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Functional neurological disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650064/-a-new-case-of-psychotic-break-as-the-presenting-symptom-of-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-treatment-from-a-neuropsychiatric-approach
#1
P Hernaez-Goni, P Luna-Lario, J Tirapu-Ustarroz
INTRODUCTION: Limbic encephalitis generated by anti-N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies is a severe acute neurological condition that is more prevalent in young females and is associated with an underlying tumour. The appearance of severe initial psychiatric signs and symptoms and the fact that it is accompanied by emotional disorders and severe cognitive impairment make it necessary to reconsider the contributions of neuropsychiatry to the diagnosis, development and treatment of the disease, since these have received little attention from researchers to date...
July 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649514/early-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-a-patient-with-severe-mucopolysaccharidosis-ii-a-7%C3%A2-years-follow-up
#2
Anneliese L Barth, Tatiana S P C de Magalhães, Ana Beatriz R Reis, Maria Lucia de Oliveira, Fernanda B Scalco, Nicolette C Cavalcanti, Daniel S E Silva, Danielle A Torres, Alessandra A P Costa, Carmem Bonfim, Roberto Giugliani, Juan C Llerena, Dafne D G Horovitz
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II - Hunter syndrome) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the enzyme iduronate-2 sulfatase (I2S), leading to the accumulation of the glycosaminoglycans, affecting multiple organs and systems. Enzyme replacement therapy does not cross the blood brain barrier, limiting results in neurological forms of the disease. Another option of treatment for severe MPS, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become the treatment of choice for the severe form of MPS type I, since it can preserve neurocognition when performed early in the course of the disease...
September 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648970/treating-functional-non-epileptic-attacks-should-we-consider-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Sarah R Cope, Norman Poole, Niruj Agrawal
Patients who experience functional non-epileptic attacks (FNEA) are frequently seen in Neurology clinics. Diagnosis alone can result in cessation of attacks for some patients, but many patients require further treatment. There is evidence that certain psychological therapies, like cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic interpersonal therapy (PIT) can be beneficial. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a type of CBT that has been found to be effective at treating other somatic disorders, like epilepsy and chronic pain...
June 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648811/a-case-of-improved-hearing-with-cochlear-implantation-in-gaucher-disease-type-1
#4
Shiori Endo, Kunihiro Mizuta, Takashi Yamatodani, Hiroshi Nakanishi, Kumiko Hosokawa, Kiyoshi Misawa, Seiji Hosokawa, Hiroyuki Mineta
Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disorder that is caused by congenital defective function of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Glucocerebroside that is not hydrolyzed by glucocerebrosidase mainly accumulates in the reticular tissue. We describe a Japanese boy with Gaucher disease type 1 who developed bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss within approximately 4years. We performed cochlear implantation initially on his right ear and again on his left ear 5 months later. The cochlear implants were successfully utilized with a speech discrimination score of 95% on a Japanese sentence recognition test...
June 22, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648385/fluorescence-imaging-of-lymphatic-outflow-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-mice
#5
Sunkuk Kwon, Christopher F Janssen, Fred Christian Velasquez, Eva M Sevick-Muraca
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is known to be reabsorbed by the lymphatic vessels and drain into the lymph nodes (LNs) through peripheral lymphatic vessels. In the peripheral lymphatics, the contractile pumping action of lymphangions mediates lymph drainage; yet it is unknown whether lymphatic vessels draining cranial and spinal CSF show similar function. Herein, we used non-invasive near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI) to image (i) indocyanine green (ICG) distribution along the neuraxis and (ii) routes of ICG-laden CSF outflow into the lymphatics following intrathecal lumbar administration...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648085/specifying-rna-binding-regions-in-proteins-by-peptide-cross-linking-and-affinity-purification
#6
Meeli Mullari, David Lyon, Lars Juhl Jensen, Michael L Nielsen
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) allow cells to carry out pre-RNA processing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, with aberrations in RBP functions linked to many diseases including neurological disorders and cancer. Human cells encode thousands of RNA-binding proteins with unique RNA-binding properties. These properties are regulated through modularity of a large variety of RNA-binding domains, rendering RNA-protein interactions difficult to study. Recently, the introduction of proteomics methods has provided novel insights into RNA-binding proteins at a systems level...
June 25, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647707/hepatitis-e-virus-and-neurological-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Brendan N Mclean, James Gulliver, Harry R Dalton
Hepatitis E is the most common cause of hepatitis worldwide. While originally considered a disease of developing countries, it is increasingly recognised in developed countries, probably related to contaminated pork meat, and where infection is often asymptomatic. However, several non-liver manifestations have become apparent, the most important of which are neurological, including Guillain-Barré syndrome (acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP)), neuralgic amyotrophy and meningoencephalitis...
