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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533455/coevolution-of-coloration-and-colour-vision
#1
Olle Lind, Miriam J Henze, Almut Kelber, Daniel Osorio
The evolutionary relationship between signals and animal senses has broad significance, with potential consequences for speciation, and for the efficacy and honesty of biological communication. Here we outline current understanding of the diversity of colour vision in two contrasting groups: the phylogenetically conservative birds, and the more variable butterflies. Evidence for coevolution of colour signals and vision exists in both groups, but is limited to observations of phenotypic differences between visual systems, which might be correlated with coloration...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533376/b12-dependent-photoresponsive-protein-hydrogels-for-controlled-stem-cell-protein-release
#2
Ri Wang, Zhongguang Yang, Jiren Luo, I-Ming Hsing, Fei Sun
Thanks to the precise control over their structural and functional properties, genetically engineered protein-based hydrogels have emerged as a promising candidate for biomedical applications. Given the growing demand for creating stimuli-responsive "smart" hydrogels, here we show the synthesis of entirely protein-based photoresponsive hydrogels by covalently polymerizing the adenosylcobalamin (AdoB12)-dependent photoreceptor C-terminal adenosylcobalamin binding domain (CarHC) proteins using genetically encoded SpyTag-SpyCatcher chemistry under mild physiological conditions...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533336/a-coding-variant-in-the-gene-bardet-biedl-syndrome-4-bbs4-is-associated-with-a-novel-form-of-canine-progressive-retinal-atrophy
#3
Tracy Chew, Bianca Haase, Roslyn Bathgate, Cali E Willet, Maria K Kaukonen, Lisa J Mascord, Hannes T Lohi, Claire M Wade
Progressive retinal atrophy is a common cause of blindness in the dog and affects over 100 breeds. It is characterized by gradual vision loss that occurs due to the degeneration of photoreceptor cells in the retina. Similar to the human counterpart retinitis pigmentosa, the canine disorder is clinically and genetically heterogeneous and the underlying cause remains unknown for many cases. We use a positional candidate gene approach to identify putative variants in the Hungarian Puli breed using genotyping data of 14 family-based samples (CanineHD BeadChip array, Illumina) and whole genome sequencing data of two proband and two parental samples (Illumina HiSeq 2000)...
May 22, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532353/ocular-photoreception-for-circadian-rhythm-entrainment-in-mammals
#4
Russell N Van Gelder, Ethan D Buhr
Circadian rhythms are self-sustained, approximately 24-h rhythms of physiology and behavior. These rhythms are entrained to an exactly 24-h period by the daily light-dark cycle. Remarkably, mice lacking all rod and cone photoreceptors still demonstrate photic entrainment, an effect mediated by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). These cells utilize melanopsin (OPN4) as their photopigment. Distinct from the ciliary rod and cone opsins, melanopsin appears to function as a stable photopigment utilizing sequential photon absorption for its photocycle; this photocycle, in turn, confers properties on ipRGCs such as sustained signaling and resistance from photic bleaching critical for an irradiance detection system...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530801/hydrogen-bonding-environment-of-the-n3-h-group-of-fmn-in-the-lov-domains-of-phototropins
#5
Tatsuya Iwata, Dai Nozaki, Atsushi Yamamoto, Takayuki Koyama, Yasuzo Nishina, Kiyoshi Shiga, Satoru Tokutomi, Masashi Unno, Hideki Kandori
LOV (light-oxygen-voltage) domain is a flavin-binding blue-light receptor domain originally found in plant phototropin, a photoreceptor for phototropism, chloroplast movement and stomata opening. LOV domains are available as optogenetics tools for photosensory domain of fusion proteins. Therefore, it is important to investigate how LOV domains show light-induced structural changes not only for the elucidation of regulation mechanism of kinase domain but also for the appropriate activation of other functional domains by LOV domain...
May 22, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529701/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-dry-age-related-macular-degeneration-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Francesco Bandello, Riccardo Sacconi, Lea Querques, Eleonora Corbelli, Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Giuseppe Querques
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most important cause of vision loss in elderly people, is a degenerative disorder of the central retina with a multifactorial etiopathology. AMD is classified in dry AMD (d-AMD) or neovascular AMD depending on the presence of choroidal neovascularization. Currently, no therapy is approved for geographic atrophy, the late form of d-AMD, because no treatment can restore the damage of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or photoreceptors. For this reason, all treatment approaches in d-AMD are only likely to prevent and slow down the progression of existing atrophy...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525301/mood-the-circadian-system-and-melanopsin-retinal-ganglion-cells
#7
Lorenzo Lazzerini Ospri, Glen Prusky, Samer Hattar
The discovery of a third type of photoreceptors in the mammalian retina, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), has had a revolutionary impact on chronobiology. We can now properly account for numerous nonvision-related functions of light, including its effect on the circadian system. Here, we give an overview of ipRGCs and their function as it relates specifically to mood and biological rhythms. Although circadian disruptions have been traditionally hypothesized to be the mediators of light's effects on mood, here we present an alternative model that dispenses with assumptions of causality between the two phenomena and explains mood regulation by light via another ipRGC-dependent mechanism...
