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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143376/evaluating-the-nutritional-value-of-date-pits-and-demonstrating-their-application-in-laying-hen-diets
#1
M H Salajegheh, M Yousef Elahi, M Salarmoini
This experiment was carried out to study the feeding value of ground date pits (DP) (Phoenix dactylifera L.) with and without enzyme supplementation on laying hens' performance. Apparent metabolizable energy value of DP was determined by the total collection method using 10 adult Leghorn cockerels. After that, a total number of 144 Lohmann 50-week-old LSL-Lite hens were randomly allocated into six groups consisting of four replicates of six birds, based on a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of the treatments...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114912/silencing-pyruvate-kinase-nlpyk-leads-to-reduced-fecundity-in-brown-planthoppers-nilaparvata-lugens-st%C3%A3-l-hemiptera-delphacidae
#2
Lin-Quan Ge, Bo Huang, Xin Li, Hao-Tian Gu, Sui Zheng, Ze Zhou, Hong Miao, Jin-Cai Wu
Pyruvate kinase (PYK) operates in the glycolytic pathway, responsible for regulating the balance between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. The previous work indicates PYK acts in development of Drosophila embryos and in embryonic muscle growth, from which it may be inferred that PYK acts in insect fecundity. More to the point, as a central enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, PYK acts in many energy-spending functions in most organisms. On the background findings that triazophos (TZP) stimulates fecundity via increase activities of several genes in brown planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens, we investigated the combined influence of TZP and silencing a N...
November 7, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080113/no-effect-of-lifelong-methylmercury-exposure-on-oxidative-status-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata-a-demonstration-of-methylmercury-induced-selection
#3
John W Finger, Juan Botero, Yufeng Zhang, Shelby E Still, Alexander J Hoffman, Andreas N Kavazis, Daniel A Cristol, Haruka Wada
Songbirds exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) often exhibit reduced reproductive success and cognitive abilities. To better understand whether oxidative stress plays a role, we dosed zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with a contaminated (1.2 ppm MeHg-cysteine) or control diet for their entire lives, including during development in the egg. Levels of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and SOD2)], oxidative damage (4-hydroxynonenal; 4-HNE), and antioxidant transcription factors [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2; Nrf2] were measured in the liver and pectoralis muscle of adults...
October 27, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077951/in-ovo-feeding-of-l-arginine-alters-energy-metabolism-in-post-hatch-broilers
#4
L L Yu, T Gao, M M Zhao, P A Lv, L Zhang, J L Li, Y Jiang, F Gao, G H Zhou
This study aimed to investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of L-arginine (Arg) on energy metabolism in post-hatch broilers. A total of 720 eggs was randomly assigned to 3 treatments: 1) non-injected control group, 2) 0.75% NaCl diluent-injected control group, and 3) 1.0% Arg solution-injected group. At 17.5 d of incubation, 0.6 mL of each solution was injected into the amniotic fluid of each egg of injected groups. After hatching, 80 male chicks were randomly assigned to each treatment group with 8 replicates per group...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056480/the-hatching-process-and-mechanisms-of-adaptive-hatching-acceleration-in-hourglass-treefrogs-dendropsophus-ebraccatus
#5
Kristina L Cohen, Michael L Piacentino, Karen M Warkentin
Environmentally cued hatching is well documented in anurans, enabling embryos to escape diverse threats. However, knowledge of anuran hatching mechanisms is limited and based largely on aquatic-breeding species without known plasticity in hatching timing. Generally, hatching gland cells produce a hatching enzyme that degrades the vitelline membrane. We investigated hatching and its regulation in terrestrial embryos of hourglass treefrogs, Dendropsophus ebraccatus, which accelerate hatching to escape dehydration...