June 24, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647082/targeting-neuronal-function-for-cns-drug-discovery
#8
REVIEW
Chris M Hempel, Christopher A Werley, Graham T Dempsey, David J Gerber
There is a pressing need for new and more effective treatments for central nervous system (CNS) disorders. A large body of evidence now suggests that alterations in synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability represent underlying factors for many neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, it has been challenging to target these complex functional domains for therapeutic discovery using traditional neuronal assay methods. Here we review advances in neuronal screening technologies and cellular model systems that enable phenotypic screening of neuronal function as a basis for novel CNS drug discovery approaches...
March 2017: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646852/the-facial-expression-of-schizophrenic-patients-applied-with-infrared-thermal-facial-image-sequence
#9
Bo-Lin Jian, Chieh-Li Chen, Wen-Lin Chu, Min-Wei Huang
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a neurological disease characterized by alterations to patients' cognitive functions and emotional expressions. Relevant studies often use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain to explore structural differences and responsiveness within brain regions. However, as this technique is expensive and commonly induces claustrophobia, it is frequently refused by patients. Thus, this study used non-contact infrared thermal facial images (ITFIs) to analyze facial temperature changes evoked by different emotions in moderately and markedly ill schizophrenia patients...
June 24, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646343/clinical-outcome-following-anterior-cervical-discectomy-and-fusion-with-and-without-anterior-cervical-plating-for-the-treatment-of-cervical-disc-herniation-a-25-year-follow-up-study
#10
Benedikt W Burkhardt, Moritz Brielmaier, Karsten Schwerdtfeger, Joachim M Oertel
Extreme long-term clinical outcome studies following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with an autologous iliac crest with and without Caspar plating (ACDF + CP) for the treatment of radiculopathy caused by cervical disc herniation (CDH) are extremely rare. Hospital records of patients who underwent ACDF or ACDF + CP for the treatment of CDH at least 17 years ago were reviewed. Information about diagnosis, surgery, pre- and postoperative clinical process, and repeated procedure was analyzed...
June 23, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645961/cognitive-screening-and-behavioural-observation-of-functional-ability-in-patients-with-multiple-episode-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study
#11
Eva Norlin Bagge, Eva Esbjörnsson, Katharina S Sunnerhagen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the usability of a neuropsychological screening instrument and two observation scales of everyday behaviour to describe cognitive and functional capacity of patients with multiepisode schizophrenia and considerable care needs, who frequently refuse to participate in cognitive testing or performance-based functional measurement. SETTING: One psychiatric unit specialised in severe mental illness at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645892/meis1-effects-on-motor-phenotypes-and-the-sensorimotor-system-in-mice
#12
Aaro V Salminen, Lillian Garrett, Barbara Schormair, Jan Rozman, Florian Giesert, Kristina M Niedermeier, Lore Becker, Birgit Rathkolb, Ildikó Rácz, Martin Klingenspor, Thomas Klopstock, Eckhard Wolf, Andreas Zimmer, Valérie Gailus-Durner, Miguel Torres, Helmut Fuchs, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Wolfgang Wurst, Sabine M Hölter, Juliane Winkelmann
MEIS1 is a developmental transcription factor linked to restless legs syndrome (RLS) in genome-wide association studies. RLS is a movement disorder leading to severe sleep reduction and with significant impact on the quality-of-life of patients. In genome-wide association studies, MEIS1 has consistently been the gene with the highest effect size and functional studies suggest a disease-relevant downregulation. Therefore, haploinsufficiency of Meis1 could be the most potential system for modeling RLS in animals...
June 23, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645156/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-and-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Natalia Jozwiak, Ronald B Postuma, Jacques Montplaisir, Véronique Latreille, Michel Panisset, Sylvain Chouinard, Pierre-Alexandre Bourgouin, Jean-François Gagnon
Study Objectives: REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia affecting 33 to 46% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The existence of a unique and specific impaired cognitive profile in PD patients with RBD is still controversial. We extensively assessed cognitive functions to identify whether RBD is associated with more severe cognitive deficits in nondemented patients with PD. Methods: One hundred and sixty-two participants, including 53 PD patients with RBD, 40 PD patients without RBD, and 69 healthy subjects, underwent polysomnography, a neurological assessment, and an extensive neuropsychological exam to assess attention, executive functions, episodic learning and memory, visuospatial abilities, and language...
