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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893197/-schistosoma-mansoni-mass-drug-administration-regimens-and-their-effect-on-morbidity-among-schoolchildren-over-a-5-year-period-kenya-2010-2015
#1
Anita D Sircar, Pauline N M Mwinzi, Isaac O Onkanga, Ryan E Wiegand, Susan P Montgomery, W Evan Secor
Schistosomiasis control programs are designed to reduce morbidity by providing mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel to at-risk populations. We compared morbidity markers between two cohorts of Kenyan schoolchildren that initially had high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections. One cohort ( N = 416 at year 1) received four rounds of annual MDA in a community-wide treatment (CWT) strategy. The other cohort ( N = 386 at year 1) received school-based treatment (SBT) every other year over the 4-year period...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786837/high-intensity-ultrasound-for-salmonella-enteritidis-inactivation-in-culture-and-liquid-whole-eggs
#2
Chayapa Techathuvanan, Doris Helen D'Souza
High intensity ultrasound (HIU) continues to be researched as a nonthermal inactivation technology of appeal to food manufacturers. The advantages of HIU include maintenance of product quality, freshness, product homogenization, along with simultaneous inactivation of pathogens. Besides, it is simple, relatively inexpensive, and easily adaptable to most processing environments. This study investigated the effect of HIU for Salmonella Enteritidis inactivation in culture and liquid whole eggs (LWEs) to decrease egg-associated outbreaks...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735096/influence-of-high-intensity-ultrasound-on-foaming-and-structural-properties-of-egg-white
#3
Long Sheng, Yibo Wang, Jiahui Chen, Jie Zou, Qi Wang, Meihu Ma
The effects of high-intensity ultrasound (20 kHz) at varying power pre-treatments (90, 120, 240, 360 and 480 W for 10 min) on foaming and structural properties of egg white were studied in this paper. The highest foaming ability (260.00%) was obtained after 360 W ultrasound treatment which was 4.9-fold to the control group. The lower viscosity and surface tension, and higher protein solubility indicated that the protein was easier to attach to the gas-liquid interface and generate molecular rearrangement...
June 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732159/ultrasound-imaging-improves-hormone-therapy-strategies-for-induction-of-ovulation-and-in-vitro-fertilization-in-the-endangered-dusky-gopher-frog-lithobates-sevosa
#4
Katherine M Graham, Cecilia J Langhorne, Carrie K Vance, Scott T Willard, Andrew J Kouba
Establishing captive breeding populations of amphibians is an important conservation strategy to safeguard against ongoing declines of wild populations and provide broodstock for reintroduction programs. The endangered dusky gopher frog (DGF) has never naturally reproduced in captivity and requires breeding intervention to sustain the population. Methods for inducing ovulation in female DGFs using hormone therapies have not been evaluated. To address this need, we tested four exogenous hormone treatments to induce ovulation in DGFs ( n = 11/treatment), including: treatment (A) gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa); (B) GnRHa with dopamine antagonist metoclopramide hydrochloride; (C) GnRHa and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and (D) GnRHa with hCG following two low hCG priming doses...
2018: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587368/efficacy-of-praziquantel-in-the-treatment-of-platynosomum-fastosum-in-cats-with-natural-infections
#5
Chele N Lathroum, Linda Shell, Kathleen Neuville, Jennifer K Ketzis
Treatments for Platynosomum fastosum -the liver fluke of cats-have been developed based on fecal egg counts. Post mortem fluke counts are required to understand true efficacy. In this study, two praziquantel treatment regimens were evaluated using post mortem fluke counts: a high-dose treatment (HT) of 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) administered intramuscularly (IM) once a day for three consecutive days and a low-dose treatment (LT) of 5 mg/kg BW administered once (IM) and repeated 14 days later. A continual enrolment study design was used with 16 naturally infected cats randomly allocated in blocks of four to the HT (eight cats) or LT (eight cats) group...
