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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209457/metabolomic-approach-reveals-the-biochemical-mechanisms-underlying-drought-stress-tolerance-in-thyme
#1
Parviz Moradi, Brian Ford-Lloyd, Jeremy Pritchard
Thyme as a perennial herb has been recognized globally for its antimicrobial, antiseptic and spasmolytic effects. In this investigation, we have used non-targeted metabolite and volatile profiling combined with the morpho-physiological parameters in order to understand the responses at the metabolite and physiological level in drought sensitive and tolerant thyme plant populations. The results at the metabolic level identified the significantly affected metabolites. Significant metabolites belonging to different chemical classes consisting amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids and lipids have been compared in tolerant and sensitive plants...
February 13, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208627/phytochemical-analysis-of-agrimonia-pilosa-ledeb-its-antioxidant-activity-and-aldose-reductase-inhibitory-potential
#2
Set Byeol Kim, Seung Hwan Hwang, Hong-Won Suh, Soon Sung Lim
The aim of this study was to determine aldose reductase (AR) inhibitory activity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of compounds from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (AP). We isolated agrimoniin (AM), four flavonoid glucosides and two flavonoid glucuronides from the n-butanol fraction of AP 50% methanol extract. In addition to isolated compounds, the AR-inhibitory activity and the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of catechin, 5-flavonoids, and 4-flavonoid glucosides (known components of AP) against rat lens AR (RLAR) and DPPH assay were measured...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207877/selective-inhibition-of-aggregation-fibrillation-of-bovine-serum-albumin-by-osmolytes-mechanistic-and-energetics-insights
#3
Moumita Dasgupta, Nand Kishore
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is an important transport protein of the blood and its aggregation/fibrillation would adversely affect its transport ability leading to metabolic disorder. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of fibrillation/aggregation of BSA and design of suitable inhibitor molecules for stabilizing its native conformation, are of utmost importance. The qualitative and quantitative aspects of the effect of osmolytes (proline, hydroxyproline, glycine betaine, sarcosine and sorbitol) on heat induced aggregation/fibrillation of BSA at physiological pH (pH 7...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207302/characteristics-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-in-slaughtered-reindeer-from-northern-finland
#4
Claudio Zweifel, Lisa Fierz, Nicole Cernela, Sauli Laaksonen, Maria Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Roger Stephan
Fecal samples collected from 470 slaughtered reindeer 6 to 7 months of age were screened by real-time PCR (after enrichment) for Shiga toxin genes (stx) and then for Escherichia coli serogroup O157. Shiga toxin genes were found frequently (>30% of samples), and serogroup O157 was detected in 20% of the stx-positive samples. From these samples, a total of 25 E. coli O157:H(-) isolates (nonmotile but PCR positive for fliCH7) were obtained. Twenty-four of these E. coli O157:H(-) isolates did not ferment sorbitol and originated from one geographic area...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194018/protective-role-of-fructokinase-blockade-in-the-pathogenesis-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-mice
#5
Ana Andres-Hernando, Nanxing Li, Christina Cicerchi, Shinichiro Inaba, Wei Chen, Carlos Roncal-Jimenez, Myphuong T Le, Michael F Wempe, Tamara Milagres, Takuji Ishimoto, Mehdi Fini, Takahiko Nakagawa, Richard J Johnson, Miguel A Lanaspa
Acute kidney injury is associated with high mortality, especially in intensive care unit patients. The polyol pathway is a metabolic route able to convert glucose into fructose. Here we show the detrimental role of endogenous fructose production by the polyol pathway and its metabolism through fructokinase in the pathogenesis of ischaemic acute kidney injury (iAKI). Consistent with elevated urinary fructose in AKI patients, mice undergoing iAKI show significant polyol pathway activation in the kidney cortex characterized by high levels of aldose reductase, sorbitol and endogenous fructose...
