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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912184/substrate-dependent-modulation-of-butanol-to-ethanol-ratio-in-non-acetone-forming-clostridium-sporogenes-ncim-2918
#1
Mehak Kaushal, Saumya Ahlawat, Mayurketan Mukherjee, Muthusivaramapandian Muthuraj, Gargi Goswami, Debasish Das
Present study reports a non-acetone producing Clostridium sporogenes strain as a potential producer of liquid biofuels. Alcohol production was positively regulated by sorbitol and instant dry yeast as carbon and nitrogen sources respectively. Media optimization resulted in maximum butanol and ethanol titer (gL(-1)) of 12.1 and 7.9 respectively. Depending on the combination of carbon sources, the organism was found to manipulate its metabolism towards synthesis of either ethanol or butanol, thereby affecting the total alcohol titer...
November 16, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905883/carbohydrate-metabolism-in-oenococcus-oeni-a-genomic-insight
#2
Alice Cibrario, Claire Peanne, Marine Lailheugue, Hugo Campbell-Sills, Marguerite Dols-Lafargue
BACKGROUND: Oenococcus oeni is the bacterial species that drives malolactic fermentation in most wines. Several studies have described a high intraspecific diversity regarding carbohydrate degradation abilities but the link between the phenotypes and the genes and metabolic pathways has been poorly described. RESULTS: A collection of 41 strains whose genomic sequences were available and representative of the species genomic diversity was analyzed for growth on 18 carbohydrates relevant in wine...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896339/intramolecular-dehydration-of-biomass-derived-sugar-alcohols-in-high-temperature-water
#3
Aritomo Yamaguchi, Natsumi Muramatsu, Naoki Mimura, Masayuki Shirai, Osamu Sato
The intramolecular dehydration of biomass-derived sugar alcohols d-sorbitol, d-mannitol, galactitol, xylitol, ribitol, l-arabitol, erythritol, l-threitol, and dl-threitol was investigated in high-temperature water at 523-573 K without the addition of any acid catalysts. d-Sorbitol and d-mannitol were dehydrated into isosorbide and isomannide, respectively, as dianhydrohexitol products. Galactitol was dehydrated into anhydrogalactitols; however, the anhydrogalactitols could not be dehydrated into dianhydrogalactitol products because of the orientation of the hydroxyl groups at the C-3 and C-6 positions...
November 29, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894247/aldose-reductase-as-a-drug-target-for-treatment-of-diabetic-nephropathy-promises-and-challenges
#4
Heba El Gamal, Shankar Munusamy
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most serious microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus and the leading cause of end stage renal disease. One of the key pathways activated in DN is the polyol pathway, in which glucose is converted to sorbitol (a relatively non-metabolizable sugar) by the enzyme aldose reductase (AR). Shunting of glucose into this pathway causes disruption to glucose metabolism and subsequently damages the tissues via increased oxidative stress, protein kinase c activation and production of advanced glycation end products (AGE) in the kidney...
November 28, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889870/secretory-expression-purification-characterization-and-application-of-an-aspergillus-oryzae-prolyl-aminopeptidase-in-bacillus-subtilis
#5
Kai-Dao Wang, Ke-Hong Wang, Nan-Di Zhou, Ya-Ping Tian
cDNA coding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) was cloned from Aspergillus oryzae and over expressed in Bacillus subtilis with a 6×His tag in N-terminus. The recombinant prolyl aminopeptidase was secreted to extracellular by adding 2 mM CaCl2 and 5% D-sorbitol in TB medium; the enzyme activity in fermented supernatant increased from 7.2 to 41.5 U mL(-1). It has been purified 4.3-fold through Ni-chelating affinity chromatography with a recovery of 47.3%. The purified enzyme is stable below 50 °C and within pH 6-11, and with the highest activity at pH 7...
