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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336908/early-chimerism-after-liver-transplantation-reflects-the-clinical-course-of-recurrent-hepatitis-c
#1
Masashi Utsumi, Akinobu Takaki, Yuzo Umeda, Kazuko Koike, Stephanie C Napier, Nobukazu Watanabe, Susumu Shinoura, Ryuichi Yoshida, Daisuke Nobuoka, Tetsuya Yasunaka, Takahiro Oto, Motoo Araki, Kazuhide Yamamoto, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara, Takahito Yagi
BACKGROUND Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch is a characteristic feature of post-orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) hepatitis C. To investigate the importance of donor HLA-restricted immune cells in post-OLT hepatitis C recurrence, we analyzed the frequency of donor chimerism and the clinical course of post-OLT hepatitis C. MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed peripheral blood chimerism in 11 HCV-reinfected patients with post-HLA mismatched OLT. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the OLT chronic hepatitis C (CHC) group (n=8), exhibiting active hepatitis C recurrence; and the OLT-persistently normal ALT (PNALT) group (n=3), without active hepatitis...
March 24, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323126/elita-consensus-statements-on-use-of-daas-in-liver-transplant-candidates-and-recipients
#2
REVIEW
Luca S Belli, Christophe Duvoux, Thomas Berg, Mario Strazzabosco, Stefano Fagiuoli, Saye Khoo, Georges Philippe Pageaux, Isabelle Colle, Massimo Puoti, Audrey Coilly, Didier Samuel, Marina Berenguer
The advent of safe and highly effective direct acting antivirals (DAA) had huge implications for the HCV transplant field and changed our management of both, patients on the waiting list and those with HCV graft reinfection after Liver Transplantation (LT). When treating HCV infection before LT, HCV reinfection of the graft may be prevented in nearly all patients. In addition some candidates show a remarkable clinical improvement and are possibly delisted. Alternatively, HCV infection can be treated post LT either soon after the transplant, taking advantage of the removal of the infected native liver, or at the time of disease recurrence as done in the past...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275093/immune-protection-against-reinfection-with-nonprimate-hepacivirus
#3
Stephanie Pfaender, Stephanie Walter, Elena Grabski, Daniel Todt, Janina Bruening, Inés Romero-Brey, Theresa Gather, Richard J P Brown, Kerstin Hahn, Christina Puff, Vanessa M Pfankuche, Florian Hansmann, Alexander Postel, Paul Becher, Volker Thiel, Ulrich Kalinke, Bettina Wagner, Ralf Bartenschlager, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Karsten Feige, Thomas Pietschmann, Jessika M V Cavalleri, Eike Steinmann
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) displays a restricted host species tropism and only humans and chimpanzees are susceptible to infection. A robust immunocompetent animal model is still lacking, hampering mechanistic analysis of virus pathogenesis, immune control, and prophylactic vaccine development. The closest homolog of HCV is the equine nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV), which shares similar features with HCV and thus represents an animal model to study hepacivirus infections in their natural hosts. We aimed to dissect equine immune responses after experimental NPHV infection and conducted challenge experiments to investigate immune protection against secondary NPHV infections...