October 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022012/vanadate-oxidative-and-apoptotic-effects-are-mediated-by-the-mapk-nrf2-pathway-in-layer-oviduct-magnum-epithelial-cells
#6
Jianping Wang, Xuanyang Huang, Keying Zhang, Xiangbing Mao, Xuemei Ding, Qiufeng Zeng, Shiping Bai, Yue Xuan, Huanwei Peng
Vanadium is a metal of high physiological, environmental and industrial importance. However, vanadium-induced oxidative stress can reduce the egg quality of poultry, and be potentially harmful to humans, and the underlying mechanism is not clear. In this study, we investigated the underlying relationship between the oxidant-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and vanadium-induced oxidative stress in oviduct magnum epithelial (OME) cells. Cultured OME cells were treated with 100 μmol L(-1) vanadium and/or MAPK inhibitors [P38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580; extracellular regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor, U0126; c-JUN N-terminal kinases (JNK) inhibitor, SP600125]...
November 15, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987480/egg-white-derived-peptides-prevent-cardiovascular-disorders-induced-by-mercury-in-rats-role-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-ace-and-nadph-oxidase
#7
Danize Aparecida Rizzetti, Ángela Martín, Patricia Corrales, Francisca Fernandez, Maylla Ronacher Simões, Franck Maciel Peçanha, Dalton Valentim Vassallo, Marta Miguel, Giulia Alessandra Wiggers
The study aimed to investigate the effects of egg white hydrolysate (EWH) on vascular disorders induced by mercury (Hg). For this, male Wistar rats were treated for 60days: Untreated (saline, i.m.); Mercury (HgCl2, i.m., 1st dose 4.6μg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07μg/kg/day); Hydrolysate (EWH, gavage, 1g/kg/day); Hydrolysate-Mercury. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure measurement and vascular reactivity experiments in aorta were performed. We analyzed endothelial dependent and independent vasodilator responses and vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine (Phe) in absence and presence of endothelium, a NOS inhibitor, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, the superoxide dismutase, a non-selective COX inhibitor, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, an AT-1 receptors blocker...
November 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986936/in-ovo-feeding-of-creatine-pyruvate-modulates-growth-performance-energy-reserves-and-mrna-expression-levels-of-gluconeogenesis-and-glycogenesis-enzymes-in-liver-of-embryos-and-neonatal-broilers
#8
M M Zhao, D Q Gong, T Gao, L Zhang, J L Li, P A Lv, L L Yu, F Gao, G H Zhou
The effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) on the growth performance, energy reserves and mRNA expression levels of gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis enzymes in liver of late-term embryos and neonatal broilers were investigated. After candling on 16 day of incubation, a total of 960 eggs were randomly assigned to three treatments: (i) non-injected control, (ii) saline group injected with 0.6 ml of 0.75% physiological saline and (iii) Creatine pyruvate group injected with 0.6 ml of physiological saline containing 12 mg CrPyr/egg...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972919/reproductive-effects-of-synthetic-progestin-norgestrel-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#9
Yan-Qiu Liang, Guo-Yong Huang, Zhong Lin, Jin Li, Jie-Wen Yang, Lai-Yuan Zhong, Guang-Guo Ying
The aim of this study was to assess the adverse effects of synthetic progestin norgestrel (NGT) on the reproduction of zebrafish by measuring the egg production, histology and transcriptional expression profiles along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in adult zebrafish. After a pre-exposure period of 7 days, adult zebrafish were exposed to 6, 29 and 69 ng L(-1) NGT for 21 days. The results showed that exposure to 69 ng L(-1) NGT led to a significant up-regulation of follicle stimulating hormone, beta polypeptide (fshb), luteinizing hormone, beta polypeptide (lhb), progesterone receptor (pgr), estrogen receptor 1 (esr1) and androgen receptor (ar) genes in the brains, as well as significant up-regulation of hydroxysteroid 20-beta dehydrogenase (hsd20b) and hydroxysteroid 11-beta dehydrogenase 2 (hsd11b2) genes and down-regulation of 11-beta-hydroxylase (cyp11b) gene in the ovaries of females...
September 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934659/comparison-on-the-effects-of-water-borne-and-dietary-borne-accumulated-zno-nanoparticles-on-daphnia-magna
#10
Yanjiao Chen, Fengxia Wu, Wenying Li, Tiangang Luan, Li Lin
Nanoparticles (NPs) can exert toxicity to aquatic animals through water and dietary exposure. However, little is known about the contribution of the two exposure pathways to the total toxicity of NPs to aquatic animals. In the present study, we fed Daphnia magna with ZnO NPs-accumulated-algae or directly exposed them to ZnO NPs suspension at the same Zn concentration. The body Zn concentrations were the same in both treatments, but the surface elastic modulus in the water-borne group was lower than that in the dietary-borne group, indicating more severe surface damage in the water-borne treatment...
