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Functional neurological disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468984/vad-an-integrated-framework-for-cognitive-rehabilitation
#1
Dafin F Muresanu, Dana Slavoaca, Antox Alvarez, Volker Homberg, Ovidiu Bajenaru, Alla Guekht, Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Livia Popa, Johannes Vester, Ioana Muresanu, Codruta Birle, Maria Balea
Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of dementia, with clinical features that depend on neural substrates affected by the vascular lesions. Like most neurological disorders, it involves alterations that range from the molecular level to neuronal networks. Such alterations begin as compensatory mechanisms that reshape every subsystem involved in the brain's homeostasis. Although there have been recent huge advances in understanding the pathophysiology of cognitive dysfunction, a suitable therapeutic approach to vascular dementia remains elusive...
February 19, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467790/classification-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-random-support-vector-machine-cluster
#2
Xia-An Bi, Yang Wang, Qing Shu, Qi Sun, Qian Xu
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is mainly reflected in the communication and language barriers, difficulties in social communication, and it is a kind of neurological developmental disorder. Most researches have used the machine learning method to classify patients and normal controls, among which support vector machines (SVM) are widely employed. But the classification accuracy of SVM is usually low, due to the usage of a single SVM as classifier. Thus, we used multiple SVMs to classify ASD patients and typical controls (TC)...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467627/basal-ganglia-neuromodulation-over-multiple-temporal-and-structural-scales-simulations-of-direct-pathway-msns-investigate-the-fast-onset-of-dopaminergic-effects-and-predict-the-role-of-kv4-2
#3
Robert Lindroos, Matthijs C Dorst, Kai Du, Marko Filipović, Daniel Keller, Maya Ketzef, Alexander K Kozlov, Arvind Kumar, Mikael Lindahl, Anu G Nair, Juan Pérez-Fernández, Sten Grillner, Gilad Silberberg, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski
The basal ganglia are involved in the motivational and habitual control of motor and cognitive behaviors. Striatum, the largest basal ganglia input stage, integrates cortical and thalamic inputs in functionally segregated cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loops, and in addition the basal ganglia output nuclei control targets in the brainstem. Striatal function depends on the balance between the direct pathway medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs) that express D1 dopamine receptors and the indirect pathway MSNs that express D2 dopamine receptors...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467100/epileptogenesis-in-neonatal-brain
#4
REVIEW
Anna-Maria Katsarou, Aristea S Galanopoulou, Solomon L Moshé
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder affecting 65 million people worldwide. The etiologies of seizures can often be identified as genetic, metabolic, structural, immunologic or infectious, but in many cases the cause is unknown with the current diagnostic tools. Epileptogenesis is a process during which genetic or other acquired etiologies/insults lead to functional, structural, or network reorganization changes in the brain that may lead to the development of, or progression of, spontaneous seizures...
December 23, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466709/gastrointestinal-hormones-in-regulation-of-memory
#5
REVIEW
Anwesha Mandal, Kedar S Prabhavalkar, Lokesh K Bhatt
The connection between the gastrointestinal hormones and the brain has been established many years ago. This relation is termed the gut-brain axis (GBA). The GBA is a bidirectional communication which not only regulates gastrointestinal homeostasis but is also linked with higher emotional and cognitive functions. Hypothalamus plays a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism, nutrient partitioning and control of feeding behaviors. Various gut hormones are released inside the gastrointestinal tract on food intake...
February 18, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465896/insights-into-the-structure-and-function-of-the-hippocampal-formation-relevance-to-parkinson-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Orsolya Györfi, Helga Nagy, Magdolna Bokor, Szabolcs Kéri
The link between the hippocampus and declarative memory dysfunctions following the removal of the medial temporal lobe opened unexplored fields in neuroscience. In the first part of our review, we summarized current theoretical frameworks discussing the role of hippocampus in learning and memory. Several theories are highlighted suggesting that the hippocampus is responsible for assembling stimulus elements into a unitary representation that later can be utilized to simulate future events. The hippocampal formation has been implicated in a growing number of disorders, from neurodegenerative diseases to atypical cognitive ageing and depression...