March 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266658/targeted-antigen-delivery-to-dendritic-cells-elicits-robust-antiviral-t-cell-mediated-immunity-in-the-liver
#4
Julia Volckmar, Marcus Gereke, Thomas Ebensen, Peggy Riese, Lars Philipsen, Stefan Lienenklaus, Dirk Wohlleber, Robert Klopfleisch, Sabine Stegemann-Koniszewski, Andreas J Müller, Achim D Gruber, Percy Knolle, Carlos A Guzman, Dunja Bruder
Hepatotropic viruses such as hepatitis C virus cause life-threatening chronic liver infections in millions of people worldwide. Targeted in vivo antigen-delivery to cross-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) has proven to be extraordinarily efficient in stimulating antigen-specific T cell responses. To determine whether this approach would as well be suitable to induce local antiviral effector T cells in the liver we compared different vaccine formulations based on either the targeting of DEC-205 or TLR2/6 on cross-presenting DCs or formulations not involving in vivo DC targeting...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199495/risk-factors-for-hepatitis-c-virus-reinfection-after-sustained-virologic-response-in-patients-co-infected-with-hiv
#5
Jim Young, Carmine Rossi, John Gill, Sharon Walmsley, Curtis Cooper, Joseph Cox, Valerie Martel-Laferriere, Brian Conway, Neora Pick, Marie-Louise Vachon, Marina B Klein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193659/oligonucleotide-lipid-conjugates-forming-g-quadruplex-structures-are-potent-and-pangenotypic-hepatitis-c-virus-entry-inhibitors-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo
#6
George Koutsoudakis, Alexia Paris de León, Carolina Herrera, Marcus Dorner, Gemma Pérez-Vilaró, Sébastien Lyonnais, Santiago Grijalvo, Ramon Eritja, Andreas Meyerhans, Gilles Mirambeau, Juana Díez
An HCV epidemic affecting HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) is expanding worldwide. Albeit the improved cure rates obtained with the new direct-acting antiviral drug (DAA) combinations, the high rate of reinfection within this population calls urgently for novel preventive interventions. Here we show in cell culture and ex vivo experiments with human colorectal tissue that lipoquads, G-quadruplex DNA structures fused to cholesterol, are efficient HCV pangenotypic entry and cell-to-cell transmission inhibitors...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182613/news-on-viral-hepatitis-in-hiv-update-from-the-2016-gehep-conference
#7
REVIEW
Eva Poveda, Massimo Puoti, Miguel García-Deltoro, Juan A Pineda, Francisco Téllez, Rafael Granados, Luis Morano, Federico García
The II Conference of the Group for the Study of Viral Hepatitis (GEHEP) (29 September-1 October, Spain) updated epidemiological, diagnostic and treatment aspects on viral hepatitis. The conference was mostly focused on the latest news related to HCV infection, including the successes achieved since the implementation of direct-acting antiviral agents for HCV therapy, but also in the new, future challenges for a real HCV eradication. The scenario for chronic HCV infection has dramatically changed in the last two years and most patients have been cured after 12 weeks of therapy with minimal side effects...
January 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170123/martinello-et%C3%A2-al-hcv-reinfection-incidence-among-individuals-treated-for-recent-infection
#8
Patrick Ingiliz
The development of all-oral direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) has changed the management of patients infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). As these new treatments are safe and highly effective, most affected patients may have a chance for HCV cure, at least in those parts of the world where the costly drugs available. In industrialized countries, HCV infection has a comparatively low prevalence in the general population(1) . A higher prevalence and new infections are mainly seen in two specific subgroups: people who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM)...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146579/selective-expansion-of-high-functional-avidity-memory-cd8-t-cell-clonotypes-during-hepatitis-c-virus-reinfection-and-clearance
#9
Mohamed S Abdel-Hakeem, Maude Boisvert, Julie Bruneau, Hugo Soudeyns, Naglaa H Shoukry
The dynamics of the memory CD8 T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire upon virus re-exposure and factors governing the selection of TCR clonotypes conferring protective immunity in real life settings are poorly understood. Here, we examined the dynamics and functionality of the virus-specific memory CD8 TCR repertoire before, during and after hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection in patients who spontaneously resolved two consecutive infections (SR/SR) and patients who resolved a primary but failed to clear a subsequent infection (SR/CI)...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116926/patient-reported-outcomes-with-direct-acting-antivirals-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-current-knowledge-and-outstanding-issues
#10
Fabienne Marcellin, Perrine Roux, Camelia Protopopescu, Martin Duracinsky, Bruno Spire, Maria Patrizia Carrieri
Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) play a key role in the evaluation of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC). The main PROs of particular interest in CHC include quality of life (QoL), fatigue and its functional repercussions, work productivity, adherence to treatment, and risk behaviors. Areas covered: This study summarizes the body of knowledge regarding PROs in CHC with DAA-based therapy. Outstanding related issues are presented and discussed. Expert commentary: Current knowledge on PROs with CHC mainly relies on clinical trial data...
