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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053871/cellular-and-morphological-characterization-of-blastoderms-from-freshly-laid-broiler-eggs
#1
N Pokhrel, E Ben-Tal Cohen, O Genin, D Sela-Donenfeld, Y Cinnamon
The pioneering study of Eyal-Giladi and Kochav (EG&K; Eyal-Giladi and Kochav, 1976) on the early developmental stages-from fertilization, through oviposition, to the gastrulation process-set the standard for characterizing chicken embryos, and has been used in numerous studies over the years. During uterine development, the chicken embryo undergoes dramatic changes, extremely rapid cell cycles, massive cell death, and axial determination processes. However, once the egg is laid, the temperature drops and the embryo enters into a diapause-like state...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053858/ectoparasitism-of-commercial-laying-hen-by-megninia-ginglymura-m%C3%A3-gnin-acari-population-dynamic-and-distribution-on-the-body-regions
#2
Tamara B Horn, Matheus S Rocha, Juliana Granich, Júlia H Körbes, Luis F A Alves, Noeli J Ferla
Ectoparasites are temporary or permanent skin dwellers. Megninia ginglymura (Mégnin) (Analgidae) causes economic damage in commercial poultry farms as a result of lower egg production or even death of the host. Little is known about Megninia ginglymura's life cycle and infestation. This study aimed to evaluate the preference of M. ginglymura for different body regions of the host Gallus gallus L. and its abundance and population dynamics in different laying hen houses. Samples were collected from August 2013 to August 2014 in three different commercial laying hen systems: automatic production systems (A1,2,3); semiautomatic systems (S1 (free of pesticides) and S2) and free-range system (FR)...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053854/dietary-betaine-supplementation-increases-adrenal-expression-of-steroidogenic-acute-regulatory-protein-and-yolk-deposition-of-corticosterone-in-laying-hens
#3
Halima Abobaker, Yun Hu, Zhen Hou, Qinwei Sun, Abdulrahman A Idriss, Nagmeldin A Omer, Yibo Zong, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine, an important methyl donor, is known to execute epigenetic regulation of gene expression via nutritional reprogramming. Herein, we explore whether feeding a betaine-supplemented diet to laying hens would affect corticosteroid biosynthesis in the adrenal gland and corticosterone deposition in eggs, in correlation with the expression of methyl transfer enzymes and the promoter DNA methylation status of affected genes. Rugao yellow-feathered laying hens at 38 weeks of age were assigned to Control and Betaine groups, fed basal and betaine-supplemented diets, respectively, for four weeks...
September 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053852/genome-wide-scan-and-analysis-of-positive-selective-signatures-in-dwarf-brown-egg-layers-and-silky-fowl-chickens
#4
Mengmeng Zhang, Liu Yang, Zhencheng Su, Muzhen Zhu, Wenting Li, Keliang Wu, Xuemei Deng
Chinese domestic chickens have been routinely subjected to artificial selection for the production of meats and eggs. Selection results in distinctive signatures in the genome that can reveal the genes underlying phenotypes of interest to breeders. In this study, we used the Chicken60K SNP chip to analyze DNA from Dwarf Brown-egg Layers (DB, n = 203) and Silky Fowls (SF, n = 181) and then examined the relative extended haplotype homozygosity (REHH) and fixation index (FST) to detect selection signatures. Since population structure analysis showed that SF was stratified into 2 subpopulations (SF1 and SF2), we removed the 20 SF1 chickens, and the remaining individuals (DB and SF2) were scanned for genome-wide selection signatures...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053847/effect-of-low-incubation-temperature-and-low-ambient-temperature-until-21-days-of-age-on-performance-and-body-temperature-in-fast-growing-chickens
#5
D Nyuiadzi, A Travel, B Méda, C Berri, L A Guilloteau, V Coustham, Y Wang, J K Tona, A Collin
Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis was previously reported to decrease the occurrence of ascites and to potentially improve cold tolerance of broilers. The objective of our study was to explore the effects of the interaction of cold incubation temperatures and cool ambient temperatures until 21 d of age on performance and body temperature. Ross 308 eggs were incubated either under control conditions I0 (37.6°C) or with cyclic cold stimulations I1 (6 h/d at 36.6°C from d 10 to 18 of incubation) or with 2 cold stimulations I2 (30 min at 15°C) at d 18 and 19 of incubation...