March 24, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550831/a-polysaccharide-from-amusium-pleuronectes-combined-with-praziquantel-treatment-ameliorates-hepatic-fibrosis-in-schistosoma-japonicum-infected-mice
#6
Xiaoniu Tang, Wei Hu, Yechao Lv, Wenqi Zhang, Tian Sun, Yuxin Jiang, Xiaodong Zhan, Shulin Zhou
BACKGROUND Polysaccharides from bivalves have multiple bioactivities in various aspects of biology. However, the role of a polysaccharide derived from Amusium pleuronectes on potential hepatoprotective effects remains unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS A water-soluble polysaccharide was isolated from Amusium pleuronectes (APS-1) using ultrasound-assisted hot-water extraction. The molecular weight of APS-1 was approximately 11.7 kDa and was determined by calibration with dextran. APS-1 was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and mainly consisted of a uniform glucose polymer...
March 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514309/influence-of-ultrasound-probe-treatment-time-and-protease-type-on-functional-and-physicochemical-characteristics-of-egg-white-protein-hydrolysates
#7
Andrea B Stefanovic, Jelena R Jovanovic, Bojana D Balanc, Nataša Ž Šekuljica, Sonja M Jakovetic Tanaskovic, Marina B Dojcinovic, Zorica D Kneževic-Jugovic
The objective of this study was to discover the relationship between the ultrasound probe treatment (UPT) on egg white proteins (EWPs) before EWPs hydrolysis by different proteases, and the functional properties of the obtained hydrolysates. To fulfill this goal, the protein solubility, foaming, and emulsifying properties were studied as a function of the UPT time and then related to the surface characteristics and structural properties. The changes in the hydrolysates microstructures and macromolecular conformation, induced by the UPT, were followed using scanning electron microscope analyzis (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
June 1, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478522/effect-of-processing-on-aggregation-mechanism-of-egg-white-proteins
#8
REVIEW
Negar Gharbi, Mohsen Labbafi
Egg white proteins (EWPs) are important components of many food products. To obtain optimal functionality, EWP aggregation needs to be controlled. Different treatments can lead to the formation of aggregates in diverse ways, depending on the parameters of the treatments. Recent articles on the effects of processing (heat treatment, alkali treatment, pulsed electric field, high pressure, ultraviolet irradiation, and high intensity ultrasound) on the aggregation of EWPs are reviewed. The relationships between the processing parameters and the aggregation mechanisms are discussed...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344948/glycation-of-ovalbumin-after-high-intensity-ultrasound-pretreatment-effects-on-conformation-igg-ige-binding-ability-and-antioxidant-activity
#9
Wenhua Yang, Zongcai Tu, Hui Wang, Lu Zhang, Qidong Song
BACKGROUND: Ovalbumin (OVA), a protein with excellent nutritional and processing properties, is the major allergen of hen egg white. Previous study showed that high-intensity ultrasound treatment increased the IgG and IgE binding abilities by unfolding the conformational structure of OVA. It may allow modifying the IgG and IgE binding of OVA by combining high-intensity ultrasound with other methods, such as glycation, a promising method for the improvement of protein properties. RESULTS: Glycation with mannose (M) after ultrasound pretreatment at 0-600 W significantly reduced the IgG and IgE binding abilities and dramatically enhanced the antioxidant activity of OVA-M conjugates, with the lowest values of IgG and IgE binding and highest values of antioxidant capacity observed at 600W...
January 18, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129115/innovative-layer-genetics-to-handle-global-challenges-in-egg-production
#10
Rudolf Preisinger
1. In commercial layer breeding, extensive gene pools are tested and selected for market requirements which must be anticipated at least 5 years ahead. Field results confirm a continuous positive genetic trend in egg output and better feed efficiency which can be converted into land savings. 2. Animal welfare and cage-free housing dominate future needs of the market. Nesting behaviour and minimal tendency to develop feather-pecking or cannibalism without beak treatment are key trait complexes. Stronger shells for longer production cycles without moulting have to be combined with better bones...