March 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107585/treatment-and-primary-prevention-in-people-who-inject-drugs-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-is-elimination-possible-in-a-high-prevalence-setting
#11
I Gountas, V Sypsa, O Anagnostou, N K Martin, P Vickerman, E Kafetzopoulos, A Hatzakis
AIMS: To project the impact of scaling up oral antiviral therapy and harm reduction on chronic hepatitis C (CHC) prevalence and incidence among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Greece, to estimate the relationship between required treatment levels and expansion of harm reduction programs to achieve specific targets and to examine whether hepatitis C viruse (HCV) elimination among PWID is possible in this high prevalence setting. DESIGN: A dynamic discrete time, stochastic individual-based model was developed to simulate HCV transmission among PWID incorporating the effect of HCV treatment and harm reduction strategies, and allowing for reinfection following treatment...
January 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077520/hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-anti-hev-igg-carryinfing-patients-after-successful-hcv-treatment-reactivation-or-reinfection
#12
Antonio Rivero-Juarez, Mario Frias, Pedro Lopez-Lopez, María de Los Angeles Risalde, Teresa Brieva, Isabel Machuca, Angela Camacho, Antonio Martinez-Peinado, Jose Carlos Gomez-Villamandos, Antonio Rivero
Although Hepatitis E (HEV) is regarded asa self-limiting infection and anti-HEV antibodies seem toprotect against reinfection, its pathogenesis is not well established. We describe two cases of acute symptomatic HEV infection after Hepatitis C therapy in patients carrying anti-HEV IgG antibodies raising two major questions: reactivation or reinfection?
January 11, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027424/hcv-reinfection-incidence-among-individuals-treated-for-recent-infection
#13
Marianne Martinello, Jason Grebely, Kathy Petoumenos, Edward Gane, Margaret Hellard, David Shaw, Joe Sasadeusz, Tanya L Applegate, Gregory J Dore, Gail V Matthews
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: One challenge to HCV elimination through therapeutic intervention is reinfection. The aim of this analysis was to calculate the incidence of HCV reinfection among both HIV-positive and negative individuals treated for recent HCV infection (estimated infection duration <18 months). METHODS: Individuals with recent HCV infection who achieved an end-of-treatment response in four open-label studies between 2004 and 2015 in Australia and New Zealand were assessed for HCV reinfection, confirmed by sequencing of the Core-E2 and/or NS5B regions...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927256/the-effects-of-needle-sharing-and-opioid-substitution-therapy-on-incidence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-reinfection-in-people-who-inject-drugs
#14
C K Aitken, P A Agius, P G Higgs, M A Stoové, D S Bowden, P M Dietze
Although high hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence has been observed in people who inject drugs (PWID) for decades, research suggests incidence is falling. We examined whether PWIDs' use of opioid substitution therapy (OST) and their needle-and-syringe sharing behaviour explained HCV incidence. We assessed HCV incidence in 235 PWID in Melbourne, Australia, and performed discrete-time survival with needle-sharing and OST status as independent variables. HCV infection, reinfection and combined infection/reinfection incidences were 7·6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4·8-11·9], 12·4 (95% CI 9·1-17·0) and 9·7 (95% CI 7·4-12·6) per 100 person-years, respectively...
December 8, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865034/prevention-of-hepatitis-c-recurrence-by-bridging-sofosbuvir-ribavirin-from-pre-to-post-liver-transplant-a-real-life-strategy
#15
Maria Francesca Donato, Cristina Morelli, Renato Romagnoli, Federica Invernizzi, Chiara Mazzarelli, Rosa Maria Iemmolo, Marzia Montalbano, Ilaria Lenci, Sherrie Bhoori, Giulia Pieri, Sonia Berardi, Paolo Caraceni, Silvia Martini
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) re-infection following liver transplant (LT) is associated with reduced graft and patient survival. Before transplant, Sofosbuvir/Ribavirin (SOF/R) treatment prevents recurrent HCV in 96% of those patients achieving viral suppression for at least 4 weeks before transplant. We evaluated whether a bridging SOF-regimen from pre- to post-transplant is safe and effective to prevent HCV recurrence in those patients with less than 4 weeks of HCV-RNA undetectability at the time of transplant...