February 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191945/an-engineered-surface-immobilized-enzyme-that-retains-high-levels-of-catalytic-activity-in-air
#6
Somayesadat Badieyan, Qiuming Wang, Xingquan Zou, Yaoxin Li, Maggie Herron, Nicholas L Abbott, Zhan Chen, E Neil G Marsh
In the absence of aqueous buffer most enzymes retain little or no activity; however, "water-free" enzymes would have many diverse applications. Here we describe the chemically precise immobilization of an enzyme on an engineered surface designed to support catalytic activity in air at ambient humidity. Covalent immobilization of haloalkane dehalogenase on a surface support displaying poly-(sorbitol methacrylate) chains resulted in ~ 40-fold increase in activity over lyophilized enzyme powders for the gas-phase dehalogenation of 1-bromopropane...
February 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177738/sorbitol-increases-muscle-glucose-uptake-ex-vivo-and-inhibits-intestinal-glucose-absorption-ex-vivo-and-in-normal-and-type-2-diabetic-rats
#7
Chika I Chukwuma, Md Shahidul Islam
Previous studies have suggested that sorbitol, a known polyol sweetener possesses glycemic control potentials. However, the effect of sorbitol on intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake still remains elusive. The present study investigated the effects of sorbitol on intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake as possible anti-hyperglycemic or glycemic control potentials using <i>ex vivo </i>and in vivo experimental models. Sorbitol (2.5% to 20%) inhibited glucose absorption in isolated rat jejuna (IC<sub>50</sub> = 14...
December 12, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177569/the-oxidized-thiol-proteome-in-aging-and-cataractous-mouse-and-human-lens-revealed-by-icat-labeling
#8
Benlian Wang, Grant Hom, Sheng Zhou, Minfei Guo, Binbin Li, Jing Yang, Vincent M Monnier, Xingjun Fan
Age-related cataractogenesis is associated with disulfide-linked high molecular weight (HMW) crystallin aggregates. We recently found that the lens crystallin disulfidome was evolutionarily conserved in human and glutathione-depleted mouse (LEGSKO) cataracts and that it could be mimicked by oxidation in vitro (Mol. Cell Proteomics, 14, 3211-23 (2015)). To obtain a comprehensive blueprint of the oxidized key regulatory and cytoskeletal proteins underlying cataractogenesis, we have now used the same approach to determine, in the same specimens, all the disulfide-forming noncrystallin proteins identified by ICAT proteomics...
November 13, 2016: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171819/mobilisation-of-microbial-indicators-microbial-source-tracking-markers-and-pathogens-after-rainfall-events
#9
Cristina García-Aljaro, Julia Martín-Díaz, Enric Viñas-Balada, William Calero-Cáceres, Francisco Lucena, Anicet R Blanch
Climate change is expected to affect the Mediterranean region by causing an increase in the number of heavy rainfall events. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of extreme river flow variations due to rainfall on the persistence and mobilisation of various microorganisms. These included faecal pollution indicators (Escherichia coli (EC), somatic coliphages (SOMCPH) and sulphite reducing clostridia spores (SRC)), microbial source tracking indicators (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron GA17 strain phages (GA17PH) and sorbitol fermenting bifidobacteria (SFBIF)), and two pathogens (Salmonella spp and Enterovirus)...
February 2, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157063/safe-excipient-exposure-in-neonates-and-small-children-protocol-for-the-seen-project
#10
Kristine Svinning Valeur, Steen Axel Hertel, Kaare Engell Lundstrøm, Helle Holst
INTRODUCTION: The pharmacokinetics of excipients in neonates differs from that of older children. In a recent pan--European survey, two thirds of neonates received at least one potentially harmful excipient, such as ethanol and benzoates. The content of sweeteners varied by route of administration (more common by enteral than parenteral route), and regional differences were revealed. The survey did not identify if the content of excipients was more pronounced in medications prescribed for specific medical diseases, e...