August 25, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919898/chitosan-increases-tomato-root-colonization-by-pochonia-chlamydosporia-and-their-combination-reduces-root-knot-nematode-damage
#11
Nuria Escudero, Federico Lopez-Moya, Zahra Ghahremani, Ernesto A Zavala-Gonzalez, Aurora Alaguero-Cordovilla, Caridad Ros-Ibañez, Alfredo Lacasa, Francisco J Sorribas, Luis V Lopez-Llorca
The use of biological control agents could be a non-chemical alternative for management of Meloidogyne spp. [root-knot nematodes (RKN)], the most damaging plant-parasitic nematodes for horticultural crops worldwide. Pochonia chlamydosporia is a fungal parasite of RKN eggs that can colonize endophytically roots of several cultivated plant species, but in field applications the fungus shows a low persistence and efficiency in RKN management. The combined use of P. chlamydosporia with an enhancer could help its ability to develop in soil and colonize roots, thereby increasing its efficiency against nematodes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852982/toxicological-effects-of-chemical-constituents-from-piper-against-the-environmental-burden-aedes-aegypti-liston-and-their-impact-on-non-target-toxicity-evaluation-against-biomonitoring-aquatic-insects
#12
Prabhakaran Vasantha-Srinivasan, Annamalai Thanigaivel, Edward-Sam Edwin, Athirstam Ponsankar, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Selvaraj Selin-Rani, Kandaswamy Kalaivani, Wayne B Hunter, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi
Dengue is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. The mosquito, Aedes aegypti, also spreads Yellow fever, Chikungunya, and Zika virus. As the primary vector for dengue, Ae. aegypti now occurs in over 20 countries and is a serious concern with reports of increasing insecticide resistance. Developing new treatments to manage mosquitoes are needed. Formulation of crude volatile oil from Piper betle leaves (Pb-CVO) was evaluated as a potential treatment which showed larvicidal, ovipositional, and repellency effects...
August 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841382/maternal-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-pah-transfer-and-effects-on-offspring-of-copepods-exposed-to-dispersed-oil-with-and-without-oil-droplets
#13
Bjørn Henrik Hansen, Ann M Tarrant, Iurgi Salaberria, Dag Altin, Trond Nordtug, Ida Beathe Øverjordet
Copepods of the genus Calanus have the potential for accumulating lipophilic oil components due to their high lipid content and found to filter and ingest oil droplets during exposure. As female copepods produce eggs at the expense of lipid storage, there is a concern for transfer of lipophilic contaminants to offspring. To assess the potential for maternal transfer of oil components, ovigerous female copepods (Calanus finmarchicus) were exposed to filtered and unfiltered oil dispersions for 4 days, collected and eggs maintained in clean seawater and hatching and gene expression examined in hatched nauplii...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817948/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-of-resveratrol-on-performance-egg-quality-yolk-cholesterol-and-antioxidant-enzyme-activity-of-laying-hens
#14
Z H Feng, J G Gong, G X Zhao, X Lin, Y C Liu, K W Ma
1. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on laying performance, egg quality, egg yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 360 Beijing PINK-1 laying hens (60 weeks old) were randomly distributed among five dietary treatments, each of which included 6 replicates of 12 hens. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg diet resveratrol. The study lasted for 9 weeks including 1 week of adaptation and 8 weeks of the main experimental period...
September 4, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755633/embryotoxic-effects-of-dissolved-okadaic-acid-on-the-development-of-longfin-yellowtail-seriola-rivoliana
#15
J Le Du, D Tovar-Ramírez, E J Núñez-Vázquez
In the context of global climate change where harmful algal blooms (HABs) might become more frequent and more severe, several studies have been conducted on the perturbation of embryonic development of marine animals by microalgal toxins. Okadaic acid (OA) and analogs (DSP toxins) produced by dinoflagellates of the genera Dynophysis and Prorocentrum are known to disturb embryogenesis. This study investigated the impact of dissolved DSP toxin (OA and Dinophysistoxin 1, DTX-1) exposure on embryo development of Longfin yellowtail Seriola rivoliana...
