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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035268/trace-element-and-isotope-deposition-across-the-air-sea-interface-progress-and-research-needs
#1
REVIEW
A R Baker, W M Landing, E Bucciarelli, M Cheize, S Fietz, C T Hayes, D Kadko, P L Morton, N Rogan, G Sarthou, R U Shelley, Z Shi, A Shiller, M M P van Hulten
The importance of the atmospheric deposition of biologically essential trace elements, especially iron, is widely recognized, as are the difficulties of accurately quantifying the rates of trace element wet and dry deposition and their fractional solubility. This paper summarizes some of the recent progress in this field, particularly that driven by the GEOTRACES, and other, international research programmes. The utility and limitations of models used to estimate atmospheric deposition flux, for example, from the surface ocean distribution of tracers such as dissolved aluminium, are discussed and a relatively new technique for quantifying atmospheric deposition using the short-lived radionuclide beryllium-7 is highlighted...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034443/prospective-clinical-study-comparing-intraligamentary-anesthesia-and-inferior-alveolar-nerve-block-for-extraction-of-posterior-mandibular-teeth
#2
P W Kämmerer, A Adubae, I Buttchereit, D G E Thiem, M Daubländer, B Frerich
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of intraligamentary anesthesia (ILA) with conventional inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) for extraction of mandibular posterior teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective clinical trial, a total of 301 mandibular posterior teeth were extracted in 266 patients. Randomization was conducted into those who received ILA (patients n = 98; teeth n = 105) and those who received IANB (patient n = 140; teeth n = 140)...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033270/a-survey-of-contact-lens-related-complications-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-china
#3
Weiwei Li, Xuguang Sun, Zhiqun Wang, Yang Zhang
PURPOSE: To describe the type of complications related to contact lens (CL) wear in a tertiary hospital in XX, China. METHODS: A retrospective study of 141 patients who complained discomfort after wearing contact lens on an outpatient basis of XX Hospital were conducted from the January 2012 to December 2015. The data included patients' demographics, lens type, history, slit-lamp examination, reports of corneal scrapings, culture, and examination of in vivo confocal microscopy...
October 12, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029370/elder-neglect-oral-diseases-and-injuries
#4
Stefano Petti
Elder Neglect (EN) is the failure of a designated caregiver to meet the needs of a dependent older person. World EN prevalence, meta-analyzed in this study, is 1.0% or 1.8% according to different statistical methods. Referring alleged EN cases to Adult Protective Services (APSs) by healthcare workers (HCWs) is mandatory in many countries. However, only few claims are substantiated, as EN could be confused with Self-Neglect, neglect could be unintentional or due to caregiver unawareness. Screening tools are inaccurate and their use is discouraged by public health organizations, because they lead to too many false positives, which engulf the already overwhelmed APSs...
October 13, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028353/activated-microglia-targeting-dendrimer-minocycline-conjugate-as-therapeutics-for-neuroinflammation
#5
Rishi Sharma, Soo-Young Kim, Anjali Sharma, Zhi Zhang, Siva Pramodh Kambhampati, Sujatha Kannan, Rangaramanujam M Kannan
Brain related disorders have outmatched cancer and cardiovascular diseases worldwide as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The lack of effective therapies and the relatively dry central nervous system (CNS) drug pipeline pose formidable challenge. Superior, targeted delivery of current clinically approved drugs may offer significant potential. Minocycline has shown promise for the treatment of neurological diseases owing to its ability to penetrate the blood brain barrier (BBB), and potency. Despite its potential in the clinic, and in preclinical models, the high doses needed to affect a positive therapeutic response has led to side effects...
October 13, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026012/the-orbiting-carbon-observatory-2-early-science-investigations-of-regional-carbon-dioxide-fluxes
#6
A Eldering, P O Wennberg, D Crisp, D S Schimel, M R Gunson, A Chatterjee, J Liu, F M Schwandner, Y Sun, C W O'Dell, C Frankenberg, T Taylor, B Fisher, G B Osterman, D Wunch, J Hakkarainen, J Tamminen, B Weir
NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) mission was motivated by the need to diagnose how the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is altering the productivity of the biosphere and the uptake of CO2 by the oceans. Launched on 2 July 2014, OCO-2 provides retrievals of the column-averaged CO2 dry-air mole fraction ([Formula: see text]) as well as the fluorescence from chlorophyll in terrestrial plants. The seasonal pattern of uptake by the terrestrial biosphere is recorded in fluorescence and the drawdown of [Formula: see text] during summer...
