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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701904/medical-and-behavioral-approaches-to-engage-people-who-inject-drugs-into-care-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#1
Stevan A Gonzalez, Daniel S Fierer, Andrew H Talal
Direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C virus infection may revolutionize treatment among persons with substance use disorders. Despite persons with substance use disorders having the highest hepatitis C virus prevalence and incidence, the vast majority have not engaged into care for the infection. Previously, interferon-based treatments, with substantial side effects and the propensity to exacerbate mental health conditions, were major disincentives to pursuit of care for the infection. Direct-acting antivirals with viral eradication rates of >90%, significantly improved side effect profiles, and shorter treatment duration are dramatic improvements over prior treatment regimens that should promote widespread hepatitis C virus care among persons with substance use disorders...
June 2017: Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683982/research-priorities-to-achieve-universal-access-to-hepatitis-c-prevention-management-and-direct-acting-antiviral-treatment-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#2
Jason Grebely, Julie Bruneau, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Olav Dalgard, Philip Bruggmann, Carla Treloar, Matthew Hickman, Margaret Hellard, Teri Roberts, Levinia Crooks, Håvard Midgard, Sarah Larney, Louisa Degenhardt, Hannu Alho, Jude Byrne, John F Dillon, Jordan J Feld, Graham Foster, David Goldberg, Andrew R Lloyd, Jens Reimer, Geert Robaeys, Marta Torrens, Nat Wright, Icro Maremmani, Brianna L Norton, Alain H Litwin, Gregory J Dore
Globally, it is estimated that 71.1 million people have chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, including an estimated 7.5 million people who have recently injected drugs (PWID). There is an additional large, but unquantified, burden among those PWID who have ceased injecting. The incidence of HCV infection among current PWID also remains high in many settings. Morbidity and mortality due to liver disease among PWID with HCV infection continues to increase, despite the advent of well-tolerated, simple interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) HCV regimens with cure rates >95%...
July 3, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636638/outcomes-from-a-large-10-year-hepatitis-c-treatment-programme-in-people-who-inject-drugs-no-effect-of-recent-or-former-injecting-drug-use-on-treatment-adherence-or-therapeutic-response
#3
Omar Elsherif, Ciaran Bannan, Shay Keating, Susan McKiernan, Colm Bergin, Suzanne Norris
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: People who inject drugs (PWID) are historically viewed as having "difficult to treat" hepatitis C disease, with perceived inferior treatment adherence and outcomes, and concerns regarding reinfection risk. We evaluated for differences in treatment adherence and response to Peginterferon-alfa-2a/Ribavirin (Peg-IFNα/RBV) in a large urban cohort with and without a history of remote or recent injection drug use. METHODS: Patient data was retrospectively reviewed for 1000 consecutive patients-608 former (no injecting drug use for 6 months of therapy), 85 recent (injecting drug use within 6 months) PWID, and 307 non-drug users who were treated for chronic hepatitis C with Peg-IFNα/RBV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633998/changes-in-risk-behaviours-during-and-following-treatment-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-people-who-inject-drugs-the-activate-study
#4
Håvard Midgard, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Evan B Cunningham, Brian Conway, Markus Backmund, Philip Bruggmann, Julie Bruneau, Stefan Bourgeois, Adrian Dunlop, Graham R Foster, Margaret Hellard, Geert Robaeys, Maria C Thurnheer, Martin Weltman, Janaki Amin, Philippa S Marks, Sophie Quiene, Gregory J Dore, Olav Dalgard, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: The risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection due to continued injecting risk behaviours might remain a barrier to HCV treatment among people who inject drugs. We aimed to evaluate changes in risk behaviours during and following HCV treatment among people with ongoing injecting drug use or receiving opioid substitution treatment (OST). METHODS: ACTIVATE was an international multicentre clinical trial conducted between 2012 and 2014. Participants with HCV genotypes 2/3 infection were treated with peg-interferon/ribavirin for 12 or 24 weeks and completed a self-administered behavioural questionnaire at each study visit...