February 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102407/physical-and-kinematic-properties-of-cryopreserved-camel-sperm-after-elimination-of-semen-viscosity-by-different-techniques
#11
Khalid El-Bahrawy, Sherif Rateb, Marwa Khalifa, Davide Monaco, Giovanni Lacalandra
This investigation aimed to determine the influence of using different techniques for liquefaction of semen on post-thaw physical and dynamic characteristics of camel spermatozoa. A total of 144 ejaculates were collected from 3 adult camels, Camelus dromedarius, twice-weekly over 3 consecutive breeding seasons. A raw aliquot of each ejaculate was evaluated for physical and morphological properties, whereas the remaining portion was diluted (1:3) with glycerolated Tris lactose egg yolk extender, and was further subjected to one of the following liquefaction treatments: control (untreated), 5μl/ml α-amylase, 0...
October 31, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061036/diagnosing-ectopic-pregnancy-in-the-emergency-setting
#12
Robert Lee, Carolyn Dupuis, Byron Chen, Andrew Smith, Young H Kim
Ectopic pregnancy is the implantation of a fertilized egg outside the uterine endometrial cavity. For women presenting to the emergency department with abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding, ectopic pregnancy is an important diagnostic consideration. The diagnosis is made based on laboratory values and ultrasound imaging findings. The ultrasound appearance of both normal early pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy are variable and often subtle, presenting diagnostic challenges for radiologists. This pictorial essay describes and illustrates the sonographic findings of ectopic pregnancy and reviews the differential diagnoses that can mimic ectopic pregnancy on ultrasound...
January 2018: Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962552/protocol-and-baseline-data-for-a-multi-year-cohort-study-of-the-effects-of-different-mass-drug-treatment-approaches-on-functional-morbidities-from-schistosomiasis-in-four-african-countries
#13
Ye Shen, Charles H King, Sue Binder, Feng Zhang, Christopher C Whalen, W Evan Secor, Susan P Montgomery, Pauline N M Mwinzi, Annette Olsen, Pascal Magnussen, Safari Kinung'hi, Anna E Phillips, Rassul Nalá, Josefo Ferro, H Osvaldo Aurelio, Fiona Fleming, Amadou Garba, Amina Hamidou, Alan Fenwick, Carl H Campbell, Daniel G Colley
BACKGROUND: The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) focus is on randomized trials of different approaches to mass drug administration (MDA) in endemic countries in Africa. Because their studies provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of mass treatment on Schistosoma-associated morbidity, nested cohort studies were developed within SCORE's intervention trials to monitor changes in a suite of schistosomiasis disease outcomes. This paper describes the process SCORE used to select markers for prospective monitoring and the baseline prevalence of these morbidities in four parallel cohort studies...
September 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888529/eyelid-inflammation-an-uncommon-cause-in-occidental-countries
#14
Hélène Devambez, Morgane Richeux, Maximilien Guericolas, Christophe Choquet, Enrique Casalino, Aiham Daniel Ghazali
BACKGROUND: Myiasis designates the infestation of live human and vertebrate animals with dipterous (two-winged) larvae (maggots) and is the fourth most common travel-associated skin disease. Furuncle is the most common aspect of cutaneous myiasis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 24-year-old Caucasian female had been back from Cap-Vert. She described pruritus, slight pain, and the sensation of a foreign body moving in the eyelid. Physical examination showed a single furuncle-like nodule with surrounding erythema and a central pore of the upper eyelid through which a serosanguinous fluid was exuding...
