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Functional neurological disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679070/the-role-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-brain-health-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Tomohisa Toda, Sarah L Parylak, Sara B Linker, Fred H Gage
Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is highly regulated by a number of environmental and cell-intrinsic factors to adapt to environmental changes. Accumulating evidence suggests that adult-born neurons may play distinct physiological roles in hippocampus-dependent functions, such as memory encoding and mood regulation. In addition, several brain diseases, such as neurological diseases and mood disorders, have deleterious effects on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and some symptoms of those diseases can be partially explained by the dysregulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678760/sub-millimeter-ecog-pitch-in-human-enables-higher-fidelity-cognitive-neural-state-estimation
#2
John Hermiz, Nicholas Rogers, Erik Kaestner, Mehran Ganji, Daniel R Cleary, Bob Carter, David Barba, Shadi Dayeh, Eric Halgren, Vikash Gilja
Electrocorticography (ECoG), electrophysiological recording from the pial surface of the brain, is a critical measurement technique for clinical neurophysiology, basic neurophysiology studies, and demonstrates great promise for the development of neural prosthetic devices for assistive applications and the treatment of neurological disorders. Recent advances in device engineering are poised to enable orders of magnitude increase in the resolution of ECoG without comprised measurement quality. This enhancement in cortical sensing enables the observation of neural dynamics from the cortical surface at the micrometer scale...
April 17, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677192/the-dyad-adaptive-paced-auditory-serial-addition-test-da-pasat-normative-data-and-the-effects-of-repeated-testing-simulated-malingering-and-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
David L Woods, John M Wyma, Timothy J Herron, E William Yund, Bruce Reed
The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is widely used to evaluate processing speed and executive function in patients with multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and other neurological disorders. In the PASAT, subjects listen to sequences of digits while continuously reporting the sum of the last two digits presented. Four different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) are usually tested, with difficulty increasing as SOAs are reduced. Ceiling effects are common at long SOAs, while the digit delivery rate often exceeds the subject's processing capacity at short SOAs, causing some subjects to stop performing altogether...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677034/functional-somatic-symptoms-across-cultures-perceptual-and-health-care-issues
#4
Bernd Löwe, Christian Gerloff
Functional neurological disorders are conceptualized as patterns of neurological symptoms that cannot be attributed to a clear organic etiology. The study by Wilkins et al. published in this issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, revealed that 8.2% of patients who were initially presented with suspected stroke were later diagnosed with functional disorders, i.e., "functional stroke mimics." However, the percentage of functional stroke mimics varied substantially with patients' nationality, age, and sex...
April 19, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674479/regionally-clustered-abcc8-polymorphisms-in-a-prospective-cohort-predict-cerebral-oedema-and-outcome-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Ruchira Menka Jha, Theresa A Koleck, Ava M Puccio, David O Okonkwo, Seo-Young Park, Benjamin E Zusman, Robert S B Clark, Lori A Shutter, Jessica S Wallisch, Philip E Empey, Patrick M Kochanek, Yvette P Conley
OBJECTIVE: ABCC8 encodes sulfonylurea receptor 1, a key regulatory protein of cerebral oedema in many neurological disorders including traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sulfonylurea-receptor-1 inhibition has been promising in ameliorating cerebral oedema in clinical trials. We evaluated whether ABCC8 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms predicted oedema and outcome in TBI. METHODS: DNA was extracted from 485 prospectively enrolled patients with severe TBI. 410 were analysed after quality control...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673549/tau-and-neuroinflammation-what-impact-for-alzheimer-s-disease-and-tauopathies
#6
REVIEW
Cyril Laurent, Luc Buée, David Blum
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder and the most common type of dementia (60-80% of cases). In 2016, nearly 44 million people were affected by AD or related dementia. AD is characterized by progressive neuronal damages leading to subtle and latter obvious decline in cognitive functions including symptoms such as memory loss or confusion, which ultimately require full-time medical care. Its neuropathology is defined by the extracellular accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into amyloid plaques, and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) consisting of aggregated hyper- and abnormal phosphorylation of tau protein...
February 2018: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673398/assessment-of-orthotic-needs-in-iranian-veterans-with-ankle-and-foot-disorders
#7
Kamiar Ghoseiri, Mostafa Allami, Mohammad Reza Soroush
BACKGROUND: War-related traumas can lead to orthopedic and neurological disorders in victims. However, the scope of such disorders may expand months or even years after the trauma. Orthotic treatment as a rehabilitation process aims to enable people with disabilities to reach and maintain their optimal physical, sensory, intellectual, psychological, and social functional levels. This study aimed to investigate the rate of using orthoses among Iranian veterans with neuromuscular and skeletal disorders of the ankle and foot...