June 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632109/successful-treatment-of-sexually-acquired-acute-hcv-reinfection-with-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-in-a-hiv-infected-patient
#5
Salvatore Sollima, Spinello Antinori, Alessandro Torre, Francesca Binda, Andrea Giacomelli, Laura Milazzo
Here we describe the case of a HIV-positive patient with acute hepatitis C virus reinfection, who was successfully treated with an interferon-free regimen of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir.
July 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631044/-personalized-treatment-of-viral-hepatitis-of-the-present-and-the-future-hepatitis%C3%A2-b-c-delta-and-e
#6
REVIEW
R Bartenschlager, M Cornberg, T Pietschmann
Precision medicine is also possible for infectious diseases as shown for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis, especially if different options are available. In hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, treatment indication as well as the choice of treatment and the decisions to stop treatment are based on viral markers and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Future therapies for HBV infection aiming for functional cure or even virus elimination may be even more personalized and have to take into account the immune status of a given patient...
June 19, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598793/croi-2017-highlights-of-advances-in-viral-hepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis
#7
Anne F Luetkemeyer, David L Wyles
At the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Seattle, Washington, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was a major focus in the context of HIV-associated liver disease. Well-tolerated direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have enabled effective treatment of the populations that are hardest to cure, including those with decompensated cirrhosis, and many studies examined the impact of HCV cure on hepatitis and extrahepatic outcomes. Scaling up access to DAA, and the impact that their universal availability can have on reducing prevalence were key topics...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597817/decreased-pro-inflammatory-immune-responses-during-recurrent-acute-hcv-infections-in-hiv-co-infected-patients
#8
Sebastiaan J Hullegie, Joop E A Arends, Zwier M A Groothuismink, Suzan D Pas, Bart J A Rijnders, Andre Boonstra, Mark A A Claassen
Patients in high-risk groups continue to transmit the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and frequently experience reinfections. Since little is known regarding the immune response to HCV during reinfection, we compared primary and consecutive acute HCV infections in patients with an HIV infection, and focused on the cytokine bridging innate to adaptive immunity. We observed that the serum levels of IL-12p40, MIP-1β, MIG and IP-10 increased during primary acute HCV infection, but not during subsequent secondary acute reinfections...
June 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579302/direct-acting-antiviral-treatment-against-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-hiv-infected-patients-en-route-for-eradication
#9
Pierre Pradat, Pascal Pugliese, Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Marc-Antoine Valantin, Lise Cuzin, Jacques Reynes, Eric Billaud, Thomas Huleux, Firouze Bani-Sadr, David Rey, Anne Frésard, Christine Jacomet, Claudine Duvivier, Antoine Cheret, Laurent Hustache-Mathieu, Bruno Hoen, André Cabié, Laurent Cotte
OBJECTIVES: Direct-Acting Antivirals (DAAs) opened a new era in HCV treatment. We report the impact of HCV treatment in French HIV-HCV coinfected patients. METHODS: All HIV-HCV patients from the Dat'AIDS cohort followed between 2012 and 2015 were included. HCV status was defined yearly as naive, spontaneous cure, sustained virological response (SVR12), failure or reinfection. RESULTS: Among 32,945 HIV-infected patients, 15.2% were positive for anti-HCV antibodies...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578865/initiating-hcv-treatment-with-direct-acting-agents-in-opioid-agonist-treatment-when-to-start-for-people-co-infected-with-hiv
#10
Dimitra Panagiotoglou, Emanuel Krebs, Jeong Eun Min, Michelle Olding, Keith Ahamad, Lianping Ti, Julio S G Montaner, Bohdan Nosyk
BACKGROUND: Direct acting antivirals (DAA) raise the possibility of eliminating Hepatitis C virus (HCV) among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, concerns regarding treatment retention and reinfection challenge implementation efforts. Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) provides an opportunity to engage HCV-positive PWID into DAA-based treatment. Our objective was to identify when OAT adherence sufficiently improved to inform DAA initiation in OAT settings, assuming continuous OAT retention for at least twelve weeks is necessary to complete the DAA treatment course...
