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"Functional neurological disorder"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764988/you-ve-made-the-diagnosis-of-functional-neurological-disorder-now-what
#1
EDITORIAL
Caitlin Adams, Jordan Anderson, Elizabeth N Madva, W Curt LaFrance, David L Perez
Patients with functional neurological disorders (FND)/conversion disorder commonly present to outpatient clinics. FND is now a 'rule in' diagnosis based on neurological examination findings and semiological features. While neurologists may be more comfortable diagnosing patients with FND, there is only limited guidance as to how to conduct follow-up outpatient visits. Using clinical vignettes, we provide practical suggestions that may help guide clinical encounters including how to: (1) explore illness beliefs openly; (2) enquire longitudinally about predisposing vulnerabilities, acute precipitants and perpetuating factors that may be further elucidated over time; (3) facilitate psychotherapy engagement by actively listening for potentially unhelpful or maladaptive patterns of thoughts, behaviours, fears or psychosocial stressors that can be reflected back to the patient and (4) enquire about the fidelity of individual treatments and educate other providers who may be less familiar with FND...
May 15, 2018: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735513/a-unifying-theory-for-cognitive-abnormalities-in-functional-neurological-disorders-fibromyalgia-and-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Tiago Teodoro, Mark J Edwards, Jeremy D Isaacs
BACKGROUND: Functional cognitive disorder (FCD) describes cognitive dysfunction in the absence of an organic cause. It is increasingly prevalent in healthcare settings yet its key neuropsychological features have not been reported in large patient cohorts. We hypothesised that cognitive profiles in fibromyalgia (FM), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and functional neurological disorders (FNDs) would provide a template for characterising FCD. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies with cognition-related outcomes in FM, CFS and FND...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702433/individual-differences-in-corticolimbic-structural-profiles-linked-to-insecure-attachment-and-coping-styles-in-motor-functional-neurological-disorders
#3
Benjamin Williams, Rozita Jalilianhasanpour, Nassim Matin, Gregory L Fricchione, Jorge Sepulcre, Matcheri S Keshavan, W Curt LaFrance, Bradford C Dickerson, David L Perez
BACKGROUND: Insecure attachment and maladaptive coping are important predisposing vulnerabilities for Functional Neurological Disorders (FND)/Conversion Disorder, yet no prior structural neuroimaging studies have investigated biomarkers associated with these risk factors in FND populations. This magnetic resonance imaging study examined cortical thickness and subcortical volumes associated with self-reported attachment and coping styles in patients with FND. We hypothesized that insecure attachment and maladaptive coping would relate to limbic-paralimbic structural alterations...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702410/scared-or-scarred-could-dissociogenic-lesions-predispose-to-nonepileptic-seizures-after-head-trauma
#4
REVIEW
Stoyan Popkirov, Alan J Carson, Jon Stone
A history of head injury is common in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). This association has so far been interpreted as either spurious or psychologically mediated. Biased recall and misattribution could foster illness beliefs about brain damage that promote symptom production. Furthermore, the emotional impact of head injury could induce long-term changes in stress responsivity. Lastly, maladaptive cognitive-behavioural processes involving symptom modelling and aversive conditioning, known to play a role in functional neurological disorders, could contribute to the development of PNES after head trauma...
April 14, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677034/functional-somatic-symptoms-across-cultures-perceptual-and-health-care-issues
#5
Bernd Löwe, Christian Gerloff
Functional neurological disorders are conceptualized as patterns of neurological symptoms that cannot be attributed to a clear organic etiology. The study by Wilkins et al. published in this issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, revealed that 8.2% of patients who were initially presented with suspected stroke were later diagnosed with functional disorders, i.e., "functional stroke mimics." However, the percentage of functional stroke mimics varied substantially with patients' nationality, age, and sex...
April 19, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628294/the-inpatient-assessment-and-management-of-motor-functional-neurological-disorders-an-interdisciplinary-perspective
#6
Kathleen McKee, Sean Glass, Caitlin Adams, Christopher D Stephen, Franklin King, Kristin Parlman, David L Perez, Nicholas Kontos
BACKGROUND: Motor functional neurologic disorders (FND)-previously termed "hysteria" and later "conversion disorder"-are exceedingly common and frequently encountered in the acute hospital setting. Despite their high prevalence, patients with motor FND can be challenging to diagnose accurately and manage effectively. To date, there is limited guidance on the inpatient approach to the neuropsychiatric evaluation of patients with functional (psychogenic) neurologic symptoms...
