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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107585/treatment-and-primary-prevention-in-people-who-inject-drugs-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-is-elimination-possible-in-a-high-prevalence-setting
#1
I Gountas, V Sypsa, O Anagnostou, N K Martin, P Vickerman, E Kafetzopoulos, A Hatzakis
AIMS: To project the impact of scaling up oral antiviral therapy and harm reduction on chronic hepatitis C (CHC) prevalence and incidence among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Greece, to estimate the relationship between required treatment levels and expansion of harm reduction programs to achieve specific targets and to examine whether hepatitis C viruse (HCV) elimination among PWID is possible in this high prevalence setting. DESIGN: A dynamic discrete time, stochastic individual-based model was developed to simulate HCV transmission among PWID incorporating the effect of HCV treatment and harm reduction strategies, and allowing for reinfection following treatment...
January 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077520/hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-anti-hev-igg-carryinfing-patients-after-successful-hcv-treatment-reactivation-or-reinfection
#2
Antonio Rivero-Juarez, Mario Frias, Pedro Lopez-Lopez, María de Los Angeles Risalde, Teresa Brieva, Isabel Machuca, Angela Camacho, Antonio Martinez-Peinado, Jose Carlos Gomez-Villamandos, Antonio Rivero
Although Hepatitis E (HEV) is regarded asa self-limiting infection and anti-HEV antibodies seem toprotect against reinfection, its pathogenesis is not well established. We describe two cases of acute symptomatic HEV infection after Hepatitis C therapy in patients carrying anti-HEV IgG antibodies raising two major questions: reactivation or reinfection?
January 11, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027424/hcv-reinfection-incidence-among-individuals-treated-for-recent-infection
#3
Marianne Martinello, Jason Grebely, Kathy Petoumenos, Edward Gane, Margaret Hellard, David Shaw, Joe Sasadeusz, Tanya L Applegate, Gregory J Dore, Gail V Matthews
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: One challenge to HCV elimination through therapeutic intervention is reinfection. The aim of this analysis was to calculate the incidence of HCV reinfection among both HIV-positive and negative individuals treated for recent HCV infection (estimated infection duration <18 months). METHODS: Individuals with recent HCV infection who achieved an end-of-treatment response in four open-label studies between 2004 and 2015 in Australia and New Zealand were assessed for HCV reinfection, confirmed by sequencing of the Core-E2 and/or NS5B regions...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927256/the-effects-of-needle-sharing-and-opioid-substitution-therapy-on-incidence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-reinfection-in-people-who-inject-drugs
#4
C K Aitken, P A Agius, P G Higgs, M A Stoové, D S Bowden, P M Dietze
Although high hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence has been observed in people who inject drugs (PWID) for decades, research suggests incidence is falling. We examined whether PWIDs' use of opioid substitution therapy (OST) and their needle-and-syringe sharing behaviour explained HCV incidence. We assessed HCV incidence in 235 PWID in Melbourne, Australia, and performed discrete-time survival with needle-sharing and OST status as independent variables. HCV infection, reinfection and combined infection/reinfection incidences were 7·6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4·8-11·9], 12·4 (95% CI 9·1-17·0) and 9·7 (95% CI 7·4-12·6) per 100 person-years, respectively...
December 8, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865034/prevention-of-hepatitis-c-recurrence-by-bridging-sofosbuvir-ribavirin-from-pre-to-post-liver-transplant-a-real-life-strategy
#5
Maria Francesca Donato, Cristina Morelli, Renato Romagnoli, Federica Invernizzi, Chiara Mazzarelli, Rosa Maria Iemmolo, Marzia Montalbano, Ilaria Lenci, Sherrie Bhoori, Giulia Pieri, Sonia Berardi, Paolo Caraceni, Silvia Martini
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) re-infection following liver transplant (LT) is associated with reduced graft and patient survival. Before transplant, Sofosbuvir/Ribavirin (SOF/R) treatment prevents recurrent HCV in 96% of those patients achieving viral suppression for at least 4 weeks before transplant. We evaluated whether a bridging SOF-regimen from pre- to post-transplant is safe and effective to prevent HCV recurrence in those patients with less than 4 weeks of HCV-RNA undetectability at the time of transplant...
