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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535265/physiology-of-cold-hardiness-seasonal-fluctuations-and-cryoprotectant-contents-in-overwintering-adults-of-hypera-postica-coleoptera-curculionidae
#1
Mahdieh Saeidi, Saeid Moharramipour
The alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), is widely distributed in various alfalfa-growing regions in the world. Adults enter the field gradually from hibernation places and overwinter in a nondiapausing state, exhibiting feeding, mating, and oviposition over autumn and winter whenever the weather permits. In this study, the variability of supercooling point (SCP) and cold hardiness in alfalfa weevil was investigated. Adults were collected monthly from alfalfa fields in Karaj, Iran, during autumn, winter, and spring in 2011-2012...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532266/soft-chewable-gelatin-based-pharmaceutical-oral-formulations-a-technical-approach
#2
Morten J Dille, Magnus N Hattrem, Kurt I Draget
OBJECTIVE: Hard tablets and capsules for oral drug delivery cause problems for people experiencing dysphagia. The present work describes the formulation and properties of a gelatin based, self-preserved and soft chewable tablet as an alternative and novel drug delivery format. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gelatin (8.8-10% in 24.7-29% water) constituted the matrix of the soft, semi-solid tablets. Three different pharmaceuticals (Ibuprofen 10%, Acetaminophen 15%, Meloxicam 1...
May 22, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528954/effects-of-plasticizers-on-the-physicochemical-properties-of-kappa-carrageenan-films-extracted-from-eucheuma-cottonii
#3
A M Ili Balqis, M A R Nor Khaizura, A R Russly, Z A Nur Hanani
The physicochemical properties of κ-carrageenan films extracted from Eucheuma cottonii (E. cottonii) incorporated with different concentrations and types of plasticizers were studied. Glycerol, sorbitol, and polyethylene glycol-300 (PEG-300) in the range of 10 to 60% were used as plasticizers. The results showed that the thickness and moisture content (MC) of films increased significantly (p≤0.05) with the increase in plasticizer concentration. Sorbitol-plasticized films had the lowest values. Sorbitol-plasticized films have better mechanical properties and the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP), solubility and water uptake ratio (WUR) compared with glycerol and PEG-plasticized films (p≤0...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525543/fermentable-carbohydrates-fodmaps-exacerbate-functional-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-re-challenge-trial
#4
Selina R Cox, Alexis C Prince, Clio E Myers, Peter M Irving, James O Lindsay, Miranda C Lomer, Kevin Whelan
Background and Aims: Preliminary evidence suggests fermentable carbohydrate restriction might ameliorate functional gastrointestinal symptoms (FGS) in quiescent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aim was to determine whether fermentable carbohydrates exacerbate FGS in quiescent IBD using a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over, re-challenge trial. Methods: Patients with quiescent IBD and FGS responsive to a low FODMAP diet were allocated to a series of 3-day fermentable carbohydrate challenges in random order (fructan, 12 g/d; galacto-oligosaccharides, GOS, 6 g/d; sorbitol, 6 g/d; and glucose placebo, 12 g/d), each separated by a standardised washout period...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522390/mango-kernel-starch-as-a-novel-edible-coating-for-enhancing-shelf-life-of-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-fruit
#5
Anjum Nawab, Feroz Alam, Abid Hasnain
Mango kernel starch (MKS) coatings containing different plasticizers were used to extend the shelf life of tomato. The coating slurry was prepared by gelatinizing 4% mango kernel starch, plasticized with glycerol, sorbitol and their 1:1 mixture (50% of starch weight; db). The samples were kept at room temperature (20°C) and analyzed for shelf life. Significant difference in coated and control fruits were observed and all the coated fruits delayed ripening process that was characterized by reduction in weight loss and restricted changes in soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, firmness and decay percentage compared to uncoated sample...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516783/antidiabetic-disruptors-of-the-glucokinase-glucokinase-regulatory-protein-complex-reorganize-a-coulombic-interface
#6
Juliana Martinez, Qing Xiao, Armen Zakarian, Brian G Miller
The glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) plays an essential role in glucose homeostasis by acting as a competitive inhibitor of glucokinase (GCK) and triggering its localization to the hepatocyte nucleus upon glucose deprivation. Metabolites such as fructose 6-phosphate and sorbitol 6-phosphate promote assembly of the GCK-GKRP complex, whereas fructose 1-phosphate and functionalized piperazines with potent in vivo antidiabetic activity disrupt the complex. Here, we establish the molecular basis by which these natural and synthetic ligands modulate the GCK-GKRP interaction...
