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Szczepan M Bilinski, Mariusz K Jaglarz, Ali Halajian, Waclaw Tworzydlo
Matrotrophic viviparity is a reproductive pattern in which offspring develop inside a female's body which provides gas exchange and nutrients necessary for development. Besides placental mammals, structural and physiological aspects of matrotrophic viviparity are poorly characterized. In insects, the majority of species is oviparous, i.e. lay eggs, and viviparous reproduction has been reported only in 11 out of 44 orders, including earwigs (Dermaptera). Among dermapterans, matrotrophic viviparity has been reported in two epizoic subgroups: Arixeniidae and Hemimeridae...
2018: PloS One
Kathrin K Geyer, Sabrina E Munshi, Martin Vickers, Michael Squance, Toby J Wilkinson, Daniel Berrar, Cristian Chaparro, Martin T Swain, Karl F Hoffmann
Uncontrolled host immunological reactions directed against tissue-trapped eggs precipitate a potentially lethal, pathological cascade responsible for schistosomiasis. Blocking schistosome egg production, therefore, presents a strategy for simultaneously reducing immunopathology as well as limiting disease transmission in endemic or emerging areas. We recently demonstrated that the ribonucleoside analogue 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) inhibited Schistosoma mansoni oviposition, egg maturation and ovarian development...
April 1, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Liv Sandlund, Heidi Kongshaug, Frank Nilsen, Sussie Dalvin
The salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepods, Caligida) is a marine ectoparasite infecting salmonid fishes in the northern hemisphere. At present, salmon lice infections are the most severe disease problem in the salmon farming industry causing significant economic losses. Due to development of resistance towards available chemotherapeutants, it is clear that new chemotherapeutants or non-chemical control methods are essential to manage the parasite in the future. The TOR signaling pathway is present in all metazoans and is a major regulator of cellular activity according to nutrient availability...
April 3, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Emmanuel Awusah Blay, Takashi Kumagai, Masafumi Yamabe, Akina Hino, Rieko Shimogawara, Hye-Sook Kim, Akira Sato, Koichiro Ichimura, Irene Ayi, Shiroh Iwanaga, Nobuo Ohta
Control of morbidity associated with schistosomiasis via chemotherapy largely relies on the drug praziquantel. Repeated therapy with praziquantel has created concerns about the possible selection of resistant worms and necessitated the search for novel drugs to treat schistosomiasis. Here, a murine model was infected with Schistosoma mansoni and treated with oral 1,2,6,7-tetraoxaspiro [7.11] nonadecane (N-89), which caused a significant reduction in fecundity and egg burden and reduced morbidity when administered at 5-weeks post-infection...
April 1, 2018: Parasitology International
Kaifeng Du, Shunmin Dan
The present work deals with the development of novel affinity monolith with reversible protein ligands for protein chromatography. As for the formation of reversible ligands, Concanavalin A (Con A) is chelated with Cu(II)-iminodiacetic acid (IDA) immobilized macroporous cellulose monolith (MCM) for glycoprotein adsorption. The reversible immobilization is realized by Cu ions, which bridge affinity ligands and support by strong chelation interaction. The fabrication process of reversible Con A immobilized adsorbent is studied, especially with regards to the effect of synthesis conditions on the ligands immobilization...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Bikash Ranjan Giri, Jiannan Ye, Yongjun Chen, Chaochun Wei, Guofeng Cheng
Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by trematode of the genus Schistosoma. Successful reproductive development is critical for the production of eggs, which are responsible for host pathology and disease dissemination. Endogenous small non-coding RNAs play important roles in many biological processes such as protection against foreign pathogens, cell differentiation, and chromosomal stability by regulating target gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this study, we performed in silico analysis of endogenous small non-coding RNAs in different stages, and sex of S...
