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Elsa Desnoues, Michel Génard, Bénédicte Quilot-Turion, Valentina Baldazzi
The concentrations of sugars in fruit vary with fruit development, environment, and genotype. In general, there were weak correlations between the variations in sugar concentrations and the activities of enzymes directly related with the synthesis or degradation of sugars. This finding suggests that the relationships between enzyme activities and metabolites are often non-linear and are difficult to assess. To simulate the concentrations of sucrose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol during the development of peach fruits, a kinetic model of sugar metabolism was developed by taking advantage of recent profiling data...
March 15, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
K Geirhos, P Lunkenheimer, A Loidl
Experimental evidence for the Gardner transition, theoretically predicted to arise deep in the glassy state of matter, is scarce. At this transition, the energy landscape sensed by the particles forming the glass is expected to become more complex. In the present Letter, we report the dielectric response of two typical glass formers with well-pronounced Johari-Goldstein β relaxation, following this response down to unprecedented low temperatures, far below the glass transition. As the Johari-Goldstein process is believed to arise from the local structure of the energy landscape, its investigation seems an ideal tool to seek evidence for the Gardner transition...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Ayse Ipek Akyuz Unsal, Yesim Basal, Serap Birincioglu, Tolga Kocaturk, Harun Cakmak, Alparslan Unsal, Gizem Cakiroz, Nüket Eliyatkın, Ozden Yukselen, Buket Demirci
PURPOSE: To investigate the potential effects of chronic exposure to a nasal decongestant and its excipients on ocular tissues using an experimental rat model. METHODS: Sixty adult male Wistar rats were randomized into six groups. The first two groups were control (serum physiologic) and Otrivine® groups. The remaining four groups received the Otrivine excipients xylometazoline, benzalkonium chloride, sorbitol, and ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid. Medications were applied into both nostrils twice a day for 8 weeks...
January 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
Amir Arav, Antonella Idda, Stefano Mario Nieddu, Yehudit Natan, Sergio Ledda
BACKGROUND: Recrystallization damages occur when a frozen sample is held at high subzero temperatures and when the warming process is too slow. METHODS: In this work, ram semen diluted in two different concentrations of sugar solutions (Lyo A consisted of 0.4 M sorbitol and 0.25 M trehalose, and the second, Lyo B composed of 0.26 M sorbitol and 0.165 M trehalose) in egg yolk and Tris medium were compared after freezing 10 μL samples to: (1) - 10, - 25, and - 35 °C and thawing...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
M Jain, S Tiwary, R Gadre
Osmotic stress induced with 1 M sorbitol inhibited δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesizing activities in etiolated maize leaf segments during greening; the ALAD activity was inhibited to a greater extent than the ALA synthesis. When the leaves were exposed to light, the ALAD activity increased for the first 8 h, followed by a decrease observed at 16 and 24 h in both sorbitol-treated and untreated leaf tissues. The maximum inhibition of the enzyme activity was observed in the leaf segments incubated with sorbitol for 4 to 8 h...
January 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Alexandre Lobo-da-Cunha, Diogo Amaral-de-Carvalho, Elsa Oliveira, Ângela Alves, Vítor Costa, Gonçalo Calado
Mannitol oxidase and polyol dehydrogenases are enzymes that convert polyalcohols into sugars. Mannitol oxidase was previously investigated in terrestrial snails and slugs, being also present in a few aquatic gastropods. However, the overall distribution of this enzyme in the Gastropoda was not known. Polyol dehydrogenases are also poorly studied in gastropods and other mollusks. In this study, polyalcohol oxidase and dehydrogenase activities were assayed in the digestive gland of 26 species of gastropods, representing the clades Patellogastropoda, Neritimorpha, Vetigastropoda, Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia...