June 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500290/impact-of-hepatitis-c-treatment-as-prevention-for-people-who-inject-drugs-is-sensitive-to-contact-network-structure
#11
Cornelia Metzig, Julian Surey, Marie Francis, Jim Conneely, Ibrahim Abubakar, Peter J White
Treatment as Prevention (TasP) using directly-acting antivirals has been advocated for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in people who inject drugs (PWID), but treatment is expensive and TasP's effectiveness is uncertain. Previous modelling has assumed a homogeneously-mixed population or a static network lacking turnover in the population and injecting partnerships. We developed a transmission-dynamic model on a dynamic network of injecting partnerships using data from survey of injecting behaviour carried out in London, UK...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477061/chronic-hepatitis-c-treatment-in-patients-with-drug-injection-history-findings-of-the-integrate-prospective-observational-study
#12
Geert Robaeys, Stefan Christensen, Damien Lucidarme, Amber Arain, Philip Bruggmann, Jan Kunkel, Sofia Keim, Martin Jäkel, Ralph DeMasi, Chris Liu, Isabelle Lonjon-Domanec, Graham R Foster
INTRODUCTION: People who inject drugs represent an under-treated chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patient population. METHODS: INTEGRATE was a prospective, observational study investigating the effectiveness, safety, and adherence in routine clinical practice to telaprevir in combination with peg-interferon and ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV) in patients with history of injecting drug use chronically infected with genotype 1 HCV. RESULTS: A total of 46 patients were enrolled and included in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population...
June 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432579/hcv-cure-and-reinfection-among-people-with-hiv-hcv-coinfection-and-people-who-inject-drugs
#13
REVIEW
Marianne Martinello, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Jason Grebely, Gregory J Dore, Gail V Matthews
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Highly effective, well-tolerated interferon-free direct-acting antivirals (DAA) have revolutionised hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapeutics, with the opportunity for broad treatment scale-up among marginalised or "high-risk" populations, including people who inject drugs (PWID) and people with HIV/HCV coinfection. RECENT FINDINGS: Concern that HCV reinfection may compromise HCV treatment outcomes is sometimes cited as a reason for not offering treatment to current and former PWID...
June 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404135/incidence-risk-factors-and-prevention-of-hepatitis-c-reinfection-a-population-based-cohort-study
#14
Nazrul Islam, Mel Krajden, Jean Shoveller, Paul Gustafson, Mark Gilbert, Jane A Buxton, Jason Wong, Mark W Tyndall, Naveed Zafar Janjua
BACKGROUND: People remain at risk of reinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), even after clearance of the primary infection. We identified factors associated with HCV reinfection risk in a large population-based cohort study in British Columbia, Canada, and examined the association of opioid substitution therapy and mental health counselling with reinfection. METHODS: We obtained data from the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort, which includes all individuals tested for HCV or HIV at the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control Public Health Laboratory during 1990-2013 (when data were available)...
March 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404124/hepatitis-c-virus-reinfection-more-to-come
#15
Patrick Ingiliz, Jürgen K Rockstroh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398489/immunization-with-a-subunit-hepatitis-c-virus-vaccine-elicits-pan-genotypic-neutralizing-antibodies-and-intra-hepatic-t-cell-responses-in-non-human-primates
#16
Dapeng Li, Xuesong Wang, Markus von Schaewen, Wanyin Tao, Yunfang Zhang, Brigitte Heller, Gabriela Hrebikova, Qiang Deng, Qiang Sun, Alexander Ploss, Jin Zhong, Zhong Huang
Background: The global control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a great burden, due to the high prices and potential drug resistance of the new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) as well as the risk of reinfection in DAA-cured patients. Thus, a prophylactic vaccine for HCV is of great importance. We previously reported a single recombinant soluble E2 (sE2) vaccine produced in insect cells was able to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and prevent HCV infection in mice...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397698/ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-for-6-weeks-to-treat-acute-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-or-4-infection-in-patients-with-hiv-coinfection-an-open-label-single-arm-trial
#17
Jürgen K Rockstroh, Sanjay Bhagani, Robert H Hyland, Chohee Yun, Hadas Dvory-Sobol, Wei Zheng, Diana M Brainard, Patrick Ingiliz, Thomas Lutz, Christoph Boesecke, Mark Nelson
BACKGROUND: The latest European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines now recommend that patients with acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection should be treated with a combination of sofosbuvir and an NS5A inhibitor for 8 weeks. However, the ideal duration of treatment with interferon-free regimens, particularly in HIV-coinfected individuals, remains unknown. We assessed the efficacy and safety of 6 weeks of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir for acute genotype 1 or 4 HCV in HIV-1-coinfected patients...