June 22, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642938/correlation-weighted-sparse-group-representation-for-brain-network-construction-in-mci-classification
#14
Renping Yu, Han Zhang, Le An, Xiaobo Chen, Zhihui Wei, Dinggang Shen
Analysis of brain functional connectivity network (BFCN) has shown great potential in understanding brain functions and identifying biomarkers for neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and its early stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In all these applications, the accurate construction of biologically meaningful brain network is critical. Due to the sparse nature of the brain network, sparse learning has been widely used for complex BFCN construction. However, the conventional l1-norm penalty in the sparse learning equally penalizes each edge (or link) of the brain network, which ignores the link strength and could remove strong links in the brain network...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642069/chronic-choline-supplementation-improves-cognitive-and-motor-performance-via-modulating-oxidative-and-neurochemical-status-in-rats
#15
Saiqa Tabassum, Saida Haider, Saara Ahmad, Syeda Madiha, Tahira Parveen
Choline, an essential nutrient, accounts for multiple functions in the body and brain. While its beneficial effects on healthy adults are not clear, choline supplementation is important during pregnancy for brain development, in elderly patients for support of cognitive performance and in patients with neurological disorders to reduce memory deficits. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate whether choline administration in healthy adult rats beneficially impacts cognitive and locomotor performance, and associated oxidative and neurochemical outcomes...
June 19, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641519/neural-stem-cells-and-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-model-rare-cns-diseases
#16
Lidia De Filippis, Cristina Zalfa, Daniela Ferrari
Despite the great effort spent over the last decades to unravel the pathological mechanisms underpinning the development of central nervous system disorders, most of them remain still unclear. In particular, the study of rare brain diseases is hurdled by the lack of post-mortem samples and of reliable epidemiological studies, thus the setting of in vitro modeling systems appears essential to dissect the puzzle of genetic and environmental alterations affecting neural cells viability and functionality The isolation and expansion in vitro of embryonic (ESC) and fetal neural stem cells (NSC) from human tissue has efficiently allowed to model several neurological diseases "in a dish" and has also provided a novel platform to test potential therapeutic strategies in a pre-clinical setting...
June 15, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641510/recent-advances-on-the-role-of-neurogenesis-in-the-adult-brain-therapeutic-potential-in-parkinson-s-and-alzheimer-s-diseases
#17
Khaled Salman Radad, Rudolf Moldzio, Mubarak Al-Shraim, Barbara Kranner, Christopher Krewenka, Wolf-Dieter Rausch
Generation of nascent functional neurons from neural stem cells in the adult brain has recently become largely accepted by the neuroscience community. In adult mammals including humans, the process of neurogenesis has been well documented in two brain regions; the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Some evidence has indicated neurogenesis in other regions of the adult mammalian brain such as the neocortex, cerebellum, striatum, amygdala and hypothalamus...
June 22, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640632/gut-microbiota-nitric-oxide-and-microglia-as-pre-requisites-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#18
Joyce Ka Yu Tse
Regulating fluctuating endogenous nitric oxide (NO) levels is necessary for proper physiological functions. Aberrant NO pathways are implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Parkinson's Disease. The mechanism of NO in oxidative and nitrosative stress with pathological consequences involves reactions with reactive oxygen species (e.g. superoxide) to form the highly reactive peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochloride ions and hydroxyl radical. NO levels are typically regulated by endogenous nitric oxide synthases (NOS), and inflammatory iNOS is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, in which elevated NO mediates axonal degeneration and activates cyclooxygenases to provoke neuroinflammation...
June 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639376/mfat-1-transgene-protects-cultured-adult-neural-stem-cells-against-cobalt-chloride-mediated-hypoxic-injury-by-activating-nrf2-are-pathways
#19
Junfeng Yu, Haiyuan Yang, Bin Fang, Zhengwei Zhang, Ying Wang, Yifan Dai
Ischemic stroke is a devastating neurological disorder and one of the leading causes of death and serious disability in adults. Adult neural stem cell (NSC) replacement therapy is a promising treatment for both structural and functional neurological recovery. However, for the treatment to work, adult NSCs must be protected against hypoxic-ischemic damage in the ischemic penumbra. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of the mfat-1 transgene on cobalt chloride (CoCl2 )-induced hypoxic-ischemic injury in cultured adult NSCs as well as its underlying mechanisms...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639241/huntington-s-disease-and-mitochondria
#20
REVIEW
Mohammad Jodeiri Farshbaf, Kamran Ghaedi
Huntington's disease (HD) as an inherited neurodegenerative disorder leads to neuronal loss in striatum. Progressive motor dysfunction, cognitive decline, and psychiatric disturbance are the main clinical symptoms of the HD. This disease is caused by expansion of the CAG repeats in exon 1 of the huntingtin which encodes Huntingtin protein (Htt). Various cellular and molecular events play role in the pathology of HD. Mitochondria as important organelles play crucial roles in the most of neurodegenerative disorders like HD...
June 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
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