2018: PloS One
Qingzhu Hua, Canbin Chen, Noemi Tel Zur, Huicong Wang, Jingyu Wu, Jianye Chen, Zhike Zhang, Jietang Zhao, Guibing Hu, Yonghua Qin
Pitaya is a new fruit crop, whose exotically colored fruits have excellent nutritional and antioxidant properties. In this study, the primary metabolite profiles of three pitaya cultivars i.e. 'Guanhuahong' (red peel with red pulp), 'Guanhuabai' (red peel with white pulp) and 'Guanhuahongfen' (red peel with pink pulp) were investigated using GC-MS and Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. In the fruit pulp, levels of starch, organic acids, and inositol decreased as the fruit matured. Glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol contents increased gradually during fruit maturation and reached their highest levels in the pulp at the mature stage...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Angel Fernandez I Marti, Christopher A Saski, George A Manganaris, Ksenija Gasic, Carlos H Crisosto
It has recently been described that the Japanese plum "Santa Rosa" bud sport series contains variations in ripening pattern: climacteric, suppressed-climacteric and non-climacteric types. This provides an interesting model to study the role of ethylene and other key mechanisms governing fruit ripening, softening and senescence. The aim of the current study was to investigate such differences at the genomic level, using this series of plum bud sports, with special reference to genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, signal transduction, and sugar metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Tugce Senturk Parreidt, Michael Schott, Markus Schmid, Kajetan Müller
Achieving high quality of a coated food product is mostly dependent on the characteristics of the food material to be coated, the properties of the components in the coating solution, and the obtained coating material. In the present study, usability and effectiveness of various components as well as their concentrations were assessed to produce an effective coating material. For this purpose, different concentrations of gelling agent (sodium alginate 0-3.5%, w / w ), plasticizers (glycerol and sorbitol (0-20%, w / w ), surfactants (tween 40, tween 80, span 60, span 80, lecithin (0-5%, w / w ), and vegetable oils (sunflower oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil (0-5%, w / w ) were used to prepare edible coating solutions...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sorour Ahmadyan, Mahboubeh Kabiri, Noushin Tasharofi, Simzar Hosseinzadeh, Mousa Kehtari, Athena Hajari Zadeh, Masoud Soleimani, Ali Farazmand, Hana Hanaee-Ahvaz
Stem cells' fate during in vitro differentiation is influenced by biophysicochemical cues. Osmotic stress has proved to enhance chondrocyte marker expression, however its potent negative impacts had never been surveyed. We questioned whether specific osmotic conditions, regarding the osmolyte agent, could benefit chondrogenesis while dampening undesired concomitant hypertrophy and inflammatory responses. To examine the potential side effects of hypertonicity, we assessed cell proliferation as well as chondrogenic and hypertrophic marker expression of human Adipose Derived-MSC after a two week induction in chondrogenic media with either NaCl or Sorbitol, as the osmolyte agent to reach a +100 mOsm hypertonic condition...
February 28, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Abeer K Malkawi, Karem H Alzoubi, Minnie Jacob, Goran Matic, Asmaa Ali, Achraf Al Faraj, Falah Almuhanna, Majed Dasouki, Anas M Abdel Rahman
Dexamethasone (Dex) is a synthetic glucocorticoid that has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects and is used in several conditions such as asthma and severe allergy. Patients receiving Dex, either at a high dose or for a long time, might develop several side effects such as hyperglycemia, weight change, or osteoporosis due to its in vivo non-selectivity. Herein, we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based comprehensive targeted metabolomic profiling as well as radiographic imaging techniques to study the side effects of Dex treatment in rats...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Smita Raithore, Devin G Peterson
The influence of polyol type and particle size on the flavor release profile of chewing gum was investigated in vivo. Four chewing gum samples with an average particle size of 62 or 246 μm for sorbitol and 57 or 184 μm for mannitol were analyzed. Chewing gum formulated with mannitol, in general, had a higher aroma release than chewing gum formulated with sorbitol. Polyol type did not influence the release profile of the high intensity sweeteners (HIS) aspartame and acesulfame K. However, a smaller particle size resulted in a significantly higher release of HIS...
