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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944190/analysis-of-proteomic-differences-between-liquefied-after-cataracts-and-normal-lenses-using-two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis-and-mass-spectrometry
#1
Jia-Jia Ge, Yu-Sen Huang
AIM: To analyze and identify the proteomic differences between liquefied after-cataracts and normal lenses by means of liquefied chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). METHODS: Three normal lenses and three liquefied after-cataracts were exposed to depolymerizing reagents to extract the total proteins. Protein concentrations were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The digitized images obtained with a GS-800 scanner were then analyzed with PDQuest7...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926768/the-effect-of-irrigation-time-and-type-of-irrigation-fluid-on-cartilage-surface-friction
#2
F Stärke, F Awiszus, C H Lohmann, C Stärke
It is known that fluid irrigation used during arthroscopic procedures causes a wash-out of lubricating substances from the articular cartilage surface and leads to increased friction. It was the goal of this study to investigate whether this effect depends on the time of irrigation and type of fluid used. Rabbit hind legs were used for the tests. The knees were dissected and the friction coefficient of the femoral cartilage measured against glass in a boundary lubrication state. To determine the influence of irrigation time and fluid, groups of 12 knees received either no irrigation (control), 15, 60 or 120min of irrigation with lactated Ringer's solution or 60min of irrigation with normal saline or a sorbitol/mannitol solution...
September 9, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926708/molecular-nuances-governing-the-self-assembly-of-1-3-2-4-dibenzylidene-d-sorbitol
#3
Andrew Singh, France-Isabelle Auzanneau, Maria G Corradini, Girishma Grover, Richard G Weiss, Michael A Rogers
1,3:2,4 Dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol (DBS) is the gold-standard for low-molecular-weight organogelators (LMOGs). DBS gelates a wide array of solvents, as illustrated by the large Hansen sphere representing gels (2d = 33.5, p = 7.5, and h = 8.7 MPa1/2; radius = 11.2 MPa1/2). Derivatives of DBS have been synthesised to isolate and determine molecular features essential for organogelation. Herein, π-π stacking and hydrogen-bonding are the major non-covalent interactions examined. The importance of π-π stacking was studied using 1,3:2,4 dicyclohexanecarboxylidene-D-sorbitol (DCHS), which eliminates possible π-π stacking, while still conserving the other structural aspects of DBS...
September 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920628/fluoroquinolones-as-imaging-agents-for-bacterial-infection
#4
Syed Ali Raza Naqvi, Karl Drlica
Diagnosis of deep-seated bacterial infection is difficult, as neither standard anatomical imaging nor radiolabeled, autologous leukocytes distinguish sterile inflammation from infection. Two recent imaging efforts are receiving attention: (1) radioactive derivatives of sorbitol show good specificity with Gram-negative bacterial infections, and (2) success in combining anatomical and functional imaging for cancer diagnosis has rekindled interest in (99m)Tc-fluoroquinolone-based imaging. With the latter, computed tomography (CT) would be combined with single-photon-emission-computed tomography (SPECT) to detect (99m)Tc-fluoroquinolone-bacterial interactions...
