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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165414/-torpedo-macu-lopathy-clinical-case
#1
A S Stoyukhina, N V Zhorzholadze, S S Danilov
The article presents a clinical case of torpedo maculopathy. This congenital disorder is most likely to be caused by changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) during retinal fissure closure. Visual function is usually unaffected and the condition is revealed at routine ophthalmic examination in children and teens. Optical coherence tomography showed the absence of RPE, photoreceptor damage, and massive thinning of the outer nuclear layer at the diseased site without a significant change in the total retinal thickness...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165402/quercetin-mitigates-inflammatory-responses-induced-by-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-mouse-retinal-photoreceptor-cells-through-suppression-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b
#2
Minsup Lee, Seohyeon Yun, Hyesook Lee, Jaewook Yang
Retinal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) increased by neovascularization is well known as a pathogenic factor in ocular neovascular diseases. However, it is still unclear how retinal neurons are damaged by VEGF. The aims of this study are to demonstrate the inflammatory protein expression regulated by VEGF using mouse photoreceptor-derived cells and the protective effect of quercetin against VEGF-induced inflammatory response. Expression and phosphorylation of protein and expression of mRNA were detected by immunoblot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164331/kairomones-from-an-estuarine-fish-increase-visual-sensitivity-in-brine-shrimp-artemia-franciscana-from-great-salt-lake-utah-usa
#3
Corie L Charpentier, Jonathan H Cohen
Chemical cues from fish, or kairomones, often impact the behavior of zooplankton. These behavioral changes are thought to improve predator avoidance. For example, marine and estuarine crustacean zooplankton become more sensitive to light after kairomone exposure, which likely deepens their vertical distribution into darker waters during the day and thereby reduces their visibility to fish predators. Here, we show that kairomones from an estuarine fish induce similar behavioral responses in adult brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) from an endorheic, hypersaline lake, Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163014/downregulation-of-dmmanf-in-glial-cells-results-in-neurodegeneration-and-affects-sleep-and-lifespan-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Lucyna Walkowicz, Ewelina Kijak, Wojciech Krzeptowski, Jolanta Górska-Andrzejak, Vassilis Stratoulias, Olga Woznicka, Elzbieta Chwastek, Tapio I Heino, Elzbieta M Pyza
In Drosophila melanogaster, mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (DmMANF) is an evolutionarily conserved ortholog of mammalian MANF and cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF), which have been shown to promote the survival of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. We observed especially high levels of DmMANF in the visual system of Drosophila, particularly in the first optic neuropil (lamina). In the lamina, DmMANF was found in glial cells (surface and epithelial glia), photoreceptors and interneurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162627/a-therapeutic-combination-of-gpcr-modulators-that-protects-photoreceptors-from-degeneration
#5
Tivadar Orban, Henri Leinonen, Tamar Getter, Zhiqian Dong, Wenyu Sun, Songqi Gao, Alexander Veenstra, Hossein Heidari-Torkabadi, Timothy S Kern, Philip D Kiser, Krzysztof Palczewski
Degeneration of retinal photoreceptor cells can arise from environmental and/or genetic causes. Since photoreceptor cells, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), neurons and glial cells of the retina are intimately associated; all cell types eventually are affected by retinal degenerative diseases. Such diseases often originate either in rod and/or cone photoreceptor cells or the RPE. Of these, cone cells located in the central retina are especially important for daily human activity. Here we describe the protection of cone cells by a combination therapy consisting of the G protein-coupled receptor modulators metoprolol, tamsulosin, and bromocriptine...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162050/transcriptome-profiling-of-aging-drosophila-photoreceptors-reveals-gene-expression-trends-that-correlate-with-visual-senescence
#6
Hana Hall, Patrick Medina, Daphne A Cooper, Spencer E Escobedo, Jeremiah Rounds, Kaelan J Brennan, Christopher Vincent, Pedro Miura, Rebecca Doerge, Vikki M Weake
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with functional decline of neurons and increased incidence of both neurodegenerative and ocular disease. Photoreceptor neurons in Drosophila melanogaster provide a powerful model for studying the molecular changes involved in functional senescence of neurons since decreased visual behavior precedes retinal degeneration. Here, we sought to identify gene expression changes and the genomic features of differentially regulated genes in photoreceptors that contribute to visual senescence...