February 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153595/phenolic-compounds-the-inhibition-effect-on-polyol-pathway-enzymes
#11
Hatice Esra Aslan, Şükrü Beydemir
The polyol pathway called as sorbitol way is a small part of glycose metabolism. The pathway is regarded as an important element in the pathogenesis of various diabetic complications in individuals with diabetes mellitus. The pathway plays a crucial role in hyperglycemia. The polyol pathway contains two enzymes as aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). In the present study, AR and SDH were purified from sheep liver by using simple chromatographic methods. AR was purified with a yield of 2.11% and approximately 162 fold and SDH was purified with a yield of 0...
January 30, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144651/switching-chirality-in-the-assemblies-of-bio-based-amphiphiles-solely-by-varying-their-alkyl-chain-length
#12
Pei Zhang, Jun Ma, Xinchen Kang, Huizhen Liu, Chunjun Chen, Zhanrong Zhang, Jianling Zhang, Buxing Han
Here we show that chirality inversion can be realized solely by changing the alkyl chain length of sorbitol-alkylamine surfactants. The chirality switch phenomenon is attributed to twisting of a headgroup, which depends on the balance between hydrophobic interaction and torsional stress, resulting in various orientational orders in assemblies and chirality inversion.
February 9, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133564/osmolyte-regulation-by-tonebp-nfat5-during-anoxia-recovery-and-dehydration-rehydration-stresses-in-the-freeze-tolerant-wood-frog-rana-sylvatica
#13
Rasha Al-Attar, Yichi Zhang, Kenneth B Storey
BACKGROUND: The wood frog, Rana sylvatica, tolerates freezing as a means of winter survival. Freezing is considered to be an ischemic/anoxic event in which oxygen delivery is significantly impaired. In addition, cellular dehydration occurs during freezing because water is lost to extracellular compartments in order to promote freezing. In order to prevent severe cell shrinkage and cell death, it is important for the wood frog to have adaptive mechanisms for osmoregulation. One important mechanism of cellular osmoregulation occurs through the cellular uptake/production of organic osmolytes like sorbitol, betaine, and myo-inositol...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131961/the-antarctic-yeast-candida-sake-understanding-cold-metabolism-impact-on-wine
#14
Lidia Ballester-Tomás, Jose A Prieto, Jose V Gil, Marcelo Baeza, Francisca Randez-Gil
Current winemaking trends include low-temperature fermentations and using non-Saccharomyces yeasts as the most promising tools to produce lower alcohol and increased aromatic complexity wines. Here we explored the oenological attributes of a C. sake strain, H14Cs, isolated in the sub-Antarctic region. As expected, the cold sea water yeast strain showed greater cold growth, Na(+)-toxicity resistance and freeze tolerance than the S. cerevisiae QA23 strain, which we used as a commercial wine yeast control. C. sake H14Cs was found to be more sensitive to ethanol...