November 19, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824245/liver-transplantation-from-hcv-rna-positive-donors-in-the-era-of-interferon-free-hcv-therapeutics-a-reexamination-of-the-situation
#6
Katharina Willuweit, Ali Canbay, Guido Gerken, Jörg Timm, Andreas Paul, Jürgen Treckmann, Kerstin Herzer
Although the availability of donor organs is limited, liver grafts from HCV-positive donors remained yet an obstacle, primarily because of limited therapeutic options for HCV reinfection and lower rates of graft and patient survival. However, new interferon-free regimens containing direct-acting antiviral agents have fewer adverse effects and better effectiveness, making HCV treatment feasible early after transplant. In 2014, we successfully used sofosbuvir and ribavirin to treat a patient with HCV genotype 3 cirrhosis who was listed for liver transplantation...
November 8, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816493/the-hcv-care-continuum-does-not-end-with-cure-a-call-to-arms-for-the-prevention-of-reinfection
#7
EDITORIAL
Oluwaseun Falade-Nwulia, Mark Sulkowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805315/inducing-hepatitis-c-virus-resistance-after-pig-liver-transplantation-a-proof-of-concept-of-liver-graft-modification-using-warm-ex-vivo-perfusion
#8
N Goldaracena, V N Spetzler, J Echeverri, J M Kaths, V Cherepanov, R Persson, M G Hodges, H L A Janssen, N Selzner, D R Grant, J J Feld, M Selzner
Normothermic ex vivo liver perfusion (NEVLP) offers the potential to optimize graft function prior to liver transplantation (LT). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is dependent on the presence of miRNA(microRNA)-122. Miravirsen, a locked-nucleic acid oligonucleotide, sequesters miR-122 and inhibits HCV replication. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of delivering miravirsen during NEVLP to inhibit miR-122 function in a pig LT model. Pig livers were treated with miravirsen during NEVLP or cold storage (CS)...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737953/late-relapse-versus-hepatitis-c-virus-reinfection-in-patients-with-sustained-virologic-response-after-sofosbuvir-based-therapies
#9
Christoph Sarrazin, Vasily Isakov, Evguenia S Svarovskaia, Charlotte Hedskog, Ross Martin, Krishna Chodavarapu, Diana M Brainard, Michael D Miller, Hongmei Mo, Jean-Michel Molina, Mark S Sulkowski
BACKGROUND:  The development of direct-acting antivirals in recent years has dramatically enhanced rates of viral eradication to >90% in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To determine true treatment efficacy and define the most appropriate retreatment, it is important to distinguish virologic relapse from reinfection when patients in whom HCV is eradicated during treatment become infected with a new HCV strain after treatment. METHODS:  We investigated the prevalence of late recurrent viremia (patients with sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the end of treatment but detectable HCV RNA at follow-up week 24) and used refined phylogenetic analysis of multiple HCV genes to distinguish virologic relapse from reinfection...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721720/successful-management-of-graft-reinfection-of-hcv-genotype-2-in-living-donor-liver-transplantation-from-a-hepatitis-b-core-antibody-positive-donor-with-sofosbuvir-and-ribavirin
#10
Reina Sasaki, Tatsuo Kanda, Masayuki Ohtsuka, Shin Yasui, Yuki Haga, Masato Nakamura, Masayuki Yokoyama, Shuang Wu, Shingo Nakamoto, Makoto Arai, Hitoshi Maruyama, Masaru Miyazaki, Osamu Yokosuka
Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are relatively safe and highly effective for the eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in liver transplant recipients. In this case study, we present a female with a graft reinfected with HCV genotype 2 who was treated with a combination of sofosbuvir and ribavirin after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Because the graft was from a hepatitis B core antibody-positive donor, passive immunization with hyperimmune hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and entecavir were also provided to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation...
May 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650285/hcv-reinfection-incidence-and-spontaneous-clearance-rates-in-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-western-europe
#11
Patrick Ingiliz, Thomas C Martin, Alison Rodger, Hans-Jürgen Stellbrink, Stefan Mauss, Christoph Boesecke, Mattias Mandorfer, Julie Bottero, Axel Baumgarten, Sanjay Bhagani, Karine Lacombe, Mark Nelson, Jürgen K Rockstroh
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Moderate cure rates of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections with pegylated interferon and ribavirin have been described in the last decade in men who have sex with men (MSM), who are also coinfected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, a subsequent high incidence of HCV reinfections has been reported regionally in men who both clear the infection spontaneously or who respond to treatment. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of reinfections in HIV infected MSM in eight centers from Austria, France, Germany, and the UK within the NEAT network between May 2002 and June 2014...