May 17, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520641/five-year-follow-up-after-epiretinal-membrane-surgery-a-single-center-experience
#8
Efrat Fleissig, Dinah Zur, Elad Moisseiev, Shay Keren, Oded Ohana, Adiel Barak
PURPOSE: To evaluate the rate of epiretinal membrane (ERM) recurrence in eyes that underwent ERM peeling surgery at least 5 years earlier. METHODS: Retrospective interventional case series study of 37 patients (15 women and 22 men; mean age, 70 ± 7.6 years) operated on for ERM removal with a follow-up of at least 5 years. The patients underwent testing for visual acuity, an ophthalmic examination, and optical coherence tomography imaging, all of which were assessed preoperatively, postoperatively, and at the 5-year follow-up...
May 16, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520626/multimodal-imaging-of-acute-exudative-polymorphous-vitelliform-maculopathy-with-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-and-adaptive-optics-scanning-laser-ophthalmoscopy
#9
Dimitra Skondra, Peter L Nesper, Amani A Fawzi
PURPOSE: To report a case of acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy including the findings of optical coherence tomography angiography and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. METHODS: Findings on clinical examination, color fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, infrared reflectance, autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography angiography, and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. RESULTS: A 54-year-old white man with no significant medical history and history of smoking presented with bilateral multiple serous and vitelliform detachments consistent with acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy...
May 16, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518091/long-term-live-imaging-of-drosophila-eye-disc
#10
Chia-Kang Tsao, Hui-Yu Ku, Y Henry Sun
Live imaging provides the ability to continuously track dynamic cellular and developmental processes in real time. Drosophila larval imaginal discs have been used to study many biological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, growth, migration, apoptosis, competition, cell-cell signaling, and compartmental boundary formation. However, methods for the long-term ex vivo culture and live imaging of the imaginal discs have not been satisfactory, despite many efforts. Recently, we developed a method for the long-term ex vivo culture and live imaging of imaginal discs for up to 18 h...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515237/increasing-the-illumination-slowly-over-several-weeks-protects-against-light-damage-in-the-eyes-of-the-crustacean-mysis-relicta
#11
Martta L M Viljanen, Noora E Nevala, Cecilia L Calais-Granö, K Magnus W Lindström, Kristian Donner
The eyes of two glacial-relict populations of opossum shrimp Mysis relicta inhabiting the different photic environments of a deep, dark-brown freshwater lake and a variably lit bay of the Baltic Sea differ in their susceptibility to functional depression from strong light exposures. The lake population is much more vulnerable than the sea population. We hypothesized that the difference reflects physiological adaptation mechanisms operating on long time scales rather than genetically fixed differences between the populations...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515229/unique-cell-biological-profiles-of-retinal-disease-causing-missense-mutations-in-the-polarity-protein-crumbs
#12
Milena Pellikka, Ulrich Tepass
Mutations in human CRB1 are a major cause of retinal disease that lead to blindness. CRB1 is a transmembrane protein found in the inner segment of photoreceptor cells (PRCs) and the apical membrane of Müller glia. The function of the extracellular region of CRB1 is poorly understood although more than 80 disease-causing missense mutations have been mapped to it. We have recreated four mutations in Drosophila Crumbs (Crb) that affect different extracellular domains. Crb regulates epithelial polarity and growth, and contributes to PRC differentiation and survival...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511899/signaling-pathways-to-and-from-the-hypophysial-pars-tuberalis-an-important-center-for-the-control-of-seasonal-rhythms
#13
REVIEW
Horst-Werner Korf
Seasonal (circannual) rhythms play an important role for the control of body functions (reproduction, metabolism, immune responses) in nearly all living organisms. Also humans are affected by the seasons with regard to immune responses and mental functions, the seasonal affective disorder being one of the most prominent examples. The hypophysial pars tuberalis (PT), an important interface between the hypophysial pars distalis and neuroendocrine centers in the brain, plays an essential role in the regulation of seasonal functions and may even be the seat of the circannual clock...
May 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510626/outcome-measures-for-clinical-trials-of-leber-congenital-amaurosis-caused-by-the-intronic-mutation-in-the-cep290-gene
#14
Samuel G Jacobson, Artur V Cideciyan, Alexander Sumaroka, Alejandro J Roman, Jason Charng, Monica Lu, Windy Choi, Rebecca Sheplock, Malgorzata Swider, Mychajlo S Kosyk, Sharon B Schwartz, Edwin M Stone, Gerald A Fishman
Purpose: To determine efficacy outcome measures for clinical trials of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) associated with a common intronic mutation in the CEP290 gene. Methods: CEP290-LCA patients (ages 5-48) with the intronic mutation (c.2991+1655A>G) were studied as a retrospective observational case series using clinical methods and with full-field sensitivity testing (FST), optical coherence tomography (OCT), autofluorescence imaging (NIR-RAFI), transient pupillary light reflex (TPLR), oculomotor control and instability (OCI), a mobility course, and a questionnaire (NEI-VFQ)...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510482/rod-outer-segment-development-influences-aav-mediated-photoreceptor-transduction-after-subretinal-injection
#15
Lolita Petit, Shan Ma, Shun-Yun Cheng, Guangping Gao, Claudio Punzo
Vectors based on the adeno-associated virus (AAV) are currently the preferred tools for delivering genes to photoreceptors (PR) in small and large animals. AAVs have been applied successfully in various models of PR dystrophies. However, unknown barriers still limit AAV's efficient application in several forms of severe PR degenerations, due to insufficient transgene expression and/or treated cells at the time of injection. Optimizations of PR gene therapy strategies will likely benefit from the identification of the cellular factors that influence PR transduction...
