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egg coating

Renate Matzke-Karasz, Robin J Smith, Martin Heß
Previous studies of cypridoidean ostracods have noted that (1) their giant spermatozoa are immotile inside the male, (2) these spermatozoa are motile in the female seminal receptacle and (3) these receptacles are often filled with empty sperm coats. Such findings have led previous authors to hypothesize that sperm must shed their coats in the female receptacle to become motile. We present light and electron microscopy results and video recordings of mating experiments with virgin specimens of Mytilocypris mytiloides...
October 5, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Samantha M Gromek, Andrea M Suria, Matthew S Fullmer, Jillian L Garcia, Johann Peter Gogarten, Spencer V Nyholm, Marcy J Balunas
Female members of many cephalopod species house a bacterial consortium in the accessory nidamental gland (ANG), part of the reproductive system. These bacteria are deposited into eggs that are then laid in the environment where they must develop unprotected from predation, pathogens, and fouling. In this study, we characterized the genome and secondary metabolite production of Leisingera sp. JC1, a member of the roseobacter clade (Rhodobacteraceae) of Alphaproteobacteria isolated from the jelly coat of eggs from the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Li Wang, Timothy Z Chang, Yuan He, Jong R Kim, Shelly Wang, Teena Mohan, Zachary Berman, S Mark Tompkins, Ralph A Tripp, Richard W Compans, Julie A Champion, Bao-Zhong Wang
Recurring influenza viruses pose an annual threat to public health. A time-saving, cost-effective and egg-independent influenza vaccine approach is important particularly when responding to an emerging pandemic. We fabricated coated, two-layer protein nanoclusters from recombinant trimeric hemagglutinin from an avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus as an approach for vaccine development in response to an emerging pandemic. Assessment of the virus-specific immune responses and protective efficacy in mice immunized with the nanoclusters demonstrated that the vaccine candidates were highly immunogenic, able to induce protective immunity and long-lasting humoral antibody responses to this virus without the use of adjuvants...
September 10, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Andrea Rodil, Amanda Laca, Benjamín Paredes, Manuel Rendueles, Álvaro Meana, Mario Díaz
New biomaterials prepared from egg yolk and its main fractions (plasma and granules) have been developed for use in tissue engineering. Protein gels obtained via transglutaminase cross-linking were characterized by rheometry, texturometry and scanning electron microscopy. All the gels exhibited suitable physical and mechanical characteristics for use as potential biomaterials in skin regeneration. Specifically, results showed that these materials presented a compact, uniform structure, with granular gel being found to be the most resistant as well as the most elastic material...
September 7, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
Jean-Ju Chung
The'sugarcoat', a dense carbohydrate coat (glycocalyx), is critical to cell-to-cell recognition, including sperm-egg interactions. Lectins are used to probe the localization of glycoproteins on the cell surface, and to track their changes during sperm maturation and capacitation (Tecle and Gagneux, 2015, Mol. Reprod. Dev 82:635-650). Among them, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) binds to the sperm head, cytoplasmic droplet, midpiece, as well as the principal piece and end piece of the sperm tail (Fabrega et al, 2012, Reprod...
September 3, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Hui Zhang, Xuemin Zhu, Jingjing Shen, Haiheng Xu, Min Ma, Wei Gu, Qiudong Jiang, Jun Chen, Jinao Duan
A prerequisite for successful transdermal or dermal drug therapy is the drug ability to penetration through the skin, especially stratum corneum (SC). The most acceptable technique for measuring skin permeation in vitro is the application of both the Franz diffusion cell device and the skin model. As the skin model, a liposome-based artificial skin membrane (LASM) consisting of tight layers of liposomes immobilized on a filter was prepared and characterized. Using porcine ear skin, rat skin and Strat-M(TM) artificial membrane as control, the LASM was then evaluated in permeation studies with five active compounds, i...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Liposome Research
Misato Yokoe, Eriko Takayama-Watanabe, Yoko Saito, Megumi Kutsuzawa, Kosuke Fujita, Haruki Ochi, Yuni Nakauchi, Akihiko Watanabe
Internal fertilization ensures successful reproduction of tetrapod vertebrates on land, although how this mode of reproduction evolved is unknown. Here, we identified a novel gene encoding sperm motility-initiating substance (SMIS), a key protein for the internal fertilization of the urodele Cynops pyrrhogaster by Edman degradation of an isolated protein and subsequent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The SMIS gene encoded a 150 amino-acid sequence including the cysteine knot (CK) motif. No gene with substantial similarity to the SMIS was in the data bank of any model organisms...
