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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720354/training-modalities-in-robot-assisted-urologic-surgery-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Catherine Elizabeth Lovegrove, Oussama Elhage, M Shamim Khan, Giacomo Novara, Alex Mottrie, Prokar Dasgupta, Kamran Ahmed
CONTEXT: Novel surgical techniques demand that surgical training adapts to the need for technical and nontechnical skills. OBJECTIVE: To identify training methods available for robot-assisted surgical (RAS) training in urology, evaluate their effectiveness in terms of validation, educational impact, acceptability, and cost effectiveness, and assess their effect on learning curves (LCs). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines searched Ovid Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library...
February 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719306/seasonal-variation-in-the-epidemiology-of-asymptomatic-plasmodium-falciparum-infections-across-two-catchment-areas-in-bongo-district-ghana
#2
Kathryn E Tiedje, Abraham R Oduro, Godfred Agongo, Thomas Anyorigiya, Daniel Azongo, Timothy Awine, Anita Ghansah, Mercedes Pascual, Kwadwo A Koram, Karen P Day
Understanding the epidemiology of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections is critical for countries to move toward malaria elimination. Using different methods for parasite detection, we evaluated how seasonality, spatial location, and other factors affect the age-specific epidemiology of asymptomatic malaria in Bongo District, Ghana. Asymptomatic prevalence by microscopy decreased significantly from 42.5% at the end of the wet to 27.5% at the end of the dry season (P < 0.001). Using the 18S rRNA polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), all microscopy-negative samples were screened and prevalence of submicroscopic infections also decreased significantly from the wet (55...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717595/egg-clutch-dehydration-induces-early-hatching-in-red-eyed-treefrogs-agalychnis-callidryas
#3
María José Salica, James R Vonesh, Karen M Warkentin
Terrestrial eggs have evolved repeatedly in tropical anurans exposing embryos to the new threat of dehydration. Red-eyed treefrogs, Agalychnis callidryas, lay eggs on plants over water. Maternally provided water allows shaded eggs in humid sites to develop to hatching without rainfall, but unshaded eggs and those in less humid sites can die from dehydration. Hatching responses of amphibian eggs to dry conditions are known from two lineages with independent origins of terrestrial eggs. Here, we experimentally tested for dehydration-induced early hatching in another lineage (Agalychnis callidryas, Phyllomedusidae), representing a third independent origin of terrestrial eggs...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716086/dynamics-in-multiplicity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-among-children-with-asymptomatic-malaria-in-central-ghana
#4
Akua Kyerewaa Botwe, Kwaku Poku Asante, George Adjei, Samuel Assafuah, David Dosoo, Seth Owusu-Agyei
BACKGROUND: The determinants of malaria parasite virulence is not entirely known, but the outcome of malaria infection (asymptomatic or symptomatic) has been associated with carriage of distinct parasite genotypes. Alleles considered important for erythrocyte invasion and selected as candidate targets for malaria vaccine development are increasingly being shown to have distinct characteristics in infection outcomes. Any unique/distinct patterns or alleles linked to infection outcome should be reproducible for a given malaria-cohort regardless of location, time or intervention...
July 17, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715851/paradigm-shifts-peregrinations-and-pixies-in-ophthalmology
#5
REVIEW
A O Minas Coroneo
Defending vision, our highest bandwidth sense, challenges human ingenuity. Replacing or repairing highly specialized but scarce tissue within constraints of transparency, tissue shape and alignment, tissue borders and pressure maintenance, presents special challenges. Many, mostly destructive surgical procedures, were developed prior to an understanding of underlying pathophysiology. For a number of conditions, both reconstructive and destructive procedures co-exist yet there are few guidelines as to the better approach...
