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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235402/anti-mycobacteria-potential-and-synergistic-effects-of-combined-crude-extracts-of-selected-medicinal-plants-used-by-bapedi-traditional-healers-to-treat-tuberculosis-related-symptoms-in-limpopo-province-south-africa
#1
Nancy Patience Motlalepula Komape, Victor Patrick Bagla, Prudence Kabongo-Kayoka, Peter Masoko
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is an infectious communicable disease and the causative agent of the disease has over the years developed resistance to streamline chemotherapeutic agents with dire consequences and there is a need for development of new and more potent alternatives. METHODS: Constituents of leaves material of Combretum heroroense, Citrus lemon and Apodytes dimidiata were serially extracted using solvents of varying polarity. TLC finger print profile of the different extracts were determined by spraying eluted plates with vanillin sulphuric acid and 2, 2- diphenylpicryl hydrazyl (DPPH) for the presence of antioxidant constituents...
February 24, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231158/irradiation-maintains-functional-components-of-dry-hot-peppers-capsicum-annuum-l-under-ambient-storage
#2
Qumer Iqbal, Muhammad Amjad, Muhammad Rafique Asi, Aamir Nawaz, Samiya Mahmood Khan, Agustin Ariño, Tanveer Ahmad
Hot peppers used as natural flavoring and coloring agents are usually irradiated in prepacked form for decontamination. The effects of gamma radiation on the stability of functional components such as capsaicinoids and antioxidant compounds (carotenoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolics) were investigated in hot peppers (Capsicum annuum). Whole dried peppers packed in polyethylene bags were gamma irradiated at 0 (control), 2, 4, and 6 kGy and subsequently stored at 25 °C for 90 days. The irradiation dose did not substantially affect the initial contents of capsaicinoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolics, though the concentration of carotenoids declined by 8% from the control (76...
September 12, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228331/-efficacy-and-safety-of-available-therapies-in-the-management-of-idiopathic-overactive-bladder-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#3
J Moyson, F Legrand, M Vanden Bossche, T Quackels, T Roumeguère
OBJECTIVE: Study the efficacy and adverse events of different pharmacological lines in the treatment of idiopathic overactive bladder (iOAB). METHODS: PubMed research on meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials (RCT) focused on the efficacy and adverse effects of anticholinergics, botulinum toxin and mirabegron since 2005. RESULTS: Ten meta-analyses of anticholinergics were selected; 16 randomized controlled trials (ERC) comparing botulinum toxin A to either anticholinergic or placebo and 10 ERC studying mirabegron...
February 19, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227804/novel-dry-electrodes-for-recording-electrodermal-activity
#4
Hugo F Posada-Quintero, Ryan Rood, Yeonsik Noh, Ken Burnham, John Pennace, Ki H Chon, Hugo F Posada-Quintero, Ryan Rood, Yeonsik Noh, Ken Burnham, John Pennace, Ki H Chon, Ryan Rood, John Pennace, Ki H Chon, Hugo F Posada-Quintero, Ken Burnham, Yeonsik Noh
Novel carbon/salt adhesive (CSA) electrodes have been found suitable for collecting electrodermal activity (EDA) signals. Ag/AgCl electrodes are considered the standard for collecting EDA signals, because it highly avoids electrodes' polarization. Ag is an expensive commodity. Furthermore, a hydrogel layer is needed for the Ag/AgCl electrodes to collect EDA signals. Adding hydrogel to the electrodes is a cumbersome process. Aforementioned circumstances highlight the need for a more accessible media to collect these signals, allowing EDA use to spread...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225479/long-lasting-training-in-the-barnes-maze-prompts-hippocampal-spinogenesis-and-habituation-in-rats
#5
Maia Uriarte, Olalekan M Ogundele, Joaquin Pardo
There is a constant need to assess spatial memory in small rodents to elucidate the basics of cognition in neuroscience experiments. Thus, the significance of the Barnes maze in the biology of hippocampal and cortical neural function cannot be overemphasized. Despite the wide use of the Barnes maze, the effect of maze task training on the structure of hippocampal neurons is yet to be elucidated. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to intense training on the Barnes maze (3 months). Subsequently, the hippocampus (cornus ammonis and dentate gyrus) of separate sets of rats was processed for Golgi Colonnier techniques (silver impregnation) and adenoviral-green fluorescent protein labeling (immunohistochemistry)...
