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egg enzyme treatment

Fernando Schemelzer Moraes Bezerra, Joames Kauffimann Freitas Leal, Mariana Silva Sousa, Marta Cristhiany Cunha Pinheiro, Alberto Novaes Ramos, Vanessa Silva-Moraes, Naftale Katz
Schistosomiasis is still a public health problem in Brazil. The Kato-Katz test is the most frequently used diagnostic method for Schistosoma mansoni infection. However, it lacks sensitivity in areas of low prevalence. We have assessed the positivity rate of S. mansoni infection in Bananeiras, a village on Capistrano, Ceara, Brazil by performing a point-of-care test in urine to determine the circulating cathodic antigens (POC-CCA), and we compared the findings with those of the Kato-Katz technique for egg detection in stool and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific antibodies against adult worms (SWAP-ELISA) in serum before treatment (baseline)...
March 8, 2018: Acta Tropica
Paul Ogongo, Thomas M Kariuki, R Alan Wilson
The inadequacy of current diagnostics for the detection of low worm burdens in humans means that schistosomiasis mansoni is more widespread than previously acknowledged. With the inception of mass drug treatment programmes aimed at disease elimination and the advent of human vaccine trials, the need for more sensitive diagnostics is evident. In this review, we evaluate the merits and limitations of the principal diagnostic methods, namely detection of eggs in faeces; anti-schistosome antibodies in serum; parasite-derived proteins and glycans in serum or urine; parasite DNA in blood, faeces or urine...
March 6, 2018: Parasitology
Sutisa Khempaka, Prapot Maliwan, Supattra Okrathok, Wittawat Molee
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the potential use of dried cassava pulp (DCP) supplemented with enzymes as an alternative feed ingredient in laying hen diets. In experiment 1, 45 laying hens (Isa Brown) aged 45 weeks were placed in individual cages to measure nutrient digestibility for 10 days. Nine dietary treatments were control and DCP as a replacement for corn at 20, 25, 30, and 35% supplemented with mixed enzymes (cellulase, glucanase, and xylanase) at 0.10 and 0.15%. Results showed that the use of DCP at 20-35% added with mixed enzymes had no negative effects on dry matter digestibility, while organic matter digestibility and nitrogen retention decreased with increased DCP up to 30-35% in diets...
February 24, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
You Wu, Jun Ding, Bing Xu, Linlin You, Linquan Ge, Guoqing Yang, Fang Liu, David Stanley, Qisheng Song, Jincai Wu
Aside from their intended actions, fungicides can drive pest insect outbreaks and, due to virtually continuous use, evolution. Small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus, outbreaks occurred recently in many provinces in China, with devastating rice losses.Because exposure to the fungicide jinggangmycin(JGM) increased reproduction of the brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens, via its influence on fatty acid synthase, we posed the hypothesis that JGM and CBM influence SBPH reproduction via their influence on enzymes involved in other aspects of lipid metabolism...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Jitse M van der Meer
The genetic regulation of anterior-posterior segment pattern development has been elucidated in detail for Drosophila, but it is not canonical for insects. A surprising diversity of regulatory mechanisms is being uncovered not only between insect orders, but also within the order of the Diptera. The question is whether the same diversity of regulatory mechanisms exists within other insect orders. I show that anterior puncture of the egg of the pea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus submerged in RNase can induce double abdomen development suggesting a role for maternal mRNA...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
G K Walker, S Jalukar, J Brake
Hatching eggs collected from resident broiler breeders at 48 wk of age were used to produce male and female chicks that were assigned sex separately to 96 new litter pens and fed either a 0 or 50 g/MT RFC (refined functional carbohydrate feed additive derived from yeast) diet. There were 24 replicate pens of 12 broilers each per diet per sex. Feed intake and BW were determined at 14, 28, and 42 d of age. Litter was sampled by pen using sterile socks at 35 d and tested for Salmonella spp. using an enzyme linked fluorescence assay method...