January 8, 2018: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609961/motor-functional-neurological-disorders-an-update
#7
REVIEW
B Garcin
Motor functional neurological disorders (FNDs) are motor symptoms not explained by a lesion or related to a known dysfunction of the central nervous system, yet functional imaging studies suggest the presence of a genuine brain dysfunction. With this common disabling condition, there is a particular need for collaboration between neurologists and psychiatrists. Neurologists can search for positive clinical signs to make the diagnosis, which can then be followed by an explanation of the disease, whereas psychiatrists can look for psychological factors and psychiatric comorbidities in order to deliver appropriate treatment...
March 30, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606068/treatment-for-patients-with-a-functional-neurological-disorder-conversion-disorder-an-integrated-approach
#8
Mary A O'Neal, Gaston Baslet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588989/psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures-among-patients-with-functional-neurological-disorder-a-case-series-from-a-tanzanian-referral-hospital-and-literature-review
#9
Marieke C J Dekker, Sarah J Urasa, Marissa Kellogg, William P Howlett
Objective: Functional neurological disorders (FNDs) and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are likely as common in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as in the rest of the world, but there is a dearth of literature on the epidemiology and clinical presentation of these disorders in Africa. The purpose of this paper is to describe a case series of FNDs presenting to a referral hospital in SSA. In addition, we review the existing literature on FNDs in Africa. Methods: A hospital-based retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, epidemiology, and clinical phenotype of FNDs and PNES in a referral hospital in Northern Tanzania over a 6-year period (2007-2013)...
March 2018: Epilepsia Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571869/prevalence-of-functional-psychogenic-parkinsonism-in-two-swiss-movement-disorders-clinics-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Giulia Frasca Polara, Vanessa Fleury, Jon Stone, Anita Barbey, Pierre R Burkhard, François Vingerhoets, Selma Aybek
BACKGROUND: Functional parkinsonism (FP) is considered rare but no studies have looked at its frequency. Case series have described high rates of comorbidity with Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting a possible association between these conditions. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence, epidemiology and clinical features of FP and its association with PD. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional population-based prevalence study as well as a chart review of cases who received a diagnosis of FP over a 10-year-period in two movement disorder clinics in Switzerland...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549192/functional-neurological-disorders-in-parkinson-disease
#11
Benjamin D Wissel, Alok K Dwivedi, Aristide Merola, Danielle Chin, Cara Jacob, Andrew P Duker, Jennifer E Vaughan, Lilia Lovera, Kathrin LaFaver, Ariel Levy, Anthony E Lang, Francesca Morgante, Melissa Jill Nirenberg, Christopher Stephen, Nutan Sharma, Alberto Romagnolo, Leonardo Lopiano, Bettina Balint, Xin X Yu, Kailash P Bhatia, Alberto J Espay
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain demographic and clinical features of Parkinson disease (PD) associated with functional neurological features. METHODS: A standardised form was used to extract data from electronic records of 53 PD patients with associated functional neurological disorders (PD-FND) across eight movement disorders centres in the USA, Canada and Europe. These subjects were matched for age, gender and disease duration to PD patients without functional features (PD-only)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549188/patients-with-parkinson-disease-are-prone-to-functional-neurological-disorders
#12
EDITORIAL
Mark Hallett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526521/stressful-life-events-and-maltreatment-in-conversion-functional-neurological-disorder-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-case-control-studies
#13
Lea Ludwig, Joëlle A Pasman, Timothy Nicholson, Selma Aybek, Anthony S David, Sharon Tuck, Richard A Kanaan, Karin Roelofs, Alan Carson, Jon Stone
BACKGROUND: Stressful life events and maltreatment have traditionally been considered crucial in the development of conversion (functional neurological) disorder, but the evidence underpinning this association is not clear. We aimed to assess the association between stressors and functional neurological disorder. METHODS: We systematically reviewed controlled studies reporting stressors occurring in childhood or adulthood, such as stressful life events and maltreatment (including sexual, physical abuse, and emotional neglect) and functional neurological disorder...
