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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351358/microfluidics-based-subretinal-chemical-neuromodulation-of-photoreceptor-degenerated-retinas
#1
Corey M Rountree, John B Troy, Laxman Saggere
Purpose: Retinal prostheses can restore rudimentary vision in cases of photoreceptor degeneration through electrical stimulation, but face difficulties achieving high spatial resolution because electrical current is an inherently unnatural stimulus. We investigated the therapeutic feasibility of using patterned delivery of the glutamate neurotransmitter, a primary agent of natural synaptic communication of the retina, as a biomimetic chemical alternative to electrical current for neuromodulation of photoreceptor degenerate retina...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349656/correlations-among-multifocal-electroretinography-and-optical-coherence-tomography-findings-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Metin Unlu, Duygu Gulmez Sevim, Murat Gultekin, Cagatay Karaca
To assess the correlation between functional and anatomical evaluations with multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This cross-sectional study involved 116 eyes of 58 patients with PD and 30 age- and sex-matched control subjects. All study participants underwent a comprehensive neuro-ophthalmic examination, retinal single-layer thicknesses and volumes, and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) measurements with SD-OCT, and the patients' mfERG recordings were evaluated...
January 18, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348593/temporal-diabetes-induced-biochemical-changes-in-distinctive-layers-of-mouse-retina
#3
Ebrahim Aboualizadeh, Christine M Sorenson, Alex J Schofield, Miriam Unger, Nader Sheibani, Carol J Hirschmugl
To discover the mechanisms underlying the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR), a more comprehensive understanding of the biomolecular processes in individual retinal cells subjected to hyperglycemia is required. Despite extensive studies, the changes in the biochemistry of retinal layers during the development of DR are not well known. In this study, we aimed to determine a more detailed understanding of the natural history of DR in Akita/+ (type 1 diabetes model) male mice with different duration of diabetes...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347979/altered-environmental-light-drives-retinal-change-in-the-atlantic-tarpon-megalops-atlanticus-over-timescales-relevant-to-marine-environmental-disturbance
#4
Lorian E Schweikert, Michael S Grace
BACKGROUND: For many fish species, retinal function changes between life history stages as part of an encoded developmental program. Retinal change is also known to exhibit plasticity because retinal form and function can be influenced by light exposure over the course of development. Aside from studies of gene expression, it remains largely unknown whether retinal plasticity can provide functional responses to short-term changes in environmental light quality. The aim of this study was to determine whether the structure and function of the fish retina can change in response to altered light intensity and spectrum-not over the course of a developmental regime, but over shorter time periods relevant to marine habitat disturbance...
January 18, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346954/dynamical-pattern-selection-of-growing-cellular-mosaic-in-fish-retina
#5
Noriaki Ogawa, Tetsuo Hatsuda, Atsushi Mochizuki, Masashi Tachikawa
A Markovian lattice model for photoreceptor cells is introduced to describe the growth of mosaic patterns on fish retina. The radial stripe pattern observed in wild-type zebrafish is shown to be selected naturally during retina growth, against the geometrically equivalent circular stripe pattern. The mechanism of such dynamical pattern selection is clarified on the basis of both numerical simulations and theoretical analyses, which find that the successive emergence of local defects plays a critical role in the realization of the wild-type pattern...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344334/collective-adhesion-and-displacement-of-retinal-progenitor-cells-upon-extracellular-matrix-substrates-of-transplantable-biomaterials
#6
Ankush Thakur, Shawn Mishra, Juan Pena, Jing Zhou, Stephen Redenti, Robert Majeska, Maribel Vazquez
Strategies to replace retinal photoreceptors lost to damage or disease rely upon the migration of replacement cells transplanted into sub-retinal spaces. A significant obstacle to the advancement of cell transplantation for retinal repair is the limited migration of transplanted cells into host retina. In this work, we examine the adhesion and displacement responses of retinal progenitor cells on extracellular matrix substrates found in retina as well as widely used in the design and preparation of transplantable scaffolds...
January 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341445/automated-detection-of-preserved-photoreceptor-on-optical-coherence-tomography-in-choroideremia-based-on-machine-learning
#7
Zhuo Wang, Acner Camino, Ahmed M Hagag, Jie Wang, Richard G Weleber, Paul Yang, Mark E Pennesi, David Huang, Dengwang Li, Yali Jia
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can demonstrate early deterioration of the photoreceptor integrity caused by inherited retinal degeneration diseases (IRD). A machine learning method based on random forests was developed to automatically detect continuous areas of preserved ellipsoid zone structure (an easily recognizable part of the photoreceptors on OCT) in sixteen eyes of patients with choroideremia (a type of IRD). Pseudopodial extensions protruding from the preserved ellipsoid zone areas are detected separately by a local active contour routine...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338682/soybean-mads-box-gene-gmagl1-promotes-flowering-via-the-photoperiod-pathway
#8
Xuanrui Zeng, Hailun Liu, Hongyang Du, Sujing Wang, Wenming Yang, Yingjun Chi, Jiao Wang, Fang Huang, Deyue Yu
BACKGROUND: The MADS-box transcription factors are an ancient family of genes that regulate numerous physiological and biochemical processes in plants and facilitate the development of floral organs. However, the functions of most of these transcription factors in soybean remain unknown. RESULTS: In this work, a MADS-box gene, GmAGL1, was overexpressed in soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GmAGL1 overexpression not only resulted in early maturation but also promoted flowering and affected petal development...
