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Kimberly Adkison, Allen Wolstenholme, Yu Lou, Zhiping Zhang, Amy Eld, Teodora Perger, Harald Vangerow, Katy Hayward, Mark Shaefer, Cynthia McCoig
In children aged ≤4 years, the relative bioavailability of lamivudine oral solution was 37% lower than that of a tablet formulation. An open-label, 4-way crossover study was conducted in healthy adults to evaluate the effect of sorbitol, a common liquid excipient, on the pharmacokinetics of lamivudine oral solution ( identifier, NCT02634073). Sixteen subjects were randomized to 1 of 4 sequences consisting of 4 doses of lamivudine 300 mg (10 mg/mL) alone or with sorbitol 3.2, 10.2, or 13...
November 18, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Kyle Schutz, Lauren A Cowley, Sharif Shaaban, Anne Carroll, Eleanor McNamara, David L Gally, Gauri Godbole, Claire Jenkins, Timothy J Dallman
In July 2014, an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O55:H7 in England involved 31 patients, 13 (42%) of whom had hemolytic uremic syndrome. Isolates were sequenced, and the sequences were compared with publicly available sequences of E. coli O55:H7 and O157:H7. A core-genome phylogeny of the evolutionary history of the STEC O55:H7 outbreak strain revealed that the most parsimonious model was a progenitor enteropathogenic O55:H7 sorbitol-fermenting strain, lysogenized by a Shiga toxin (Stx) 2a-encoding phage, followed by loss of the ability to ferment sorbitol because of a non-sense mutation in srlA...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Chrispian W Theron, Julio Berrios, Frank Delvigne, Patrick Fickers
The methylotrophic yeast Komagataella (Pichia) pastoris has become one of the most utilized cell factories for the production of recombinant proteins over the last three decades. This success story is linked to its specific physiological traits, i.e., the ability to grow at high cell density in inexpensive culture medium and to secrete proteins at high yield. Exploiting methanol metabolism is at the core of most P. pastoris-based processes but comes with its own challenges. Co-feeding cultures with glycerol/sorbitol and methanol is a promising approach, which can benefit from improved understanding and prediction of metabolic response...
November 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Arshag D Mooradian, Meridith Smith, Masaaki Tokuda
The rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity worldwide has been partially attributed to the overconsumption of added sugars. Recent guidelines call for limiting the consumption of simple sugars to less than 10% of daily caloric consumption. High intensity sweeteners are regulated as food additives and include aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate and alitame. Steviol glycosides and Luo Han Guo fruit extracts are high intensity sweeteners that are designated as generally recognized as safe (GRAS)...
April 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Mohammad Pazhang, Narges Mardi, Faramarz Mehrnejad, Nader Chaparzadeh
Inside the cells, proteins are surrounded by mixtures of different osmolytes. However, our current understanding of the combinatorial effects of such mixtures on the stability of proteins remains elusive. In the present study, the stability and structure of recombinant pyrazinamidase (PZase) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis were analyzed in the presence of stabilizing osmolytes (sorbitol, sucrose and glycerol) and alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol and n-propanol). The far-UV and near-UV circular dichroism (CD), intrinsic fluorescence and thermostability results indicated that methanol, unexpectedly, has stronger effect on destabilization of the enzyme compared to ethanol which has larger log P...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Roberto Christian Cerrud-Rodriguez, Diego Alcaraz-Alvarez, Brian Bobby Chiong, Abdurhman Ahmed
We present the case report of an 80-year-old woman with chronic kidney disease stage G5 admitted to the hospital with fluid overload and hyperkalaemia. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS, Kayexalate) in sorbitol suspension was given orally to treat her hyperkalaemia, which precipitated an episode of SPS in sorbitol-induced ischaemic colitis with the subsequent complication of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bacteraemia. SPS (Kayexalate) in sorbitol suspension has been implicated in the development of intestinal necrosis...
November 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Marta Olivera Santa-Catalina, Montaña Caballero Bermejo, Ricardo Argent, Juan C Alonso, Francisco Centeno, María J Lorenzo
Growing evidence suggests that Diabetes Mellitus increases the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. It is well known that hyperglycemia, a key feature of Diabetes Mellitus, may induce plasma osmolarity disturbances. Both hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity promote the altered post-translational regulation of microtubule-associated protein Tau. Interestingly, abnormal hyperphosphorylation and cleavage of Tau have been proven to lead to the genesis of filamentous structures referred to as neurofibrillary tangles, the main pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease...
