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Silvia Maria Lattanzio, Francesca Imbesi
A 34-year-old woman suffered from significant chronic pain, depression, non-restorative sleep, chronic fatigue, severe morning stiffness, leg cramps, irritable bowel syndrome, hypersensitivity to cold, concentration difficulties, and forgetfulness. Blood tests were negative for rheumatic disorders. The patient was diagnosed with Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Due to the lack of effectiveness of pharmacological therapies in FMS, she approached a novel metabolic proposal for the symptomatic remission. Its core idea is supporting serotonin synthesis by allowing a proper absorption of tryptophan assumed with food, while avoiding, or at least minimizing the presence of interfering non-absorbed molecules, such as fructose and sorbitol...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Haijie Ma, Mingshuang Wang, Yunpeng Gai, Huilan Fu, Bin Zhang, Ruoxin Ruan, Kuang-Ren Chung, Hongye Li
This study determines the function of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems in the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata via analyzing mutants from the targeted deletion of genes encoding thioredoxin peroxidase ( Tsa1 ), thioredoxin reductase ( Trr1 ) and glutathione reductase ( Glr1 ). Trr1 , Glr1 but not Tsa1 are required for growth and conidiation. Reduced growth and conidiation seen in the Trr1 or Glr1 deletion mutant can be restored by glutathione. Deletion mutants showing growth inhibition by oxidants are defective for H2 O2 detoxification and induce smaller lesions on citrus leaves...
May 11, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Cindy Irwin, Mari van Reenen, Shayne Mason, Lodewyk J Mienie, Ron A Wevers, Johan A Westerhuis, Carolus J Reinecke
Metabolomics studies of disease conditions related to chronic alcohol consumption provide compelling evidence of several perturbed metabolic pathways underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. The objective of the present study was to utilize proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy metabolomics to study the holistic metabolic consequences of acute alcohol consumption in humans. The experimental design was a cross-over intervention study which included a number of substances to be consumed-alcohol, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) supplement, and a benzoic acid-containing flavoured water vehicle...
2018: PloS One
M Benjamin Barth, Katja Buchwalder, Akito Y Kawahara, Xin Zhou, Shanlin Liu, Nicolas Krezdorn, Björn Rotter, Ralf Horres, Anna K Hundsdoerfer
Background: The European spurge hawkmoth, Hyles euphorbiae (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae), has been intensively studied as a model organism for insect chemical ecology, cold hardiness and evolution of species delineation. To understand species isolation mechanisms at a molecular level, this study aims at determining genetic factors underlying two adaptive ecological trait candidates, phorbol ester (TPA) detoxification and seasonal cold acclimation. Method: A draft transcriptome of H...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Taejun Chin, Masahiko Ikeuchi
Sorbitol-6-phosphatase (EC catalyzes sorbitol production from sorbitol-6-phosphate in certain organisms, but has not been identified unequivocally. We screened the activity of the haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolases (HAD) superfamily and identified four HAD proteins from Escherichia coli as sorbitol-6-phosphatase. Of these proteins, HAD2 (YfbT) exhibited catalytic activity (kcat /Km ) that was better than that of the previously reported "preferred" substrate. HAD1 (YniC) and HAD2 exhibited higher sorbitol-6-phosphatase activity than that of HAD12 (YbiV) and HAD13 (YidA)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Pingyang Wang, Simin Bi, Weiyang Wei, Zhiyong Qiu, Dingguo Xia, Xingjia Shen, Qiaoling Zhao
Aldose reductase (AR) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the polyol pathway and is also the key enzyme involved in diabetic complications. The silkworm purple quail-like mutant (q-lp ) exhibits pigmented dots on its epidermis. The q-lp mutant also shows developmental abnormalities and decreased vitality. In this study, fat bodies from the q-lp mutant and the wildtype 932VR strain were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, and the Bombyx mori AR (BmAR) protein was found to be significantly downregulated in the q-lp mutant...
