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Edyta Łukowska-Chojnacka, Jolanta Mierzejewska, Małgorzata Milner-Krawczyk, Małgorzata Bondaryk, Monika Staniszewska
With the appearance of the antifungal resistance, novel antifungal agents need to be identified. In this context new 2,5-disubstituted tetrazole derivatives containing benzothiazole, benzoxazole or phenylsulfonyl moiety were synthesized by N-alkylation of aryltetrazole with 2-[(3-chloropropyl)sulfanyl]-1,3-benzothiazole or 2-[(3-chloropropyl)sulfanyl]-1,3-benzoxazole and Michael-type addition of aryltetrazole to phenyl vinyl sulfone. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by means of (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR and HRMS spectral data...
September 28, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Giacomo M Lari, Olivier G Gröninger, Qiang Li, Cecilia Mondelli, Núria López, Javier Pérez-Ramírez
Sugar alcohols are applied in the food, pharmaceutical, polymer, and fuel industries and are commonly obtained by reduction of the corresponding saccharides. In view of the rarity of some sugar substrates, epimerization of a readily available monosaccharide has been proposed as a solution, but an efficient catalytic system has not yet been identified. Herein, a molybdenum heteropolyacid-based catalyst is developed to transform glucose, arabinose, and xylose into less-abundant mannose, ribose, and lyxose, respectively...
October 14, 2016: ChemSusChem
Ramon Gonzalez, Pilar Morales, Jordi Tronchoni, Gustavo Cordero-Bueso, Enrico Vaudano, Manuel Quirós, Maite Novo, Rafael Torres-Pérez, Eva Valero
Adaptation to changes in osmolarity is fundamental for the survival of living cells, and has implications in food and industrial biotechnology. It has been extensively studied in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the Hog1 stress activated protein kinase was discovered about 20 years ago. Hog1 is the core of the intracellular signaling pathway that governs the adaptive response to osmotic stress in this species. The main endpoint of this program is synthesis and intracellular retention of glycerol, as a compatible osmolyte...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Golla Ramanjaneyulu, Bontha Rajasekhar Reddy
Xylanses are hydrolytic enzymes with wide applications in several industries like biofuels, paper and pulp, deinking, food, and feed. The present study was aimed at hitting at high yield xylanase producing fungi from natural resources. Two highest xylanase producing fungal isolates-Q12 and L1 were picked from collection of 450 fungal cultures for the utilization of xylan. These fungal isolates-Q12 and L1 were identified basing on ITS gene sequencing analysis as Fusarium sp. BVKT R2 (KT119615) and Fusarium strain BRR R6 (KT119619), respectively with construction of phylogenetic trees...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Juan Wang, Ran-Ran Zhang, Guan-Qun Gao, Ming-Yuan Ma, Hui Chen
The values of physiological indices and the enzymes activities involved in the overwintering stage were studied in D. armandi larvae in each month from October 2014 to March 2015. The sorbitol, trehalose and glycerol values initially tended to increase as the ambient temperature decreased, before declining until the end of the winter. The activities of four enzymes (SOD, CAT, LDH and AchE) decreased, whereas POD, PK and MDH showed opposite trends in activity. Other enzyme activities (those of TPS, SDH and GLK) were low during the overwintering period and later increased and stabilized during spring...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rowan R Thomas, Heather J L Brooks, Rory O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli are gastrointestinal pathogens causing diarrhoeal and extraintestinal disease. Due to lack of EPEC screening and use of Sorbitol-MacConkey (SMAC) agar in faecal screening, the true prevalence of EPEC and non-O157 STEC in New Zealand diarrhoeal cases is unknown. METHODS: Diarrhoeic stools sourced from Dunedin hospital were pre-enriched, DNA extracted with Chelex-100 resin and screened using a multiplex TaqMan quantitative PCR assay amplifying stx1, sxt2 and EPEC (eae) gene markers...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
David R Singleton, Alden C Adrion, Michael D Aitken
Bioremediation as a method for removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated environments has been criticized for poor removal of potentially carcinogenic but less bioavailable high molecular weight (HMW) compounds. As a partial remedy to this constraint, we studied surfactant addition at sub-micellar concentrations to contaminated soil to enhance the biodegradation of PAHs remaining after conventional aerobic bioremediation. We demonstrated increased removal of four- and five-ring PAHs using two nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene(4)lauryl ether (Brij 30) and polyoxyethylene sorbitol hexaoleate (POESH), and analyzed bacterial community shifts associated with those conditions...