January 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465562/subacute-onset-leukodystrophy-and-visual-spatial-disorders-revealing-phenylketonuria-combined-with-homocysteinmia-in-adulthood-a-case-report
#7
Chunchen Wang, Jieying Li
RATIONALE: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder, which manifests a progressive irreversible neurological impairment during infancy and childhood. Hyperhomocysteinemia also showed that it might be involved in pathophysiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders. The late-onset clinical manifestations of these 2 diseases have not been reported elsewhere. We speculated that the late-onset PKU is caused by 2 kinds of metabolic dysfunction synergistically, especially a short period of irregular diet directly caused clinical symptoms...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464572/brain-renin-angiotensin-system-blockade-attenuates-methamphetamine-induced-hyperlocomotion-and-neurotoxicity
#8
Linhong Jiang, Ruiming Zhu, Qian Bu, Yan Li, Xue Shao, Hui Gu, Jueying Kong, Li Luo, Hailei Long, Wei Guo, Jingwei Tian, Yinglan Zhao, Xiaobo Cen
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse has become a major public health concern worldwide without approved pharmacotherapies. The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the regulation of neuronal function as well as neurological disorders. Angiotensin II (Ang II), which interacts with Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1 -R) in the brain, plays an important role as a neuromodulator in dopaminergic transmission. However, the role of brain RAS in METH-induced behavior is largely unknown. Here, we revealed that repeated METH administration significantly upregulated the expression of AT1 -R in the striatum of mice, but downregulated dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) expression...
February 20, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464374/heterogeneous-pattern-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Laurène Leclair-Visonneau, Laurent Magy, Christelle Volteau, Thomas Clairembault, Séverine Le Dily, Cécile Préterre, Arnaud Peyre, Philippe Damier, Michel Neunlist, Yann Péréon, Pascal Derkinderen
Dysautonomic symptoms are frequent non-motor complaints in patients with Parkinson's disease. Numerous neuropathological studies have shown that Lewy bodies and neurites, the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease, are widely distributed throughout the peripheral autonomic nervous systems and across end organs. However, few investigations integrally explored the symptoms and physiology of dysautonomia in Parkinson's disease. We, therefore, performed a comprehensive evaluation of the autonomic function in a prospective group of 45 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464188/glycine-receptor-modulating-antibody-predicting-treatable-stiff-person-spectrum-disorders
#10
Shannon R Hinson, A Sebastian Lopez-Chiriboga, James H Bower, Joseph Y Matsumoto, Anhar Hassan, Eati Basal, Vanda A Lennon, Sean J Pittock, Andrew McKeon
Background: Glycine receptor alpha-1 subunit (GlyRα1)-immunoglobulin G (IgG) is diagnostic of stiff-person syndrome (SPS) spectrum but has been reported detectable in other neurologic diseases for which significance is less certain. Methods: To assess GlyRα1-IgGs as biomarkers of SPS spectrum among patients and controls, specimens were tested using cell-based assays (binding [4°C] and modulating [antigen endocytosing, 37°C]). Medical records of seropositive patients were reviewed...
March 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463338/a-novel-treatment-protocol-nocebo-hypothesis-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-nh-cbt-for-functional-neurological-symptom-disorder-conversion-disorder-a-retrospective-consecutive-case-series
#11
Matt Richardson, Gina Isbister, Brad Nicholson
BACKGROUND: Theories concerning the aetiology of functional neurological symptom disorder (FNSD; also known as conversion disorder) have historically inferred that psychological factors or dissociative states underlie patients' symptoms. Current psychological models of functional neurological symptoms suggest that some type of 'top-down' representations/beliefs are activated automatically (without conscious awareness), leading to symptoms. It is assumed that these representations or beliefs are similar to the idea 'I am neurologically damaged', as in our clinical experience, almost all patients have some reason to doubt the integrity of their neurological system...
February 21, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463007/new-insights-into-the-role-of-neuron-specific-enolase-in-neuro-inflammation-neurodegeneration-and-neuroprotection
#12
REVIEW
Azizul Haque, Rachel Polcyn, Denise Matzelle, Naren L Banik
Neurodegeneration is a complex process that leads to irreversible neuronal damage and death in spinal cord injury (SCI) and various neurodegenerative diseases, which are serious, debilitating conditions. Despite exhaustive research, the cause of neuronal damage in these degenerative disorders is not completely understood. Elevation of cell surface α-enolase activates various inflammatory pathways, including the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and some growth factors that are detrimental to neuronal cells...
February 18, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460123/warning-sines-alu-elements-evolution-of-the-human-brain-and-the-spectrum-of-neurological-disease
#13
Peter A Larsen, Kelsie E Hunnicutt, Roxanne J Larsen, Anne D Yoder, Ann M Saunders
Alu elements are a highly successful family of primate-specific retrotransposons that have fundamentally shaped primate evolution, including the evolution of our own species. Alus play critical roles in the formation of neurological networks and the epigenetic regulation of biochemical processes throughout the central nervous system (CNS), and thus are hypothesized to have contributed to the origin of human cognition. Despite the benefits that Alus provide, deleterious Alu activity is associated with a number of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders...
