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Aldose reductase inhibitor

Manar G Salem, Yasmine M Abdel Aziz, Marwa Elewa, Hosam A Elshihawy, Mohamed M Said
Novel derivatives of spiroimidazolidinedione were synthesized and evaluated as hypoglycemic agents through binding to sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) in pancreatic beta-cells. Their selectivity index was calculated against both aldehyde reductase (ALR1) and aldose reductase (ALR2). Aldehyde reductase is a key enzyme in the polyol pathway that is involved in the etiology of the secondary diabetic complications. All structures were confirmed by microanalysis and by IR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and EI-MS spectroscopy...
May 2, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Nagaraju Kerru, Ashona Singh-Pillay, Paul Awolade, Parvesh Singh
Diabetes mellitus is a medical condition characterized by the body's loss of control over blood sugar. The frequency of diagnosed cases and consequential increases in medical costs makes it a rapidly growing chronic disease that threatens human health worldwide. In addition, its unnerving statistical projections are perilous to both the economy of the nation and man's life expectancy. Type-I and type-II diabetes are the two clinical forms of diabetes mellitus. Type-II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is illustrated by the abnormality of glucose homeostasis in the body, resulting in hyperglycemia...
May 3, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Pingyang Wang, Simin Bi, Weiyang Wei, Zhiyong Qiu, Dingguo Xia, Xingjia Shen, Qiaoling Zhao
Aldose reductase (AR) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the polyol pathway and is also the key enzyme involved in diabetic complications. The silkworm purple quail-like mutant (q-lp ) exhibits pigmented dots on its epidermis. The q-lp mutant also shows developmental abnormalities and decreased vitality. In this study, fat bodies from the q-lp mutant and the wildtype 932VR strain were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, and the Bombyx mori AR (BmAR) protein was found to be significantly downregulated in the q-lp mutant...
May 3, 2018: Gene
Maria Consiglia Trotta, Monica Salerno, Anna Lisa Brigida, Vincenzo Monda, Antonietta Messina, Carmela Fiore, Roberto Avola, Renato Bernardini, Francesco Sessa, Gabriella Marsala, Guido N Zanghì, Giovanni Messina, Michele D'Amico, Clara Di Filippo
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is characterized by prolonged QT interval, leading to sudden cardiac death. Hyperglycemia is an important risk factor for LQTS, inhibiting the cardiac rapid component delayed rectifier K+ current (Iks), responsible for QT interval. We previously showed that the new ALR2 inhibitor BF-5m supplies cardioprotection from QT prolongation induced by high glucose concentration in the medium, reducing QT interval prolongation and preserving morphology. Here we investigated the effects of BF-5m on cell cytotoxicity and viability in H9c2 cells, and on cellular potassium ion channels expression...
April 3, 2018: Oncotarget
Isidro Crespo, Joan Giménez-Dejoz, Sergio Porté, Alexandra Cousido-Siah, André Mitschler, Alberto Podjarny, Harris Pratsinis, Dimitris Kletsas, Xavier Parés, Francesc X Ruiz, Kamel Metwally, Jaume Farrés
Human aldose reductase (AKR1B1, AR) is a key enzyme of the polyol pathway, catalyzing the reduction of glucose to sorbitol at high glucose concentrations, as those found in diabetic condition. Indeed, AKR1B1 overexpression is related to diabetes secondary complications and, in some cases, with cancer. For many years, research has been focused on finding new AKR1B1 inhibitors (ARIs) to overcome these diseases. Despite the efforts, most of the new drug candidates failed because of their poor pharmacokinetic properties and/or unacceptable side effects...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Xiao-Yan Chen, Ting Zhang, Xin Wang, Mark T Hamann, Jie Kang, De-Quan Yu, Ruo-Yun Chen
The leaves of Morus alba L. are an important herbal medicine in Asia. The systematic isolation of the metabolites of the leaves of Morus alba L. was achieved using a combination of liquid chromatography techniques. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis and the absolute configuration was determined based on electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopic data and hydrolysis experiments. Their biological activity was evaluated using different biological assays, such as the assessment of their capacity to inhibit the aldose reductase enzyme; the determination of their cytotoxic activity and the evaluation of their neuroprotective effects against the deprivation of serum or against the presence of nicouline...