October 1, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Muktanand Tripathi, Akhand Pratap Singh, Gopal Gupta, Singh Rajender
This study aimed at investigating the expression and localization of the polyol pathway enzymes; aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), in the male reproductive tract of rat. Gene expression analysis showed maximum expression of AR and SDH in the coagulating glands. Western blot analysis showed a coordinated presence of the two enzymes in the coagulating glands, seminal vesicle and epididymis. Immunohistochemistry showed a concordant expression of the two enzymes in the coagulating gland, which goes well with its function of fructose production in rats...
September 29, 2016: Acta Histochemica
Xingguang Zhang, Karen Wilson, Adam F Lee
Biomass has been long exploited as an anthropogenic energy source; however, the 21st century challenges of energy security and climate change are driving resurgence in its utilization both as a renewable alternative to fossil fuels and as a sustainable carbon feedstock for chemicals production. Deconstruction of cellulose and hemicellulose carbohydrate polymers into their constituent C5 and C6 sugars, and subsequent heterogeneously catalyzed transformations, offer the promise of unlocking diverse oxygenates such as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, and gluconic acid as biorefinery platform chemicals...
October 12, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Alden C Adrion, David R Singleton, Jun Nakamura, Damian Shea, Michael D Aitken
Efficacy of bioremediation for soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be limited by the fractions of soil-bound PAHs that are less accessible to PAH-degrading microorganisms. In previous test-tube-scale work, submicellar doses of nonionic surfactants were screened for their ability to enhance the desorption and biodegradation of residual PAHs in soil after conventional bioremediation in a laboratory-scale, slurry-phase bioreactor. Polyoxyethylene sorbitol hexaoleate (POESH) was the optimum surfactant for enhancing PAH removal, especially the high-molecular weight PAHs...
September 1, 2016: Environmental Engineering Science
Andrew McDowell, Emma Barnard, Jared Liu, Huiying Li, Sheila Patrick
Recently, strains of Propionibacterium acnes from the type III genetic division have been proposed as Propionibacterium acnes subsp. elongatum subsp. nov., with strains from the type I and II divisions collectively classified as Propionibacterium acnes subsp. acnes subsp. nov. Under such a taxonomic re-appraisal, we believe that types I and II should also have their own separate rank of subspecies. In support of this, we describe a polyphasic taxonomic study based on the analysis of publically available multilocus and whole genome sequence datasets, alongside a systematic review of previously published phylogenetic, genomic, phenotypic and clinical data...
September 25, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Yuichi Nakajima, Kazuyuki Maeda, Qi Jin, Naoko Takahashi-Ando, Kyoko Kanamaru, Tetsuo Kobayashi, Makoto Kimura
Fructo-oligosaccharides containing a sucrose unit are reported as carbon sources necessary for trichothecene production by Fusarium graminearum. Here we demonstrate that trichothecene production is induced when at least 100μM sucrose is added to a culture medium containing 333mM glucose in a 24-well plate. When glucose, the main carbon source of the medium, was replaced with galactose, maltose, or sorbitol, the addition of 100μM sucrose could no longer induce trichothecene production. However, replacing half the amount of each carbon source with glucose restored the trichothecene production-inducing activity of sucrose...
September 16, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Liliana Gustini, Cristina Lavilla, Antxon Martínez de Ilarduya, Sebastián Muñoz-Guerra, Cor E Koning
Sugar-based polyesters derived from sorbitol and isohexides were obtained via solvent-free enzymatic catalysis. Pendant hydroxyl groups, coming from the sorbitol units, were present along the polyester backbone, whereas the two isohexides, namely, isomannide and isoidide dimethyl ester monomers, were selected to introduce rigidity into the polyester chains. The feasibility of incorporating isomannide as a diol compared to the isoidide dimethyl ester as acyl-donor via lipase-catalyzed polycondensation was investigated...
