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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818754/daily-thanatomicrobiome-changes-in-soil-as-an-approach-of-postmortem-interval-estimation-an-ecological-perspective
#1
Joe Adserias-Garriga, Marta Hernández, Narciso M Quijada, David Rodríguez Lázaro, Dawnie Steadman, Jesús Garcia-Gil
Understanding human decomposition is critical for its use in postmortem interval (PMI) estimation, having a significant impact on forensic investigations. In recognition of the need to establish the scientific basis for PMI estimation, several studies on decomposition have been carried out in the last years. The aims of the present study were: (i) to identify soil microbiota communities involved in human decomposition through high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of DNA sequences from the different bacteria, (ii) to monitor quantitatively and qualitatively the decay of such signature species, and (iii) to describe succesional changes in bacterial populations from the early putrefaction state until skeletonization...
August 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817563/assessment-of-risk-of-dengue-and-yellow-fever-virus-transmission-in-three-major-kenyan-cities-based-on-stegomyia-indices
#2
Sheila B Agha, David P Tchouassi, Armanda D S Bastos, Rosemary Sang
Dengue (DEN) and yellow fever (YF) are re-emerging in East Africa, with contributing drivers to this trend being unplanned urbanization and increasingly adaptable anthropophilic Aedes (Stegomyia) vectors. Entomological risk assessment of these diseases remains scarce for much of East Africa and Kenya even in the dengue fever-prone urban coastal areas. Focusing on major urban cities of Kenya, we compared DEN and YF risk in Kilifi County (DEN-outbreak-prone), and Kisumu and Nairobi Counties (no documented DEN outbreaks)...
August 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815847/mastitis-treatment-reduction-in-antibiotic-usage-in-dairy-cows
#3
REVIEW
V Krömker, S Leimbach
Animal-friendly, economical, resource-saving milk production provides the basis for sustained consumer acceptance. Bovine mastitis plays a decisive role in the dairy industry-disturbing animal health and welfare and causing considerable economic losses on the other hand. Currently, antimicrobial treatment is indispensable to keep bovine udder health, animal welfare and economic aspects in balance. On the contrary, emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an urgent matter of particular public interest, and as a consequence, antimicrobial usage (AMU) in production livestock is a critically discussed subject...
August 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814411/local-synthesis-of-sex-hormones-are-there-consequences-for-the-ocular-surface-and-dry-eye
#4
REVIEW
Emma J Gibson, Fiona Stapleton, James S Wolffsohn, Blanka Golebiowski
Sex hormones are associated with the physiology and pathophysiology of almost all organs in the body, as well as most diseases. Interest in the associations between sex hormones and ocular tissues has increased in recent years. Androgens may have a positive effect on dry eye, whereas the effects of oestrogen on ocular conditions remain unclear. Intracrinology, the local synthesis and metabolism of hormones that is unique to humans, is of relevance to the eye and may help to explain why studies of the relationship between oestrogens and dry eye signs and symptoms are inconclusive...
August 16, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811644/the-link-between-enso-like-forcing-and-hydroclimate-variability-of-coastal-east-asia-during-the-last-millennium
#5
Jungjae Park, Jiwoo Han, Qiuhong Jin, Junbeom Bahk, Sangheon Yi
Inconsistent reconstructions of East Asian hydroclimate for the last millennium significantly limit our understanding of the mechanisms behind climate variability during the medieval climate anomaly (MCA) and little ice age (LIA) in the region. In this study, we present new high-resolution multiproxy records (diatom, δ(13)C, C/N, TS) from the Mulyoungari swamp, Jeju Island, South Korea. Our results indicate that El Niño southern oscillation-like variations caused the dry MCA/wet LIA pattern in the study area...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809446/deferasirox-for-managing-iron-overload-in-people-with-thalassaemia
#6
REVIEW
Claudia Bollig, Lisa K Schell, Gerta Rücker, Roman Allert, Edith Motschall, Charlotte M Niemeyer, Dirk Bassler, Joerg J Meerpohl
BACKGROUND: Thalassaemia is a hereditary anaemia due to ineffective erythropoiesis. In particular, people with thalassaemia major develop secondary iron overload resulting from regular red blood cell transfusions. Iron chelation therapy is needed to prevent long-term complications.Both deferoxamine and deferiprone are effective; however, a review of the effectiveness and safety of the newer oral chelator deferasirox in people with thalassaemia is needed. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral deferasirox in people with thalassaemia and iron overload...