May 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336908/early-chimerism-after-liver-transplantation-reflects-the-clinical-course-of-recurrent-hepatitis-c
#18
Masashi Utsumi, Akinobu Takaki, Yuzo Umeda, Kazuko Koike, Stephanie C Napier, Nobukazu Watanabe, Susumu Shinoura, Ryuichi Yoshida, Daisuke Nobuoka, Tetsuya Yasunaka, Takahiro Oto, Motoo Araki, Kazuhide Yamamoto, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara, Takahito Yagi
BACKGROUND Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch is a characteristic feature of post-orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) hepatitis C. To investigate the importance of donor HLA-restricted immune cells in post-OLT hepatitis C recurrence, we analyzed the frequency of donor chimerism and the clinical course of post-OLT hepatitis C. MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed peripheral blood chimerism in 11 HCV-reinfected patients with post-HLA mismatched OLT. Patients were divided into 2 groups: the OLT chronic hepatitis C (CHC) group (n=8), exhibiting active hepatitis C recurrence; and the OLT-persistently normal ALT (PNALT) group (n=3), without active hepatitis...
March 24, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323126/elita-consensus-statements-on-the-use-of-daas-in-liver-transplant-candidates-and-recipients
#19
REVIEW
Luca S Belli, Christophe Duvoux, Marina Berenguer, Thomas Berg, Audrey Coilly, Isabelle Colle, Stefano Fagiuoli, Saye Khoo, Georges Philippe Pageaux, Massimo Puoti, Didier Samuel, Mario Strazzabosco
The advent of safe and highly effective direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has had huge implications for the hepatitis C virus (HCV) transplant field, and changed our management of both patients on the waiting list and those with HCV graft re-infection after liver transplantation (LT). When treating HCV infection before LT, HCV re-infection of the graft can be prevented in nearly all patients. In addition, some candidates show a remarkable clinical improvement and may be delisted. Alternatively, HCV infection can be treated post-LT either soon after the transplant, taking advantage of the removal of the infected native liver, or at the time of disease recurrence, as was carried out in the past...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275093/immune-protection-against-reinfection-with-nonprimate-hepacivirus
#20
Stephanie Pfaender, Stephanie Walter, Elena Grabski, Daniel Todt, Janina Bruening, Inés Romero-Brey, Theresa Gather, Richard J P Brown, Kerstin Hahn, Christina Puff, Vanessa M Pfankuche, Florian Hansmann, Alexander Postel, Paul Becher, Volker Thiel, Ulrich Kalinke, Bettina Wagner, Ralf Bartenschlager, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Karsten Feige, Thomas Pietschmann, Jessika M V Cavalleri, Eike Steinmann
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) displays a restricted host species tropism and only humans and chimpanzees are susceptible to infection. A robust immunocompetent animal model is still lacking, hampering mechanistic analysis of virus pathogenesis, immune control, and prophylactic vaccine development. The closest homolog of HCV is the equine nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV), which shares similar features with HCV and thus represents an animal model to study hepacivirus infections in their natural hosts. We aimed to dissect equine immune responses after experimental NPHV infection and conducted challenge experiments to investigate immune protection against secondary NPHV infections...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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