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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622512/structural-basis-of-egg-coat-sperm-recognition-at-fertilization
#1
Isha Raj, Hamed Sadat Al Hosseini, Elisa Dioguardi, Kaoru Nishimura, Ling Han, Alessandra Villa, Daniele de Sanctis, Luca Jovine
Recognition between sperm and the egg surface marks the beginning of life in all sexually reproducing organisms. This fundamental biological event depends on the species-specific interaction between rapidly evolving counterpart molecules on the gametes. We report biochemical, crystallographic, and mutational studies of domain repeats 1-3 of invertebrate egg coat protein VERL and their interaction with cognate sperm protein lysin. VERL repeats fold like the functionally essential N-terminal repeat of mammalian sperm receptor ZP2, whose structure is also described here...
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622504/sex-at-atomic-resolution
#2
Jae Yeon Hwang, Jean-Ju Chung
Interspecies fertilization is rare, partly due to species separation enforced at the molecular level. In this issue, Raj et al. now reveal the crystal structures of mollusk egg coat protein, VERL, complexed with cognate sperm protein lysin. Given that VERL is structurally similar to mammalian ZP2, the mechanism elucidating species-specific gamete recognition likely exists in mammals.
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580709/early-ovariectomy-reveals-the-germline-encoding-of-natural-anti-a-and-tn-cross-reactive-immunoglobulin-m-igm-arising-from-developmental-o-galnac-glycosylations-germline-encoded-natural-anti-a-tn-cross-reactive-igm
#3
Peter Arend
While native blood group A-like glycans have not been demonstrated in prokaryotic microorganisms as a source of human "natural" anti-A isoagglutinin production, and metazoan eukaryotic N-acetylgalactosamine O-glycosylation of serine or threonine residues (O-GalNAc-Ser/Thr-R) does not occur in bacteria, the O-GalNAc glycan-bearing ovarian glycolipids, discovered in C57BL/10 mice, are complementary to the syngeneic anti-A-reactive immunoglobulin M (IgM), which is not present in animals that have undergone ovariectomy prior to the onset of puberty...
June 5, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544760/a-novel-pattern-of-yolk-processing-in-developing-snake-eggs-colubridae-lampropeltini-and-its-functional-and-evolutionary-implications
#4
Kathryn G Powers, Daniel G Blackburn
Early amniotic vertebrates evolved large-yolked eggs that permitted production of well-developed, terrestrial hatchlings. This reproductive pattern required new mechanisms for cellularizing the yolk and mobilizing it for embryonic use. In birds, cells that line the yolk sac cavity phagocytose and digest the yolk material, a pattern that is commonly assumed to be universal among oviparous amniotes. However, recent evidence challenges the assumption that all squamate reptiles conform to the avian developmental pattern...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499203/efficient-protein-digestion-using-immobilized-trypsin-onto-tannin-modified-fe3o4-magnetic-nanoparticles
#5
Keziban Atacan, Bekir Çakıroğlu, Mahmut Özacar
Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared via solvothermal method. A commercially available trypsin was covalently immobilized onto MNPs modified with tannin (T) via a novel binding process. The morphology, structure, surface and magnetic properties of the obtained nanostructures were characterized comprehensively. The Fe3O4 MNPs had a saturation magnetization value of 60.18emu/g at room temperature, while the tannin modified Fe3O4 MNPs, and the trypsin immobilized on tannin modified-Fe3O4 MNPs possessed a saturation magnetization value of 57...
May 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403915/the-egg-coat-zona-pellucida-3-glycoprotein-evolution-of-its-putative-sperm-binding-region-in-old-world-murine-rodents-rodentia-muridae
#6
Christine A Swann, Steven J B Cooper, William G Breed
In eutherian mammals, before fertilisation can occur the spermatozoon has to bind to, and penetrate, the egg coat, the zona pellucida (ZP). In the laboratory mouse there is good evidence that the primary sperm-binding site is a protein region encoded by Exon 7 of the ZP3 gene and it has been proposed that binding is species specific and evolves by sexual selection. In the present study we investigate these hypotheses by comparing Exon 6 and 7 sequences of ZP3 in 28 species of murine rodents of eight different divisions from Asia, Africa and Australasia, in which a diverse array of sperm morphologies occurs...