August 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808326/the-importance-of-the-nutritive-value-of-old-bones-in-the-diet-of-bearded-vultures-gypaetus-barbatus
#7
Antoni Margalida, Daniel Villalba
Vultures are central-place foragers and need to optimize their foraging behaviour to offset travel costs by increasing their energy gain. This process is more obvious in certain vulture species that do not feed their young by regurgitation and so must carry food items back to the nest. The Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus is the only species with a bone-diet based. We analysed the chemical composition of bones and the age-related changes in their nutritive value to assess the differences in energy content between bones of differing age, body part and species...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808101/increased-sbpase-activity-improves-photosynthesis-and-grain-yield-in-wheat-grown-in-greenhouse-conditions
#8
Steven M Driever, Andrew J Simkin, Saqer Alotaibi, Stuart J Fisk, Pippa J Madgwick, Caroline A Sparks, Huw D Jones, Tracy Lawson, Martin A J Parry, Christine A Raines
To meet the growing demand for food, substantial improvements in yields are needed. This is particularly the case for wheat, where global yield has stagnated in recent years. Increasing photosynthesis has been identified as a primary target to achieve yield improvements. To increase leaf photosynthesis in wheat, the level of the Calvin-Benson cycle enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-biphosphatase (SBPase) has been increased through transformation and expression of a Brachypodium distachyon SBPase gene construct. Transgenic lines with increased SBPase protein levels and activity were grown under greenhouse conditions and showed enhanced leaf photosynthesis and increased total biomass and dry seed yield...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806418/seasonality-affects-dietary-diversity-of-school-age-children-in-northern-ghana
#9
Abdul-Razak Abizari, Fusta Azupogo, Miwako Nagasu, Noortje Creemers, Inge D Brouwer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dietary diversity score (DDS) is relatively easy to measure and is shown to be a very useful indicator of the probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Dietary diversity, however, is usually assessed during a single period and little is known about the effect of seasonality on it. This study investigates whether dietary diversity is influenced by seasonality. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in two different seasons-dry season (October 2010) and rainy season (May 2011) among the same school-age children (SAC) in two rural schools in northern Ghana...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803369/volume-balance-and-intradialytic-ultrafiltration-rate-in-the-hemodialysis-patient
#10
REVIEW
Jason A Chou, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Volume management in hemodialysis patients is often challenging. Assessing volume status and deciding how much fluid to remove during hemodialysis, the so-called ultrafiltration rate (UFR), has remained a conundrum. RECENT FINDINGS: To date there is no objective assessment tool to determine the needed UFR during each hemodialysis session. Higher volume overload or higher UFR is associated with poor outcomes including worse mortality and unfavorable clinical outcomes...
August 12, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803272/inpatient-monitoring-of-decompensated-heart-failure-what-is-needed
#11
REVIEW
Danish Ali, Prithwish Banerjee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute decompensated heart failure is a serious and common condition where close monitoring of symptoms, vital signs, haemodynamic and other markers are needed after the patient is admitted to hospital as the in-hospital outcome is poor. This review focuses on advances in the assessment and monitoring of these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The adoption of the CHAMP acronym to identify precipitating factors and of the classification using wet-warm, wet-cold, dry-warm and dry-cold categories is an improvement regarding assessment...
August 12, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800817/selection-of-reference-genes-to-quantify-relative-expression-of-ochratoxin-a-related-genes-by-penicillium-nordicum-in-dry-cured-ham
#12
Victoria Bernáldez, Juan J Córdoba, María J Andrade, Alberto Alía, Alicia Rodríguez
Penicillium nordicum is an important and consistent producer of ochratoxin A (OTA) in NaCl-rich foods such as dry-cured ham. OTA is a toxic secondary metabolite which provokes negative effects on consumer health. Once OTA is produced in ham, this mycotoxin is difficult to remove. Since gene expression always precedes OTA production, analysis of expression of OTA-related genes by reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) could be a valuable tool to predict OTA contamination in ham. However scarce RT-qPCR protocols are properly validated leading to inconsistent data analyses...
December 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799487/dementia-etiologies-and-remedies-in-traditional-persian-medicine-a-review-of-medicinal-plants-and-phytochemistry
#13
Laila Shirbeigi, Behnam Dalfardi, Zohre Abolhasanzade, Fatemeh Nejatbakhsh
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a chronic neurodegenerative disease causing progressive and gradual impairment of different brain's cognitive functions. The prevalence of dementia is about 3 to 7% in different parts of the world. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the etiologies of dementia according to the Traditional Persian Medicine scientists' viewpoint and introduce their recommended herbal remedies for this disease. METHOD: The authors explored six main Traditional Persian Medicine textbooks for the disease of dementia, its etiologies and related recommended herbal treatments...
August 10, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798952/prevalence-of-subclinical-mastitis-and-distribution-of-pathogens-in-dairy-farms-of-rubavu-and-nyabihu-districts-rwanda
#14
J P Mpatswenumugabo, L C Bebora, G C Gitao, V A Mobegi, B Iraguha, O Kamana, B Shumbusho
A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2016 to January 2017 in Rubavu and Nyabihu districts, Western Rwanda, aiming at estimating the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) and identifying its causative bacteria. Management practices and milking procedures were recorded through a questionnaire. 123 crossbreed milking cows from 13 dairy farms were randomly selected and screened for SCM using California Mastitis Test (CMT). Composite CMT positive milk samples were processed for bacterial isolation and identification...