April 26, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Saif Khan, Tulika Bhardwaj, Pallavi Somvanshi, Raju K Mandal, Sajad A Dar, Arshad Jawed, Mohd Wahid, Naseem Akhter, Mohtashim Lohani, S Alouffi, Shafiul Haque
Human aldose reductase (hAR) is the key enzyme in sorbitol pathway of glucose utilization and is implicated in the etiology of secondary complications of diabetes, such as, cardiovascular complications, neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, and cataract genesis. It reduces glucose to sorbitol in the presence of NADPH and the major cause of diabetes complications could be the change in the osmotic pressure due to the accumulation of sorbitol. An activated form of hAR (activated hAR or ahAR) poses a potential obstacle in the development of diabetes drugs as hAR-inhibitors are ineffective against ahAR...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Jiu-Yu Zhan, Ke Ma, Qing-Chuan Zheng, Guang-Hui Yang, Hong-Xing Zhang
Aldose reductase (AKR1B1) has been considered as a significant target for designing drugs to counteract the development of diabetic complications. In the present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM-GB/SA) calculations were performed to make sure which tautomer is the preferred one among three tautomeric forms (Mtia1, Mtia2, and Mtia3) of 3-Mercapto-5H-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indole-5-acetic acid (Mtia) for binding to AKR1B1. The overall structural features and the results of calculated binding free energies indicate that Mtia1 and Mtia2 have more superiority than Mtia3 in terms of binding to AKR1B1...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Jan Moritz Seliger, Livia Misuri, Edmund Maser, Jan Hintzpeter
Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated chalcone unique to hops (Humulus lupulus) and two derived prenylflavanones, isoxanthohumol (IX) and 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) gained increasing attention as potential anti-diabetic and cancer preventive compounds. Two enzymes of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily are notable pharmacological targets in cancer therapy (AKR1B10) and in the treatment of diabetic complications (AKR1B1). Our results show that XN, IX and 8-PN are potent uncompetitive, tight-binding inhibitors of human aldose reductase AKR1B1 (Ki  = 15...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Seung Hwan Hwang, Zhiqiang Wang, Hong-Won Suh, Soon Sung Lim
This study aimed to better understand the functional properties of ribose and 20 amino acid Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The ABTS+ radical scavenging ability of the ribose-20 amino acid MRPs was evaluated. Among the MRPs, ribose-histidine MRPs (RH-MRPs) showed the highest inhibitory activities on the ABTS+ radical scavenging ability, aldose reductase (AR), and tyrosinase compared to other MRPs. Functional compounds with antioxidant and AR inhibitory activities have been recognized as an important strategy in the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications, and the search for tyrosinase inhibitors is important for the treatment of hyperpigmentation, development of skin-whitening agents, and use as preservatives in the food industry...
March 1, 2018: Food & Function
Tsuyoshi Tanimoto
 Aldose reductase (AR) is involved in the pathogenesis of complications in diabetes. In this study, the enzymatic properties of AR isolated from various sources and a recombinant human AR (rh-AR) were analyzed in detail. The sensitivity of different forms of AR to several AR inhibitors (ARIs) was compared. Our findings enabled us to propose that human AR should be used as the target enzyme in the development of ARIs. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for human AR which employed monoclonal antibodies against rh-AR was created, and this method was used to demonstrate the distribution of AR in human tissues...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Himangshu Sonowal, Pabitra Pal, Kirtikar Shukla, Ashish Saxena, Satish K Srivastava, Kota V Ramana
Despite doxorubicin (Dox) being one of the most widely used chemotherapy agents for breast, blood and lung cancers, its use in colon cancer is limited due to increased drug resistance and severe cardiotoxic side effects that increase mortality associated with its use at high doses. Therefore, better adjuvant therapies are warranted to improve the chemotherapeutic efficacy and to decrease cardiotoxicity. We have recently shown that aldose reductase inhibitor, fidarestat, increases the Dox-induced colon cancer cell death and reduces cardiomyopathy...
April 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Antonella Smeriglio, Salvatore V Giofrè, Enza M Galati, Maria T Monforte, Nicola Cicero, Valeria D'Angelo, Gianpaolo Grassi, Clara Circosta
Aldose reductase (ALR2) is a key enzyme involved in diabetic complications and the search for new aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) is currently very important. The synthetic ARIs are often associated with deleterious side effects and medicinal and edible plants, containing compounds with aldose reductase inhibitory activity, could be useful for prevention and therapy of diabetic complications. Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids exert multiple pharmacological effects with therapeutic potential in many diseases such as inflammation, cancer, diabetes...
