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Seong Cheol Hong, Dhiraj P Murale, Se-Young Jang, Md Mamunul Haque, Minah Seo, Seok Lee, Deok Ha Woo, Junghoon Kwon, Chang-Seon Song, Yun Kyung Kim, Jun-Seok Lee
Avian Influenza (AI) caused an annual epidemic outbreak that led to destroying tens of millions of poultry worldwide. Current gold standard AI diagnosis method is an embryonic egg-based hemagglutination assay followed by immunoblotting or PCR sequencing to confirm subtypes. It requires, however, specialized facilities to handle egg inoculation and incubation, and the subtyping methods relied on costly reagents. Here, we demonstrated the first differential sensing approach to distinguish AI subtypes using series of cell lines and fluorescent sensor...
June 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Seung Choi, Seokyoung Han, Noe-Heon Kim, Yuong-Nam Lee
The Gekkota is an important clade in the evolution of calcified eggshells in that some of its families lay rigid eggshells like archosaurs. However, the fundamental differences and similarities between the mechanism of rigid eggshell formation of the Gekkota and Archosauria have not been investigated thoroughly due to the lack of knowledge of gekkotan eggshells. Here, we report for the first time a comprehensive analysis of morphological, chemical compositional, and crystallographic features of rigid and soft gekkotan eggshells...
2018: PloS One
Reto Rufener, Dominic Ritler, Jana Zielinski, Luca Dick, Emerson Teixeira da Silva, Adriele da Silva Araujo, Deborah Elisabeth Joekel, David Czock, Christine Goepfert, Adriana Marques Moraes, Marcus Vinicius Nora de Souza, Joachim Müller, Meike Mevissen, Andrew Hemphill, Britta Lundström-Stadelmann
The cestode E. multilocularis causes the disease alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in humans. The continuously proliferating metacestode (larval stage) of the parasite infects mostly the liver and exhibits tumor-like growth. Current chemotherapeutical treatment options rely on benzimidazoles, which are rarely curative and have to be applied daily and life-long. This can result in considerable hepatotoxicity and thus treatment discontinuation. Therefore, novel drugs against AE are urgently needed. The anti-malarial mefloquine was previously shown to be active against E...
June 15, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Antonio Salvaggio, Francesco Antoci, Antonino Messina, Margherita Ferrante, Chiara Copat, Claudia Ruberto, Elena Maria Scalisi, Roberta Pecoraro, Maria Violetta Brundo
Thiacloprid is an insecticide belonging to the family of neonicotinoids, substances initially underestimated for their potential adverse effects, that they may manifest in the long term leading to an extensive use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect at increasing concentrations of thiacloprid on chick embryos development. The research was carried out on 75 fertile eggs of Gallus gallus domesticus. The eggs were opened after 10, 15 and 20 days of incubation and in treated embryos were observed developmental alterations, growth retardation, limbs defects and ectopia viscerale...