April 20, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672091/resting-state-connectivity-dynamics-in-individuals-at-risk-for-psychosis
#8
Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Vijay A Mittal
Clarifying dynamic fluctuations in resting-state connectivity in individuals at risk for psychosis (termed clinical high risk [CHR]) may inform understanding of psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, which have been associated with dysconnectivity and aberrant salience processing. Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) investigations provide insight into how neural networks exchange information over time. Currently, there are no published DFC studies involving CHR individuals. This is notable, because understanding how networks may come together and disassociate over time could lend insight into the neural communication that underlies psychosis development and symptomatology...
April 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671419/trpm2-a-candidate-therapeutic-target-for-treating-neurological-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Jillian Corinne Belrose, Michael Frederick Jackson
Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a calcium (Ca2+ )-permeable non-selective cation channel belonging to the TRP ion channel family. Oxidative stress-induced TRPM2 activation provokes aberrant intracellular Ca2+ accumulation and cell death in a variety of cell types, including neurons. Aberrant TRPM2 function has been implicated in several neurological disorders including ischemia/stroke, Alzheimer's disease, neuropathic pain, Parkinson's disease and bipolar disorder. In addition to research identifying a role for TRPM2 in disease, progress has been made in the identification of physiological functions of TRPM2 in the brain, including recent evidence that TRPM2 is necessary for the induction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent long-term depression, an important form of synaptic plasticity at glutamate synapses...
April 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670509/altered-gene-regulatory-function-of-kdm5c-by-a-novel-mutation-associated-with-autism-and-intellectual-disability
#10
Christina N Vallianatos, Clara Farrehi, Michael J Friez, Margit Burmeister, Catherine E Keegan, Shigeki Iwase
Intellectual disability (ID) affects up to 2% of the population world-wide and often coincides with other neurological conditions such as autism spectrum disorders. Mutations in KDM5C cause Mental Retardation, X-linked, Syndromic, Claes-Jensen type (MRXSCJ, OMIM #300534) and are one of the most common causes of X-linked ID. KDM5C encodes a histone demethylase for di- and tri-methylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2/3), which are enriched in transcriptionally engaged promoter regions. KDM5C regulates gene transcription; however, it remains unknown whether removal of H3K4me is fully responsible for KDM5C-mediated gene regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667473/harnessing-neuroplasticity-modern-approaches-and-clinical-future
#11
Andrew Octavian Sasmita, Joshua Kuruvilla, Anna Pick Kiong Ling
Neurological diseases and injuries to the nervous system may cause inadvertent damage to neuronal and synaptic structures. Such phenomenon would catastrophically accumulate, leading to the development of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders which might affect memory, cognition, and motoric functions. The body has various negative feedback systems which are able to induce beneficial neuroplastic changes in mediating some neuronal damage, however, such efforts are often not enough to ameliorate the derogatory changes...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665429/autophagy-in-mammalian-neurodevelopment-and-implications-for-childhood-neurological-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Derek Marsh, Joanna M Dragich
Here we explore the neurodevelopmental aspects of macroautophagy (henceforth known as autophagy), the process by which cells remove and remodel their structure in a regulated and spatially restricted manner. Autophagy is a catabolic pathway in which cytosolic substances, such as protein complexes, lipids, and organelles, are engulfed by an autophagic vesicle. Degradation occurs once an autophagosome fuses with a lysosome, allowing the macromolecular cargo sequestered within the autophagic vesicle to be recycled...
April 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665124/how-does-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-start-prodromal-cognitive-changes-in-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#13
Daphné Génier Marchand, Ronald B Postuma, Frédérique Escudier, Jessie De Roy, Amélie Pelletier, Jacques Montplaisir, Jean-François Gagnon
Objective We describe the progression of cognitive decline and identify the predictive values of cognitive tests in three groups of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients classified at their last follow-up as having Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), or still-idiopathic. Methods Patients (n=109) underwent polysomnographic, neurological, and neuropsychological assessments. We used linear mixed-model analyses to compare the progression of cognitive test performance between the three groups over a three-year prodromal period, and performed linear regressions for a six-year prodromal period...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665094/newborn-screening-a-disease-changing-intervention-for-glutaric-aciduria-type-1
#14
Nikolas Boy, Katharina Mengler, Eva Thimm, Katharina A Schiergens, Thorsten Marquardt, Natalie Weinhold, Iris Marquardt, Anibh M Das, Peter Freisinger, Sarah C Grünert, Judith Vossbeck, Robert Steinfeld, Matthias R Baumgartner, Skadi Beblo, Andrea Dieckmann, Andrea Näke, Martin Lindner, Jana Heringer, Georg F Hoffmann, Chris Mühlhausen, Esther M Maier, Regina Ensenauer, Sven F Garbade, Stefan Kölker
OBJECTIVE: Untreated individuals with glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) commonly present with a complex, predominantly dystonic movement disorder (MD) following acute or insidious onset striatal damage. Implementation of GA1 into newborn screening (NBS) programmes has improved the short-term outcome. It remains unclear, however, whether NBS changes the long-term outcome and which variables are predictive. METHODS: This prospective, observational, multi-centre study includes 87 patients identified by NBS, four patients missed by NBS and three women with GA1 identified by positive NBS results of their unaffected children...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664668/intellectual-disability-and-ataxia-genetic-collisions
#15
REVIEW
Somayeh Kazeminasab, Hossein Najmabadi, Kimia Kahrizi
Intellectual disability (ID) is a common and highly heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder. The prevalence of ID is around 1%-3% in the general population. ID is associated with a wide range of additional neurological disabilities and the results of various studies have disclosed the co-morbidity of ID and ataxia. The aim of this review is elucidation of the common molecular and cellular pathways in the etiology of ID and ataxia. Categorization of these genes with various cellular functions indicates several genetic collisions in the co-occurrence of ID and ataxia...