May 3, 2018: Gene
Julie A Mustard, Valerie Alvarez, Sofy Barocio, Jamie Mathews, Alexander Stoker, Kashif Malik
Honey bees will learn to respond to an odor when their antennae are stimulated with sucrose, even if they are not fed during the conditioning phase. However, if they are not fed, the memory of this association is significantly reduced 24 h after conditioning. These results suggest that stimulation of proboscis with sucrose and/or the nutritional quality of the reward plays an important role in establishing a long lasting memory. Three sugars, xylose, sorbitol and mannitol, are used to investigate the relationship among learning, sensory perception and nutritional value...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Xia Ke, Ning-Ning Wang, Pan-Hong Yu, Yang-Hui Lu, Zhong-Ce Hu, Yu-Guo Zheng
Adaptable exploitation of the catalytic potential of membrane-bound d-sorbitol dehydrogenase (mSLDH) from Gluconobacter oxydans is desperately needed in the industrial-scale production of miglitol. In the present study, a carbonyl group-dependent colorimetric quantification method was developed for the assay of miglitol key intermediate 6-( N -hydroxyethyl)-amino-6-deoxy-α-l-sorbofuranose (6NSL), and a high-throughput screening process of positive mutants was processed. Combined with several rounds of ultraviolet irradiation mutagenesis and screening procedure, a positive mutant strain G...
May 2018: 3 Biotech
Christopher A Mutch, Alvaro A Ordonez, Hecong Qin, Matthew Parker, Lauren E Bambarger, Javier E Villanueva-Meyer, Joseph Blecha, Valerie Carroll, Celine Taglang, Robert Flavell, Renuka Sriram, Henry VanBrocklin, Oren Rosenberg, Michael A Ohliger, Sanjay K Jain, Kiel D Neumann, David M Wilson
Imaging studies are frequently used to support the clinical diagnosis of infection. These techniques include computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for structural information and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) for metabolic data. However, frequently, there is significant overlap in the imaging appearance of infectious and noninfectious entities using these tools. To address this concern, recent approaches have targeted bacteria-specific metabolic pathways...
May 8, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Rajesh Kumar Kante, Sandeep Vemula, Maheswara Reddy Mallu, Srinivasa Reddy Ronda
Recombinant proteins are revolutionizing present day therapeutics. They are generally expressed as insoluble inclusion bodies in the E. coli and mis-folding, loss of protein, high cost of down streaming are the hurdles in their recovery. For the first time, we are reporting the refolding with simultaneous purification of rhASP in E. coli using a single step utilizing Protein Folding - strong anion exchange chromatography (PF-SAX). The purification method is also standardized for optimal concentration of solution additives, pH and mobile phase composition...
April 30, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Isidro Crespo, Joan Giménez-Dejoz, Sergio Porté, Alexandra Cousido-Siah, André Mitschler, Alberto Podjarny, Harris Pratsinis, Dimitris Kletsas, Xavier Parés, Francesc X Ruiz, Kamel Metwally, Jaume Farrés
Human aldose reductase (AKR1B1, AR) is a key enzyme of the polyol pathway, catalyzing the reduction of glucose to sorbitol at high glucose concentrations, as those found in diabetic condition. Indeed, AKR1B1 overexpression is related to diabetes secondary complications and, in some cases, with cancer. For many years, research has been focused on finding new AKR1B1 inhibitors (ARIs) to overcome these diseases. Despite the efforts, most of the new drug candidates failed because of their poor pharmacokinetic properties and/or unacceptable side effects...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Daniela Amaral Silva, Raimar Löbenberg, Neal Davies
PURPOSE: The U.S. Pharmacopeia defines excipients as substances other than the active pharmaceutic ingredient (API) that are added in a drug delivery system in order to aid in the manufacturing process and enhance stability, bioavailability, safety, effectiveness and delivery of the drug. The 1968 phenytoin intoxication outbreak in Brisbane, Australia, is a classic example of an API-excipient interaction. When administered with CaSO4 the absorption of phenytoin was reduced due to an interaction between the API and the excipient...
2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Barbara Beer, André Pick, Manuel Döring, Petra Lommes, Volker Sieber
Rare sugars and sugar derivatives that can be obtained from abundant sugars are of great interest to biochemical and pharmaceutical research. Here, we describe the substrate scope of a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase from Sphingomonas species A1 (SpsADH) in the oxidation of aldonates and polyols. The resulting products are rare uronic acids and rare sugars respectively. We provide insight into the substrate recognition of SpsADH using kinetic analyses, which show that the configuration of the hydroxyl groups adjacent to the oxidized carbon is crucial for substrate recognition...
