antinutrients, low in energy, and nutrient density hence inadequate in providing infants' high energy and nutrients requirements per unit body weight. Consequently, undernourishment levels among children under 5 years are high. Therefore, there is need to avail nutrient-dense complementary foods especially for children in low-resource settings. The study was aimed at developing a nutrient-dense complementary food from amaranth and sorghum grains...
January 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069077/successful-obliteration-of-troublesome-and-chronically-draining-cavities
#17
S Geerse, F A Ebbens, M J F de Wolf, E van Spronsen
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the results of revision radical cavity surgery with mastoid obliteration using a standardised grading scheme. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed of 121 patients (122 ears) with chronically draining ears who underwent revision radical cavity surgery with mastoid obliteration between 2007 and 2013. Surgical indications, patient characteristics, pre- and post-operative Merchant grade, and surgical outcomes were recorded...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068444/effectiveness-of-an-eyelid-thermal-pulsation-procedure-to-treat-recalcitrant-dry-eye-symptoms-after-laser-vision-correction
#18
Craig S Schallhorn, Julie M Schallhorn, Stephen Hannan, Steven C Schallhorn
PURPOSE: To provide an initial retrospective evaluation of the effectiveness of a thermal pulsation system to treat intractable patient-reported dye eye symptoms following laser vision correction. METHODS: A total of 109 eyes of 57 patients underwent thermal pulsation therapy (LipiFlow; TearScience, Morrisville, NC) for the treatment of dry eye symptoms following laser vision correction. A standardized dry eye questionnaire, the Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness (SPEED II), was administered to all patients before and after thermal pulsation therapy...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067276/flip-flop-of-day-night-and-summer-winter-surface-urban-heat-island-intensity-in-india
#19
Hiteshri Shastri, Beas Barik, Subimal Ghosh, Chandra Venkataraman, Pankaj Sadavarte
The difference in land surface temperature (LST) between an urban region and its nearby non-urban region, known as surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII), is usually positive as reported in earlier studies. India has experienced unprecedented urbanization over recent decades with an urban population of 380 million. Here, we present the first study of the diurnal and seasonal characteristics of SUHII in India. We found negative SUHII over a majority of urban areas during daytime in pre-monsoon summer (MAM), contrary to the expected impacts of urbanization...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063290/relationship-between-serum-adiponectin-concentration-body-condition-score-and-peripheral-tissue-insulin-response-of-dairy-cows-during-the-dry-period
#20
J De Koster, C Urh, M Hostens, W Van den Broeck, H Sauerwein, G Opsomer
The aim of the present study was to describe the relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and peripheral tissue insulin response in dairy cows with a variable body condition score (BCS) during the dry period. Cows were selected at the beginning of the dry period based on BCS (BCS <3.75, n = 4; BCS >3.75, n = 5). Animals were followed from the beginning of the dry period by weekly blood sampling and assessment of BCS and backfat thickness. Weekly blood samples were analyzed for adiponectin concentration using a bovine specific ELISA...
December 18, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
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