January 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663887/the-role-of-ire1-signaling-in-central-nervous-system-diseases
#16
Haibo Ni, Qin Rui, Di Li, Rong Gao, Gang Chen
The accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen results in activation of an adaptive stress process called the unfolded protein response (UPR). As the most conserved signaling branch of the UPR, Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) possesses both Ser/Thr kinase and RNase activities that operates as a major stress sensor, mediating both adaptive and pro-apoptotic pathways under ER stress. Over the last three decades, a mounting body of evidence has shown that IRE1 signaling dysfunction is involved in pathology of various neurological disorders...
April 15, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663285/exosomes-in-acquired-neurological-disorders-new-insights-into-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Nicole Osier, Vida Motamedi, Katie Edwards, Ava Puccio, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Kimbra Kenney, Jessica Gill
Exosomes are endogenous nanovesicles that play critical roles in intercellular signaling by conveying functional genetic information and proteins between cells. Exosomes readily cross the blood-brain barrier and have promise as therapeutic delivery vehicles that have the potential to specifically deliver molecules to the central nervous system (CNS). This unique feature also makes exosomes attractive as biomarkers in diagnostics, prognostics, and therapeutics in the context of multiple significant public health conditions, including acquired neurological disorders...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663074/detection-of-pro-apoptotic-bax%C3%A2-2-proteins-in-the-human-cerebellum
#18
Adriana Mañas, Aislinn Davis, Sydney Lamerand, Jialing Xiang
Bax∆2 is a pro-apoptotic protein originally discovered in colon cancer patients with high microsatellite instability. Unlike most pro-apoptotic Bax family members, Bax∆2 mediates cell death through a non-mitochondrial caspase 8-dependent pathway. In the scope of analyzing the distribution of Bax∆2 expression in human tissues, we examined a panel of human brain samples. Here, we report four cerebellar cases in which the subjects had no neurological disorder or disease documented. We found Bax∆2 positive cells scattered in all areas of the cerebellum, but most strikingly concentrated in Purkinje cell bodies and dendrites...
April 17, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662290/extra-intestinal-manifestations-of-non-celiac-gluten-sensitivity-an-expanding-paradigm
#19
REVIEW
Giuseppe Losurdo, Mariabeatrice Principi, Andrea Iannone, Annacinzia Amoruso, Enzo Ierardi, Alfredo Di Leo, Michele Barone
Non celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome characterized by a cohort of symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food in subjects who are not affected by celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy. The possibility of systemic manifestations in this condition has been suggested by some reports. In most cases they are characterized by vague symptoms such as 'foggy mind', headache, fatigue, joint and muscle pain, leg or arm numbness even if more specific complaints have been described. NCGS has an immune-related background...
April 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661558/genetic-assessment-and-folate-receptor-autoantibodies-in-infantile-onset-cerebral-folate-deficiency-cfd-syndrome
#20
V Th Ramaekers, K Segers, J M Sequeira, M Koenig, L Van Maldergem, V Bours, U Kornak, E V Quadros
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) syndromes are defined as neuro-psychiatric conditions with low CSF folate and attributed to different causes such as autoantibodies against the folate receptor-alpha (FR) protein that can block folate transport across the choroid plexus, FOLR1 gene mutations or mitochondrial disorders. High-dose folinic acid treatment restores many neurologic deficits. STUDY AIMS AND METHODS: Among 36 patients from 33 families the infantile-onset CFD syndrome was diagnosed based on typical clinical features and low CSF folate...
March 3, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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