November 26, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877878/a-transparent-solvent-free-laminated-top-electrode-for-perovskite-solar-cells
#6
Mohammed Makha, Silvia Letícia Fernandes, Sandra Jenatsch, Ton Offermans, Jürg Schleuniger, Jean-Nicolas Tisserant, Anna C Véron, Roland Hany
A simple lamination process of the top electrode for perovskite solar cells is demonstrated. The laminate electrode consists of a transparent and conductive plastic/metal mesh substrate, coated with an adhesive mixture of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, and sorbitol. The laminate electrode showed a high degree of transparency of 85%. Best cell performance was achieved for laminate electrodes prepared with a sorbitol concentration of ~30 wt% per milliliter PEDOT:PSS dispersion, and using a pre-annealing temperature of 120°C for 10 min before lamination...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870861/synergistic-inhibition-of-protein-fibrillation-by-proline-and-sorbitol-biophysical-investigations
#7
Sinjan Choudhary, Shreyada N Save, Nand Kishore, Ramakrishna V Hosur
We report here interesting synergistic effects of proline and sorbitol, two well-known chemical chaperones, in the inhibition of fibrillation of two proteins, insulin and lysozyme. A combination of many biophysical techniques has been used to understand the structural morphology and modes of interaction of the chaperones with the proteins during fibrillation. Both the chaperones establish stronger polar interactions in the elongation and saturation stages of fibrillation compared to that in the native stage...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852737/role-of-fructose-and-fructokinase-in-acute-dehydration-induced-vasopressin-gene-expression-and-secretion-in-mice
#8
Zhilin Song, Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Miguel A Lanaspa-Garcia, Sarah A Oppelt, Masanari Kuwabara, Thomas Jensen, Tamara Milagres, Ana Andres-Hernando, Takuji Ishimoto, Gabriela E Garcia, Ginger C Johnson, Paul S MacLean, Laura-Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada, Dean R Tolan, Richard J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Fructose stimulates vasopressin in humans and can be generated endogenously by activation of the polyol pathway with hyperosmolarity. We hypothesized that fructose metabolism in the hypothalamus might partly control vasopressin responses after acute dehydration. METHODS: Wildtype and fructokinase-knockout mice were deprived of water for 24 hours. The supraoptic nucleus was evaluated for vasopressin and the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway. The posterior pituitary vasopressin and serum copeptin levels were examined...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849146/membrane-bound-glycerol-dehydrogenase-catalyzes-oxidation-of-d-pentonates-to-4-keto-d-pentonates-d-fructose-to-5-keto-d-fructose-and-d-psicose-to-5-keto-d-psicose
#9
Yoshitaka Ano, Roque A Hours, Yoshihiko Akakabe, Naoya Kataoka, Toshiharu Yakushi, Kazunobu Matsushita, Osao Adachi
A novel oxidation of D-pentonates to 4-keto-D-pentonates was analyzed with Gluconobacter thailandicus NBRC 3258. D-Pentonate 4-dehydrogenase activity in the membrane fraction was readily inactivated by EDTA and it was reactivated by the addition of PQQ and Ca(2+). D-Pentonate 4-dehydrogenase was purified to two different subunits, 80 and 14 kDa. The absorption spectrum of the purified enzyme showed no typical absorbance over the visible regions. The enzyme oxidized D-pentonates to 4-keto-D-pentonates at the optimum pH of 4...