November 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161152/proliferative-cells-isolated-from-the-adult-human-peripheral-retina-only-transiently-upregulate-key-retinal-markers-upon-induced-differentiation
#7
Erik O Johnsen, Rebecca C Frøen, Ole Kristoffer Olstad, Bjørn Nicolaissen, Goran Petrovski, Morten C Moe, Agate Noer
Purpose/Aim: The adult human retina has limited regenerative potential, and severe injury will result in permanent damage. Lower vertebrates handle retinal injury by activating neural stem cells (NSCs) in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ). Müller glia-like cells expressing markers of NSCs are also present in the peripheral retina (PR) of the adult human eye, leading to the hypothesis that a CMZ-like zone might exists also in humans. In order to shed further light on this hypothesis we investigated the in vitro differentiation potential of proliferative cells isolated from the adult human PR towards a retinal phenotype...
November 21, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160116/assessment-of-aav-serotype-tropism-in-human-retinal-explants
#8
Luke Aaron Wiley, Erin Burnight, Emily E Kaalberg, Chunhua Jiao, Megan J Riker, Jennifer A Halder, Meagan A Luse, Ian C Han, Stephen R Russell, Elliott H Sohn, Edwin Stone, Budd A Tucker, Robert F Mullins
Advances in the discovery of the causes of monogenic retinal disorders, combined with technologies for the delivery of DNA to the retina, offer enormous opportunities for the treatment of previously untreatable blinding diseases. However, for gene augmentation to be most effective, vectors that have the correct cell-type specificity are needed. While animal models are very useful, they often exhibit differences in retinal cell surface receptors compared to human retina. In this study, we evaluated the use of an ex vivo organotypic explant system to test the transduction efficiency and tropism of 7 different adeno-associated viral type 2 (AAV2) serotypes in human retina and retinal pigment epithelium-choroid: AAV2/1, AAV2/2, AAV2/4, AAV2/5, AAV2/6, AAV2/8, and AAV2/9, all driving expression of GFP under control of the cytomegalovirus promoter...
November 21, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157004/vanadium-inhalation-induces-retinal-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-cell-mgc-alterations-in-a-murine-model
#9
Silvana Cervantes-Yépez, Lorena Sofía López-Zepeda, Teresa Fortoul
BACKGROUND: Vanadium (V) is a transition metal adhered to suspended particles. Previous studies demonstrated that V inhalation causes oxidative stress in the ependymal epithelium, the choroid plexus on brain lateral ventricles and in the retina. Inhaled-V reaches the eye´s retina through the systemic circulation; however, its effect on the retina has not been widely studied. The Müller glial cell provides support and structure to the retina, facilitates synapses and regulates the microenvironment and neuronal metabolism...
November 20, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156524/kif3a-knockdown-sensitizes-bronchial-epithelia-to-apoptosis-and-aggravates-airway-inflammation-in-asthma
#10
Gang Geng, Ying Du, Jihong Dai, Daiyin Tian, Yunqiu Xia, Zhou Fu
BACKGROUND: KIF3A expression was decreased in asthmatic child patients and animal. Impaired KIF3A expression resulted in increased Th2 inflammation in mice and apoptosis in renal tubular epithelium and photoreceptor cells. This work aimed to investigate the role of KIF3A in epithelium apoptosis and bronchial inflammation in asthma. METHODS: After establishment of ovalbumin induced asthma, the mice were infected with KIF3A adenovirus through nasal cavity inhalation...