October 13, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024063/influence-of-ration-composition-on-nutritive-and-digestive-variables-in-captive-giraffes-giraffa-camelopardalis-indicating-the-appropriateness-of-feeding-practice
#7
I Gussek, C Große-Brinkhaus, K-H Südekum, J Hummel
The nutrition of captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), a browsing ruminant, is challenging because browse availability is limited in zoos and rations need to be composed of compensatory feeds. In this study, ration composition for giraffes in 12 German zoos was documented and linked to animal variables that indicate suitability of nutrition. Rations differed in proportion of ration items and chemical composition resulting in various grades of accordance with feeding recommendations. An estimated daily metabolisable energy (ME) intake (MEI; mean ± SD) of 0...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023789/evaluation-of-the-efficiency-of-three-extraction-conditions-for-the-immunochemical-detection-of-allergenic-soy-proteins-in-different-food-matrices
#8
Amma Amponsah, Balunkeswar Nayak
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown the need to improve soy allergen extraction using different extraction conditions to ensure more accurate results in allergen detection. This study investigated some of these extraction conditions to confirm that these methods, especially UAE and the use of Laemmli buffer instead of the conventional extraction with PBS buffer, could be helpful in improving the extraction step in allergen detection. RESULTS: Higher total soluble protein was obtained in all samples extracted with Laemmli buffer alone and in combination with ultrasound...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023453/plant-water-potential-improves-prediction-of-empirical-stomatal-models
#9
William R L Anderegg, Adam Wolf, Adriana Arango-Velez, Brendan Choat, Daniel J Chmura, Steven Jansen, Thomas Kolb, Shan Li, Frederick Meinzer, Pilar Pita, Víctor Resco de Dios, John S Sperry, Brett T Wolfe, Stephen Pacala
Climate change is expected to lead to increases in drought frequency and severity, with deleterious effects on many ecosystems. Stomatal responses to changing environmental conditions form the backbone of all ecosystem models, but are based on empirical relationships and are not well-tested during drought conditions. Here, we use a dataset of 34 woody plant species spanning global forest biomes to examine the effect of leaf water potential on stomatal conductance and test the predictive accuracy of three major stomatal models and a recently proposed model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022123/assessment-of-a-closed-wash-system-developed-for-processing-living-donor-femoral-heads
#10
M J Eagle, J Man, P Rooney, T A McQuillan, G Galea, J N Kearney
NHS Blood and Transplant Tissue and Eye Services (TES) and Scottish National Blood Transfusion Services Tissues and Cells Directorate (TCD) currently bank whole, frozen femoral head bone from living donors who are undergoing primary hip replacement surgery. When required, the bone is issued to a surgeon still frozen on dry ice (- 79 °C). Consequently, the femoral head bone is not processed, is not sterilised and at the time of issue, it contains donor blood, bone marrow and associated cells. We have previously shown that, cut, shaped and washed bone from deceased donors can be processed to remove up to 99...
October 11, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018424/sample-preservation-dna-or-rna-extraction-and-data-analysis-for-high-throughput-phytoplankton-community-sequencing
#11
Anita Mäki, Pauliina Salmi, Anu Mikkonen, Anke Kremp, Marja Tiirola
Phytoplankton is the basis for aquatic food webs and mirrors the water quality. Conventionally, phytoplankton analysis has been done using time consuming and partly subjective microscopic observations, but next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide promising potential for rapid automated examination of environmental samples. Because many phytoplankton species have tough cell walls, methods for cell lysis and DNA or RNA isolation need to be efficient to allow unbiased nucleic acid retrieval. Here, we analyzed how two phytoplankton preservation methods, three commercial DNA extraction kits and their improvements, three RNA extraction methods, and two data analysis procedures affected the results of the NGS analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992989/fully-compatible-and-ultra-sensitive-micellar-electrokinetic-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-using-sheathless-porous-tip-interfacing
#12
David Moreno-González, Rob Haselberg, Laura Gámiz-Gracia, Ana M García-Campaña, Gerhardus J de Jong, Govert W Somsen
The on-line coupling of micellar electrokinetic chromatography and mass spectrometry (MEKC-MS) is often hampered by incompatibility problems leading to reduced separation performance and unfavorable limits of detection (LODs). Here we propose a new selective and highly sensitive MEKC-MS/MS method employing a sheathless porous-tip interface in combination with a micellar phase comprised of semi-volatile surfactant molecules. Carbamate pesticides (CRBs) were selected as representative model compounds being neutral toxic pollutants potentially present at trace levels in environmental water samples...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990670/measuring-consumers-interest-in-instant-fortified-pearl-millet-products-a-field-experiment-in-touba-senegal
#13
Hugo De Groote, Sarah W Kariuki, Djibril Traore, John R N Taylor, Mario Ferruzzi, Bruce R Hamaker
BACKGROUND: In Africa, food-processing industries are emerging fast, especially for cereals. New low-cost extrusion cookers give small enterprises an opportunity to enter the market for processed cereal products, in particular instant, fortified and flavored mixes. Before engaging in the marketing of these products, consumers' interest needs to be assessed. This study used a combination of affective tests and experimental auctions with 200 consumers in Touba, Senegal to evaluate four new products with conventional pearl millet flour as the control: instant pearl millet flour, instant pearl millet flour with added dry mango and carrot powder (naturally fortified), and the previous products with added conventional chemical micronutrient fortificants...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990226/milk-fatty-acid-profile-from-cows-fed-with-mixed-rations-and-different-access-time-to-pastureland-during-early-lactation
#14
J Barca, M Carriquiry, L Olazabal, M Fajardo, P Chilibroste, A Meikle
Milk fatty acid (FA) profiles were determined in Holstein cows (n = 27) fed total mixed rations (TMR) ad libitum (G0) or diet composed by TMR (50% dry matter [DM] offered) plus grazing of pasture with 6 hr of access time to paddock in one session (G1) or 9 hr in two sessions (G2) at 45 days in milk (DIM). Moreover, milk FA was determined at 65 DIM when G0 cows turned out to G1 diet without adaptation period (Post-G0), G1 remained as controls. Milk FA was quantified using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989861/tackling-vitamin-a-deficiency-with-biofortified-sweetpotato-in-sub-saharan-africa
#15
REVIEW
Jan W Low, Robert O M Mwanga, Maria Andrade, Edward Carey, Anna-Marie Ball
Orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP) is a rich plant-based source of beta-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A. In sub-Saharan Africa, sweetpotato is known as a food security crop but most varieties grown are high dry matter white-fleshed types, lacking beta-carotene. In 1995, researchers recognized the potential of OFSP varieties to address widespread vitamin A deficiency in SSA using an integrated agriculture-nutrition approach. With their partners, they confronted conventional wisdom concerning food-based approaches and institutional barriers, to build the evidence base and breed 42 OFSP varieties adapted to farmer needs and consumer preferences...