September 18, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919251/inhibition-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-growth-by-simultaneous-uptake-of-glucose-and-maltose
#5
Haruyo Hatanaka, Hitoshi Mitsunaga, Eiichiro Fukusaki
Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses α-glucoside transporters, such as MalX1p (X=1(Agt1p), 2, 3, 4, and 6), which are proton symporters. These transporters are regulated at transcriptional and posttranslational levels in the presence of glucose. Malt wort contains glucose, maltose, and maltotriose, and the assimilation of maltose is delayed as a function of glucose concentration. With the objective of increasing beer fermentation rates, we characterized α-glucoside transporters and bred laboratory yeasts that expressed various α-glucoside transporters for the simultaneous uptake of different sugars...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918527/alterations-in-epididymal-proteomics-and-antioxidant-activity-of-mice-exposed-to-fluoride
#6
Zilong Sun, Sujuan Li, Yuxiang Yu, Hongyu Chen, Mohammad Mehdi Ommati, Ram Kumar Manthari, Ruiyan Niu, Jundong Wang
It is well known that high fluoride results in low fertility. Epididymis is the important place for spermatozoa maturation, which is essential for successful fertilization. In the previous studies, fluoride was reported to damage the epididymal structure of mouse and rabbit. However, the mechanism underlying sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced epididymal toxicity has not yet been well elucidated. The aim of this study is to explore the global protein alterations in epididymis of mice exposed to NaF using the iTRAQ technique...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917988/a-comprehensive-screening-platform-for-aerosolizable-protein-formulations-for-intranasal-and-pulmonary-drug-delivery
#7
Martina Röhm, Stefan Carle, Frank Maigler, Johannes Flamm, Viktoria Kramer, Chrystelle Mavoungou, Otmar Schmid, Katharina Schindowski
Aerosolized administration of biopharmaceuticals to the airways is a promising route for nasal and pulmonary drug delivery, but - in contrast to small molecules - little is known about the effects of aerosolization on safety and efficacy of biopharmaceuticals. Proteins are sensitive against aerosolization-associated shear stress. Tailored formulations can shield proteins and enhance permeation, but formulation development requires extensive screening approaches. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a cell-based in vitro technology platform that includes screening of protein quality after aerosolization and transepithelial permeation...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915568/hyperosmotic-stress-stimulates-autophagy-via-polycystin-2
#8
Daniel Peña-Oyarzun, Rodrigo Troncoso, Catalina Kretschmar, Cecilia Hernando, Mauricio Budini, Eugenia Morselli, Sergio Lavandero, Alfredo Criollo
Various intracellular mechanisms are activated in response to stress, leading to adaptation or death. Autophagy, an intracellular process that promotes lysosomal degradation of proteins, is an adaptive response to several types of stress. Osmotic stress occurs under both physiological and pathological conditions, provoking mechanical stress and activating various osmoadaptive mechanisms. Polycystin-2 (PC2), a membrane protein of the polycystin family, is a mechanical sensor capable of activating the cell signaling pathways required for cell adaptation and survival...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913567/two-cell-embryos-are-more-sensitive-than-blastocysts-to-ampk-dependent-suppression-of-anabolism-and-stemness-by-commonly-used-fertility-drugs-a-diet-supplement-and-stress
#9
Alan Bolnick, Mohammed Abdulhasan, Brian Kilburn, Yufen Xie, Mindie Howard, Paul Andresen, Alexandra M Shamir, Jing Dai, Elizabeth E Puscheck, Eric Secor, Daniel A Rappolee
PURPOSE: This study tests whether metformin or diet supplement BR-DIM-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediated effects on development are more pronounced in blastocysts or 2-cell mouse embryos. METHODS: Culture mouse zygotes to two-cell embryos and test effects after 0.5-1 h AMPK agonists' (e.g., Met, BR-DIM) exposure on AMPK-dependent ACCser79P phosphorylation and/or Oct4 by immunofluorescence. Culture morulae to blastocysts and test for increased ACCser79P, decreased Oct4 and for AMPK dependence by coculture with AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892262/glycan-stimulation-enables-purification-of-prostate-cancer-circulating-tumor-cells-on-pedot-nanovelcro-chips-for-rna-biomarker-detection
#10
Mo-Yuan Shen, Jie-Fu Chen, Chun-Hao Luo, Sangjun Lee, Cheng-Hsuan Li, Yung-Ling Yang, Yu-Han Tsai, Bo-Cheng Ho, Li-Rong Bao, Tien-Jung Lee, Yu Jen Jan, Ya-Zhen Zhu, Shirley Cheng, Felix Y Feng, Peilin Chen, Shuang Hou, Vatche Agopian, Yu-Sheng Hsiao, Hsian-Rong Tseng, Edwin M Posadas, Hsiao-Hua Yu
A glycan-stimulated and poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene)s (PEDOT)-based nanomaterial platform is fabricated to purify circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from blood samples of prostate cancer (PCa) patients. This new platform, phenylboronic acid (PBA)-grafted PEDOT NanoVelcro, combines the 3D PEDOT nanosubstrate, which greatly enhances CTC capturing efficiency, with a poly(EDOT-PBA-co-EDOT-EG3) interfacial layer, which not only provides high specificity for CTC capture upon antibody conjugation but also enables competitive binding of sorbitol to gently release the captured cells...