November 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156470/-functional-and-anatomic-outcomes-of-primary-and-secondary-internal-limiting-membrane-transplantation-in-large-and-persistent-macular-holes
#11
Jelka A Hess, Stephan Michels, Matthias D Becker
Background The gold standard therapy for full-thickness macular holes (FTMH) is vitrectomy (PPV) with peeling of the internal limiting membrane (ILM), gas tamponade of the vitreous cavity and postoperative face-down positioning. Nevertheless, eyes with large macular holes (> 400 µm) and surgical failures remain difficult to manage. Recently, ILM transplantation (ILM-TX) techniques were developed with acceptable results, advocating different mechanisms of hole closure: in such a setting, the ILM could serve as a scaffold for neuronal tissue in the pedicle ILM flap technique or the ILM could induce a contraction of the FTMH rims through shrinking of a folded ILM plug...
November 20, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155966/crustacean-larvae-vision-in-the-plankton
#12
Thomas W Cronin, Michael J Bok, Chan Lin
We review the visual systems of crustacean larvae, concentrating on the compound eyes of decapod and stomatopod larvae as well as the functional and behavioral aspects of their vision. Larval compound eyes of these macrurans are all built on fundamentally the same optical plan, the transparent apposition eye, which is eminently suitable for modification into the abundantly diverse optical systems of the adults. Many of these eyes contain a layer of reflective structures overlying the retina that produces a counterilluminating eyeshine, so they are unique in being camouflaged both by their transparency and by their reflection of light spectrally similar to background light to conceal the opaque retina...
November 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155751/dissection-and-immunofluorescent-staining-of-mushroom-body-and-photoreceptor-neurons-in-adult-drosophila-melanogaster-brains
#13
Seth M Kelly, Alexandra Elchert, Michael Kahl
Nervous system development involves a sequential series of events that are coordinated by several signaling pathways and regulatory networks. Many of the proteins involved in these pathways are evolutionarily conserved between mammals and other eukaryotes, such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, suggesting that similar organizing principles exist during the development of these organisms. Importantly, Drosophila has been used extensively to identify cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating processes that are required in mammals including neurogenesis, differentiation, axonal guidance, and synaptogenesis...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153988/isolation-and-comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-human-fetal-and-ipsc-derived-cone-photoreceptor-cells
#14
Emily Welby, Jorn Lakowski, Valentina Di Foggia, Dimitri Budinger, Anai Gonzalez-Cordero, Aaron T L Lun, Michael Epstein, Aara Patel, Elisa Cuevas, Kamil Kruczek, Arifa Naeem, Federico Minneci, Mike Hubank, David T Jones, John C Marioni, Robin R Ali, Jane C Sowden
Loss of cone photoreceptors, crucial for daylight vision, has the greatest impact on sight in retinal degeneration. Transplantation of stem cell-derived L/M-opsin cones, which form 90% of the human cone population, could provide a feasible therapy to restore vision. However, transcriptomic similarities between fetal and stem cell-derived cones remain to be defined, in addition to development of cone cell purification strategies. Here, we report an analysis of the human L/M-opsin cone photoreceptor transcriptome using an AAV2/9...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152163/effect-of-aging-and-lifestyle-on-photoreceptors-and-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cross-sectional-study-in-a-healthy-danish-population
#15
Jacob Harris, Yousif Subhi, Torben L Sørensen
Photoreceptors and their supporting retinal pigment epithelium constitute the key functional parts of the retina. Here, a study was undertaken to show how aging and lifestyle factors affect the photoreceptor layer and the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane complex (RPE-BM) in vivo in a healthy Danish population using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. This was a cross-sectional study of healthy humans aged ≥50 years. All participants were interviewed for medical history and lifestyle factors...