May 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510586/truncation-of-the-tar-dna-binding-protein-43-is-not-a-prerequisite-for-cytoplasmic-relocalization-and-is-suppressed-by-caspase-inhibition-and-by-introduction-of-the-a90v-sequence-variant
#7
Heike J Wobst, Louise Delsing, Nicholas J Brandon, Stephen J Moss
The RNA-binding and -processing protein TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is heavily linked to the underlying causes and pathology of neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. In these diseases, TDP-43 is mislocalized, hyperphosphorylated, ubiquitinated, aggregated and cleaved. The importance of TDP-43 cleavage in the disease pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Here we detail the use of D-sorbitol as an exogenous stressor that causes TDP-43 cleavage in HeLa cells, resulting in a 35 kDa truncated product that accumulates in the cytoplasm within one hour of treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508118/effects-of-aeration-on-metabolic-profiles-of-mortierella-alpina-during-the-production-of-arachidonic-acid
#8
Xin Zhang, Ling Jiang, Li-Ying Zhu, Qin-Ke Shen, Xiao-Jun Ji, He Huang, Hong-Man Zhang
To investigate the metabolic regulation against oxygen supply, comparative metabolomics was performed to explore the metabolic responses of Mortierella alpina in the process of arachidonic acid (ARA) production. More than 110 metabolites involved in Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, pentose phosphate pathway, tricarboxylic acid cycle, inositol phosphate metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, and amino acid metabolism were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Samples at different aeration rates were clearly distinguished by principal components analysis and partial least squares analysis, indicating that oxygen supply had a profound effect on the metabolism of M...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506793/frequency-and-risk-factors-analysis-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-bali-cattle
#9
I Wayan Suardana, Dyah Ayu Widiasih, Widagdo Sri Nugroho, Michael Haryadi Wibowo, I Nyoman Suyasa
Cattle are known as the main reservoir of zoonotic agents verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. These bacteria are usually isolated from calves with diarrhea and/or mucus and blood. Tolerance of these agents to the environmental conditions will strengthen of their transmission among livestock. A total of 238 cattle fecal samples from four sub-districts in Badung, Bali were used in this study. Epidemiological data observed include cattle age, sex, cattle rearing system, the source of drinking water, weather, altitude, and type of cage floor, the cleanliness of cage floor, the slope of cage floor, and the level of cattle cleanliness...
May 12, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505277/esterification-of-ibuprofen-in-soft-gelatin-capsules-formulations-identification-synthesis-and-liquid-chromatography-separation-of-the-degradation-products
#10
Michal Douša, Ludek Meca, Petr Gibala, Josef Jirman, Marcela Tkadlecová, Jan Srbek, Jana Šalandová, Eva Kovalcíková, Jirí Brichác
Unknown impurities were identified in ibuprofen (IBU) soft gelatin capsules (SGCs) during long-term stability testing by a UHPLC method with UV detection and its chemical formula was determined using high resolution/accurate mass (HRAM) LC-MS. Reference standards of the impurities were subsequently synthesized, isolated by semi-preparative HPLC and characterized using HRAM LC-MS, NMR and IR. Two impurities were formed by esterification of IBU with polyethylene glycol (PEG), which is used as a fill of the SGCs, and were identified as IBU-PEG monoester and IBU-PEG diester...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495450/rho-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-rgnef-is-a-prosurvival-factor-under-stress-conditions
#11
Kevin Cheung, Cristian A Droppelmann, Adam MacLellan, Ian Cameron, Benjamin Withers, Danae Campos-Melo, Kathryn Volkening, Michael J Strong
Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RGNEF) is a 190kDa RNA binding protein (RBP) that also contains a Dbl/PH domain capable of RhoA activation. Consistent with a key role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), RGNEF forms pathological neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in degenerating spinal motor neurons. To further understand the role of RGNEF in the stress response, we first observed that the expression of RGNEF is upregulated in murine spinal motor neurons following distal sciatic nerve injury...