July 17, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713395/economic-and-environmental-assessment-of-seed-and-rhizome-propagated-miscanthus-in-the-uk
#6
Astley Hastings, Michal Mos, Jalil A Yesufu, Jon McCalmont, Kai Schwarz, Reza Shafei, Chris Ashman, Chris Nunn, Heinrich Schuele, Salvatore Cosentino, Giovanni Scalici, Danilo Scordia, Moritz Wagner, John Clifton-Brown
Growth in planted areas of Miscanthus for biomass in Europe has stagnated since 2010 due to technical challenges, economic barriers and environmental concerns. These limitations need to be overcome before biomass production from Miscanthus can expand to several million hectares. In this paper, we consider the economic and environmental effects of introducing seed based hybrids as an alternative to clonal M. x giganteus (Mxg). The impact of seed based propagation and novel agronomy was compared with current Mxg cultivation and used in 10 commercially relevant, field scale experiments planted between 2012 and 2014 in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Ukraine...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712675/ejaculates-are-not-used-as-nuptial-gifts-in-simultaneously-hermaphroditic-snails
#7
Monica Lodi, Fedde W Meijer, Joris M Koene
Promoted by sexual selection, males usually adopt different ways to increase their fertilization chances. In many insect taxa males donate nuptial gifts, together with sperm, which represent a valuable additional nutrient source that females can use to provision eggs. This has also been suggested to occur in simultaneous hermaphrodites, organisms with both sex functions. In theory, donation of nuptial gifts or extra nutrients might work in hermaphrodites that mate unilaterally (one-way donation of ejaculates), but will not be effective when these organisms mate reciprocally (mutual exchange of ejaculates), since on average each partner would receive the amount it also transfers...
May 25, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711771/toxicity-of-organic-compounds-from-unresolved-complex-mixtures-ucms-to-primary-fish-hepatocytes
#8
Karina Petersen, Maria T Hultman, Steven J Rowland, Knut Erik Tollefsen
Many environmental matrices contaminated with organic pollutants derived from crude oil or degraded petroleum contain mixtures so complex that they are typically unresolved by conventional analytical techniques such as gas chromatography. The resulting chromatographic features have become known as 'humps' or unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs). These UCMs often dominate the organic contaminants of polluted environmental samples: for example, in oil sands produced water up to 150mgL(-1) of 'naphthenic acids' appear as UCMs when examined by gas chromatography as the esters...
June 29, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711254/effect-of-maternal-exercise-on-calf-dry-matter-intake-weight-gain-behavior-and-cortisol-concentrations-at-disbudding-and-weaning
#9
R A Black, B K Whitlock, P D Krawczel
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maternal physical activity during late gestation on calf dry matter intake, weight gain, behavior, and cortisol concentration during disbudding and weaning. Fifty-five Holstein and 5 Jersey × Holstein crossbred calves were enrolled into the study during gestation. Calves were born from pregnant, nonlactating Holstein (n = 58) and Jersey × Holstein crossbred (n = 2) dairy cows. Cows were assigned to either confinement (n = 20 cows; 13 female calves, 7 male calves), exercise (n = 20 cows; 8 female calves, 12 male calves), or pasture (n = 20 cows; 11 female calves, 9 male calves) treatments at dry-off from January to November 2015...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711247/ratio-of-dietary-rumen-degradable-protein-to-rumen-undegradable-protein-affects-nitrogen-partitioning-but-does-not-affect-the-bovine-milk-proteome-produced-by-mid-lactation-holstein-dairy-cows
#10
R Tacoma, J Fields, D B Ebenstein, Y-W Lam, S L Greenwood
Little is known about the bovine milk proteome or whether it can be affected by diet. The objective of this study was to determine if the dietary rumen degradable protein (RDP):rumen undegradable protein (RUP) ratio could alter the bovine milk proteome. Six Holstein cows (parity: 2.5 ± 0.8) in mid lactation were blocked by days in milk (80 ± 43 d in milk) and milk yield (57.5 ± 6.0 kg) and randomly assigned to treatment groups. The experiment was conducted as a double-crossover design consisting of three 21-d periods...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710783/evaluation-of-vegetable-protein-in-canine-diets-assessment-of-performance-and-apparent-ileal-amino-acid-digestibility-using-a-broiler-model