2017: Pathobiology of Aging & Age related Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150629/statistically-strong-label-free-quantitative-identification-of-native-fluorophores-in-a-biological-sample
#16
Saabah B Mahbub, Martin Plöschner, Martin E Gosnell, Ayad G Anwer, Ewa M Goldys
Bioimaging using endogenous cell fluorescence, without any external biomarkers makes it possible to explore cells and tissues in their original native state, also in vivo. In order to be informative, this label-free method requires careful multispectral or hyperspectral recording of autofluorescence images followed by unsupervised extraction (unmixing) of biochemical signatures. The unmixing is difficult due to the scarcity of biochemically pure regions in cells and also because autofluorescence is weak compared with signals from labelled cells, typically leading to low signal to noise ratio...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148976/small-molecule-photoregulin3-prevents-retinal-degeneration-in-the-rho-p23h-mouse-model-of-retinitis-pigmentosa
#17
Paul A Nakamura, Andy A Shimchuk, Shibing Tang, Zhizhi Wang, Kole DeGolier, Sheng Ding, Thomas A Reh
Regulation of rod gene expression has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat retinal degenerative diseases like retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We previously reported on a small molecule modulator of the rod transcription factor Nr2e3, Photoregulin1 (PR1), that regulates the expression of photoreceptor-specific genes. Although PR1 slows the progression of retinal degeneration in models of RP in vitro, in vivo analyses were not possible with PR1. We now report a structurally unrelated compound, Photoregulin3 (PR3) that also inhibits rod photoreceptor gene expression, potentially though Nr2e3 modulation...
November 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148525/differences-in-photoreceptor-recovery-among-patients-and-between-different-parts-of-the-posterior-pole-in-vogt-koyanagi-harada-disease
#18
M Zhou, R P Gu, Z Sun, C H Jiang, Q Chang, G Z Xu
PurposeTo investigate the recovery of photoreceptors following the treatment in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease.Patients and methodsThis was a retrospective study. We enrolled 28 patients with VKH (56 eyes). The clinical and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings were recorded for 12 months after treatment. The patterns of photoreceptor recovery on OCT were defined: pattern F group=Foveal photoreceptor recovery visible first; pattern E group=Extrafoveal photoreceptor recovery visible first; and pattern S group=Simultaneous foveal and extrafoveal photoreceptor recovery...
November 17, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146776/light-signaling-dependent-regulation-of-photoinhibition-and-photoprotection-in-tomato
#19
Feng Wang, Nan Wu, Luyue Zhang, Golam Jalal Ahammed, Xiaoxiao Chen, Xun Xiang, Jie Zhou, Xiaojian Xia, Kai Shi, Jingquan Yu, Christine H Foyer, Yanhong Zhou
Photoreceptor-mediated light signaling plays a critical role in plant growth, development, and stress responses but its contribution to the spatial regulation of photoinhibition and photoprotection within the canopy remains unclear. Here, we show that low red/far-red (L-R/FR) ratio light conditions significantly alleviate PSII and PSI photoinhibition in the shade leaves of tomato plants. This protection is accompanied by a phytochrome A (phyA)-dependent induction of LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5). HY5 binds to the promoter of ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5), triggering RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG1 (RBOH1)-dependent H2O2 production in the apoplast...
November 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145636/localization-and-functional-characterization-of-the-p-asn965ser-n965s-abca4-variant-in-mice-reveal-pathogenic-mechanisms-underlying-stargardt-macular-degeneration
#20
Laurie L Molday, Daniel Wahl, Marinko Sarunic, Robert S Molday
ABCA4 is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins that transports N-retinylidene-phosphatidylethanolamine (N-Ret-PE) across outer segment disc membranes thereby facilitating the removal of potentially toxic retinoid compounds from photoreceptor cells. Mutations in the gene encoding ABCA4 are responsible for Stargardt disease (STGD1), an autosomal recessive retinal degenerative disease that causes severe vision loss. To define the molecular basis for STGD1 associated with the p.Asn965Ser (N965S) mutation in the Walker A motif of nucleotide binding domain 1 (NBD1), we generated a p...
November 14, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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