May 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490112/real-time-monitoring-of-sucrose-sorbitol-d-glucose-and-d-fructose-concentration-by-electromagnetic-sensing
#12
Supakorn Harnsoongnoen, Anuwat Wanthong
Magnetic sensing at microwave frequencies for real-time monitoring of sucrose, sorbitol, d-glucose and d-fructose concentrations is reported. The sensing element was designed based on a coplanar waveguide (CPW) loaded with a split ring resonator (SRR), which was fabricated on a DiClad 880 substrate with a thickness of 1.6mm and relative permittivity (εr) of 2.2. The magnetic sensor was connected to a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) and the electromagnetic interaction between the samples and sensor was analyzed...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479098/synthesis-cytotoxicity-and-antifungal-activity-of-5-nitro-thiophene-thiosemicarbazones-derivatives
#13
Luiz Nascimento de Araújo Neto, Maria do Carmo Alves de Lima, Jamerson Ferreira de Oliveira, Edson Rubhens de Souza, Maria Daniela Silva Buonafina, Mayara Nunes Vitor Anjos, Fábio André Brayner, Luiz Carlos Alves, Rejane Pereira Neves, Francisco Jaime Bezerra Mendonça-Junior
In the present work, twelve N-substituted 2-(5-nitro-thiophene)-thiosemicarbazones derivatives (L1-12) were synthesized, characterized and their cytotoxic and antifungal activity in vitro were evaluated against Candida sp., and Cryptococcus neoformans. The probable mechanisms of action have been investigated in cell walls (Sorbitol 0.8 M) and in the binding to ergosterol in the fungal membrane. Additionally, ultrastructural study by Scanning Electron Microscopy was performed. All compounds were obtained in good yield and their chemical structures were characterized on basis of their physico-chemical and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance - NMR, Spectrophotometric Absorption in the Infrared - IR and High-resolution Mass Spectrometry - HRMS data...
May 4, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460926/development-of-smart-colourimetric-starch-based-indicator-for-liberated-volatiles-during-durian-ripeness
#14
Aranya Niponsak, Natta Laohakunjit, Orapin Kerdchoechuen, Punchira Wongsawadee
The mechanical, physical and barrier properties of colourimetric starch-based films (CSBFs) were developed by adding natural polymers (chitosan, citric acid, carboxymethylcellulose, and kraft fibre). Novel volatile compound indicator films were prepared from starch (as a film matrix with 30% w/w sorbitol) using the casting method and adding natural polymers, and pH-dye (methyl red and bromothymol blue as indicators). CSBFs mixed with 0.1% chitosan improved the mechanical and barrier properties with a significant decrease in water vapour transmission rate, water solubility, and oxygen transmission rate, as well as improved tensile strength...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457550/effects-of-rare-sugar-d-allulose-on-acid-production-and-probiotic-activities-of-dairy-lactic-acid-bacteria
#15
H Kimoto-Nira, N Moriya, S Hayakawa, K Kuramasu, H Ohmori, S Yamasaki, M Ogawa
It has recently been reported that the rare sugar d-allulose has beneficial effects, including the suppression of postprandial blood glucose elevation in humans, and can be substituted for sucrose as a low-calorie food ingredient. To examine the applications of d-allulose in the dairy industry, we investigated the effects of d-allulose on the acid production of 8 strains of yogurt starter (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and 4 strains of lactococci, including potential probiotic candidates derived from dairy products...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455166/biomechanical-performance-of-a-collagen-meniscus-implant-with-regard-to-suture-material-and-irrigation-fluid
#16
Clemens Gwinner, Philipp von Roth, Sebastian Schmidt, Jan-Erik Ode, Dag Wulsten, Arnd Hoburg
BACKGROUND: The role of meniscus scaffolds remains controversial as failure rates remain high. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pullout strength of different suture materials used for fixation of the Collagen Meniscus Implant (CMI) regarding different suture materials, and type or temperature of irrigation fluid. METHODS: One-hundred and twelve specimens were utilized with horizontal sutures and mounted to a dedicated test device. Loads were applied perpendicular to the CMI, until failure...