June 19, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Meredith E Bohannon, Tom E Porter, Emma T Lavoie, Mary Ann Ottinger
The upper Hudson River was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) Aroclor mixtures from the 1940s until the late 1970s. Several well-established biomarkers, such as induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, were used to measure exposure to PCBs and similar contaminants in birds. In the present study, Japanese quail eggs were injected with a PCB mixture based upon a congener profile found in spotted sandpiper eggs at the upper Hudson River and subsequently, RNA was extracted from hatchling liver tissue for hybridization to a customized chicken cDNA microarray...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
M K Rust, B L Blagburn, I Denholm, M W Dryden, P Payne, N C Hinkle, S Kopp, M Williamson
An international team of scientists and veterinarians was assembled in 1999 to develop a monitoring program to determine the susceptibility of cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), to imidacloprid. Cat flea eggs were collected, shipped to laboratories, and tested for their susceptibility to imidacloprid. Over 3,000 C. felis populations were collected from 2002 to 2017 from 10 different countries. Of these, 66.3% were collected from cats and 33.7% from dogs. C. f. felis populations (n = 2,200) were bioassayed by exposing cat flea eggs and the emerging larvae to a Diagnostic Dose (DD) of 3 ppm imidacloprid in larval rearing medium...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Pdnn Sirisena, Ankit Kumar, Sujatha Sunil
Arthropod-borne virus disease cycles constitute interactions among three primary players-the host, the vector, and the virus-in which the virus needs to interact with the host and the vector to establish its survival. While in the host, some arboviruses replicate aggressively, resulting in host pathogenicity, and manifest as a disease condition. These viruses more often utilize the vectors as reservoirs before they are transmitted to the host and therefore do not amplify to as large titers as they do in the hosts...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Alex Brito, Edwin Habeych, Irma Silva-Zolezzi, Nicola Galaffu, Lindsay H Allen
Vitamin B-12 (B-12) deficiency is still relatively common in low-, medium-, and high-income countries, mainly because of dietary inadequacy and, to a lesser extent, malabsorption. This narrative review is based on a systematic search of evidence on methods to assess B-12 bioavailability and technologies to enhance its absorption. A total of 2523 scientific articles identified in PubMed and 1572 patents identified in Orbit Intelligence were prescreened. Among the reviewed methods, Schilling's test and/or its food-based version (using cobalamin-labeled egg yolk) were used for decades but have been discontinued, largely because they required radioactive cobalt...
June 20, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Feng Liu, Wen-Pin Tzeng, Lauren Horner, Ram P Kamal, Heather R Tatum, Elisabeth G Blanchard, Xiyan Xu, Ian York, Terrence M Tumpey, Jacqueline M Katz, Xiuhua Lu, Min Z Levine
Background: Although ferret antisera used in influenza surveillance did not detect antigenic drift of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses during 2015-16 season, low vaccine effectiveness was reported in adults. We investigated the immune basis of low responses to circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses following vaccination. Methods: Over 300 paired adult (18-49 yrs) pre and post-vaccination sera collected in 6 seasons (2010-11 to 2015-16) were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition assays to evaluate the antibody responses to thirteen A(H1N1) viruses circulated from 1977 to 2016...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
K Damaziak, A Marzec, J Riedel, J Szeliga, E Koczywas, F Cisneros, M Michalczuk, M Lukasiewicz, D Gozdowski, A Siennicka, H Kowalska, J Niemiec, A Lenart
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of canthaxanthin (CX) and iodine (I) on the production of laying hens, on counteracting debilitation of the vitelline membrane, and on inhibiting Salmonella growth in eggs stored at 30°C. Three hundred hens were reared in cages. Birds were divided into six feeding groups (10 hens × 5 repetitions) that were administered 0, 3 or 6 ppm of CX and 1 or 10 ppm of I with their diets. Laying rate, egg weights, and feed conversion ratios were controlled. The quality of fresh eggs was assessed in wks 25-26, 48-50 and 62-63 of hens lives...
June 20, 2018: Poultry Science
Barkha Gupta, Shyama Jain
Enterobius vermicularis (EV), an intestinal nematode, causes lesions at ectopic sites also. Although lesions are fully curable with antihelminthic drugs, patients may require surgical intervention in clinically unsuspected cases to arrive at correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Accurate diagnosis of these lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has an advantage of avoiding unwanted surgery. To the best of our literature search, there are few case reports of EV diagnosed on cytology, but none of them describes the various stages of development of eggs and hatching of larvae...
January 2018: Tropical Parasitology
Shashiraja Padukone, Jharna Mandal, Nonika Rajkumari, Ballambattu Vishnu Bhat, Rathinam Palamalai Swaminathan, Subhash Chandra Parija
Background: Blastocystis was identified almost a century ago, yet its biology and pathogenicity status in humans is obscure. Studies on Blastocystis in India are scanty and are mostly microscopy based. This study compared three detection modalities to determine their efficiency in the identification of Blastocystis in human feces. Materials and Methods: A total of 279 stool samples were screened using microscopy, culture (Jones' medium), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods...