September 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740143/downregulation-of-alas1-by-nicarbazin-treatment-underlies-the-reduced-synthesis-of-protoporphyrin-ix-in-shell-gland-of-laying-hens
#16
Sami Samiullah, Juliet Roberts, Shu-Biao Wu
Shell colour is an important trait for eggs and an understanding of pigment deposition will assist potential management of egg shell colour loss. We demonstrated that nicarbazin feeding down-regulated ALAS1 and reduced protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) in both shell gland and eggshell, indicating the role of nicarbazin in inhibiting the synthesis of PP IX. Additionally, the expression levels of the genes did not show sequential upregulation in the same order of diurnal time-points (TP) during egg formation. The gene SLC25A38, responsible for transporting glycine from cytoplasm to mitochondria, and the gene ALAS1, encoding rate-limiting enzyme (delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1), had higher expression at 15 hr, as compared with 2, 5 and 23...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735972/pyrimidine-metabolism-in-schistosomes-a-comparison-with-other-parasites-and-the-search-for-potential-chemotherapeutic-targets
#17
REVIEW
Mahmoud H El Kouni
Schistosomes are responsible for the parasitic disease schistosomiasis, an acute and chronic parasitic ailment that affects >240 million people in 70 countries worldwide. It is the second most devastating parasitic disease after malaria. At least 200,000 deaths per year are associated with the disease. In the absence of the availability of vaccines, chemotherapy is the main stay for combating schistosomiasis. The antischistosomal arsenal is currently limited to a single drug, Praziquantel, which is quite effective with a single-day treatment and virtually no host-toxicity...
November 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727112/effect-of-in-ovo-feeding-of-l-arginine-on-the-hatchability-growth-performance-gastrointestinal-hormones-and-jejunal-digestive-and-absorptive-capacity-of-posthatch-broilers
#18
T Gao, M Zhao, L Zhang, J Li, L Yu, P Lv, F Gao, G Zhou
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of Arg solution on the hatchability, growth performance, gastrointestinal hormones, serum AA, activities of digestive enzymes, and mRNA expressions of sensing receptors and nutrient transporters in the jejunum of posthatch broilers. One thousand two hundred embryonated eggs with similar weight were randomly allocated to 5 groups consisting of 8 replicates of 40 eggs each. The 5 treatments were arranged as a noninjected control, a diluent-injected (0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697990/avian-antibodies-igy-against-trypanosoma-cruzi-purification-and-characterization-studies
#19
Thirssa H Grando, Matheus D Baldissera, Mariângela F de Sá, Guilherme M do Carmo, Bianca Carolina Z Porto, Gisele S V Aguirre, Maria Isabel Azevedo, Francielli P K de Jesus, Janio M Santurio, Michele R Sagrillo, Lenita Moura Stefani, Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro
Trypanosoma cruzi is a flagellated protozoan belonging to the Trypanosomatidae family, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Currently, there is neither a licensed vaccine nor effective treatment, characterizing an unmet clinical need. The IgY refers to the egg yolk immunoglobulin (Y=yolk) and its production and use are subjects of many studies due to the diversity of its diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Several researchers have shown that the use of specific IgY may prevent and/or control infectious and parasitic diseases...
October 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666863/evaluating-the-molecular-physiological-and-behavioral-impacts-of-co2-narcosis-in-bumble-bees-bombus-impatiens
#20
Etya Amsalem, Christina M Grozinger
Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) has pleiotropic effects in many insect species, ranging from eliciting rapid behavioral responses such as attraction, to dramatic physiological changes, including ovary activation. In bumble bees, CO2 narcosis causes queens to bypass diapause and initiate egg laying, but its mode of action is not well-understood. Here, we evaluated the effects of CO2 narcosis on the behavior, physiology and immune function of virgin bumble bee queens (Bombus impatiens). We tested the hypothesis that CO2 induces these changes by stimulating oxidative stress response pathways...
August 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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