January 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338041/cadherins-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium-rpe-revisited-p-cadherin-is-the-highly-dominant-cadherin-expressed-in-human-and-mouse-rpe-in-vivo
#9
Xue Yang, Jin-Yong Chung, Usha Rai, Noriko Esumi
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) supports the health and function of retinal photoreceptors and is essential for normal vision. RPE cells are post-mitotic, terminally differentiated, and polarized epithelial cells. In pathological conditions, however, they lose their epithelial integrity, become dysfunctional, even dedifferentiate, and ultimately die. The integrity of epithelial cells is maintained, in part, by adherens junctions, which are composed of cadherin homodimers and p120-, β-, and α-catenins linking to actin filaments...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337142/express-a-database-of-transcriptome-profiles-encompassing-known-and-novel-transcripts-across-multiple-development-stages-in-eye-tissues
#10
Gungor Budak, Soma Dash, Rajneesh Srivastava, Salil A Lachke, Sarath Chandra Janga
Advances in sequencing have facilitated nucleotide-resolution genome-wide transcriptomic profiles across multiple mouse eye tissues. However, these RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) based eye developmental transcriptomes are not organized for easy public access, making any further analysis challenging. Here, we present a new database "Express" (http://www.iupui.edu/∼sysbio/express/) that unifies various mouse lens and retina RNA-seq data and provides user-friendly visualization of the transcriptome to facilitate gene discovery in the eye...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337075/brassinosteroids-dominate-hormonal-regulation-of-plant-thermomorphogenesis-via-bzr1
#11
Carla Ibañez, Carolin Delker, Cristina Martinez, Katharina Bürstenbinder, Philipp Janitza, Rebecca Lippmann, Wenke Ludwig, Hequan Sun, Geo Velikkakam James, Maria Klecker, Alexandra Grossjohann, Korbinian Schneeberger, Salome Prat, Marcel Quint
Thermomorphogenesis is defined as the suite of morphological changes that together are likely to contribute to adaptive growth acclimation to usually elevated ambient temperature [1, 2]. While many details of warmth-induced signal transduction are still elusive, parallels to light signaling recently became obvious (reviewed in [3]). It involves photoreceptors that can also sense changes in ambient temperature [3-5] and act, for example, by repressing protein activity of the central integrator of temperature information PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4 [6])...
January 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336116/the-retina-of-the-collared-peccary-pecari-tajacu-structure-and-function
#12
Raaya Ezra-Elia, Maya Ross, Nili Avni-Magen, Asaf Berkowitz, Ron Ofri
OBJECTIVE: To study retinal morphology and function in the collared peccary, an ungulate species distantly related to the domestic pig. ANIMAL STUDIES: Twenty captive peccaries anesthetized for routine health examinations. Procedures No abnormalities were noted on a complete ophthalmic examination. Fundi were examined ophthalmoscopically and photographed. The eyes of an individual that died of unrelated, nonocular reasons were studied histologically and by immunohistochemistry...
January 16, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332245/reprogramming-the-metabolome-rescues-retinal-degeneration
#13
REVIEW
Karen Sophia Park, Christine L Xu, Xuan Cui, Stephen H Tsang
Metabolomics studies in the context of ophthalmology have largely focused on identifying metabolite concentrations that characterize specific retinal diseases. Studies involving mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have shown that individuals suffering from retinal diseases exhibit metabolic profiles that markedly differ from those of control individuals, supporting the notion that metabolites may serve as easily identifiable biomarkers for specific conditions. An emerging branch of metabolomics resulting from biomarker studies, however, involves the study of retinal metabolic dysfunction as causes of degeneration...