February 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641987/hcv-epidemiology-in-high-risk-groups-and-the-risk-of-reinfection
#12
REVIEW
Håvard Midgard, Amanda Weir, Norah Palmateer, Vincent Lo Re, Juan A Pineda, Juan Macías, Olav Dalgard
Injecting risk behaviours among people who inject drugs (PWID) and high-risk sexual practices among men who have sex with men (MSM) are important routes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission. Current direct-acting antiviral treatment offers unique opportunities for reductions in HCV-related liver disease burden and epidemic control in high-risk groups, but these prospects could be counteracted by HCV reinfection due to on-going risk behaviours after successful treatment. Based on existing data from small and heterogeneous studies of interferon-based treatment, the incidence of reinfection after sustained virological response range from 2-6/100 person years among PWID to 10-15/100 person years among human immunodeficiency virus-infected MSM...
October 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639183/sofosbuvir-and-ribavirin-for-6-weeks-is-not-effective-among-people-with-recent-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-the-dare-c-ii-study
#13
Marianne Martinello, Edward Gane, Margaret Hellard, Joe Sasadeusz, David Shaw, Kathy Petoumenos, Tanya Applegate, Jason Grebely, Laurence Maire, Philippa Marks, Gregory J Dore, Gail V Matthews
: While interferon-based therapy has excellent efficacy in acute and recent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the side effect profile limits implementation. Sofosbuvir and ribavirin for 12-24 weeks is safe and well tolerated in chronic HCV, with efficacy dependent on genotype and disease stage. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of sofosbuvir and ribavirin for 6 weeks in individuals with recent HCV infection. In this open-label study conducted in Australia and New Zealand, adults with recent HCV (duration of infection <12 months) received sofosbuvir 400 mg daily and weight-based ribavirin (<75 kg, 1,000 mg/day; ≥75 kg, 1,200 mg/day) for 6 weeks...
September 17, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553375/efficacy-and-safety-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-with-and-without-ribavirin-in-patients-with-chronic-hcv-genotype-1-infection-receiving-opioid-substitution-therapy-analysis-of-phase-3-ion-trials
#14
Jason Grebely, Stefan Mauss, Ashley Brown, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki, Massimo Puoti, David Wyles, Macky Natha, Yanni Zhu, Junming Yang, Bruce Kreter, Diana M Brainard, Chohee Yun, Val Carr, Gregory J Dore
BACKGROUND:  Interferon-based hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy is safe and effective among people receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST), but treatment uptake remains low. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of OST and drug use during therapy on completion, adherence, sustained virologic response (SVR12), and safety of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir ± ribavirin. METHODS:  The phase 3 ION studies evaluated a fixed-dose combination of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir ± ribavirin administered for 8, 12, or 24 weeks in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1...
August 23, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537841/elbasvir-grazoprevir-to-treat-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-persons-receiving-opioid-agonist-therapy-a-randomized-trial
#15
Gregory J Dore, Frederick Altice, Alain H Litwin, Olav Dalgard, Edward J Gane, Oren Shibolet, Anne Luetkemeyer, Ronald Nahass, Cheng-Yuan Peng, Brian Conway, Jason Grebely, Anita Y M Howe, Isaias N Gendrano, Erluo Chen, Hsueh-Cheng Huang, Frank J Dutko, David C Nickle, Bach-Yen Nguyen, Janice Wahl, Eliav Barr, Michael N Robertson, Heather L Platt
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common in persons who inject drugs (PWID). Objective: To evaluate elbasvir-grazoprevir in treating HCV infection in PWID. Design: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02105688). Setting: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Patients: 301 treatment-naive patients with chronic HCV genotype 1, 4, or 6 infection who were at least 80% adherent to visits for opioid-agonist therapy (OAT)...