April 25, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452488/metabolomics-study-of-the-effects-of-inflammation-hypoxia-and-high-glucose-on-isolated-human-pancreatic-islets
#17
Marta Garcia-Contreras, Alejandro Tamayo-Garcia, Kirk L Pappan, Gregory A Michelotti, Cherie L Stabler, Camillo Ricordi, Peter Buchwald
The transplantation of human pancreatic islets is a therapeutic possibility for a subset of type 1 diabetic patients who experience severe hypoglycemia. Pre- and post-transplantation loss in islet viability and function, however, is a major efficacy-limiting impediment. To investigate the effects of inflammation and hypoxia, the main obstacles hampering the survival and function of isolated, cultured, and transplanted islets, we conducted a comprehensive metabolomics evaluation of human islets in parallel with dynamic glucose-stimulated insulin release (GSIR) perifusion studies for functional evaluation...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450877/responses-to-hypoxia-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-discriminate-the-development-of-vitreous-and-floury-endosperms-of-conventional-maize-zea-mays-inbred-lines
#18
Mathieu Gayral, Khalil Elmorjani, Michèle Dalgalarrondo, Sandrine M Balzergue, Stéphanie Pateyron, Marie-Hélène Morel, Sylvie Brunet, Laurent Linossier, Caroline Delluc, Bénédicte Bakan, Didier Marion
Major nutritional and agronomical issues relating to maize (Zea mays) grains depend on the vitreousness/hardness of its endosperm. To identify the corresponding molecular and cellular mechanisms, most studies have been conducted on opaque/floury mutants, and recently on Quality Protein Maize, a reversion of an opaque2 mutation by modifier genes. These mutant lines are far from conventional maize crops. Therefore, a dent and a flint inbred line were chosen for analysis of the transcriptome, amino acid, and sugar metabolites of developing central and peripheral endosperm that is, the forthcoming floury and vitreous regions of mature seeds, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436957/pyruvate-kinase-m2-activation-may-protect-against-the-progression-of-diabetic-glomerular-pathology-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#19
Weier Qi, Hillary A Keenan, Qian Li, Atsushi Ishikado, Aimo Kannt, Thorsten Sadowski, Mark A Yorek, I-Hsien Wu, Samuel Lockhart, Lawrence J Coppey, Anja Pfenninger, Chong Wee Liew, Guifen Qiang, Alison M Burkart, Stephanie Hastings, David Pober, Christopher Cahill, Monika A Niewczas, William J Israelsen, Liane Tinsley, Isaac E Stillman, Peter S Amenta, Edward P Feener, Matthew G Vander Heiden, Robert C Stanton, George L King
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease, and therapeutic options for preventing its progression are limited. To identify novel therapeutic strategies, we studied protective factors for DN using proteomics on glomeruli from individuals with extreme duration of diabetes (ł50 years) without DN and those with histologic signs of DN. Enzymes in the glycolytic, sorbitol, methylglyoxal and mitochondrial pathways were elevated in individuals without DN. In particular, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) expression and activity were upregulated...
April 24, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425323/enhanced-solubility-of-piperine-using-hydrophilic-carrier-based-potent-solid-dispersion-systems
#20
Kathavarayan Thenmozhi, Young Je Yoo
CONTEXT: Piperine alkaloid, an important constituent of black pepper, exhibits numerous therapeutic properties, whereas its usage as a drug is limited due to its poor solubility in aqueous medium, which leads to poor bioavailability. OBJECTIVE: Herein, a new method has been developed to improve the solubility of this drug based on the development of solid dispersions with improved dissolution rate using hydrophilic carriers such as sorbitol (Sor), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 (PVP) by solvent method...
May 5, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
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