February 7, 2018: Fitoterapia
Blanca Colín-Lozano, Samuel Estrada-Soto, Fabiola Chávez-Silva, Abraham Gutiérrez-Hernández, Litzia Cerón-Romero, Abraham Giacoman-Martínez, Julio Cesar Almanza-Pérez, Emanuel Hernández-Núñez, Zhilong Wang, Xin Xie, Mario Cappiello, Francesco Balestri, Umberto Mura, Gabriel Navarrete-Vazquez
We have synthesized a small series of five 3-[4-arylmethoxy)phenyl]propanoic acids employing an easy and short synthetic pathway. The compounds were tested in vitro against a set of four protein targets identified as key elements in diabetes: G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40), aldose reductase (AKR1B1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gama (PPARγ) and solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 4 (GLUT-4). Compound 1 displayed an EC50 value of 0.075 μM against GPR40 and was an AKR1B1 inhibitor, showing IC50 = 7...
February 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Shalini Jamwal, Saurabh Sharma
AIM: Vascular endothelium plays a role in capillary transport of nutrients and drugs and regulates angiogenesis, homeostasis, as well as vascular tone and permeability as a major regulator of local vascular homeostasis. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of endothelium in metabolic disorders. METHODS: The endothelium maintains the balance between vasodilatation and vasoconstriction, procoagulant and anticoagulant, prothrombotic and antithrombotic mechanisms...
May 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Zhihua Wang, Sheng Yuan, Yanbing Li, Zhe Zhang, Wei Xiao, Dan Tang, Kaihe Ye, Zhijun Liu, Congcong Wang, Yixiong Zheng, Hong Nie, Heru Chen
(R,E)-N-(3-(2-acetamido-3-(benzyloxy) propanamido)propyl)-2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxy phenyl)acrylamide (hr5F) was design-synthesized based on bioactivity focus strategy as a potential agent to treat diabetic complicates. With in vitro enzyme assay, it is confirmed that hr5F is an effective ALR2 inhibitor with IC50 value of 2.60 ± 0.15 nM, and selectivity index of 86.0 over ALR1, which is a little bit better than the reference Epalrestat (Epa). hr5F inhibits the increase of ALR2 enzyme activity and expression in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) induced by high glucose...
April 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Diganta Kalita, David G Holm, Daniel V LaBarbera, J Mark Petrash, Sastry S Jayanty
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that is becoming a serious global health problem. Diabetes has been considered to be one of the major risks of cataract and retinopathy. Synthetic and natural product inhibitors of carbohydrate degrading enzymes are able to reduce type 2 diabetes and its complications. For a long time, potatoes have been portrayed as unhealthy for diabetic patients by some nutritionist due to their high starch content. However, purple and red potato cultivars have received considerable attention from consumers because they have high levels of polyphenolic compounds that have potent antioxidant activities...
2018: PloS One
Victoria A Serhiyenko, Alexandr A Serhiyenko
Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) that is strongly associated with approximately five-fold increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. CAN manifests in a spectrum of things, ranging from resting tachycardia and fixed heart rate (HR) to development of "silent" myocardial infarction. Clinical correlates or risk markers for CAN are age, DM duration, glycemic control, hypertension, and dyslipidemia (DLP), development of other microvascular complications...
January 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
Md Yousof Ali, Hyun Ah Jung, Susoma Jannat, Jae Sue Choi
The formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and aldose reductase activity have been implicated in the development of diabetic complications. The present study was aimed to evaluate human recombinant aldose reductase (HRAR) and AGE inhibitory activity of seven natural dihydroxanthyletin-type coumarins, 4-hydroxy Pd-C-III (1), 4'-methoxy Pd-C-I (2), Pd-C-I (3), Pd-C-II (4), Pd-C-III (5), decursidin (6), and (+)-trans-decursidinol (7) from Angelica decursiva. Coumarins 1-7 showed potent HRAR and AGE inhibitory activities with ranges of IC50 values of 1...
February 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Devi Thiagarajan, Karen O' Shea, Gopalkrishna Sreejit, Radha Ananthakrishnan, Nosirudeen Quadri, Qing Li, Ann Marie Schmidt, Kenneth Gabbay, Ravichandran Ramasamy
Aldose reductase (AR: human, AKR1B1; mouse, AKR1B3), the first enzyme in the polyol pathway, plays a key role in mediating myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In earlier studies, using transgenic mice broadly expressing human AKR1B1 to human-relevant levels, mice devoid of Akr1b3, and pharmacological inhibitors of AR, we demonstrated that AR is an important component of myocardial I/R injury and that inhibition of this enzyme protects the heart from I/R injury. In this study, our objective was to investigate if AR modulates the β-catenin pathway and consequent activation of mesenchymal markers during I/R in the heart...
2017: PloS One
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