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Paolo Gabrieli, Francesca Scolari
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest species with extremely high agricultural relevance. This is due to its reproductive behavior: females damage the external surface of fruits and vegetables when they lay eggs and the hatched larvae feed on their pulp. Wild C. capitata populations are traditionally controlled through insecticide spraying and/or eco-friendly approaches, the most successful being the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The SIT relies on mass-rearing, radiation-based sterilization and field release of males that retain their capacity to mate but are not able to generate fertile progeny...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Barbara Horváth, Andrea J Betancourt, Alex T Kalinka
BACKGROUND: Embryogenesis is a highly conserved, canalized process, and variation in the duration of embryogenesis (DOE), i.e., time from egg lay to hatching, has a potentially profound effect on the outcome of within- and between-species competition. There is both intra- and inter-specific variation in this trait, which may provide important fuel for evolutionary processes, particularly adaptation. However, while genetic variation underlying simpler morphological traits, or with large phenotypic effects is well described in the literature, less is known about the underlying genetics of traits, such as DOE, partly due to a lack of tools with which to study them...
October 7, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
José Miguel Flores Fernández, Carla Patricia Barragán Álvarez, Carla Vanessa Sánchez Hernández, Eduardo Padilla Camberos, Celia González Castillo, Daniel Ortuño Sahagún, Moisés Martínez Velázquez
The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a hematophagous ectoparasite of major importance for the livestock industry. It shows a remarkable ability to survive over long periods without feeding. However, the mechanisms used to endure long-term starvation are poorly understood. It is believed that autophagy, a process of intracellular protein degradation, may play a significant role to confront adverse environmental conditions. To advance our understanding of autophagy in R. microplus, in the present study we report the molecular characterization of three autophagy-related (ATG) genes, namely, RmATG3, RmATG4 and RmATG6, as well as their expression profiles in different developmental stages and organs of the parasite...
November 2016: Parasitology
Svetlana Rodgers
This paper offers a concise review of technical and operational concepts underpinning commercialization of minimally processed functional foods (FFs), foods with fresh-like qualities commanding premium prices. The growing number of permitted nutritional content/health claims, many of which relate to well-being, coupled with emerging extraction and food processing technologies offers new exciting opportunities for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) specializing in fresh produce to play an active role in the health market...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science
Chengjian Wang, Ping Zhang, Wanjun Jin, Lingmei Li, Shan Qiang, Ying Zhang, Linjuan Huang, Zhongfu Wang
: Rapid, simple and versatile methods for quantitative analysis of glycoprotein O-glycans are urgently required for current studies on protein O-glycosylation patterns and the search for disease O-glycan biomarkers. Relative quantitation of O-glycans using stable isotope labeling followed by mass spectrometric analysis represents an ideal and promising technique. However, it is hindered by the shortage of reliable nonreductive O-glycan release methods as well as the too large or too small inconstant mass difference between the light and heavy isotope form derivatives of O-glycans, which results in difficulties during the recognition and quantitative analysis of O-glycans by mass spectrometry...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Zhi-Qiang Liu, Xue-Hui Jiang, Hai-Yan Qi, Liang-Wei Xiong, Gao-Feng Qiu
SRY-related HMG box (Sox) genes are characterized by the presence of a DNA-binding HMG domain and involved in a diverse range of developmental processes. In this study, we identified a novel Sox gene, designated as EsSoxB2-1, from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. The EsSoxB2-1 encodes a protein of 259 amino acids, sharing the highest identity with the beetle Tribolium castaneum SOX21b. Unlike insect Sox21b, however, EsSoxB2-1 is intronless and exhibits a gonad-specific expression pattern at both mRNA and protein level...
2016: Scientific Reports
Anette Lie-Jensen, Kaisa Haglund
Drosophila oogenesis is a powerful model for studying a wide spectrum of cellular and developmental processes in vivo. Oogenesis starts in a specialized structure called the germarium, which harbors the stem cells for both germ and somatic cells. The germarium produces egg chambers, each of which will develop into an egg. Active areas of research in Drosophila germaria include stem cell self-renewal, division, and maintenance, cell cycle control and differentiation, oocyte specification, intercellular communication, and signaling, among others...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tommaso Cavazza, Paolo Malgaretti, Isabelle Vernos
Centrosome maturation is the process by which the duplicated centrosomes recruit pericentriolar components and increase their microtubule nucleation activity before mitosis. The role of this process in cells entering mitosis has been mostly related to the separation of the duplicated centrosomes and thereby to the assembly of a bipolar spindle. However, spindles can form without centrosomes. In fact, all cells, whether they have centrosomes or not, rely on chromatin-driven microtubule assembly to form a spindle...
October 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Mohammad Sirousazar, Azinsadat Jahani-Javanmardi, Farshad Kheiri, Zuhair Muhammad Hassan
Novel nanocomposite hydrogel wound dressings on the basis of egg white and polyvinyl alcohol, as matrix, and natural Na-montmorillonite clay, as reinforcing agent, were prepared and their performances on wound healing investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro cytotoxicity assay revealed non-cytotoxic activity and excellent biocompatibility level of prepared nanocomposite hydrogel wound dressings. The bacterial penetration assay showed the prepared nanocomposite hydrogel wound dressings are excellent barriers against microorganisms and could protect the wound from infection during the wound healing...
November 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Ines Anderl, Laura Vesala, Teemu O Ihalainen, Leena-Maija Vanha-Aho, István Andó, Mika Rämet, Dan Hultmark
Cellular immune responses require the generation and recruitment of diverse blood cell types that recognize and kill pathogens. In Drosophila melanogaster larvae, immune-inducible lamellocytes participate in recognizing and killing parasitoid wasp eggs. However, the sequence of events required for lamellocyte generation remains controversial. To study the cellular immune system, we developed a flow cytometry approach using in vivo reporters for lamellocytes as well as for plasmatocytes, the main hemocyte type in healthy larvae...