September 2017: Global Food Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987583/physically-adjusted-neutral-detergent-fiber-system-for-lactating-dairy-cow-rations-ii-development-of-feeding-recommendations
#16
Robin R White, Mary Beth Hall, Jeffrey L Firkins, Paul J Kononoff
The objective of this work was to leverage equations derived in a meta-analysis into an ensemble modeling system for estimating dietary physical and chemical characteristics required to maintain desired rumen conditions in lactating dairy cattle. Given the availability of data, responsiveness of ruminal pH to animal behaviors, and the chemical composition and physical form of the diet, mean ruminal pH was chosen as the primary rumen environment indicator. Physically effective fiber (peNDF) is defined as the fraction of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) that stimulates chewing activity and contributes to the floating mat of large particles in the rumen...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975090/chronic-dietary-oxalate-nephropathy-after-intensive-dietary-weight-loss-regimen
#17
Gebran Khneizer, Ahmad Al-Taee, Meher S Mallick, Bahar Bastani
BACKGROUND: Hyperoxaluria has been associated with nephrolithiasis as well as acute and chronic kidney disease. We present a case of end stage renal failure caused by excessive dietary oxalate intake in a dietary weight loss regimen. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old Caucasian male with the past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, gout, hypertension and morbid obesity was referred to the primary care clinic after being found pale and easily fatigued. The patient had lost 36 kg over a 7-month period by implementing exercise and intense dietary measures that included 6 meals of spinach, kale, berries, and nuts...
July 2017: Journal of Nephropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974777/high-density-microprojection-array-delivery-to-rat-skin-of-low-doses-of-trivalent-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-elicits-potent-neutralising-antibody-responses
#18
David A Muller, Germain J P Fernando, Nick S Owens, Christiana Agyei-Yeboah, Jonathan C J Wei, Alexandra C I Depelsenaire, Angus Forster, Paul Fahey, William C Weldon, M Steven Oberste, Paul R Young, Mark A F Kendall
To secure a polio-free world, the live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) will eventually need to be replaced with inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPV). However, current IPV delivery is less suitable for campaign use than OPV, and more expensive. We are progressing a microarray patch delivery platform, the Nanopatch, as an easy-to-use device to administer vaccines, including IPV. The Nanopatch contains an ultra-high density array (10,000/cm(2)) of short (~230 μm) microprojections that delivers dry coated vaccine into the skin...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973762/minimum-number-of-measurements-for-evaluating-bertholletia-excelsa
#19
A B Baldoni, H Tonini, F D Tardin, S C C Botelho, P E Teodoro
Repeatability studies on fruit species are of great importance to identify the minimum number of measurements necessary to accurately select superior genotypes. This study aimed to identify the most efficient method to estimate the repeatability coefficient (r) and predict the minimum number of measurements needed for a more accurate evaluation of Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) genotypes based on fruit yield. For this, we assessed the number of fruits and dry mass of seeds of 75 Brazil nut genotypes, from native forest, located in the municipality of Itaúba, MT, for 5 years...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973760/prediction-of-genetic-gains-by-selection-indices-using-mixed-models-in-elephant-grass-for-energy-purposes
#20
V B Silva, R F Daher, M S B Araújo, Y P Souza, S Cassaro, B R S Menezes, L M Gravina, A A C Novo, F D Tardin, A T Amaral Júnior
Genetically improved cultivars of elephant grass need to be adapted to different ecosystems with a faster growth speed and lower seasonality of biomass production over the year. This study aimed to use selection indices using mixed models (REML/BLUP) for selecting families and progenies within full-sib families of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) for biomass production. One hundred and twenty full-sib progenies were assessed from 2014 to 2015 in a randomized block design with three replications. During this period, the traits dry matter production, the number of tillers, plant height, stem diameter, and neutral detergent fiber were assessed...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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