2017: Journal of veterinary medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798895/prevalence-and-identification-of-serum-markers-associated-with-vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-in-pregnant-women-in-yaounde-cameroon
#15
Lucien Honoré Etame Sone, Roger Ahouga Voufo, Henriette Thérèse Dimodi, Michel Kengne, Cédric Gueguim, Nnanga Ngah, Julius Oben, Judith Laure Ngondi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection in pregnant women and identify markers associated with vertical transmission of HBV. METHODS: Prospective and cross-sectional study over 10 months on 298 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Cité Verte and Efoulan District hospitals in Cameroon. A dry tube blood collection was performed on all pregnant women and babies born to HBsAg-positive mothers. Serum from the women was used to test for HBsAg through immunochromatography and then confirmed by ELISA...
2017: International Journal of MCH and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789979/conjunctival-subepithelial-fibrosis-and-meibomian-gland-atrophy-in-ocular-graft-versus-host-disease
#16
Yael Kusne, M'hamed Temkit, Nandita Khera, Dharmendra R Patel, Joanne F Shen
PURPOSE: Dry eye symptoms greatly impact patients' quality of life in ocular graft-versus-host disease (oGVHD). Various ocular surface changes have been reported in oGVHD, including meibomian gland atrophy (MGA) and clinical conjunctival scarring or subepithelial fibrosis (CSEF). The relationships between CSEF, MGA, and other ocular surface changes in oGVHD were examined. METHODS: Charts of 21 consecutive GVHD patients examined by a single ophthalmologist were retrospectively reviewed...
August 5, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783784/nitrous-oxide-and-methane-fluxes-from-urine-and-dung-deposited-on-kenyan-pastures
#17
Katherine L Tully, Sheila Abwanda, Margaret Thiong'o, Paul M Mutuo, Todd S Rosenstock
Livestock keeping is ubiquitous in tropical Africa. Urine and dung from livestock release greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as nitrous oxide (NO) and methane (CH), to the atmosphere. However, the extent of GHG's impact is uncertain due to the lack of in situ measurements in the region. Here we measured NO and CH emissions from cow urine and dung depositions in two Kenyan pastures that received different amounts of rainfall using static chambers across wet and dry seasons. Cumulative NO emissions were greater under dung+urine and urine-only patches ( 0...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778005/fertilization-using-sewage-sludge-in-unfertile-tropical-soils-increased-wood-production-in-eucalyptus-plantations
#18
Cassio Hamilton Abreu-Junior, Lucia Pitol Firme, Carlos Alberto Baca Maldonado, Sebastião Pires de Moraes Neto, Marcelo Corrêa Alves, Takashi Muraoka, Antonio Enedi Boaretto, José Luís Gava, Zhenli He, Thiago Assis Rodrigues Nogueira, Gian Franco Capra
Fertilization of Eucalyptus plantations using sewage sludge on unfertile tropical soils represents an alternative to using mineral N and P fertilizers. A 44-month field experiment was conducted to study the effects of increasing application of sludge, and its interactions with mineral N and P fertilizers, on wood volume. Four rates of sludge (0, 8, 15 and 23 Mg ha(-1), dry base), N (0, 47, 95 and 142 kg ha(-1)) and P (0, 28, 56 and 84 kg ha(-1) of P2O5) were combined in a 4 × 4 × 4 factorial scheme in a totally randomized block design...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775391/drought-tolerant-desmodium-species-effectively-suppress-parasitic-striga-weed-and-improve-cereal-grain-yields-in-western-kenya
#19
Charles A O Midega, Charles J Wasonga, Antony M Hooper, John A Pickett, Zeyaur R Khan
The parasitic weed Striga hermonthica Benth. (Orobanchaceae), commonly known as striga, is an increasingly important constraint to cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), often resulting in total yield losses in maize (Zea mays L.) and substantial losses in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). This is further aggravated by soil degradation and drought conditions that are gradually becoming widespread in SSA. Forage legumes in the genus Desmodium (Fabaceae), mainly D. uncinatum and D. intortum, effectively control striga and improve crop productivity in SSA...
August 2017: Crop Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774201/patterns-of-use-of-dry-powder-inhalers-versus-pressurized-metered-dose-inhalers-devices-in-adult-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-or-asthma-an-observational-comparative-study
#20
Wijdan H Ramadan, Aline T Sarkis
Numerous patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma do not use inhaler devices properly, which can contribute to poor disease control. The objective of this study is to assess the technical and safety use of dry powder inhalers (DPIs) versus pressurized metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) in adult patients with COPD or asthma in Lebanon. A concurrent, prospective comparative observational study was conducted at one hospital and 15 community pharmacies in Lebanon. Over a period of 18 months, 246 questionnaires were filled...
August 2017: Chronic Respiratory Disease
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