November 16, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835059/epalrestat-an-aldose-reductase-inhibitor-prevents-glucose-induced-toxicity-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-in-vitro
#10
Srinivasan Senthilkumari, Rajendran Sharmila, Gowripriya Chidambaranathan, Ayyasamy Vanniarajan
PURPOSE: Aldose reductase (ALR), the first and rate-limiting enzyme involved in polyol pathway plays a central role in diabetes and its related complications, including diabetic retinopathy (DR). Inhibition of ALR may also be an ideal target for reducing the deleterious effects of DR. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of epalrestat (EPL), ALR inhibitor on glucose-induced toxicity in ARPE-19 cells. METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were challenged with normal glucose (NG, 5 mM) and high glucose (HG1, 25 mM and HG2, 50 mM) in the presence or absence of EPL...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827356/structural-characterization-of-the-thermostable-bradyrhizobium-japonicumd-sorbitol-dehydrogenase
#11
Folmer Fredslund, Harm Otten, Sabrina Gemperlein, Jens Christian N Poulsen, Yvonne Carius, Gert Wieland Kohring, Leila Lo Leggio
Bradyrhizobium japonicum sorbitol dehydrogenase is NADH-dependent and is active at elevated temperatures. The best substrate is D-glucitol (a synonym for D-sorbitol), although L-glucitol is also accepted, giving it particular potential in industrial applications. Crystallization led to a hexagonal crystal form, with crystals diffracting to 2.9 Å resolution. In attempts to phase the data, a molecular-replacement solution based upon PDB entry 4nbu (33% identical in sequence to the target) was found. The solution contained one molecule in the asymmetric unit, but a tetramer similar to that found in other short-chain dehydrogenases, including the search model, could be reconstructed by applying crystallographic symmetry operations...
November 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806364/long-term-effect-of-erythritol-on-dental-caries-development-during-childhood-a-posttreatment-survival-analysis
#12
Gwen Falony, Sisko Honkala, Riina Runnel, Jana Olak, Rita Nõmmela, Silvia Russak, Mare Saag, Pirkko-Liisa Mäkinen, Kauko Mäkinen, Tero Vahlberg, Eino Honkala
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of daily consumption of erythritol, xylitol, and sorbitol candies on caries development in mixed dentition during a 3-year intervention and 3 years after the intervention. METHODS: 485 Estonian first- and second-grade primary school children participated. Children were randomly allocated to an erythritol, xylitol, or sorbitol (control) group. Polyol-containing candies were administered on school days with a daily polyol consumption of 3 × 2...
November 3, 2016: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798321/detection-of-5-hydroxymethylfurfural-and-furfural-in-the-aerosol-of-electronic-cigarettes
#13
Sarah Soussy, Ahmad El-Hellani, Rima Baalbaki, Rola Salman, Alan Shihadeh, Najat A Saliba
SIGNIFICANCE: The wide availability of sweet flavours has been hypothesised as a factor in the popularity of electronic cigarette (ECIG), especially among youth. Saccharides, which are commonly used to impart a sweet flavour to ECIG liquids, thermally degrade to produce toxic compounds, like aldehydes and furans. This study investigates the formation of furanic compounds in aerosols when ECIG liquid solutions of varying sweetener concentrations are vaped under different power and puff duration...
October 25, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777605/metabolic-response-of-glioblastoma-cells-associated-with-glucose-withdrawal-and-pyruvate-substitution-as-revealed-by-gc-ms
#14
Henry Oppermann, Yonghong Ding, Jeevan Sharma, Mandy Berndt Paetz, Jürgen Meixensberger, Frank Gaunitz, Claudia Birkemeyer
BACKGROUND: Tumor cells are highly dependent on glucose even in the presence of oxygen. This concept called the Warburg effect is a hallmark of cancer and strategies are considered to therapeutically exploit the phenomenon such as ketogenic diets. The success of such strategies is dependent on a profound understanding of tumor cell metabolism. With new techniques it is now possible to thoroughly analyze the metabolic responses to the withdrawal of substrates and their substitution by others...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771586/antifungal-activity-mode-of-action-and-anti-biofilm-effects-of-laurus-nobilis-linnaeus-essential-oil-against-candida-spp
#15
Larissa Rangel Peixoto, Pedro Luiz Rosalen, Gabriela Lacet Silva Ferreira, Irlan Almeida Freires, Fabíola Galbiatti de Carvalho, Lúcio Roberto Castellano, Ricardo Dias de Castro
OBJECTIVE: The present study demonstrated the antifungal potential of the chemically characterized essential oil (EO) of Laurus nobilis L. (bay laurel) against Candida spp. biofilm adhesion and formation, and further established its mode of action on C. albicans. METHODS: L. nobilis EO was obtained and tested for its minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations (MIC/MFC) against Candida spp., as well as for interaction with cell wall biosynthesis and membrane ionic permeability...