November 19, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824245/liver-transplantation-from-hcv-rna-positive-donors-in-the-era-of-interferon-free-hcv-therapeutics-a-reexamination-of-the-situation
#16
Katharina Willuweit, Ali Canbay, Guido Gerken, Jörg Timm, Andreas Paul, Jürgen Treckmann, Kerstin Herzer
Although the availability of donor organs is limited, liver grafts from HCV-positive donors remained yet an obstacle, primarily because of limited therapeutic options for HCV reinfection and lower rates of graft and patient survival. However, new interferon-free regimens containing direct-acting antiviral agents have fewer adverse effects and better effectiveness, making HCV treatment feasible early after transplant. In 2014, we successfully used sofosbuvir and ribavirin to treat a patient with HCV genotype 3 cirrhosis who was listed for liver transplantation...
November 8, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816493/the-hcv-care-continuum-does-not-end-with-cure-a-call-to-arms-for-the-prevention-of-reinfection
#17
EDITORIAL
Oluwaseun Falade-Nwulia, Mark Sulkowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805315/inducing-hepatitis-c-virus-resistance-after-pig-liver-transplantation-a-proof-of-concept-of-liver-graft-modification-using-warm-ex-vivo-perfusion
#18
N Goldaracena, V N Spetzler, J Echeverri, J M Kaths, V Cherepanov, R Persson, M G Hodges, H L A Janssen, N Selzner, D R Grant, J J Feld, M Selzner
Normothermic ex vivo liver perfusion (NEVLP) offers the potential to optimize graft function prior to liver transplantation (LT). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is dependent on the presence of miRNA(microRNA)-122. Miravirsen, a locked-nucleic acid oligonucleotide, sequesters miR-122 and inhibits HCV replication. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of delivering miravirsen during NEVLP to inhibit miR-122 function in a pig LT model. Pig livers were treated with miravirsen during NEVLP or cold storage (CS)...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737953/late-relapse-versus-hepatitis-c-virus-reinfection-in-patients-with-sustained-virologic-response-after-sofosbuvir-based-therapies
#19
Christoph Sarrazin, Vasily Isakov, Evguenia S Svarovskaia, Charlotte Hedskog, Ross Martin, Krishna Chodavarapu, Diana M Brainard, Michael D Miller, Hongmei Mo, Jean-Michel Molina, Mark S Sulkowski
BACKGROUND:  The development of direct-acting antivirals in recent years has dramatically enhanced rates of viral eradication to >90% in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To determine true treatment efficacy and define the most appropriate retreatment, it is important to distinguish virologic relapse from reinfection when patients in whom HCV is eradicated during treatment become infected with a new HCV strain after treatment. METHODS:  We investigated the prevalence of late recurrent viremia (patients with sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the end of treatment but detectable HCV RNA at follow-up week 24) and used refined phylogenetic analysis of multiple HCV genes to distinguish virologic relapse from reinfection...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721720/successful-management-of-graft-reinfection-of-hcv-genotype-2-in-living-donor-liver-transplantation-from-a-hepatitis-b-core-antibody-positive-donor-with-sofosbuvir-and-ribavirin
#20
Reina Sasaki, Tatsuo Kanda, Masayuki Ohtsuka, Shin Yasui, Yuki Haga, Masato Nakamura, Masayuki Yokoyama, Shuang Wu, Shingo Nakamoto, Makoto Arai, Hitoshi Maruyama, Masaru Miyazaki, Osamu Yokosuka
Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are relatively safe and highly effective for the eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in liver transplant recipients. In this case study, we present a female with a graft reinfected with HCV genotype 2 who was treated with a combination of sofosbuvir and ribavirin after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Because the graft was from a hepatitis B core antibody-positive donor, passive immunization with hyperimmune hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and entecavir were also provided to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation...
May 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
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