January 18, 2018: Poultry Science
Keiichi Yoshida, Woojin Kang, Akihiro Nakamura, Natsuko Kawano, Maito Hanai, Mami Miyado, Yoshitaka Miyamoto, Maki Iwai, Toshio Hamatan, Hidekazu Saito, Kenji Miyado, Akihiro Umezawa
The ubiquitin-proteasome system, which is initiated by a single ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 (UBE1), is involved in male reproduction via spermatogenesis and function in mammals. Here we explored the influence of UBE1-specific inhibitor, 4[4-(5-nitro-furan-2-ylmethylene)-3,5-dioxo-pyrazolidin-1-yl]-benzoic acid ethyl ester (pyrazone-41 or PYR-41) in female reproduction. UBE-1 was detected by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry in mouse eggs and was localized mainly under the egg plasma membrane. PYR-41 pretreatment suppresses the development of eggs into two-cell embryos...
January 17, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
E D N S Abeyrathne, X Huang, D U Ahn
Egg white contains many functionally important proteins: ovalbumin (54%), ovotransferrin (12%), ovomucoid (11%), ovoglobulin (G2 and G3, 8%), ovomucin (3.5%), and lysozyme (3.5%) are major proteins, while ovoinhibitors, ovomacroglobulin, ovoglycoprotein, ovoflavoprotein, thiamine-binding proteins, and avidin are minor proteins present in egg white. These proteins, as well as the peptides derived from the proteins, have been recognized for their functional importance as antioxidant, antimicrobial, metal-chelating, anti-viral, anti-tumour, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities...
January 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Myoungjin Son, Catherine B Chan, Jianping Wu
SCOPE: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a major contributor to the development of insulin resistance and its related complications. Egg white ovotransferrin-derived tripeptides, IRW, IQW, or LKP were previously identified as the inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), a key enzyme in the RAS. This study aimed at determining whether these peptides are effective in improving insulin resistance, and their mechanisms of action, in a rat derived skeletal muscle cell line (L6 cells)...
December 26, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
D Ruan, A M Fouad, Q L Fan, W Chen, W G Xia, S Wang, Y Y Cui, Y Wang, L Yang, C T Zheng
The study investigated the effects of increasing content of corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in the diets of laying ducks on oxidative status, laying performance, egg quality, and egg yolk fatty acid composition. Longyan females (1080) with similar BW at 17 wk of age were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The basal diet (I) was a typical corn-soybean ration while the experimental diets (II to VI) substituted corn DDGS for soybean meal and wheat bran and a small reduction of corn...
February 1, 2018: Poultry Science
Nicoleta Stănciuc, Alexandra Andreea Creţu, Iuliana Banu, Iuliana Aprodu
BACKGROUND: Ovomucoid (OVM) is the dominant allergen found in egg white. The heat-induced changes on chicken OVM structure and antigenic properties were assessed at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH values. RESULTS: The fluorescence spectroscopy measurements indicated changes in the conformation of OVM caused by both pH and thermal treatment. The OVM molecule exhibited higher exposure of hydrophobic residues at 7.0, as indicated by the synchronous spectra, intrinsic fluorescence and quenching experiments...
December 6, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Guillermina Canesini, Cora Stoker, Germán H Galoppo, Milena L Durando, María V Tschopp, Enrique H Luque, Mónica M Muñoz-de-Toro, Jorge G Ramos
Caiman latirostris is a species with temperature dependent sex determination (TSD), which implies that the incubation temperature of the eggs is the main factor that determines the sex during a thermo-sensitive period (TSP). However, estrogens play a critical role in this process. The administration of 17β-estradiol (E2 ) previous to TSP overrides the effects of male incubation temperature, producing phenotypic females. This effect has been defined as sex reversal or estrogen-induced sex determination (E2 SD)...
April 1, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Farah Asilah Azri, Jinap Selamat, Rashidah Sukor
Palm kernel cake (PKC) is the solid residue following oil extraction of palm kernels and useful to fatten animals either as a single feed with only minerals and vitamins supplementation, or mixed with other feedstuffs such as corn kernels or soy beans. The occurrence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxins, zearalenone, and fumonisins) in feed samples affects the animal's health and also serves as a secondary contamination to humans via consumption of eggs, milk and meats. Of these, aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) is the most toxically potent and a confirmed carcinogen to both humans and animals...