November 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791974/experience-with-the-bonanno-catheter-in-the-management-of-ohss-from-ivf-et-cycles
#15
J E Okohue, V K Oriji, J I Ikimalo
OBJECTIVE: To document our experience with the use of the Bonanno catheter as a closed abdominal drain for OHSS Methods: A retrospective study of all IVF embryo transfer (ET) treatment cycles carried out between May 2006 and April 2009 at a dedicated IVF centre. Case notes of patients with OHSS were retrieved and the outcome of the continuous closed abdominal drain with Bonanno catheter documented. RESULT: Within the period under review, 234 patients had controlled ovarian stimulation with ultrasound guided egg retrieval...
July 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630663/presentation-of-secondary-parasitic-infection-37-years-after-primary-infection
#16
Gary Sharp, David Yeo, Cherry Koh
Echinococcus granulosus (EG) is a neglected pathology that causes cystic echinococcosis and primarily affects the liver and lung. EG infects ~6 million worldwide and mortality is quoted as 2-4% per 100 000 inhabitants. The increase in human traffic from endemic regions demands clinician's awareness. Dogs are the most common definitive host for the EG tapeworm. Human infection requires ingestion of fecal parasitic eggs. Primary infection causes cysts to appear in affected organs, rupture of which leads to secondary infection...
June 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212790/the-echinococcoses-diagnosis-clinical-management-and-burden-of-disease
#17
P Kern, A Menezes da Silva, O Akhan, B Müllhaupt, K A Vizcaychipi, C Budke, D A Vuitton
The echinococcoses are chronic, parasitic diseases that are acquired after ingestion of infective taeniid tapeworm eggs from certain species of the genus Echinococcus. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) occurs worldwide, whereas, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is restricted to the northern hemisphere, and neotropical echinococcosis (NE) has only been identified in Central and South America. Clinical manifestations and disease courses vary profoundly for the different species of Echinococcus. CE presents as small to large cysts, and has commonly been referred to as 'hydatid disease', or 'hydatidosis'...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816660/diagnosing-schistosomiasis-induced-liver-morbidity-implications-for-global-control
#18
David U Olveda, Marianette Inobaya, Remigio M Olveda, Marilyn L Vinluan, Shu-Kay Ng, Kosala Weerakoon, Donald P McManus, Grant A Ramm, Donald A Harn, Yuesheng Li, Alfred K Lam, Jerric R Guevarra, Allen G Ross
BACKGROUND: Subclinical morbidity due to schistosomiasis was evaluated in 565 patients, and the enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) test was assessed for the first time as a potential screening tool for disease. METHODS: The prevalence and intensity of infection were determined by Kato-Katz thick smear stool examination at baseline and 2 years after curative treatment. The degree of hepatic fibrosis was assessed by ultrasound. Non-invasive serum biomarkers of hepatic fibrosis were also evaluated...
January 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747886/high-intensity-ultrasound-enhances-the-immunoglobulin-ig-g-and-ige-binding-of-ovalbumin
#19
Wen-Hua Yang, Zong-Cai Tu, Hui Wang, Xue Li, Ming Tian
BACKGROUND: Hen eggs are widely used in food industry as a result of their excellent nutritional and processing properties and ovalbumin (OVA) is the major allergen of hen egg whites. Ultrasound has been widely used in the food processing industry, although the effect of high-intensity ultrasound on the immunoglobulin (Ig)G binding, IgE binding and conformational structure of OVA remains unclear. RESULTS: Ultrasound treatment at 600-800 W dramatically increased the IgG and IgE binding of OVA, with the highest values observed at 600 W...
July 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591369/critical-review-of-the-analysis-of-brominated-flame-retardants-and-their-environmental-levels-in-africa
#20
REVIEW
Martin Brits, Jayne de Vos, Jana M Weiss, Egmont R Rohwer, Jacob de Boer
World-wide, the prevalence of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is well documented for routine analysis of environmental and biological matrices. There is, however, limited information on these compounds in the African environment and insufficient information on the analytical approaches used to obtain data. This paper presents a review on BFR levels in the African environment and the various analytical methodologies specifically applied in Africa for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls and alternative-BFRs...
December 2016: Chemosphere
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