January 22, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131868/optimized-conditions-for-preserving-stability-and-integrity-of-porcine-circovirus-type2-virus-like-particles-during-long-term-storage
#15
Naidong Wang, Yan Zhang, Xinnuo Lei, Wanting Yu, Yang Zhan, Dongliang Wang, Jiaxin Zhang, Aibing Wang, Lehui Xiao, Ping Jiang, Yi Yang
Although porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) virus-like particles (VLPs) have been successfully harvested from various protein expression systems, conditions to promote their stability and integrity during long-term storage have not been well defined since only the intact VLPs, instead of the monomeric capsid protein (Cap), can induce neutralizing antibodies in pigs in previous studies. In this study, freshly prepared PCV2 VLPs were stored in several media (various concentrations of NaCl, sorbitol, sucrose and trehalose) at three temperatures (4°C, -20°C and -80°C) and their stability and integration were evaluated after 7 month...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123632/effects-of-averrhoa-carambola-l-oxalidaceae-juice-mediated-on-hyperglycemia-hyperlipidemia-and-its-influence-on-regulatory-protein-expression-in-the-injured-kidneys-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#16
Hoa Thi Thai Pham, Wansu Huang, Chuangye Han, Juman Li, Qiuqiao Xie, Jinbin Wei, Xiaohui Xu, Zefeng Lai, Xiang Huang, Renbin Huang, Qingwei Wen
Recently, many reports have shown that Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) juice (EACJ) could reduce blood glucose in humans. However, its mechanisms have not been well explored; therefore, our study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of EACJ on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and renal injury in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Those mice were injected with STZ via the tail vein (120 mg/kg body weight) and were identified as diabetic mice when the level of blood glucose was ≥ 11.1 mmol/L...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119187/effect-of-mammalian-kidney-osmolytes-on-the-folding-pathway-of-sheep-serum-albumin
#17
Mohammad Aasif Dar, Asimul Islam, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan, Faizan Ahmad
Recently, we had published that urea-induced denaturation curves of optical properties of sheep serum albumin (SSA) are biphasic with a stable intermediate that has characteristics of molten globule (MG) state. In this study, we have extended the work by carrying out urea- and guanidinium chloride (GdmCl)-induced denaturations of SSA in the presence of naturally occurring mammalian kidney osmolytes, namely, sorbitol, myo-inositol and glycine betaine. We have observed that all these osmolytes (i) transform this biphasic transition into a co-operative, two-state transition and (ii) increase the stability of the protein in terms of midpoint of denaturation (Cm) and Gibbs free energy change in the absence of both denaturants (ΔGD(0))...
April 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110686/determination-of-hexitols-by-reversed-phase-liquid-chromatography-using-on-line-complexation-with-molybdate-ion
#18
Tomoko Kemmei, Shuji Kodama, Atsushi Yamamoto, Yoshinori Inoue, Kazuichi Hayakawa
A new approach is proposed to determine three hexitols (mannitol, sorbitol and dulcitol) by reversed phase liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection. When molybdate ion is added to the mobile phase, it forms complexes with hexitols that can be separated on a reversed phase C30 column and detected by UV absorption at 247 nm. The mobile phase (pH 3.1) consisted of 0.1 mM disodium molybdate and 1 mM phosphoric acid. Other sugar alcohols, such as erythritol and xylitol, and glucose could not be detected under these conditions...
March 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094942/simulation-of-dbs-dbs-cooh-and-dbs-conhnh2-as-hydrogelators
#19
Dafna Knani, David Alperstein
The organic gelator 1,3(R):2,4(S)-dibenzylidene-d-sorbitol (DBS) self-organizes to form a 3D network at relatively low concentrations in a variety of nonpolar organic solvents and polymer melt. DBS could be transformed into a hydrogelator by introduction of hydrophilic groups, which facilitate its self-assembly in an aqueous medium. In this work, we have investigated the hydrogelators DBS-COOH and DBS-CONHNH2 and the organogelator DBS by molecular modeling. We have used quantum mechanics (QM) to elucidate the preferred geometry of one molecule and a dimer of each of the gelators and molecular dynamics (MD) to simulate the pure gelators and their mixtures with water...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079789/the-impact-of-irrigating-fluid-absorption-on-blood-coagulation-in-patients-undergoing-transurethral-resection-of-the-prostate-a-prospective-observational-study-using-rotational-thromboelastometry
#20
Hyun-Jung Shin, Hyo-Seok Na, Young-Tae Jeon, Hee-Pyoung Park, Sun-Woo Nam, Jung-Won Hwang
Although endoscopic transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a well-established procedure as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia, its complications remain a concern. Among these, coagulopathy may be caused by the absorption of irrigating fluid. This study aimed to evaluate such phenomenon using a rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM).A total of 20 patients undergoing TURP participated in this study. A mixture of 2.7% sorbitol-0.54% mannitol solution and 1% ethanol was used as an irrigating fluid, and fluid absorption was measured via the ethanol concentration in expired breath...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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