2016: PloS One
Yamin Zhang, Wentao Wang, Xiangdong Ma, Li Jia
Development of a simple method for preparation of stable open tubular (OT) columns for proteins separation by capillary electrochromatography is still challenging. In this work, the titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles coated OT column was successfully prepared for separation of proteins by capillary electrochromatography. The polydopamine (PDA) film was first formed in the inner surface of a fused-silica capillary by the self-polymerization of dopamine under alkaline conditions. Then the TiO2 coating was deposited onto the surface of pre-modified capillary with PDA by a liquid phase deposition process...
November 1, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
Chisato Kataoka, Kousuke Nakahara, Kaori Shimizu, Shinsuke Kowase, Seiji Nagasaka, Shinsuke Ifuku, Shosaku Kashiwada
To investigate the effects of salinity on the behavior and toxicity of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), which are chemical modified nanotube to increase dispersibility, medaka embryos were exposed to non-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (N-SWCNTs), water-dispersible, cationic, plastic-polymer-coated, single-walled carbon nanotubes (W-SWCNTs), or hydrophobic polyethylene glycol-functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (PEG-SWCNTs) at different salinities, from freshwater to seawater...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Jiejun Gao, Cecon T Mahapatra, Christopher D Mapes, Maria Khlebnikova, Alexander Wei, Marisol S Sepúlveda
Nanoparticles (NPs, 1-100 nm) can enter the environment and result in exposure to humans and other organisms leading to potential adverse health effects. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of early life exposure to polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs, 50 nm), particularly with respect to vascular toxicity on zebrafish embryos and larvae (Danio rerio). Previously published data has suggested that PVP-AgNP exposure can inhibit the expression of genes within the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway, leading to delayed and abnormal vascular development...
November 2016: Nanotoxicology
BarbraKatyúscya Sanches Moraes, Simone Machado Vieira, Willian Goulart Salgueiro, Luana Roberta Michels, Letícia Marques Colomé, Daiana Silva Avila, Sandra Elisa Haas
The aim of this work was to develop and characterize clozapine loaded polysorbate-coated polymeric nanocapsules and assess their toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans, an invertebrate animal model. Formulations were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and characterized by particle size, zeta potential, pH, drug loading, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. All nanocapsules prepared presented diameter around 140 nm, pH slightly acid and negative zeta potential. In vitro studies showed biphasic drug release from nanocapsules with decreasing of the release rate on nanoencapsulation...
February 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Mohan Vimaladevi, Kurunchi Chellapathi Divya, Agnishwar Girigoswami
The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy is an alternative method for killing bacterial cells in view of the rising problem of antibiotic resistance microorganisms. The present study examined the effect of a water soluble photosensitizer, Rhodamine 6G (R6G) in stealth liposomes on multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of visible light. Liposomes were prepared with cholesterol and phospholipids that extracted from hen eggs in a cost effective way and characterized by light microscopy, particle size analyzer, electron microscopy, steady state spectrophotometry and spectrofluorometry...
September 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Hiroshi Tobe
Cardiopteris (Cardiopteridaceae), a twining herb of two or three species distributed from Southeast Asia to Northern Australia, requires an embryological study for better understanding of its reproductive features. The present study of C. quinqueloba showed that the ovule and seed development involves a number of unusual structures, most of which are unknown elsewhere in angiosperms. The ovule pendant from the apical placenta is straight (not orthotropous), ategmic, and tenuinucellate, developing a monosporic seven-celled/eight-nucleate female gametophyte with an egg apparatus on the funicular side...
September 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Eduardo C Oliveira-Filho, José Sousa Filho, Luana A Novais, Wilson S Peternele, Ricardo B Azevedo, Cesar K Grisolia
This study aims to evaluate the effects of maghemite nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3) coated with meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) stabilizer on the survival and reproduction of the aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata. The cumulative means of egg masses and eggs per individual in the control group at the end of 4 weeks were 18.8 and 326.7, respectively. These values at the concentration of 1 mg/L were 17.2 and 291.6; at 10 mg/L, they were 19.6 and 334.4 ,and at 100 mg/L, they were 14.3 and 311.1. Results showed no significant differences between the tested and the control groups at the level of p < 0...