April 13, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401748/the-squid-insurance-plan-female-euprymna-scolopes-add-potentially-protective-bacteria-to-the-egg-coats-of-their-clutches
#7
Seana K Davidson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396086/polymer-modified-fibrous-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-as-coating-material-for-open-tubular-capillary-electrochromatography
#8
Yuanyuan Liu, Qing Liu, Haiyan Yu, Shujun Sun, Yun Xue, Yan Wang, Qishu Qu, Chao Yan
A novel fibrous mesoporous silica nanoparticles (fSiO2) stationary phase grafted with polymer (Poly (2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) was developed for open tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC). The preparation procedure included synthesizing fSiO2 through biphase stratification approach, removing the surfactants, silanization and in situ graft polymerization with monomers via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Subsequently, PDMAEMA-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (P-fSiO2)/ethanol solution was immobilized onto the inner surface of the pretreated capillary and functionalized with octadecylsilane to fabricate the open-tubular column...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388527/assessing-safety-and-protein-interactions-of-surface-modified-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-for-potential-use-in-biomedical-areas
#9
Sathish Dyawanapelly, Dhanashree D Jagtap, Prajakta Dandekar, Goutam Ghosh, Ratnesh Jain
We have investigated the electrostatic interaction between bare iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) or low molecular weight chitosan coated iron oxide nanoparticles (LMWC-IONPs) and hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) at different pH values using protein-nanoparticle reverse charge parity model. Physicochemical characterization of both IONPs and LMWC-IONPs were carried out using DLS, TEM, FE-SEM, XRD, TGA, XPS and VSM analysis. DLS, TEM and FE-SEM results indicated that both IONPs were monodispersed, with size ranging from 8 to 20nm...
June 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378120/comprehensive-analysis-of-the-in-vitro-and-ex-ovo-hemocompatibility-of-surface-engineered-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-for-biomedical-applications
#10
Florian Schlenk, Sebastian Werner, Martin Rabel, Franziska Jacobs, Christian Bergemann, Joachim H Clement, Dagmar Fischer
A set of biomedically relevant iron oxide nanoparticles with systematically modified polymer surfaces was investigated regarding their interaction with the first contact partners after systemic administration such as blood cells, blood proteins, and the endothelial blood vessels, to establish structure-activity relationships. All nanoparticles were intensively characterized regarding their physicochemical parameters. Cyto- and hemocompatibility tests showed that (1) the properties of the core material itself were not relevant in short-term incubation studies, and (2) toxicities increased with higher polymer mass, neutral = anionic < cationic surface charge and charge density, as well as agglomeration...
April 4, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346705/performance-of-a-polymer-coated-silicon-microarray-for-simultaneous-detection-of-food-allergen-specific-ige-and-igg4
#11
Steven Sievers, Marina Cretich, Paola Gagni, Birgit Ahrens, Galina Grishina, Hugh Sampson, Bodo Niggemann, Marcella Chiari, Kirsten Beyer
BACKGROUND: Microarray-based component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) has become an accepted tool to detect allergen specific IgE-sensitization towards hundreds of allergens in parallel from one drop of serum. Nevertheless specificity and sensitivity as well as a simultaneous detection of allergen specific IgG4, as a potential parameter for tolerance development, remain to be optimized. OBJECTIVE: We applied the recently introduced silicon chip coated with a functional polymer named copoly(DMA-NAS-MAPS) to the simultaneous detection of food allergen specific IgE and IgG4, and compared it with ImmunoCAP and ImmunoCAP ISAC...
March 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341174/insights-into-the-mechanism-of-how-morin-suppresses-amyloid-fibrillation-of-hen-egg-white-lysozyme
#12
Xiaoying Chong, Luchen Sun, Yonghui Sun, Lin Chang, Alan K Chang, Xian Lu, Xuejie Zhou, Junqing Liu, Bing Zhang, Gary W Jones, Jianwei He
This communication describes the inhibitory effect of Morin on the fibrillation of Hen Egg White Lysozyme (HEWL), a generic amyloid-forming model protein. This effect was dose-dependent and stronger than other small molecules we have tested previously. Spectrofluorometric and computational studies support a model suggesting that Morin inhibits amyloid fibril formation of HEWL by binding to the aggregation prone cleft region of the β-domain of HEWL, thereby stabilizing the molecule in its native-like state...
August 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295836/profiling-n-glycans-of-the-egg-jelly-coat-of-the-sea-urchin-paracentrotus-lividus-by-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-and-capillary-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-ion-trap-tandem-mass-spectrometry-systems
#13
Umut Şahar, Remziye Deveci
Sea urchin eggs are surrounded by a carbohydrate-rich layer, termed the jelly coat, that consists of polysaccharides and glycoproteins. In the present study, we describe two mass spectrometric strategies to characterize the N-glycosylation of the Paracentrotus lividus egg jelly coat, which has an alecithal-type extracellular matrix like mammalian eggs. Egg jelly was isolated, lyophilized, and dialyzed, followed by peptide N-glycosidase F (PNGase-F) treatment to release N-glycans from their protein chain. These N-glycans were then derivatized by permethylation reaction, and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and capillary liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-ion trap tandem mass spectroscopy (CapLC ESI-Ion trap-MS/MS)...