July 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
F Ayca Ozdemir Olgun, Ayşem Üzer, Birsen Demirata Ozturk, Reşat Apak
Antioxidant activity (AOA) assays using nanotechnology are recently developed utilizing nanoparticles of transition metal oxides, especially nanoceria that can switch between trivalent and tetravalent oxidation states of cerium. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO-NPs) may act as both an oxidant and an antioxidant, depending on the preparation method and particle size. A novel colorimetric sensor for AOA assay is proposed with the use of poly(acrylic acid) sodium salt (PAANa)-coated CeO-NPs. PAANa-coated CeO-NPs oxidized tetramethyl benzidine (TMB), a peroxidase substrate, in a slightly acidic solution at pH 4...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Kevin Mclean, Javier Palarea-Albaladejo, Carol G Currie, Lisa H J Imrie, Erin D T Manson, Douglas Fraser-Pitt, Frank Wright, Colin J Alexander, Kevin G J Pollock, Lesley Allison, Mary Hanson, David G E Smith
Whole cell MALDI is regularly used for the identification of bacteria to species level in clinical Microbiology laboratories. However, there remains a need to rapidly characterize and differentiate isolates below the species level to support outbreak management. We describe the implementation of a modified preparative approach for MALDI-MS combined with a custom analytical computational pipeline as a rapid procedure for subtyping Shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC) and accurately identifying strain-specifying biomarkers...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Xin Qiao, Hao Yin, Leiting Li, Runze Wang, Juyou Wu, Jun Wu, Shaoling Zhang
Pear is an important fruit crop of the Rosaceae family and has experienced two rounds of ancient whole-genome duplications (WGDs). However, whether different types of gene duplications evolved differently after duplication remains unclear in the pear genome. In this study, we identified the different modes of gene duplication in pear. Duplicate genes derived from WGD, tandem, proximal, retrotransposed, DNA-based transposed or dispersed duplications differ in genomic distribution, gene features, selection pressure, expression divergence, regulatory divergence and biological roles...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
C Tuck, E Ly, A Bogatyrev, I Costetsou, P Gibson, J Barrett, J Muir
BACKGROUND: The low FODMAP (fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols) diet is an effective strategy to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. However, combining the low FODMAP diet with another dietary restriction such as vegetarianism/veganism is challenging. Greater knowledge about the FODMAP composition of plant-based foods and food processing practices common to vegetarian/vegan eating patterns would assist in the implementation of the diet in this patient population...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Toshiharu Yakushi, Yuka Terada, Seishiro Ozaki, Naoya Kataoka, Yoshihiko Akakabe, Osao Adachi, Minenosuke Matsutani, Kazunobu Matsushita
Membrane-bound, pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent glycerol dehydrogenase (GLDH, or polyol dehydrogenase) of Gluconobacter sp. oxidizes various secondary alcohols to produce the corresponding ketones, such as oxidation of D-sorbitol to L-sorbose in vitamin C production. Substrate specificity of GLDH is considered limited to secondary alcohols in the D-erythro configuration at the next to the last carbon. Here, we suggest that L-ribose, D- and L-lyxoses, and L-tagatose are also substrates of GLDH, but these sugars do not meet the substrate specificity rule of GLDH...
February 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Kimberly F Breglio, Rifat S Rahman, Juliana M Sá, David J Roberts, Thomas E Wellems
Some Kelch mutations of Plasmodium falciparum K13 protein confer increased survival to dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-treated ring-stage parasites. Here, we ask if K13 mutations affect a dormancy phenotype allowing parasites to survive DHA exposure then sorbitol selection. Although recrudescence from dormancy differed between two distinct parasites lines, it was similar for isogenic lines carrying single-site substitutions in K13. Therefore, K13 mutations do not alter the DHA-sorbitol combined dormancy phenotype; traits from other loci likely determine this phenotype...
February 20, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Elenilson G Alves Filho, Lorena Mara A Silva, Nathália V P Araújo, Elenilson G Alves, Luciano M Lião, Glaucia B Alcantara
Several flavoring and sweetening agents added to excipient of pediatric syrups are not declared in the package leaflet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a non-target, simple, and precise method for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of pediatric syrups using NMR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. This approach allowed the identification of several added compounds as citric acid, cyclamate, ethanol, glycerol, propylene glycol, saccharin, sorbitol, fructose, glucose, and sucrose. Among the sugared syrups, sucrose was the main carbohydrate with approximately 59...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Ariani Widodo, Badriul Hegar, Yvan Vandenplas
AIM: To assess the knowledge of general pediatricians througout Indonesia about the diagnosis and treatment of childhood constipation. METHODS: A comprehensive questionnaire was distributed to general pediatricians from several teaching hospitals and government hospitals all over Indonesia. RESULTS: Data were obtained from 100 pediatricians, with a mean of 78.34 ± 18.00 mo clinical practice, from 20 cities throughout Indonesia. Suspicion of constipation in a child over 6 mo of age arises when the child presents with a decreased frequency of bowel movements (according to 87% of participants) with a mean of one bowel movement per 3...
February 8, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
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