February 20, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221874/comparing-thermal-process-validation-methods-for-salmonella-inactivation-on-almond-kernels
#6
Sanghyup Jeong, Bradley P Marks, Michael K James
Ongoing regulatory changes are increasing the need for reliable process validation methods for pathogen reduction processes involving low-moisture products; however, the reliability of various validation methods has not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective was to quantify accuracy and repeatability of four validation methods (two biologically based and two based on time-temperature models) for thermal pasteurization of almonds. Almond kernels were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 30 or Enterococcus faecium (NRRL B-2354) at ~10(8) CFU/g, equilibrated to 0...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216196/hypericum-perforatum-st-john-s-wort-beyond-depression-a-therapeutic-perspective-for-pain-conditions
#7
REVIEW
Nicoletta Galeotti
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae), popularly called St. John's wort (SJW), has a rich historical background being one of the oldest used and most extensively investigated medicinal herbs. Many bioactivities and applications of SJW are listed in popular and in scientific literature, including antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory. In the last three decades many studies focused on the antidepressant activity of SJW extracts. However, several studies in recent years also described the antinociceptive and analgesic properties of SJW that validate the traditional uses of the plant in pain conditions...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215808/urea-stabilisation-and-concentration-for-urine-diverting-dry-toilets-urine-dehydration-in-ash
#8
Jenna Senecal, Björn Vinnerås
Human excreta contain the same nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N-P-K) as the fertilisers used to produce the food consumed. However, human excreta are considered unwanted waste throughout the world, creating humanitarian and environmental problems. In order to replace the nutrients removed from fields during crop harvesting, more fertilisers are manufactured, in processes contributing to environmental changes at global level. The limitation of human urine as a fertiliser is its low nutrient concentration compared with commercial fertilisers...
February 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215185/nutritive-value-and-anthelmintic-effect-of-sainfoin-pellets-fed-to-experimentally-infected-growing-rabbits
#9
H Legendre, H Hoste, T Gidenne
Alternative strategies to synthetic chemical drugs are needed in livestock and are a key issue in organic farming today. This study aimed at examining the potentialities of sainfoin, a legume rich in condensed tannins, as a nutraceutical that combines nutritive and antiparasitic effects in rabbits. To test the effect of infection with a helminth (I: infected groups; NI: not infected groups) and the effect of substituting 40% of the alfalfa in a control diet (C) with sainfoin (diet S), four groups of 16 weaned rabbits were arranged according to a 2×2 bifactorial design...
February 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213731/fungi-based-treatment-of-brewery-wastewater-biomass-production-and-nutrient-reduction
#10
M Hultberg, H Bodin
The beer-brewing process produces high amounts of nutrient-rich wastewater, and the increasing number of microbreweries worldwide has created a need for innovative solutions to deal with this waste. In the present study, fungal biomass production and the removal of organic carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen from synthetic brewery wastewater were studied. Different filamentous fungi with a record of safe use were screened for growth, and Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus and Trichoderma harzianum were selected for further work...
February 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213677/a-new-distribution-range-of-ateles-chamek-humboldt-1812-in-an-ecotone-of-three-biomes-in-the-paraguay-river-basin
#11
Manoel Dos Santos-Filho, Christine Steiner São Bernardo, Henry Willian Van der Laan Barbosa, Almério Câmara Gusmão, Leandro Jerusalinsky, Gustavo Rodrigues Canale
Historical records of Ateles chamek (black-faced black spider monkey) suggest that the species range extends further south of the known species distribution, within an ecotonal region between the Amazonia, Cerrado and Pantanal biomes in Brazil. Ecotones are zones of habitat transition with high species richness that remain undersampled as conservationists often prioritize biodiversity hotspots. Thus, distribution ranges may be inaccurately measured when species occur in ecotonal zones. We report the first precise records of A...
February 17, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208285/determining-gender-by-raman-spectroscopy-of-a-bloodstain
#12
Aliaksandra Sikirzhytskaya, Vitali Sikirzhytski, Igor K Lednev
The development of novel methods for forensic science is a constantly growing area of modern analytical chemistry. Raman spectroscopy is one of a few analytical techniques capable of nondestructive and nearly instantaneous analysis of a wide variety of forensic evidence, including body fluid stains, at the scene of a crime. In this proof-of-concept study, Raman microspectroscopy was utilized for gender identification based on dry bloodstains. Raman spectra were acquired in mapping mode from multiple spots on a bloodstain to account for intrinsic sample heterogeneity...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202593/a-maugis-dugdale-cohesive-solution-for-adhesion-of-a-surface-with-a-dimple
#13
A Papangelo, M Ciavarella
We study the adhesion of a surface with a 'dimple' which shows a mechanism for a bi-stable adhesive system in surfaces with spaced patterns of depressions, leading to adhesion enhancement, high dissipation and hysteresis. Recent studies were limited mainly to the very short range of adhesion (the so-called JKR regime), while we generalize the study to a Maugis cohesive model. A 'generalized Tabor parameter', given by the ratio of theoretical strength to elastic modulus, multiplied by the ratio of dimple width to depth has been found...