October 10, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Peter de Cock, Kauko Mäkinen, Eino Honkala, Mare Saag, Elke Kennepohl, Alex Eapen
Objective. To provide a comprehensive overview of published evidence on the impact of erythritol, a noncaloric polyol bulk sweetener, on oral health. Methods. A literature review was conducted regarding the potential effects of erythritol on dental plaque (biofilm), dental caries, and periodontal therapy. The efficacy of erythritol on oral health was compared with xylitol and sorbitol. Results. Erythritol effectively decreased weight of dental plaque and adherence of common streptococcal oral bacteria to tooth surfaces, inhibited growth and activity of associated bacteria like S...
2016: International Journal of Dentistry
Alvaro A Ordonez, Edward A Weinstein, Lauren E Bambarger, Vikram Saini, Yong S Chang, Vincent P DeMarco, Mariah H Klunk, Michael E Urbanowski, Kimberly L Moulton, Allison M Murawski, Supriya Pokkali, Alvin S Kalinda, Sanjay K Jain
: The modern patient is increasingly susceptible to bacterial infections including those due to multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs). Noninvasive whole-body analysis with pathogen-specific imaging technologies can significantly improve patient outcomes by rapidly identifying a source of infection and monitoring the response to treatment, but no such technology exists clinically. METHODS: We systematic screened 961 random, radiolabeled molecules in silico as substrates for essential metabolic pathways in bacteria, followed by in vitro uptake in representative bacteria - Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and mycobacteria...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Tae-Su Kim, Sanjay K S Patel, Chandrabose Selvaraj, Woo-Suk Jung, Cheol-Ho Pan, Yun Chan Kang, Jung-Kul Lee
A sorbitol dehydrogenase (GoSLDH) from Gluconobacter oxydans G624 (G. oxydans G624) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)-CodonPlus RIL. The complete 1455-bp codon-optimized gene was amplified, expressed, and thoroughly characterized for the first time. GoSLDH exhibited Km and kcat values of 38.9 mM and 3820 s(-1) toward L-sorbitol, respectively. The enzyme exhibited high preference for NADP(+) (vs. only 2.5% relative activity with NAD(+)). GoSLDH sequencing, structure analyses, and biochemical studies, suggested that it belongs to the NADP(+)-dependent polyol-specific long-chain sorbitol dehydrogenase family...
2016: Scientific Reports
Preeti Verma, Sunil Kumar Prajapati, Rajbharan Yadav, Danielle Senyschyn, Peter R Shea, Natalie L Trevaskis
Vesicular and colloidal delivery systems can be designed to control drug release spatially and temporally to improve drug efficacy and side effect profiles. Niosomes (vesicles prepared from nonionic surfactants in aqueous media) are gaining interest as an alternative vesicular delivery system as they offer advantages such as biocompatibility, chemical stability, low cost, high purity and versatility. However, the physical stability of niosomes, like other vesicular systems, is limited by vesicle fusion, aggregation and leakage...
September 15, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Anica Winges, Tarcyane Barata Garcia, Philipp Prager, Peter Wiedemann, Leon Kohen, Andreas Bringmann, Margrit Hollborn
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy is associated with osmotic stress resulting from hyperglycemia and intracellular sorbitol accumulation. Systemic hypertension is a risk factor of diabetic retinopathy. High intake of dietary salt increases extracellular osmolarity resulting in systemic hypertension. We determined the effects of extracellular hyperosmolarity, chemical hypoxia, and oxidative stress on the gene expression of enzymes involved in sorbitol production and conversion in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells...
September 14, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Mariane Moreira Ramiro do Carmo, Julia Clara Leite Walker, Daiana Novello, Valeria Maria Caselato, Valdemiro Carlos Sgarbieri, Arthur C Ouwehand, Nelson Adami Andreollo, Priscila Aiko Hiane, Elisvânia Freitas Dos Santos
Polydextrose (PDX) is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential...
2016: Nutrients
Elaine M Kaptein, Divya Sreeramoju, John M Kaptein, Matthew J Kaptein
BACKGROUND: Wide ranges of sodium concentrations for different body fluid losses have been noted with minimal substantiating data and variability among sources, leading to use of "cumulative fluid balance" regardless of composition in hospitalized patients. AIMS: To define the sodium concentrations of fluid losses from the body. METHOD: We performed a systematic search and literature review in adult humans using PubMed database. RESULTS: Inclusion criteria were met for 107 full-text articles...
October 2016: Clinical Nephrology
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