November 30, 2017: Sensors
Yiya Wang, Qiuyue Chen, Zemin Liu, Xiaoli Guo, Yanzhi Du, Zhenjie Yuan, Miao Guo, Li Kang, Yi Sun, Yunliang Jiang
Ovarian follicle selection is an important process impacting the laying performance and fecundity of hens, and is regulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) through binding to its receptor [follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR)]. In laying hens, the small yellow follicle (6-8 mm in diameter) with the highest expression of FSHR will be recruited into the preovulatory hierarchy during ovarian follicle development. The study of molecular mechanism of chicken follicle selection is helpful for the identification of genes underlying egg-laying traits in chicken and other poultry species...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Gabriela Maggioli, Gabriel Rinaldi, Ines Giaudrone, Patricia Berasain, José F Tort, Paul J Brindley, Carlos Carmona
Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease (NTD) and considered the most important of the human helminthiases in terms of morbidity and mortality. Whereas treatment with praziquantel has been effective since the 1980s, the potential for the emergence of drug resistance has propelled the search for new interventions. Studies have revealed key roles of proteases in parasitic helminths during establishment of infection, tissue invasion, immune evasion, parasite feeding and development throughout the different developmental stages, pinpointing them as possible candidates...
January 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
M H Salajegheh, M Yousef Elahi, M Salarmoini
This experiment was carried out to study the feeding value of ground date pits (DP) (Phoenix dactylifera L.) with and without enzyme supplementation on laying hens' performance. Apparent metabolizable energy value of DP was determined by the total collection method using 10 adult Leghorn cockerels. After that, a total number of 144 Lohmann 50-week-old LSL-Lite hens were randomly allocated into six groups consisting of four replicates of six birds, based on a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of the treatments...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Lin-Quan Ge, Bo Huang, Xin Li, Hao-Tian Gu, Sui Zheng, Ze Zhou, Hong Miao, Jin-Cai Wu
Pyruvate kinase (PYK) operates in the glycolytic pathway, responsible for regulating the balance between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. The previous work indicates PYK acts in development of Drosophila embryos and in embryonic muscle growth, from which it may be inferred that PYK acts in insect fecundity. More to the point, as a central enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, PYK acts in many energy-spending functions in most organisms. On the background findings that triazophos (TZP) stimulates fecundity via increase activities of several genes in brown planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens, we investigated the combined influence of TZP and silencing a N...
December 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
John W Finger, Juan Botero, Yufeng Zhang, Shelby E Still, Alexander J Hoffman, Andreas N Kavazis, Daniel A Cristol, Haruka Wada
Songbirds exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) often exhibit reduced reproductive success and cognitive abilities. To better understand whether oxidative stress plays a role, we dosed zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with a contaminated (1.2 ppm MeHg-cysteine) or control diet for their entire lives, including during development in the egg. Levels of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and SOD2)], oxidative damage (4-hydroxynonenal; 4-HNE), and antioxidant transcription factors [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2; Nrf2] were measured in the liver and pectoralis muscle of adults...
October 27, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
L L Yu, T Gao, M M Zhao, P A Lv, L Zhang, J L Li, Y Jiang, F Gao, G H Zhou
This study aimed to investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of L-arginine (Arg) on energy metabolism in post-hatch broilers. A total of 720 eggs was randomly assigned to 3 treatments: 1) non-injected control group, 2) 0.75% NaCl diluent-injected control group, and 3) 1.0% Arg solution-injected group. At 17.5 d of incubation, 0.6 mL of each solution was injected into the amniotic fluid of each egg of injected groups. After hatching, 80 male chicks were randomly assigned to each treatment group with 8 replicates per group...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
Kristina L Cohen, Michael L Piacentino, Karen M Warkentin
Environmentally cued hatching is well documented in anurans, enabling embryos to escape diverse threats. However, knowledge of anuran hatching mechanisms is limited and based largely on aquatic-breeding species without known plasticity in hatching timing. Generally, hatching gland cells produce a hatching enzyme that degrades the vitelline membrane. We investigated hatching and its regulation in terrestrial embryos of hourglass treefrogs, Dendropsophus ebraccatus, which accelerate hatching to escape dehydration...
October 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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