September 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Indu Upadhyaya, H-B Yin, M Surendran Nair, C-H Chen, R Lang, M J Darre, K Venkitanarayanan
Salmonella enteritidis (SE) is a major foodborne pathogen that causes human infections largely by consumption of contaminated eggs. The external surface of eggs becomes contaminated with SE from multiple sources, highlighting the need for effective egg surface disinfection methods. This study investigated the efficacy of three GRAS-status, phytochemicals, namely carvacrol (CR), eugenol (EG), and β-resorcylic acid (BR) applied as pectin or gum arabic based coating for reducing SE on shell eggs. White-shelled eggs, spot inoculated with a 5-strain mixture of nalidixic acid (NA) resistant SE (8...
September 1, 2016: Poultry Science
Yuki Takechi-Haraya, Kumiko Sakai-Kato, Yasuhiro Abe, Toru Kawanishi, Haruhiro Okuda, Yukihiro Goda
Mechanical rigidity of the liposome membrane is often defined by the membrane bending modulus and is one of the determinants of liposome stability, but the quantitative experimental data are still limited to a few kinds of liposomes. Here, we used atomic force microscopy to investigate the membrane bending moduli of liposomes by immobilizing them on bovine serum albumin-coated glass in aqueous medium. The following lipids were used for liposome preparation: egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane, cholesterol, and N-(carbonylmethoxypoly(ethylene glycol) 2000)-1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine...
June 21, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Carmen Beltrán, Claudia L Treviño, Esperanza Mata-Martínez, Julio C Chávez, Claudia Sánchez-Cárdenas, Mark Baker, Alberto Darszon
The acrosome reaction (AR) is a unique exocytotic process where the acrosome, a single membrane-delimited specialized organelle, overlying the nucleus in the sperm head of many species, fuses with the overlying plasma membrane. This reaction, triggered by physiological inducers from the female gamete, its vicinity, or other stimuli, discharges the acrosomal content modifying the plasma membrane, incorporating the inner acrosomal membrane, and exposing it to the extracellular medium. The AR is essential for sperm-egg coat penetration, fusion with the eggs' plasma membrane, and fertilization...
2016: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
Vladimir Joukov, Johannes C Walter, Arcangela De Nicolo
Faithful chromosome segregation during cell division requires proper bipolar spindle assembly and critically depends on spindle pole integrity. In most animal cells, spindle poles form as the result of the concerted action of various factors operating in two independent pathways of microtubule assembly mediated by chromatin/RanGTP and by centrosomes. Mutation or deregulation of a number of spindle pole-organizing proteins has been linked to human diseases, including cancer and microcephaly. Our knowledge on how the spindle pole-organizing factors function at the molecular level and cooperate with one another is still quite limited...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Melissa Van Arsdall, Ikram Haque, Yuying Liu, J Marc Rhoads
Twenty years ago, there was profound, international interest in developing oral human, bovine, or chicken egg-derived immunoglobulin (Ig) for the prevention and nutritional treatment of childhood malnutrition and gastrointestinal disease, including acute diarrhea and necrotizing enterocolitis. Although such Ig products were shown to be effective, with both nutritional and antidiarrheal benefits, interest waned because of their cost and because of the perceived risk of bovine serum encephalitis (BSE). BSE is no longer considered a barrier to use of oral Ig, because the WHO has declared the United States to be BSE-free since the early 2000s...
May 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Goutam Ghosh, Pallavi S Gaikwad, Lata Panicker, Bimalendu B Nath, Rita Mukhopadhyaya
In this work, the structure and activity of proteins; such as, hen egg lysozyme (HEWL) and calf intestine alkaline phosphatase (CIAP); have been investigated after incubation with surface coated iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in water. IONPs were coated with counterions bound charge-ligands and were named as the charge-ligand counterions iron oxide nanoparticles (CLC-IONPs). The coating was done with tri-lithium citrate (TLC) and tri-potassium citrate (TKC) to have negative surface charge of CLC-IONPs and Li(+) and K(+), respectively, as counterions...
September 1, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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