February 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199416/restoring-and-managing-low-severity-fire-in-dry-forest-landscapes-of-the-western-usa
#14
William L Baker
Low-severity fires that killed few canopy trees played a significant historical role in dry forests of the western USA and warrant restoration and management, but historical rates of burning remain uncertain. Past reconstructions focused on on dating fire years, not measuring historical rates of burning. Past statistics, including mean composite fire interval (mean CFI) and individual-tree fire interval (mean ITFI) have biases and inaccuracies if used as estimators of rates. In this study, I used regression, with a calibration dataset of 96 cases, to test whether these statistics could accurately predict two equivalent historical rates, population mean fire interval (PMFI) and fire rotation (FR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199171/climate-adaptation-of-tropical-cattle
#15
W Barendse
There is sustained growth in the number of tropical cattle, which represent more than half of all cattle worldwide. By and large, most research in tropical areas is still focused on breeds of cattle, their particular advantages or disadvantages in tropical areas, and the tropical forages or feeds that could be usefully fed to them. A consistent issue for adaptation to climate is the heat of tropical environments. Changing the external characteristics of the animal, such as color and coat characteristics, is one way to adapt, and there are several major genes for these traits...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197326/efficacy-of-carboxymethylcellulose-and-hyaluronate-in-dry-eye-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Jae Kyeong Song, Kiheon Lee, Hwa Yeon Park, Joon Young Hyon, Seung-Won Oh, Woo Kyung Bae, Jong-Soo Han, Se Young Jung, Yoo Jin Um, Ga-Hye Lee, Ji Hye Yang
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of two artificial tears, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and hyaluronate (HA), was compared in the treatment of patients with dry eye disease. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases. The efficacy was compared in terms of the mean change from baseline in tear break-up time. The meta-analysis was conducted using both random and fixed effect models...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196268/three-cases-of-exotropic-moebius-syndrome
#17
Abbas Bagheri, Mohaddese Feizi
Moebius syndrome is characterized by congenital facial palsy and limitation in horizontal gaze. The surgical results of the exotropic pattern are rare and have not been published before. The authors report three cases of exotropic Moebius syndrome. Maximal weakening of the lateral rectus muscles followed by strengthening of the medial recti in exotropic Moebius syndrome can improve exotropia significantly. Most of these cases also need some measures to relieve the often associated severe dry eye. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195697/block-copolymer-patterning-for-creating-porous-silicon-thin-films-with-tunable-refractive-indices
#18
Hanna H Hulkkonen, Turkka Salminen, Tapio Niemi
We investigated the use of block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly for tuning the optical properties of silicon. We fabricated porous silicon by etching a hexagonally ordered pore pattern onto the surface of silicon wafers using poly(styrene-2-vinylpyridine) to prepare the etch mask. Contrary to typical BCP lithography, we did not need to use a range of different polymers to vary the pore size. We used the dry etching time as a way to increase the pore diameter and thus the porosity. The optical properties of the fabricated porous thin films were characterized by two effective medium approximations...
February 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194652/hair-cortisol-in-the-evaluation-of-cushing-syndrome
#19
Aaron Hodes, Maya B Lodish, Amit Tirosh, Jerrold Meyer, Elena Belyavskaya, Charalampos Lyssikatos, Kendra Rosenberg, Andrew Demidowich, Jeremy Swan, Nichole Jonas, Constantine A Stratakis, Mihail Zilbermint
PURPOSE: Hair cortisol evaluation has been used to help detect patients with suspected Cushing syndrome. Our goal was to correlate segmental hair cortisol with biochemical testing in patients with Cushing syndrome and controls. This study was a prospective analysis of hair cortisol in confirmed Cushing syndrome cases over 16 months. METHODS: Thirty-six subjects (26.5 ± 18.9 years, 75% female, and 75% Caucasian) were analyzed by diurnal serum cortisol, 24 h urinary free cortisol corrected for body surface area (UFC/BSA), and 24 h urinary 17-hydroxysteroids corrected for creatinine (17OHS/Cr)...
February 13, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192773/a-bioinspired-elastin-based-protein-for-a-cytocompatible-underwater-adhesive
#20
M Jane Brennan, Bridget F Kilbride, Jonathan J Wilker, Julie C Liu
The development of adhesives that can be applied and create strong bonds underwater is a significant challenge for materials engineering. When the adhesive is intended for biomedical applications, further criteria, such as biocompatibility, must be met. Current biomedical adhesive technologies do not meet these needs. In response, we designed a bioinspired protein system that shows promise to achieve biocompatible underwater adhesion coupled with environmentally responsive behavior that is "smart" - that is, it can be tuned to suit a specific application...
January 30, 2017: Biomaterials
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