April 26, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Saif Khan, Tulika Bhardwaj, Pallavi Somvanshi, Raju K Mandal, Sajad A Dar, Arshad Jawed, Mohd Wahid, Naseem Akhter, Mohtashim Lohani, S Alouffi, Shafiul Haque
Human aldose reductase (hAR) is the key enzyme in sorbitol pathway of glucose utilization and is implicated in the etiology of secondary complications of diabetes, such as, cardiovascular complications, neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, and cataract genesis. It reduces glucose to sorbitol in the presence of NADPH and the major cause of diabetes complications could be the change in the osmotic pressure due to the accumulation of sorbitol. An activated form of hAR (activated hAR or ahAR) poses a potential obstacle in the development of diabetes drugs as hAR-inhibitors are ineffective against ahAR...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Nitin Kumar, Rajat Pandey, Ashish Anand Prabhu, Veeranki Venkata Dasu
Human interferon-gamma (hIFNG) production is limited by various gene level bottle-necks including translation, protein folding and secretion which depends upon the physiological state of the organism. In this study gene-level and substrate-level modulations have been used to control Bacillus subtilis physiology for >10.39 fold extracellular soluble hIFNG production. Two variants of the native human interferon-gamma gene (hifng) were designed and synthesized namely BScoIFNGhis and BScoIFNG having codon adaptation index 25...
April 24, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Yuhui Dang, Zhilan Li, Qian Wei, Ruiping Zhang, Hongli Xue, Yingmei Zhang
Apigenin (AP) as a plant flavonoid is found to attenuate acrylonitrile (ACN) toxicity by reducing ROS production and inhibiting apoptosis. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the role of AP on ACN-induced inflammation and apoptosis in germ cells and whether it is through the NF-κB signaling pathway. AP increased the concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase isozyme (LDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), while the concentrations of interleukin β (IL-1β), tumor-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were significantly reduced...
April 23, 2018: Inflammation
Taejun Chin, Yukiko Okuda, Masahiko Ikeuchi
Biochemicals production is a major theme in the application of photosynthesis to address global warming and organic-resource problems. Among biochemicals, sugar alcohols have attracted research attention because they are directly derived from two photosynthetic products, sugars and reductants. Here, we produced sorbitol photosynthetically by using cyanobacteria and modified the supply of its substrates through genetic engineering. Expression of an NADPH-dependent enzyme that generates sorbitol-6-phosphate, S6PDH, was highly toxic to cyanobacteria likely due to the sorbitol production, whereas expression of an NADH-dependent enzyme, SrlD2, yielded no sorbitol...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Keya W Mukherjee, Tamari Narindoshvili, Frank M Raushel
The substrate profiles for three uncharacterized enzymes (YcjM, YcjT, and YcjU) that are expressed from a cluster of twelve genes (ycjM-W and ompG) of unknown function in Escherichia coli K-12 have been determined. Through a comprehensive bioinformatic and steady-state kinetic analysis, the catalytic function of YcjT was determined to be kojibiose phosphorylase. In the presence of saturating phosphate and kojibiose (α-(1,2)-D-glucose-D-glucose) this enzyme catalyzes the formation of D-glucose and β-D-glucose-1-phosphate (kcat = 1...
April 23, 2018: Biochemistry
Sumi Akter, Mann Kyoon Shin
A Gram-stain-negative, oxidase-negative and catalase-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated PCS8T , hosted by the ciliate Paramecium caudatum was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Strain PCS8T was observed to be able to grow at 12-44 °C (optimum, 36-37 °C), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, 7.0) and in the presence of 0-3 % NaCl (optimum, 1-2 %). It could hydrolyse starch and aesculin and produce acid from d-sorbitol, myo-inositol, glycerol and l-rhamnose. The sequence similarity of the new isolate was 96...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Fan Chen, Dan Zhou, Jiahui Wang, Tianzhen Li, Xiaohu Zhou, Tiansheng Gan, Stephan Handschuh-Wang, Xuechang Zhou
Tough hydrogels, polymeric network structures with excellent mechanical properties (e.g. high stretchability and toughness), are emerging soft materials, owing to their great potentials in applications spanning from soft robotics to tissue engineering. Despite their remarkably mechanical features, tough hydrogels exhibit two flaws, i.e., freezing around the icing temperatures of water and drying at arid conditions. Inspired by the applications of cryoprotectants (CPAs) in the inhibition of the icing of water in various biological samples (e...
April 14, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
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