March 22, 2018: Parasitology Research
Javier Molina-Infante, Alfredo J Lucendo
Eosinophilic esophagitis is a chronic, immune-mediated esophageal disease triggered predominantly, but not exclusively, by food antigens. Presently, available food allergy tests are suboptimal to predict food triggers for eosinophilic esophagitis, especially in adults. Elemental diets (exclusive feeding with amino acid-based formulas) and empiric 6-food elimination diets (withdrawing milk, wheat, egg, soy, nuts, and fish/seafood for 6 weeks) have consistently shown the best efficacy rates. However, their high level of restriction and need for multiple endoscopies have hampered their implementation in clinical practice...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
A M Faria, A F Lopes, C S E Silva, S C Novais, M F L Lemos, E J Gonçalves
Fishes are currently facing novel types of anthropogenic stressors that have never experienced in their evolutionary history, such as ocean acidification. Under these stressful conditions, energetically costly processes, such as reproduction, may be sacrificed for increased chances of survival. This trade-off does not only affect the organism itself but may result in reduced offspring fitness. In the present study, the effects of exposure to high pCO2 levels were tested on the reproductive performance of a temperate species, the two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens...
June 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Jiqing Yang, Xiaotong Hu, Jia Xu, Xin Liu, Li Yang
A novel capillary electrophoresis-integrated immobilized enzyme reactor (CE-integrated IMER) is developed using single-step in situ acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-mediated alginate hydrogelation and enzyme encapsulation. Alginate hydrogelation with "egg-box" structure is triggered inside a capillary with releasing of Ca2+ by changing the pH of the sol solution, which is accomplished in situ by AChE-catalyzed hydrolysis reaction of acetylthiocholine to produce acetic acid. AChE and any other enzyme initially contained in the sol solution [e...
March 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jing Zhang, Deye Luo, Peng Wu, Haozhe Li, Hongyu Zhang, Weiwei Zheng
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in insects are essential for mating and oviposition host selection. How these OBPs respond to different hosts at the mRNA level and their effects on behavior remain poorly characterized. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is a highly invasive agricultural pest with an extremely broad host range and high fecundity. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis transcriptome, six OBPs that were differentially expressed during three different physiological adult stages were identified...
May 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Marco Conti, Federica Franciosi
Infertility affects ~7% of couples of reproductive age with little change in incidence in the last two decades. ART, as well as other interventions, have made major strides in correcting this condition. However, and in spite of advancements in the field, the age of the female partner remains a main factor for a successful outcome. A better understanding of the final stages of gamete maturation yielding an egg that can sustain embryo development and a pregnancy to term remains a major area for improvement in the field...
May 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
J Santos, N Calero, J Muñoz, M T Cidade
Gums are often used to increase the viscosity of the continuous phase of oil-in-water emulsions in order to reduce or inhibit some destabilization processes such as creaming. A new type of xanthan gum, advanced performance xanthan gum, which possesses improved rheological properties, has been used as a stabilizer. The addition of advanced performance xanthan gum to egg protein-based emulsions prepared at different homogenization pressures in Microfluidizer was studied. These emulsions showed different droplet size distributions and flocculation degrees...
January 1, 2018: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Zhi Wan, Heather P Ostendorff, Ziying Liu, Lynda C Schneider, Kenneth J Rothschild, Mark J Lim
Multiplex serological immunoassays, such as implemented on microarray or microsphere-based platforms, provide greater information content and higher throughput, while lowering the cost and blood volume required. These features are particularly attractive in pediatric food allergy testing to facilitate high throughput multi-allergen analysis from finger- or heel-stick collected blood. However, the miniaturization and microfluidics necessary for creating multiplex assays make them highly susceptible to the "matrix effect" caused by interference from non-target agents in serum and other biofluids...
2018: PloS One
Katarzyna Roeske, Radoslaw Stachowiak, Tomasz Jagielski, Michal Kamiński, Jacek Bielecki
Listeriolysin O (LLO), one of the most immunogenic proteins of Listeria monocytogenes and its main virulence factor, mediates bacterial escape from the phagosome of the infected cell. Thus, its expression in a nonpathogenic bacterial host may enable effective delivery of heterologous antigens to the host cell cytosol and lead to their processing predominantly through the cytosolic MHC class I presentation pathway. The aim of this project was to characterize the delivery of a model antigen, chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA), to the cytosol of dendritic cells by recombinant Bacillus subtilis vegetative cells expressing LLO...