September 11, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873700/preparation-of-chitosan-polyvinyl-alcohol-blended-films-containing-sulfosuccinic-acid-as-the-crosslinking-agent-using-uv-curing-process
#11
Yeon-Hum Yun, Chang-Moon Lee, Youn-Sop Kim, Soon-Do Yoon
This paper reports on a method of preparing chitosan-based films to which sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) is added for crosslinking agent with/without UV curing treatment and applications of a coating materials for foods. The physical, thermal, and optical properties of the UV cured chitosan-based films are investigated including their tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (%E), degree of swelling (DS), solubility (S), and water vapor absorption as well as their biodegradability in soil and applicability of the coating on a fruit...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873601/production-and-assessment-of-pacific-hake-merluccius-productus-hydrolysates-as-cryoprotectants-for-frozen-fish-mince
#12
Peter J Jenkelunas, Eunice C Y Li-Chan
The aim of this study was to investigate application of fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) as cryoprotectants for cod fish mince subjected to freeze-thaw abuse. Response surface methodology revealed little difference in cryoprotectant ability between FPHs produced from Pacific hake muscle within the range of conditions studied, namely Flavourzyme® enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S 1-4%), time (1-6h) and pH (5-7). When added at 4% or higher concentrations, FPH minimized expressible moisture and cook loss, while maximizing salt extractable protein from freeze-thaw abused fish mince, providing similar or better cryoprotection compared to an 8% sucrose-sorbitol blend, and a stabilizing effect of FPH on myosin was observed by differential scanning calorimetry...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857279/self-perceived-mouthfeel-and-physico-chemical-surface-effects-after-chewing-gums-containing-sorbitol-and-magnolia-bark-extract
#13
Stefan W Wessel, Henny C van der Mei, Anje M Slomp, Betsy van de Belt-Gritter, Michael W J Dodds, Henk J Busscher
The European Food Safety Authority recognizes the contribution of sugar-free chewing gum to oral health through increased salivation, clearance of food debris, and neutralization of biofilm pH. Magnolia bark extract is a gum additive shown to reduce the prevalence of bad-breath bacteria but its effects on self-perceived mouthfeel are unknown. This paper aims to relate the effects of sorbitol-containing chewing gum, with and without Magnolia bark extract, on tooth-surface hydrophobicity and salivary-film composition with self-perceived mouthfeel...
August 31, 2017: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842639/metabolomic-analysis-reveals-vitamin-d-induced-decrease-in-polyol-pathway-and-subtle-modulation-of-glycolysis-in-hek293t-cells
#14
G C Santos, J D Zeidler, J A Pérez-Valencia, A C B Sant'Anna-Silva, A T Da Poian, T El-Bacha, F C L Almeida
We combined (1)H NMR metabolomics with functional and molecular biochemical assays to describe the metabolic changes elicited by vitamin D in HEK293T, an embryonic proliferative cell line adapted to high-glucose concentrations. Activation of the polyol pathway, was the most important consequence of cell exposure to high glucose concentration, resembling cells exposed to hyperglycemia. Vitamin D induced alterations in HEK293T cells metabolism, including a decrease in sorbitol, glycine, glutamate, guanine. Vitamin D modulated glycolysis by increasing phosphoglycerate mutase and decreasing enolase activities, changing carbon fate without changing glucose consumption, lactate export and Krebs cycle...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840833/the-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-glycative-effects-of-rosmarinic-acid-in-the-livers-of-type-1-diabetic-mice
#15
Yu-Ju Wen, Mei-Chin Yin
BACKGROUND: Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a polyphenol present in members of the Lamiaceae family. In this study, yhe anti-inflammatory and anti-glycative effects of RA in the livers of type 1 diabetic mice were examined. METHODS: The diabetic mice were divided into three groups: diabetic mice with 0, low dose RA (25 mg/ml), and high dose RA (50 mg/ml). One group of non-diabetic mice was used as a control for comparison. RA was supplied via daily 200 μL oral injections for 9 weeks...