May 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247910/persistence-of-an-egg-mass-polymorphism-in-ambystoma-maculatum-differential-performance-under-high-and-low-nutrients
#14
Matthew R Pintar, William J Resetarits
Polymorphisms play critical roles in allowing organisms to adapt to novel environments while enabling ecological speciation under divergent selection. Ambystoma maculatum, the spotted salamander, exhibits a unique polymorphism in the structure and appearance of its egg masses with two common morphs, white and clear. Amphibian egg jelly layers mediate interactions between embryos and the environment and are more responsive to ecological pressures of natural selection than other egg coat components. The A. maculatum egg mass polymorphism was hypothesized to be adaptive with regard to varying dissolved nutrient levels in ponds...
March 1, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237403/marine-gametes-in-a-changing-ocean-impacts-of-climate-change-stressors-on-fecundity-and-the-egg
#15
Shawna A Foo, Maria Byrne
In marine invertebrates, the environmental history of the mother can influence fecundity and egg size. Acclimation of females in climate change stressors, increased temperature and low pH, results in a decrease in egg number and size in many taxa, with the exception of cephalopods, where eggs increase in size. With respect to spawned eggs, near future levels of ocean acidification can interfere with the egg's block to polyspermy and intracellular pH. Reduction of the extracellular egg jelly coat seen in low pH conditions has implications for impaired egg function and fertilization...
February 17, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222834/acute-and-chronic-outcomes-of-gas-bubble-disease-in-a-colony-of-african-clawed-frogs-xenopus-laevis
#16
Julia Y Tsai, Stephen A Felt, Donna M Bouley, Sherril L Green
Gas-bubble disease occurs in aquatic species that are exposed to water that is supersaturated with gases. In February 2007, municipal water supersaturated with gas was inadvertently pumped into the vivarium's aquatic housing systems and affected approximately 450 adult female Xenopus laevis. The inflow of supersaturated water was stopped immediately, the holding tanks aggressively aerated, and all experimental manipulations and feeding ceased. Within the first 6 h after the event, morbidity approached 90%, and mortality reached 3...
February 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213538/gut-microbiota-colonization-and-transmission-in-the-burying-beetle-nicrophorus-vespilloides-throughout-development
#17
Yin Wang, Daniel E Rozen
Carrion beetles in the genus Nicrophorus rear their offspring on decomposing carcasses where larvae are exposed to a diverse community of decomposer bacteria. Parents coat the carcass with antimicrobial secretions prior to egg hatch (defined as prehatch care) and also feed regurgitated food, and potentially bacteria, to larvae throughout development (defined as full care). Here, we partition the roles of prehatch and posthatch parental care in the transmission and persistence of culturable symbiotic bacteria to larvae...
May 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199121/smart-contact-lenses-with-graphene-coating-for-electromagnetic-interference-shielding-and-dehydration-protection
#18
Sangkyu Lee, Insu Jo, Sangmin Kang, Bongchul Jang, Joonhee Moon, Jong Bo Park, Soochang Lee, Sichul Rho, Youngsoo Kim, Byung Hee Hong
Recently, smart contact lenses with electronic circuits have been proposed for various sensor and display applications where the use of flexible and biologically stable electrode materials is essential. Graphene is an atomically thin carbon material with a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice that shows outstanding electrical and mechanical properties as well as excellent biocompatibility. In addition, graphene is capable of protecting eyes from electromagnectic (EM) waves that may cause eye diseases such as cataracts...
February 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114360/extracellular-ca2-is-required-for-fertilization-in-the-african-clawed-frog-xenopus-laevis
#19
Katherine L Wozniak, Brianna L Mayfield, Alexis M Duray, Maiwase Tembo, David O Beleny, Marc A Napolitano, Monica L Sauer, Bennett W Wisner, Anne E Carlson
BACKGROUND: The necessity of extracellular Ca2+ for fertilization and early embryonic development in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is controversial. Ca2+ entry into X. laevis sperm is reportedly required for the acrosome reaction, yet fertilization and embryonic development have been documented to occur in high concentrations of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA. Here we sought to resolve this controversy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using the appearance of cleavage furrows as an indicator of embryonic development, we found that X...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109029/reproductive-performance-of-breeder-quails-fed-diets-supplemented-with-l-cysteine-coated-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#20
H Mohammadi, A Farzinpour, A Vaziry
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L-cysteine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles on reproductive performance in breeder quails. The five treatment diets consisted of (i) negative control diet not supplemented with iron, (ii) positive control diet supplemented with 60 mg/kg of Fe3 O4 and (iii) experimental diets supplemented with 0.6, 6 and 60 mg/kg of L-cysteine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. A total of 100 seven-day-old quail chicks were weighed and randomly placed to five groups of five replicate cages...
January 20, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
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