January 13, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332120/severe-loss-of-tritan-color-discrimination-in-rpe65-associated-leber-congenital-amaurosis
#14
Neruban Kumaran, Caterina Ripamonti, Angelos Kalitzeos, Gary S Rubin, James W B Bainbridge, Michel Michaelides
Purpose: RPE65-associated Leber congenital amaurosis (RPE65-LCA) is a progressive severe retinal dystrophy with early profound dysfunction of rod photoreceptors followed by progressive cone photoreceptor degeneration. We aim to provide detailed information about how cone dysfunction affects color discrimination. Methods: Seven adults (aged 16-21) with RPE65-LCA underwent monocular color discrimination assessment using the Trivector and Ellipse versions of three computerized tests: Cambridge Colour Test (CCT), low vision version of the Cambridge Colour Test (lvvCCT), and the Universal Colour Discrimination Test (UCDT)...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328919/color-processing-in-the-early-visual-system-of-drosophila
#15
Christopher Schnaitmann, Väinö Haikala, Eva Abraham, Vitus Oberhauser, Thomas Thestrup, Oliver Griesbeck, Dierk F Reiff
Color vision extracts spectral information by comparing signals from photoreceptors with different visual pigments. Such comparisons are encoded by color-opponent neurons that are excited at one wavelength and inhibited at another. Here, we examine the circuit implementation of color-opponent processing in the Drosophila visual system by combining two-photon calcium imaging with genetic dissection of visual circuits. We report that color-opponent processing of UVshort/blue and UVlong/green is already implemented in R7/R8 inner photoreceptor terminals of "pale" and "yellow" ommatidia, respectively...
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327488/isolation-of-human-photoreceptor-precursors-via-a-cell-surface-marker-panel-from-stem-cell-derived-retinal-organoids-and-fetal-retinae
#16
Jörn Lakowski, Emily Welby, Dimitri Budinger, Fabiana Di Marco, Valentina Di Foggia, James W B Bainbridge, Kyle Wallace, David M Gamm, Robin R Ali, Jane C Sowden
Loss of photoreceptor cells due to retinal degeneration is one of the main causes of blindness in the developed world. Although there is currently no effective treatment, cell replacement therapy using stem-cell-derived photoreceptor cells may be a feasible future treatment option. In order to ensure safety and efficacy of this approach, robust cell isolation and purification protocols must be developed. To this end, we previously developed a biomarker panel for the isolation of mouse photoreceptor precursors from the developing mouse retina and mouse embryonic stem cell cultures...
January 12, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327408/the-photoconversion-of-phytochrome-includes-an-unproductive-shunt-reaction-pathway
#17
Peter Hildebrandt, David Buhrke, Norbert Michael, Uwe Kuhlmann
Phytochromes are modular bimodal photoswitches that control gene expression for morphogenetic processes in plants. These functions are triggered by the photoinduced conversions between the inactive and active states of the photosensory module, denoted as Pr and Pfr, respectively. In the present time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopic study of bacterial representatives of this photoreceptor family, we demonstrate that these phototransformations do not represent linear processes but include a branching reaction back to the initial state, prior to (de)activation of the output module...
January 11, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327102/chemical-shift-assignments-of-retinal-degeneration-3-protein-rd3
#18
Sunghyuk Lim, Diana Cudia, Qinhong Yu, Igor Peshenko, Alexander M Dizhoor, James B Ames
Retinal degeneration 3 protein (RD3) binds to retinal membrane guanylyl cyclase (RetGC) and suppresses the basal activity of RetGC in photoreceptor cells that opposes the allosteric activation of the cyclase by GCAP proteins. Mutations in RD3 that disrupt its inhibition of RetGC are implicated in human retinal degenerative disorders. Here we report both backbone and sidechain NMR assignments for the RD3 protein (BMRB accession no. 27305).
January 11, 2018: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326851/recent-advancements-in-gene-therapy-for-hereditary-retinal-dystrophies
#19
REVIEW
Ayşe Öner
Hereditary retinal dystrophies (HRDs) are degenerative diseases of the retina which have marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Common presentations among these disorders include night or colour blindness, tunnel vision, and subsequent progression to complete blindness. The known causative disease genes have a variety of developmental and functional roles, with mutations in more than 120 genes shown to be responsible for the phenotypes. In addition, mutations within the same gene have been shown to cause different disease phenotypes, even amongst affected individuals within the same family, highlighting further levels of complexity...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325900/orexin-b-modulates-synaptic-transmission-of-rod-bipolar-cells-in-rat-retina
#20
Gong Zhang, Xiao-Hua Wu, Guo-Zhong Xu, Shi-Jun Weng, Xiong-Li Yang, Yong-Mei Zhong
Orexin-A, -B play a crucial role in arousal and feeding by activating two G-protein-coupled receptors: orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) and orexin receptor 2 (OX2R). Orexins, along with orexin receptors, are expressed in retinal neurons, and they have been shown to differentially modulate excitatory AMPA receptors of amacrine and ganglion cells in the inner retina. In this work we report that orexin-B modulates the activity of rod bipolar cells (RBCs) located in the outer retina of rat. Intravitreal injection of orexin-B increased the amplitude of the scotopic electroretinographic b-wave, a reflection of RBC activity, recorded in vivo...
January 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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