February 19, 2018: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458753/challenges-in-sleep-stage-r-scoring-in-patients-with-autosomal-dominant-spinocerebellar-ataxias-sca1-sca2-and-sca3-and-oculomotor-abnormalities-a-whole-night-polysomnographic-evaluation
#14
Doniparthi Venkata Seshagiri, Arun Sasidharan, Gulshan Kumar, Pramod Kumar Pal, Sanjeev Jain, Bindu M Kutty, Ravi Yadav
OBJECTIVES: Spinocerebellar ataxias are progressive neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive cerebellar features with additional neuro-axis involvement. Oculomotor abnormality is one of the most frequent manifestations. This study was done to assess the polysomnographic abnormalities in patients with Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3) and also to evaluate whether oculomotor abnormalities interfere with sleep stage R scoring. METHODS: The study was carried out using 36 genetically positive SCA patients...
February 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458125/pluripotent-stem-cells-for-uncovering-the-role-of-mitochondria-in-human-brain-function-and-dysfunction
#15
REVIEW
Annika Zink, Josef Priller, Alessandro Prigione
Mitochondrial dysfunctions are a known pathogenetic mechanism of a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. At the same time, mutations in genes encoding for components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain cause mitochondrial diseases, which commonly exhibit neurological symptoms. Mitochondria are therefore critical for the functionality of the human nervous system. The importance of mitochondria stems from their key roles in cellular metabolism, calcium handling, redox and protein homeostasis, and overall cellular homeostasis through their dynamic network...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457888/potential-therapeutic-applications-for-inhibitors-of-autotaxin-a-bioactive-lipid-producing-lysophospholipase-d-in-disorders-affecting-the-nervous-system
#16
Deron R Herr, Jolin Hwee-Jing Ong, Wei-Yi Ong
Autotaxin is a dual-function ecto-enzyme, encoded by the gene ENPP2, which is the primary source of the bioactive signaling lipid, lysophosphatidic acid. Aberrations in autotaxin/lysophosphatidic acid signaling have been associated with a number of neurological, psychiatric, neoplastic, and neurodevelopmental conditions, such as pain, pruritus, glioblastoma multiforme, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, hydrocephalus, and schizophrenia. This Viewpoint offers a brief overview of the likely indications for therapeutic targeting of autotaxin, in disorders affecting the nervous system...
February 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457676/subthalamic-nucleus-pathology-contributes-to-repetitive-behavior-expression-and-is-reversed-by-environmental-enrichment
#17
Mark H Lewis, Zsuzsa Buchwald, Kathryn Boswell, Gabriella Edington, Michael A King, Amber M Muehlmann
Repetitive motor behaviors are common in neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, and neurological disorders. Despite their prevalence in certain clinical populations, our understanding of the neurobiological cause of repetitive behavior is lacking. Likewise, not knowing the pathophysiology has precluded efforts to find effective drug treatments. Our comparisons between mouse strains that differ in their expression of repetitive behavior revealed an important role of the subthalamic nucleus. In mice with high rates of repetitive behavior, we found significant differences in dendritic spine density, gene expression, and neuronal activation in the subthalamic nucleus...
February 19, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456842/hydrogen-sulfide-nitric-oxide-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Sandesh Panthi, Sumeet Manandhar, Kripa Gautam
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2 S) and Nitric Oxide (NO) have become recognized as important gaseous signaling molecules with enormous pharmacological effects, therapeutic value, and central physiological roles. NO is one of the most important regulators of the pathophysiological condition in central nervous system (CNS). It is critical in the various functioning of the brain; however, beyond certain concentration/level, it is toxic. H2 S was regarded as toxic gas with the smell like rotten egg. But, it is now regarded as emerging neuroprotectant and neuromodulator...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456768/hospital-mortality-among-elderly-patients-admitted-with-neurological-disorders-was-not-predicted-by-any-particular-diagnosis-in-a-tertiary-medical-center
#19
Aroldo Bacellar, Telma Assis, Bruno B Pedreira, Gersonita Costa, Osvaldo J M Nascimento
Background: Neurological disorders (NDs) are associated with high hospital mortality. We aimed to identify predictors of hospital mortality among elderly inpatients with NDs. Methods: Patients aged ≥60 years admitted to the hospital between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010 with acute NDs, chronic NDs as underpinnings of acute clinical disorders, and neurological complications of other diseases were studied. We analyzed demographic data, NDs, and comorbidities as independent predictors of hospital mortality...
2018: Open Neurology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454676/opa1-how-much-do-we-know-to-approach-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Valentina Del Dotto, Mario Fogazza, Guy Lenaers, Michela Rugolo, Valerio Carelli, Claudia Zanna
OPA1 is a GTPase that controls several functions, such as mitochondrial dynamics and energetics, mtDNA maintenance and cristae integrity. In the last years, there have been described other cellular pathways and mechanisms involving OPA1 directly or through its interaction. All this new information, by implementing our knowledge on OPA1 is instrumental to elucidating the pathogenic mechanisms of OPA1 mutations. Indeed, these are associated with dominant optic atrophy (DOA), one of the most common inherited optic neuropathies, and with an increasing number of heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders...
February 15, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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