September 2017: BioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838679/polyols-and-remineralisation-of-enamel-subsurface-lesions
#16
Peiyan Shen, Glenn D Walker, Yi Yuan, Coralie Reynolds, Eric C Reynolds
Sugar-free chewing gum containing polyols has been demonstrated to reduce caries experience in randomised controlled clinical trials. A range of polyols (mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol and maltitol) can be found in sugar-free gums and it has been claimed that they can facilitate calcium uptake into enamel subsurface lesions promoting remineralisation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of polyols on remineralisation of enamel subsurface lesions in vitro by artificial saliva (AS) and by AS containing the salivary biomimetic casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP)...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830589/a-label-free-detector-for-liquid-chromatography-systems-using-mm-wave-technology-first-proof-of-concept
#17
Y Zhang, S Declerck, D Mangelings, G He, V Matvejev, Y Vander Heyden, J Stiens
The development of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) technology has enabled the study of bio-molecular interactions by means of electromagnetic waves with frequencies between 30 and 300GHz. In this study, an attempt has been made to exploit the possibility of mm-wave technology as alternative detection technique for liquid chromatographic (LC) systems. The goal is to design and fabricate a label-free mm-wave detector that is compatible with LC systems. As proof-of-concept experiments, the UV absorbing compounds praziquantel and trans-stilbene-oxide as well as a non-UV absorbing compound sorbitol are injected in an open capillary as well as a capillary with stationary phase and measured by both mm-wave and UV detectors...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826220/stability-of-proteins-in-carbohydrates-and-other-additives-during-freezing-the-human-growth-hormone-as-a-case-study
#18
Andrea Arsiccio, Roberto Pisano
Molecular dynamics is here used to elucidate the mechanism of protein stabilization by carbohydrates and other additives during freezing. More specifically, we used molecular dynamics simulations to obtain a quantitative estimation of the capability of various cryoprotectants to preserve a model protein, the human growth hormone, against freezing stresses. Three mechanisms were investigated, preferential exclusion, water replacement, and vitrification. Model simulations were finally validated upon experimental data in terms of the ability of excipients to prevent protein aggregation...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821765/the-protective-action-of-osmolytes-on-the-deleterious-effects-of-gamma-rays-and-atmospheric-pressure-plasma-on-protein-conformational-changes
#19
Pankaj Attri, Minsup Kim, Thapanut Sarinont, Eun Ha Choi, Hyunwoong Seo, Art E Cho, Kazunori Koga, Masaharu Shiratani
Both gamma rays and atmospheric pressure plasma are known to have anticancer properties. While their mechanism actions are still not clear, in some contexts they work in similar manner, while in other contexts they work differently. So to understand these relationships, we have studied Myoglobin protein after the treatment of gamma rays and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, and analyzed the changes in thermodynamic properties and changes in the secondary structure of protein after both treatments. The thermodynamic properties were analyzed using chemical and thermal denaturation after both treatments...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821127/a-comparative-study-on-cellulose-nanocrystals-extracted-from-bleached-cotton-and-flax-and-used-for-casting-films-with-glycerol-and-sorbitol-plasticisers
#20
Emilia Csiszár, Sebestyén Nagy
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were released from bleached cotton and flax by a sulphuric acid hydrolysis with about 40 and 34% yield, respectively. The rod-like cotton-CNC particles were slightly longer and wider and had a less pronounced aggregation ability in aqueous suspension than the flax-CNC ones. Films were cast from the CNC suspensions with sorbitol and glycerol plasticisers. The concept behind this research was to explore how the plasticisers - with similar structure but different molecular weight - and their concentrations affect the perceptible and measured properties of CNC films...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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