July 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Olivier Duron, Valérie Noël
Pantoea are emerging as widespread bacteria engaged in associations with a variety of hosts, including plants, insects and humans. Recently, mutualistic Pantoea gut symbionts have also been reported in pentatomid stinkbugs. In the present study, we examine the incidence and evolutionary history of these Pantoea symbionts in pentatomid stinkbug populations from 14 species, characterizing the processes that shape their diversity. We identify midgut crypts of pentatomid stinkbugs as harboring a remarkable diversity of Pantoea...
June 30, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Edy Saputra, Huayang Zhang, Qiaoran Liu, Hongqi Sun, Shaobin Wang
Novel uniform ellipsoid α-Mn2O3@α-MnO2 core/shell (McMs) nanocomposites were prepared via a hydrothermal process with a shape-control protocol followed by calcination at different temperatures. The properties of the composites were characterized by a number of techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The core/shell materials were much effective in heterogeneous oxone(®) activation to generate sulfate and hydroxyl radicals for degradation of aqueous phenol...
September 2016: Chemosphere
Melanie McClure, Marianne Elias
BACKGROUND: Understanding the processes underlying diversification is a central question in evolutionary biology. For butterflies, access to new host plants provides opportunities for adaptive speciation. On the one hand, locally abundant host species can generate ecologically significant selection pressure. But a diversity of host plant species within the geographic range of each population and/or species might also eliminate any advantage conferred by specialization. This paper focuses on four Melinaea species, which are oligophagous on the family Solanaceae: M...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Song Jiang, Xin Li, Xuhai Wang, Qian Ban, Wenqiao Hui, Bin Jia
Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by infection with the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus, is a chronic zoonosis, to which sheep are highly susceptible. Previously, we found that Kazakh sheep with different MHC haplotypes differed in CE infection. Sheep with haplotype MHCMvaIbc-SacIIab-Hin1Iab were resistant to CE infection, while their counterparts without this haplotype were not. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, are key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play essential roles in fundamental biological processes such as development and metabolism...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Pirada Suphaphiphat, Lynne Whittaker, Ivna De Souza, Rodney S Daniels, Philip R Dormitzer, John W McCauley, Ethan C Settembre
The global system for manufacturing seasonal influenza vaccines has been developed to respond to the natural evolution of influenza viruses, but the problem of antigenic mismatch continues to be a challenge in certain years. In some years, mismatches arise naturally due to the antigenic drift of circulating viruses after vaccine strain selection has already been made. In other years, antigenic differences between the vaccine virus and circulating viruses are introduced as part of the current system, which relies on the use of egg-adapted isolates as a starting material for candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs)...
July 12, 2016: Vaccine
A Herrera, N Navas, C Cardell
We evaluated the impact of urban air pollution on egg yolk tempera paint dosimeters (binary mixture samples made with historic artist´s blue, red and white pigments) by tracking changes over time in their lipid matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectra (MALDI-TOF-MS) profiles. We studied triacylglycerols (TGs), phospholipids (PLs) and their oxidation by-products from paint dosimeters that had been exposed outdoors for six months to the polluted atmosphere in the city center of Granada (Spain)...
August 1, 2016: Talanta
Vinal Menon, Lorain Junor, Marwa Balhaj, John F Eberth, Jay D Potts
The new model presented here can be used to understand the influence of hemodynamics on specific cardiac developmental processes, at the cellular and molecular level. To alter intracardiac hemodynamics, fertilized chicken eggs are incubated in a humidified chamber to obtain embryos of the desired stage (HH17). Once this developmental stage is achieved, the embryo is maintained ex ovo and hemodynamics in the embryonic heart are altered by partially constricting the outflow tract (OFT) with a surgical suture at the junction of the OFT and ventricle (OVJ)...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Carmen Beltrán, Claudia L Treviño, Esperanza Mata-Martínez, Julio C Chávez, Claudia Sánchez-Cárdenas, Mark Baker, Alberto Darszon
The acrosome reaction (AR) is a unique exocytotic process where the acrosome, a single membrane-delimited specialized organelle, overlying the nucleus in the sperm head of many species, fuses with the overlying plasma membrane. This reaction, triggered by physiological inducers from the female gamete, its vicinity, or other stimuli, discharges the acrosomal content modifying the plasma membrane, incorporating the inner acrosomal membrane, and exposing it to the extracellular medium. The AR is essential for sperm-egg coat penetration, fusion with the eggs' plasma membrane, and fertilization...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Azinsadat Jahani-Javanmardi, Mohammad Sirousazar, Yasaman Shaabani, Farshad Kheiri
Nanocomposite hydrogels on the basis of egg white and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) containing 0, 5, and 10 wt.% of montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay were prepared by a facile cyclic freezing-thawing technique and their properties investigated for wound dressing application. The morphological, structural, thermal, physical, and in vitro cytotoxic properties of the prepared nanocomposite hydrogel wound dressings (NHWDs) were experimentally studied. The NHWDs had an exfoliated morphology with a porous structure having pores sizes in the nanometric scale...
August 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Afsoon Saadin, Michelle Starz-Gaiano
The Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway is an essential regulator of cell migration both in mammals and fruit flies. Cell migration is required for normal embryonic development and immune response but can also lead to detrimental outcomes, such as tumor metastasis. A cluster of cells termed "border cells" in the Drosophila ovary provides an excellent example of a collective cell migration, in which two different cell types coordinate their movements. Border cells arise within the follicular epithelium and are required to invade the neighboring cells and migrate to the oocyte to contribute to a fertilizable egg...
2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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