November 7, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Xiao-Pu Shi, Jing-Jing Ren, Qin Yu, Shu-Mei Zhou, Qiu-Ping Ren, Lan-Jing Kong, Xiu-Ling Wang
Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) catalyzes the reversible oxidation of sorbitol, xylitol and ribitol to their corresponding ketoses. In this study, we investigated the expression and role of Arabidopsis SDH in salt and osmotic stress tolerance, and abscisic acid (ABA) response. The expression patterns of SDH were investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing beta-glucuronidase (GUS) under the control of promoter with the first intron of SDH. qRT-PCR and histochemical assay of GUS activity were used to study SDH expression regulation by ABA, salt and osmotic stress...
November 10, 2017: Plant Biology
Shailza Sharma, T N C Ramya
This communication probes ligand binding by human Intelectin-1 with several saccharides. Human Intelectin-1 was previously reported to bind to microbial glycans via ribofuranoside or galactofuranoside residues, whereas subsequently, a crystal structure of ligand bound hITLN1 indicated that hITLN1 does not bind to ribofuranoside but distinguishes between microbial and human glycans through a glycan motif - a terminal, acyclic 1,2-diol, which is present on galactofuranose and other microbial saccharides. Here, we demonstrate that besides glycerol and glycerol derivatives (which have an acyclic 1,2-diol), and 2-deoxy-d-galactose, d-ribose and 2-deoxy-d-ribose, which have been previously reported as human Intelectin-1 ligands, 2-C-hydroxymethyl-d-ribose, d-talose, d-idose, d-altrose and sorbitol also elute human Intelectin-1 from Sepharose CL-6B...
November 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Huan Lu, Huili Zhu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of transketolase (TKT) on cell proliferation, cell migration and interaction with other metabolism-associated genes in A549 lung cancer cells. A549 cells were transfected with three TKT-specific small interfering (si)RNAs, screened for the optimal transfection concentration, and sequenced with flow cytometry and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Cell viability was evaluated using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), cell cycle was assessed by flow cytometric analysis...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
Arnau Vidal, Vicente Sanchis, Antonio J Ramos, Sonia Marín
The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most common mycotoxins of cereals worldwide, and its occurrence has been widely reported in raw wheat. The free mycotoxin form is not the only route of exposure; modified forms can also be present in cereal products. Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside) is a common DON plant conjugate. The mycotoxin concentration could be affected by food processing; here, we studied the stability of DON and DON-3-glucoside during baking of small doughs made from white wheat flour and other ingredients...
November 7, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Lidia Lipińska, Robert Klewicki, Michał Sójka, Radosław Bonikowski, Dorota Żyżelewicz, Krzysztof Kołodziejczyk, Elżbieta Klewicka
The antifungal activity of Lactobacillus pentosus ŁOCK 0979 depends both on the culture medium and on the fungal species. In the control medium, the strain exhibited limited antagonistic activity against indicator food-borne molds and yeasts. However, the supplementation of the bacterial culture medium with polyols (erythritol, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol) or their galactosyl derivatives (gal-erythritol, gal-sorbitol, gal-xylitol) enhanced the antifungal properties of Lactobacillus pentosus ŁOCK 0979...
November 6, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Maryam Alsadat Rad, Mohd Ridzuan Ahmad, Masahiro Nakajima, Seiji Kojima, Michio Homma, Toshio Fukuda
The preparation and observations of spheroplast W303 cells are described with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM). The spheroplasting conversion was successfully confirmed qualitatively, by the evaluation of the morphological change between the normal W303 cells and the spheroplast W303 cells, and quantitatively, by determining the spheroplast conversion percentage based on the OD800 absorbance data. From the optical microscope observations as expected, the normal cells had an oval shape whereas spheroplast cells resemble a spherical shape...
2017: Scanning
Xinghong Duo, Qian Li, Jun Wang, Juan Lv, Xuefang Hao, Yakai Feng, Xiangkui Ren, Changcan Shi, Wencheng Zhang
In order to improve the transfection efficiency and reduce the cytotoxicity of gene carriers, many strategies have been used to develop novel gene carriers. In this study, five complex micelles (MSP(2 k), MSP(4 k), MSP(6 k), MSP(8 k), and MSP(10 k)) were prepared from methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (mPEG-b-PLGA) and sorbitol-poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-graft-PEI (sorbitol-PLGA-g-PEI, where the designed molecular weights of PLGA chains were 2 kDa, 4 kDa, 6 kDa, 8 kDa, and 10 kDa, respectively) copolymers by a self-assembly method, and the mass ratio of mPEG-b-PLGA to sorbitol-PLGA-g-PEI was 1/3...