#11
D C Fiacco, J A Lowe, J Wiseman, G A White
Recent technological advances in the human food industry with respect to meat processing have decreased the availability of animal proteins to the pet food industry which typically formulates diets with an excess of animal protein. In the long term, this is not sustainable; thus, alternative protein sources need to be investigated. This study examined three canine diets, comparing a typical animal protein-based diet (control) with two experimental diets where the animal protein was substituted in part with vegetable protein (formulated based either on total protein or amino acid content) using a broiler model...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710733/assessing-the-chemical-behavior-and-spatial-distribution-of-yttrium-and-rare-earth-elements-yrees-in-a-coastal-aquifer-adjacent-to-the-urmia-hypersaline-lake-nw-iran
#12
Nassim Sohrabi, Nasrollah Kalantari, Vahab Amiri, Mohammad Nakhaei
This study aims to shed light on the seasonal behavior of yttrium and rare earth elements (YREEs) in the Urmia Aquifer (UA), in the immediate vicinity of Urmia Lake (UL) in Iran. Samples of groundwater, collected under dry and wet conditions in coastal wells of UA, suggest a large degree of variability in both YREE abundance and normalized patterns. Although weathering or water-rock interactions (between the surface/groundwater and rock samples) were predicted to be the most probable source in explaining YREEs in groundwater samples, results to the contrary indicate that the groundwater do not inherit aquifer rock-like YREE signatures in the study area; this might be due to the relative stability of YREEs during the process of water-rock interactions, which suggest that methods based on YREEs can be beneficial in discrimination of water sources...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710140/perspective-a-definition-for-whole-grain-food-products-recommendations-from-the-healthgrain-forum
#13
Alastair B Ross, Jan-Willem van der Kamp, Roberto King, Kim-Anne Lê, Heddie Mejborn, Chris J Seal, Frank Thielecke
Whole grains are a key component of a healthy diet, and enabling consumers to easily choose foods with a high whole-grain content is an important step for better prevention of chronic disease. Several definitions exist for whole-grain foods, yet these do not account for the diversity of food products that contain cereals. With the goal of creating a relatively simple whole-grain food definition that aligns with whole-grain intake recommendations and can be applied across all product categories, the Healthgrain Forum, a not-for-profit consortium of academics and industry working with cereal foods, established a working group to gather input from academics and industry to develop guidance on labeling the whole-grain content of foods...
July 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708298/the-ecotoxicity-of-zinc-and-zinc-containing-substances-in-soil-consideration-for-metal-moiety-approaches-and-organo-metal-complexes
#14
Ellyn Ritchie, Patrick Boyd, Annamaria Lawson-Halasz, Jalal Hawari, Stacey Saucier, Richard Scroggins, Juliska Princz
Within Canada, screening-level assessments for chemical substances are required in order to determine whether the substances pose a risk to human health and/or the environment, and as appropriate, risk management strategies. In response to the volume of metal and metal-containing substances, process efficiencies were introduced using a metal moiety approach, wherein substances that contain a common metal moiety are assessed simultaneously as a group, wherein the moiety of concern would consist of the metal ion...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707246/chemical-characterization-and-receptor-modeling-of-pm10-in-the-surroundings-of-the-opencast-lignite-mines-of-western-macedonia-greece
#15
Constantini Samara, George Argyropoulos, Theodoros Grigoratos, Αthanasios Kouras, Εvangelia Manoli, Symela Andreadou, Fragkiskos Pavloudakis, Chariton Sahanidis
The Western Macedonian Lignite Center (WMLC) in northwestern Greece is the major lignite center in the Balkans feeding four major power plants of total power exceeding 4 GW. Concentrations of PM10 (i.e., particulate matters with diameters ≤10 μm) are the main concern in the region, and the high levels observed are often attributed to the activities related to power generation. In this study, the contribution of fugitive dust emissions from the opencast lignite mines to the ambient levels of PM10 in the surroundings was estimated by performing chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor modeling...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701946/the-nest-dry-run-mode-efficient-dynamic-analysis-of-neuronal-network-simulation-code