October 18, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765805/total-colectomy-for-colon-perforation-after-kayexalate-administration-a-case-report-and-literature-review-of-a-rare-complication
#16
Robert Hunt Dunlap, Ryan Martinez
Kayexalate is an ion exchange resin that is commonly used to acutely treat patients with hyperkalemia. Bowel ulceration and necrosis is a rare and uncommonly recognized complication of kayexalate administration. More often, concomitant administration with sorbitol is reported to damage the bowel; however, there are reports of kayexalate administration causing bowel necrosis without sorbitol. We present a case of a critically ill patient who underwent total colectomy for colonic necrosis secondary to oral kayexalate administration that was not recognized until late in the pathologic process...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745991/synthesis-of-novel-tetrazole-derivatives-and-evaluation-of-their-antifungal-activity
#17
Edyta Łukowska-Chojnacka, Jolanta Mierzejewska, Małgorzata Milner-Krawczyk, Małgorzata Bondaryk, Monika Staniszewska
With the appearance of the antifungal resistance, novel antifungal agents need to be identified. In this context new 2,5-disubstituted tetrazole derivatives containing benzothiazole, benzoxazole or phenylsulfonyl moiety were synthesized by N-alkylation of aryltetrazole with 2-[(3-chloropropyl)sulfanyl]-1,3-benzothiazole or 2-[(3-chloropropyl)sulfanyl]-1,3-benzoxazole and Michael-type addition of aryltetrazole to phenyl vinyl sulfone. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by means of (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR and HRMS spectral data...
November 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739630/catalyst-and-process-design-for-the-continuous-manufacture-of-rare-sugar-alcohols-by-epimerization-hydrogenation-of-aldoses
#18
Giacomo M Lari, Olivier G Gröninger, Qiang Li, Cecilia Mondelli, Núria López, Javier Pérez-Ramírez
Sugar alcohols are applied in the food, pharmaceutical, polymer, and fuel industries and are commonly obtained by reduction of the corresponding saccharides. In view of the rarity of some sugar substrates, epimerization of a readily available monosaccharide has been proposed as a solution, but an efficient catalytic system has not yet been identified. Herein, a molybdenum heteropolyacid-based catalyst is developed to transform glucose, arabinose, and xylose into less-abundant mannose, ribose, and lyxose, respectively...
October 14, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733850/new-genes-involved-in-osmotic-stress-tolerance-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#19
Ramon Gonzalez, Pilar Morales, Jordi Tronchoni, Gustavo Cordero-Bueso, Enrico Vaudano, Manuel Quirós, Maite Novo, Rafael Torres-Pérez, Eva Valero
Adaptation to changes in osmolarity is fundamental for the survival of living cells, and has implications in food and industrial biotechnology. It has been extensively studied in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the Hog1 stress activated protein kinase was discovered about 20 years ago. Hog1 is the core of the intracellular signaling pathway that governs the adaptive response to osmotic stress in this species. The main endpoint of this program is synthesis and intracellular retention of glycerol, as a compatible osmolyte...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713726/optimization-of-xylanase-production-through-response-surface-methodology-by-fusarium-sp-bvkt-r2-isolated-from-forest-soil-and-its-application-in-saccharification
#20
Golla Ramanjaneyulu, Bontha Rajasekhar Reddy
Xylanses are hydrolytic enzymes with wide applications in several industries like biofuels, paper and pulp, deinking, food, and feed. The present study was aimed at hitting at high yield xylanase producing fungi from natural resources. Two highest xylanase producing fungal isolates-Q12 and L1 were picked from collection of 450 fungal cultures for the utilization of xylan. These fungal isolates-Q12 and L1 were identified basing on ITS gene sequencing analysis as Fusarium sp. BVKT R2 (KT119615) and Fusarium strain BRR R6 (KT119619), respectively with construction of phylogenetic trees...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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