May 16, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510275/single-cell-transcriptome-profiling-of-developing-chick-retinal-cells
#16
Lauren A Laboissonniere, Gregory M Martin, Jillian J Goetz, Ran Bi, Brock Pope, Kallie Weinand, Laura Ellson, Diane Fru, Miranda Lee, Andrea K Wester, Peng Liu, Jeffrey M Trimarchi
The vertebrate retina is a specialized photosensitive tissue comprised of six neuronal and one glial cell types, each of which develops in prescribed proportions at overlapping timepoints from a common progenitor pool. While each of these cells has a specific function contributing to proper vision in the mature animal, their differential representation in the retina as well as the presence of distinctive cellular subtypes makes identifying the transcriptomic signatures that lead to each retinal cell's fate determination and development challenging...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509387/progranulin-increases-phagocytosis-by-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-in-culture
#17
Hiromi Murase, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Yoshiki Kuse, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells take part in retinal preservation, such as phagocytizing the shed photoreceptor outer segments (POS), every day. The incomplete phagocytic function accelerates RPE degeneration and formation of the toxic by-product lipofuscin. Excessive lipofuscin accumulation is characteristic of various blinding diseases in the human eye. Progranulin is a cysteine-rich protein that has multiple biological activities, and it has a high presence in the retina. Progranulin has been recognized to be involved in macrophage phagocytosis in the brain...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507272/phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate-4-kinase-regulates-early-endosomal-dynamics-during-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#18
Kumari Kamalesh, Deepti Trivedi, Sarah Toscano, Sanjeev Sharma, Sourav Kolay, Padinjat Raghu
Endocytic turnover is essential to regulate the protein composition and function of the plasma membrane thus regulating the plasma membrane levels of many receptors. In Drosophila photoreceptors, photon absorption by the GPCR rhodopsin 1 (Rh1) triggers its endocytosis by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). We find that CME of Rh1 is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 5 phosphate 4-kinase (PIP4K). Flies lacking PIP4K show mislocalization of Rh1 on expanded endomembranes within the cell body. This mislocalization of Rh1 was dependent on the formation of an expanded Rab5 compartment...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507162/lipophagy-prevents-activity-dependent-neurodegeneration-due-to-dihydroceramide-accumulation-in-vivo
#19
Wei-Hung Jung, Chung-Chih Liu, Yu-Lian Yu, Yu-Chin Chang, Wen-Yu Lien, Hsi-Chun Chao, Shu-Yi Huang, Ching-Hua Kuo, Han-Chen Ho, Chih-Chiang Chan
Dihydroceramide desaturases are evolutionarily conserved enzymes that convert dihydroceramide (dhCer) to ceramide (Cer). While elevated Cer levels cause neurodegenerative diseases, the neuronal activity of its direct precursor, dhCer, remains unclear. We show that knockout of the fly dhCer desaturase gene, infertile crescent (ifc), results in larval lethality with increased dhCer and decreased Cer levels. Light stimulation leads to ROS increase and apoptotic cell death in ifc-KO photoreceptors, resulting in activity-dependent neurodegeneration...
May 15, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507131/involvement-of-a-gut-retina-axis-in-protection-against-dietary-glycemia-induced-age-related-macular-degeneration
#20
Sheldon Rowan, Shuhong Jiang, Tal Korem, Jedrzej Szymanski, Min-Lee Chang, Jason Szelog, Christa Cassalman, Kalavathi Dasuri, Christina McGuire, Ryoji Nagai, Xue-Liang Du, Michael Brownlee, Naila Rabbani, Paul J Thornalley, James D Baleja, Amy A Deik, Kerry A Pierce, Justin M Scott, Clary B Clish, Donald E Smith, Adina Weinberger, Tali Avnit-Sagi, Maya Lotan-Pompan, Eran Segal, Allen Taylor
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the major cause of blindness in developed nations. AMD is characterized by retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cell dysfunction and loss of photoreceptor cells. Epidemiologic studies indicate important contributions of dietary patterns to the risk for AMD, but the mechanisms relating diet to disease remain unclear. Here we investigate the effect on AMD of isocaloric diets that differ only in the type of dietary carbohydrate in a wild-type aged-mouse model. The consumption of a high-glycemia (HG) diet resulted in many AMD features (AMDf), including RPE hypopigmentation and atrophy, lipofuscin accumulation, and photoreceptor degeneration, whereas consumption of the lower-glycemia (LG) diet did not...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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