#16
Susanne Kunkel, Wolfram Schenck
NEST is a simulator for spiking neuronal networks that commits to a general purpose approach: It allows for high flexibility in the design of network models, and its applications range from small-scale simulations on laptops to brain-scale simulations on supercomputers. Hence, developers need to test their code for various use cases and ensure that changes to code do not impair scalability. However, running a full set of benchmarks on a supercomputer takes up precious compute-time resources and can entail long queuing times...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700056/injuries-caused-by-freshwater-stingrays-in-the-tapaj%C3%A3-s-river-basin-a-clinical-and-sociodemographic-study
#17
Paulo Afonso Martins Abati, Pasesa Pascuala Quispe Torrez, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira França, Fabio Lambertini Tozzi, Flávio Mileo Bacelar Guerreiro, Suellen Aline Torres Dos Santos, Sheyla Mara Silva de Oliveira, Vidal Haddad
INTRODUCTION: Freshwater stingray envenomations are an important cause of morbidity in riverine populations living in various regions of Brazil. The sequelae include temporary or permanent disability. This study aimed to identify sociodemographic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects related to stingray injuries in such populations. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Extractive Reserve of Tapajos-Arapiuns, located in the municipalities of Santarém and Aveiro (Pará State)...
May 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698442/incidence-of-ophthalmic-disorders-in-patients-treated-with-the-antineoplastic-agent-s-1
#18
Kanae Moriya, Hisanori Shimizu, Satoko Handa, Tadanori Sasaki, Yasutsuna Sasaki, Haruo Takahashi, Seigo Nakamura, Hitoshi Yoshida, Yasuhisa Kato
S-1 is an oral antineoplastic agent containing tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil potassium. Recently, ophthalmic disorders, particularly epiphora, have been reported. We retrospectively investigated the incidence of ophthalmic disorders in patients treated with a regimen containing S-1 at our institution. Ophthalmic disorders were noted in 28 of 261 patients(10.7%). These included epiphora(17 cases), eye discharge(10 cases), conjunctivitis(6cases ), blurred vision(3 cases), and eye discomfort(2 cases), as well as eye pain, pruritus, dry eye, hordeolum, and visual loss(1 case each)...
June 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684742/observed-behaviours-of-precipitable-water-vapour-and-precipitation-intensity-in-response-to-upper-air-profiles-estimated-from-surface-air-temperature
#19
Mikiko Fujita, Tomonori Sato
Extremely heavy precipitation affects human society and the natural environment, and its behaviour under a warming climate needs to be elucidated. Recent studies have demonstrated that observed extreme precipitation increases with surface air temperature (SAT) at approximately the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) rate, suggesting that atmospheric water vapour content can explain the relationship between extreme precipitation and SAT. However, the relationship between atmospheric water vapour content and SAT is poorly understood due to the lack of reliable observations with sufficient spatial and temporal coverage for statistical analyses...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683396/enrichment-of-antioxidants-in-black-garlic-juice-using-macroporous-resins-and-their-protective-effects-on-oxidation-damaged-human-erythrocytes
#20
Ying Zou, Mouming Zhao, Kun Yang, Lianzhu Lin, Yong Wang
The black garlic juice is popular for its nutritive value. Enrichment of antioxidants is needed to make black garlic extract an effective functional ingredient. Five macroporous resins were evaluated for their capacity in adsorbing antioxidants in black garlic juice. XAD-16 resin was chosen for further study due to its high adsorption and desorption ratios. Pseudo-second-order kinetics (qe=625μmol Trolox equiv/g dry resin, k2=0.0001463) and Freundlich isotherm models (ΔH=-10.1547kJ/mol) were suitable for describing the whole exothermic and physical adsorption processes of the antioxidants from black garlic juice on XAD-16 resin...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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