November 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Phillip R A Chivers, David K Smith
Hybrid hydrogels based on self-assembling low-molecular-weight gelator (LMWG) DBS-CONHNH2 (DBS = 1,3;2,4-dibenzylidene-d-sorbitol) and crosslinked polymer gelator (PG) PEGDM (poly(ethyleneglycol) dimethacrylate) are reported, and an active pharmaceutical ingredient (naproxen, NPX) is incorporated. The use of PEGDM as PG enhances the mechanical stiffness of the hybrid gel (G' increases from 400 to 4500 Pa) - the LMWG enhances its stability to very high frequency. Use of DBS-CONHNH2 as LMWG enables interactions with NPX and hence allows pH-mediated NPX release - the PG network is largely orthogonal and only interferes to a limited extent...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Min Jung Lee, Ha Yeon Sung, HyunJi Jo, Hyung-Wook Kim, Min Sung Choi, Jae Young Kwon, KyeongJin Kang
Avoiding ingestion of excessively salty food is essential for cation homeostasis that underlies various physiological processes in organisms. The molecular and cellular basis of the aversive salt taste, however, remains elusive. Through a behavioral reverse genetic screening, we discover that feeding suppression by Na(+)-rich food requires Ionotropic Receptor 76b (Ir76b) in Drosophila labellar gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs). Concentrated sodium solutions with various anions caused feeding suppression dependent on Ir76b...
October 2017: Molecules and Cells
Shima Khodaverdian, Bahareh Dabirmanesh, Akbar Heydari, Elahe Dashtban-Moghadam, Khosro Khajeh, Farideh Ghazi
Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) play a role as alternative media to water in living organisms. They are formed by mixing two or more natural compounds in certain ratios producing a liquid having a lower melting point than those of the individual NADES components. Although, the eutectics medium bring several advantages as enhanced solubility of non-polar substrates and/or products, however, these advantages would often be limited by a lower stability of biocatalysts in these systems. To examine this matter, biochemical characterization, thermal stability and tertiary structure of laccase from Bacillus HR03 was investigated as a model in betaine and choline based NADES...
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sei Tsutsui, Takahisa Anada, Yukari Shiwaku, Kaori Tsuchiya, Hajime Yamazaki, Osamu Suzuki
The present study was designed to characterize co-precipitated fluoridated apatitic materials from octacalcium phosphate (OCP) precursor and to investigate their surface reactions with polyols including glycerol in the presence of fluoride ions. Laboratory-synthesized fluoridated apatite crystals (LS-FA) were obtained in a solution containing fluoride (F) from 25 to 500 ppm. LS-FAs and commercially available fluoroapatite (FA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were characterized by physical techniques, such as X-ray diffraction...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Magdalena Majekova, Jana Ballekova, Marta Prnova, Milan Stefek
In our previous study, tetrahydropyridoindoles carboxymethylated in position 8 were identified as aldose reductase (ALR2) inhibitors with mild efficacy and selectivity yet with significant antioxidant activity. In the present study we proceeded with optimization of the tetrahydropyridoindole scaffold by shifting the carboxymethyl pharmacophore from position 8 to position 5, with the aim to improve the biological activity. Commercial databases were screened for the presence of tetrahydropyridoindoles carboxymethylated in position 5 and an experimental set of eight compounds was created...
October 16, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Agnieszka Brzozowska, Andrea D Lipińska, Natalia Derewońko, Dorota Lesiak, Michał Rychłowski, Łukasz Rąbalski, Krystyna Bieńkowska-Szewczyk
Us3 protein is a serine/threonine kinase conserved within the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily of herpesviruses. The Us3 homologs of herpes simplex virus, pseudorabies virus, and bovine herpesvirus type 5 have been shown to block apoptosis triggered by viral infection or exogenous inducers. To determine whether these characteristics are shared by bovine herpesvirus type 1 Us3, we constructed two viral mutants: BHV-1 Us3 deletion mutant (BHV-1ΔUs3) and a kinase-dead mutant (BHV-1KD). Flow cytometry analysis and TUNEL assay clearly demonstrated, that only BHV-1 wild type virus suppressed infection-induced apoptosis and protected cells from apoptosis triggered by exogenous factors: sorbitol or staurosporine...
October 23, 2017: Virology
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