January 28, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Thibaud Monnin, Florence Helft, Chloé Leroy, Patrizia d'Ettorre, Claudie Doums
Social insects are well known for their extremely rich chemical communication, yet their sex pheromones remain poorly studied. In the thermophilic and thelytokous ant, Cataglyphis cursor, we analyzed the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and Dufour's gland contents of queens of different age and reproductive status (sexually immature gynes, sexually mature gynes, mated and egg-laying queens) and of workers. Random forest classification analyses showed that the four groups of individuals were well separated for both chemical sources, except mature gynes that clustered with queens for cuticular hydrocarbons and with immature gynes for Dufour's gland secretions...
February 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Damien B Wilburn, Lisa M Tuttle, Rachel E Klevit, Willie J Swanson
Protein evolution is driven by the sum of different physiochemical and genetic processes that usually results in strong purifying selection to maintain biochemical functions. However, proteins that are part of systems under arms race dynamics often evolve at unparalleled rates that can produce atypical biochemical properties. In the marine mollusk abalone, lysin and vitelline envelope receptor for lysin (VERL) are a pair of rapidly coevolving proteins that are essential for species-specific interactions between sperm and egg...
February 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shanshan Xie, Xukai Yang, Dehe Wang, Feng Zhu, Ning Yang, Zhuocheng Hou, Zhonghua Ning
Selection for cold tolerance in chickens is important for improving production performance and animal welfare. The identification of chicken breeds with higher cold tolerance and production performance will help to target candidates for the selection. The thyroid gland plays important roles in thermal adaptation, and its function is influenced by breed differences and transcriptional plasticity, both of which remain largely unknown in the chicken thyroid transcriptome. In this study, we subjected Bashang Long-tail (BS) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens to either cold or warm environments for 21 weeks and investigated egg production performance, body weight changes, serum thyroid hormone concentrations, and thyroid gland transcriptome profiles...
2018: PloS One
Shishir M Pant, Denis Belitskin, Hanna Ala-Hongisto, Juha Klefström, Topi A Tervonen
Breakdown of the basement membrane is a key step that precedes tumor invasion, and accumulating evidence suggests a key role for the type II transmembrane proteases (TTSPs) in that process. Overexpression of a TTSP hepsin characterizes many solid cancers, including prostate, breast, and ovarian cancer, and in experimental tumor models, the elevated proteolytic activity of hepsin simultaneously activates several growth factors and cleaves basement membrane protein laminin-332, which is an essential component of the cell-basement membrane junction hemidesmosome...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yukun Song, Shasha Cheng, Huihui Wang, Bei-Wei Zhu, Dayong Zhou, Peiqiang Yang, Mingqian Tan
A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system with a 45 mm variable temperature (VT) sample probe (VT-NMR-MRI) was developed as an innovative technique for in situ monitoring of food phase transition. The system was designed to allow for dual deployment in either a freezing (-37 °C) or high temperature (150 °C) environment. The major breakthrough of the developed VT-NMR-MRI system is that it is able to measure the water states simultaneously in situ during food processing...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Mayela Cepeda-Vázquez, Barbara Rega, Nicolas Descharles, Valérie Camel
A wide range of compounds can be formed during thermal processing of food, some of which are relevant for aroma (e.g., furfural), while others are of great health concern (e.g., furan). This paper presents the study of formulation as affecting the simultaneous generation of furan and furfural, along with other aroma quality markers, in sponge cake by means of headspace trap/GC-MS. Ingredients were screened according to their category (fat, salt, sugar, egg-based). Glucose-containing formulation resulted in the highest content of furan and furfural (12...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
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