August 9, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490575/highly-immunogenic-virally-vectored-t-cell-vaccines-cannot-overcome-subversion-of-the-t-cell-response-by-hcv-during-chronic-infection
#16
Leo Swadling, John Halliday, Christabel Kelly, Anthony Brown, Stefania Capone, M Azim Ansari, David Bonsall, Rachel Richardson, Felicity Hartnell, Jane Collier, Virginia Ammendola, Mariarosaria Del Sorbo, Annette Von Delft, Cinzia Traboni, Adrian V S Hill, Stefano Colloca, Alfredo Nicosia, Riccardo Cortese, Paul Klenerman, Antonella Folgori, Eleanor Barnes
An effective therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, as an adjunct to newly developed directly-acting antivirals (DAA), or for the prevention of reinfection, would significantly reduce the global burden of disease associated with chronic HCV infection. A recombinant chimpanzee adenoviral (ChAd3) vector and a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), encoding the non-structural proteins of HCV (NSmut), used in a heterologous prime/boost regimen induced multi-specific, high-magnitude, durable HCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses in healthy volunteers, and was more immunogenic than a heterologous Ad regimen...
August 2, 2016: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450098/hepatitis-c-treatment-initiation-in-hiv-hcv-coinfected-patients
#17
Laurent Cotte, Pascal Pugliese, Marc-Antoine Valantin, Lise Cuzin, Eric Billaud, Claudine Duvivier, Alissa Naqvi, Antoine Cheret, David Rey, Pierre Pradat, Isabelle Poizot-Martin
BACKGROUND: There are few data regarding HCV treatment initiation among HIV/HCV coinfected patients. The objective of this study was to analyze the changing patterns of HCV coinfection and HCV treatment initiation over time in a large French cohort of HIV/HCV coinfected patients at the beginning of DAA's era and to analyze factors associated with treatment initiation. METHODS: All HIV/HCV coinfected patients enrolled during 2000-2012 were analyzed. HCV status was defined per calendar year as naïve, spontaneous cure, sustained virological response (SVR), failure or reinfection...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442520/cyclophilin-inhibitors-remodel-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-of-hcv-infected-cells-in-a-unique-pattern-rendering-cells-impervious-to-a-reinfection
#18
Udayan Chatterji, Michael Bobardt, Lana Schaffer, Malcolm Wood, Philippe A Gallay
The mechanisms of action by which cyclophilin inhibitors (CypI) interfere with the HCV life cycle remain poorly understood. We reported that CypI and NS5A inhibitors (NS5Ai), but not other classes of anti-HCV agents, prevent assembly of double membrane vesicles (DMVs), which protect replication complexes. We demonstrated that both NS5A and the isomerase cyclophilin A (CypA) are required for DMV formation. Here, we examined whether CypI mediate an additional antiviral effect that could further explain the high efficacy of CypI...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363438/management-of-hepatitis-c-hiv-coinfection-in-the-era-of-highly-effective-hepatitis-c-virus-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy
#19
David L Wyles, Mark S Sulkowski, Douglas Dieterich
The increased life expectancy of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in renewed attention to non-HIV-related diseases exacerbated by HIV infection. Coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a particular area of concern, as the global prevalence has been estimated at 2.5-5 million people. In this article, we discuss the epidemiology of HCV infection and reinfection, HCV-related liver disease progression in the era of effective ART, and the efficacy of emerging HCV treatment strategies in persons with HIV/HCV coinfection...
July 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357745/nursing-problems-in-care-of-a-patient-with-very-early-hcv-infection-recurrence-after-liver-transplantation-a-case-report
#20
Marta Hreńczuk, Renata Sowińska, Olga Tronina, Piotr Małkowski, Magdalena Durlik, Marek Pacholczyk, Maciej Kosieradzki
BACKGROUND Recurrent HCV infection following liver transplantation is a common problem, and usually has a more aggressive course than primary infection. The aim of the paper was to present nursing problems in the care of a 22-year-old female patient after liver transplantation (Ltx) with a rapid recurrence of HCV infection shortly after Ltx. CASE REPORT Ltx was performed 22 July 2012 due to chronic cirrhosis secondary to HCV infection with viremia (HCV PCR 3.5×107 IU/mL). Graft function worsened 14 days following transplantation...
2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
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