April 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525297/hysteria-in-ancient-civilisations-a-neurological-review-possible-significance-for-the-modern-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Edward H Reynolds
The word hysteria originated in the Corpus Hippocraticum (c420 BCE) as a natural explanation for a variety of diseases in women linked in the Greco-Roman mind to an animate or inanimate womb, but which in the last five centuries has evolved to describe an elusive disorder of brain ± mind in men and women, currently referred to by neurologists as "functional neurological disorder". The Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Babylonian and Assyrian descriptions of disease and behaviour include only rare examples suggestive of modern hysteria...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509290/self-reference-emotion-inhibition-and-somatosensory-disturbance-preliminary-investigation-of-network-perturbations-in-conversion-disorder
#15
R Monsa, M Peer, S Arzy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Conversion disorder (CD), or functional neurological disorder, is manifested as a neurological disturbance that is not macroscopically visible on clinical structural neuroimaging and is instead ascribed to underlying psychological stress. Known for many years in neuropsychiatry, a comprehensive explanation of the way in which psychological stress leads to a neurological deficit of a structural-like origin is still lacking. METHODS: We applied whole-brain network-based data-driven analyses on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, recorded in seven patients with acute-onset, stroke-like CD with unilateral paresis and hypoesthesia as compared with 15 age-matched healthy controls...
June 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502765/resilience-linked-to-personality-dimensions-alexithymia-and-affective-symptoms-in-motor-functional-neurological-disorders
#16
Rozita Jalilianhasanpour, Benjamin Williams, Isabelle Gilman, Matthew J Burke, Sean Glass, Gregory L Fricchione, Matcheri S Keshavan, W Curt LaFrance, David L Perez
OBJECTIVE: Reduced resilience, a construct associated with maladaptive stress coping and a predisposing vulnerability for Functional Neurological Disorders (FND), has been under-studied compared to other neuropsychiatric factors in FND. This prospective case-control study investigated self-reported resilience in patients with FND compared to controls and examined relationships between resilience and affective symptoms, personality traits, alexithymia, health status and adverse life event burden...
April 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464188/glycine-receptor-modulating-antibody-predicting-treatable-stiff-person-spectrum-disorders
#17
Shannon R Hinson, A Sebastian Lopez-Chiriboga, James H Bower, Joseph Y Matsumoto, Anhar Hassan, Eati Basal, Vanda A Lennon, Sean J Pittock, Andrew McKeon
Background: Glycine receptor alpha-1 subunit (GlyRα1)-immunoglobulin G (IgG) is diagnostic of stiff-person syndrome (SPS) spectrum but has been reported detectable in other neurologic diseases for which significance is less certain. Methods: To assess GlyRα1-IgGs as biomarkers of SPS spectrum among patients and controls, specimens were tested using cell-based assays (binding [4°C] and modulating [antigen endocytosing, 37°C]). Medical records of seropositive patients were reviewed...
March 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436489/-cryptogenic-drop-attacks-revisited-evidence-of-overlap-with-functional-neurological-disorder
#18
Ingrid Hoeritzauer, Alan J Carson, Jon Stone
OBJECTIVE: In their 1973 BMJ paper 'Cryptogenic Drop Attacks', Stevens and Matthews described 40, mostly middle-aged, female patients with drop attacks of unknown cause. Although clinically common, there has been little on this topic since. We aimed to determine clinical features, comorbidity and outcome of patients with drop attacks. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective review of patients with cryptogenic drop attacks seen consecutively by one clinician (JS) between 2006 and 2016...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429783/pediatric-stroke-and-its-mimics-limitations-of-a-pediatric-stroke-clinical-pathway
#19
Amy M DeLaroche, Lalitha Sivaswamy, Ahmad Farooqi, Nirupama Kannikeswaran
BACKGROUND: Acute stroke protocols improve delivery of care but it is unclear whether these resource intensive protocols are able to differentiate stroke from mimics in children. The aim of this study is to describe our institution's experience with stroke mimics identified through our pediatric stroke clinical pathway (PSCP). METHODS: The PSCP was implemented in our level 1 pediatric emergency department in June 2014 for children aged one month to 18 years. For patients managed using the PSCP from June 2014 to December 2016, demographic and clinical data were compared for patients diagnosed with stroke or a stroke mimic...
March 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363837/a-case-series-of-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-act-for-reducing-symptom-interference-in-functional-neurological-disorders
#20
Christopher D Graham, Daniel J O'Hara, Steven Kemp
There is limited high-quality evidence supporting psychological treatments for functional neurological disorders (FNDs), and what evidence exists suggests that the impact of such treatments could be improved. One way to increase effectiveness is to utilize approaches that can have impact across heterogeneous FND presentations. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) targets a transdiagnostic process called psychological flexibility and is used effectively to integrate multidisciplinary treatments in other clinical contexts...
January 24, 2018: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
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