January 2018: Tropical Parasitology
Vinay Khanna, Siddharth Sagar, Ruchee Khanna, Kiran Chawla
Background: Stool microscopy and concentration techniques are the two most important and necessary aspects of diagnostic parasitology. In an era when there is increased disease burden due to intestinal parasites, an early and appropriate diagnosis is warranted. Direct microscopy is usually labor intensive and tedious. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two fresh fecal specimens from patients presenting with eosinophilia and/or anemia (hemoglobin levels <10 g%), HIV-positive patients, and in patients clinically suspected of harboring parasites, were collected for the study...
January 2018: Tropical Parasitology
Mohamed A Shehata, Mubanga F Chama, Evelyn Funjika
Introduction: Urinary schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium is common in some parts of Lusaka Province, Zambia, where water contact activity is high and sanitation is poor. We conducted a longitudinal study in Ng'ombe Compound of Lusaka, between 2007 and 2015, to observe the prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection among community primary school children, before and after receiving a single dose of praziquantel. Materials and Methods: A total of 975 (445 females and 530 males) pupils, aged 9-16 years, were tested for S...
January 2018: Tropical Parasitology
Paulina Markowiak, Katarzyna Śliżewska
Along with the intensive development of methods of livestock breeding, breeders' expectations are growing concerning feed additives that would guarantee such results as accelerating growth rate, protection of health from pathogenic infections and improvement of other production parameters such as: absorption of feed and quality of meat, milk, eggs. The main reason for their application would be a strive to achieve some beneficial effects comparable to those of antibiotic-based growth stimulators, banned on 01 January 2006...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Harry G Leitch, Petra Hajkova
In the version of this article originally published, a box was misplaced in Fig. 1. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.
June 21, 2018: Nature Genetics
Karolina Kuszewska, Krzysztof Miler, Michal Woyciechowski
In eusocial insect colonies, workers have individual preferences for performing particular tasks. Previous research suggests that these preferences might be associated with worker reproductive potential; however, different studies have yielded inconsistent results. This study constitutes the first comparison of foraging preferences between genetically similar normal and rebel honeybee workers, which present different reproductive potential. We found that rebels, which have a higher reproductive potential than normal workers, displayed a delayed onset of foraging and a stronger tendency to collect nectar compared with normal workers...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dinh Ng-Nguyen, John Noh, Kathleen Breen, Mark Anthony Stevenson, Sukwan Handali, Rebecca Justine Traub
BACKGROUND: Taenia solium cysticercosis, recognized as a neglected tropical disease by the WHO, is distributed mostly in developing countries of Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Pigs and humans act as intermediate hosts, acquiring T. solium cysticerci (larval stage) in their tissue, through the ingestion of T. solium eggs shed in the faeces of humans infected with adult tapeworms. The disease has a negative impact on rural economies due to losses in productivity arising from human disease, pork carcass condemnations and loss of market access...
June 22, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Victor R Simpson, Damer P Blake
BACKGROUND: Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) became extinct over large areas of Britain during the post mediaeval period but following re-introductions from Europe during the 1800s and early 1900s the population started to recover and in recent decades there has been a spectacular increase. Many roe deer are shot in Britain each year but despite this there is little published information on the diseases and causes of mortality of roe deer in Great Britain. CASE PRESENTATION: The lungs of two hunter-shot roe deer in Cornwall showed multiple, raised, nodular lesions associated with numerous protostrongylid-type nematode eggs and first stage larvae...
June 22, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Joanna Burger
Many shorebirds breed in Arctic habitats, and migrate south to wintering quarters in the Southern Hemisphere. Shorebirds mainly forage on intertidal mudflats at low tide. A key spring stopover for shorebirds in North America is Delaware Bay, New Jersey, where shorebirds feed on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs at high tide. The importance of intertidal to migrant shorebirds has been overlooked. This paper examines foraging of 4 shorebird species at Reeds Beach, Delaware Bay. The intertidal zone was divided into an experimental array with oyster racks, artificial reefs, and controls to quantify the number of birds present in each section...
May 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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