October 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053828/effect-of-synbiotic-supplementation-on-layer-production-and-cecal-salmonella-load-during-a-salmonella-challenge
#6
A Luoma, A Markazi, R Shanmugasundaram, G R Murugesan, M Mohnl, R Selvaraj
This study analyzed the inhibitory effects of a synbiotic product (PoultryStar® me) on production parameters, intestinal microflora profile, and immune parameters in laying hens with and without a Salmonella challenge. The synbiotic product contained 4 probiotic bacterial strains (Lactobacillus reuteri, Enterococcus faecium, Bifidobacterium animalis, and Pediococcus acidilactici) and a prebiotic fructooligosaccharide. Layers were supplemented with the synbiotic from d of hatch to 28 wk of age. At 16 wk of age, birds were either vaccinated with Salmonella enterica Enteritidis (SE) vaccine or left unvaccinated...
September 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053822/characterization-of-indigenous-chicken-production-systems-in-rwanda
#7
J Mahoro, T K Muasya, F Mbuza, R Habimana, A K Kahi
Characterization of indigenous chicken (IC) production systems in Rwanda was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 with the aim of understanding socio-economic characteristics, management of IC, production parameters, feed resources, and constraints faced by farmers rearing IC. A survey involving 206 households was carried out in 5 districts with the highest populations of IC using structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SAS software. The results showed that the majority of respondents (62...
September 14, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053813/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-high-and-low-egg-producing-duck-ovaries
#8
Z Tao, W Song, C Zhu, W Xu, H Liu, S Zhang, Li Huifang
The egg-laying rate is an important indicator of egg production of laying ducks. Egg production directly impacts the economic benefits of the duck industry. In order to obtain better insight into the molecular mechanisms associated with the process of egg production, comparative transcriptomic analysis of the ovaries of Jinding ducks with high and low egg production was performed using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 system. A total of 843 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was identified, 367 that were down-regulated and 476 that were up-regulated in high egg production (HEP) ovaries, as compared with low egg production (LEP) ovaries...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053706/solea-senegalensis-sperm-cryopreservation-new-insights-on-sperm-quality
#9
Marta F Riesco, Catarina Oliveira, Florbela Soares, Paulo J Gavaia, María T Dinis, Elsa Cabrita
Cryopreservation of Senegalese sole sperm can represent an alternative to overcome some reproductive problems of this species. However, it is important to guarantee the safe use of cryopreserved sperm by selecting an appropriate protocol according to a high demand quality need to be ensured. It has been demonstrated that traditional assays such as motility and viability do not provide enough information to identify specific damage caused by cryopreservation process (freezing and thawing). Specific tests, including lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, should be performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053679/measuring-the-effect-of-chemicals-on-the-growth-and-reproduction-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
So Young Lee, Kyungsu Kang
Toxicological evaluation is crucial for understanding the effects of chemicals on living organisms in basic and applied biological science fields. A non-mammalian soil round worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, is a valuable model organism for toxicology studies due to its convenience and lack of animal ethics issues compared with mammalian animal systems. In this protocol, a detailed procedure of toxicological evaluation of chemicals in C. elegans is described. A clinical anticancer drug, etoposide, which targets human topoisomerase II and inhibits DNA replication of human cancer cells, was selected as a model testing chemical...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052048/the-effect-of-divalent-ions-on-l-%C3%AE-phosphatidylcholine-from-egg-yolk-monolayers-at-the-air-water-interface
#11
Aneta D Petelska, Monika Naumowicz
The Langmuir monolayers of L-α-phosphatidylcholine from egg yolk were studied by Wilhelmy method. The surface pressure versus molecular area isotherm of lipid on pure water and different subphase (with a presence of divalent ions: Sr(2+), Cd(2+), Ba(2+), Pb(2+)) was obtained. The limiting area of the isotherms depends on the presence of subphase ions. The addition of divalent ions to the subphase stabilized the monolayers and increased the limiting areas of the monolayer. During the compression in monolayer complexes of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometry between L-α-phosphatidylcholine from egg yolk and divalent ions are formed...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052001/quail-coturnix-japonica-egg-yolk-bioactive-components-attenuate-streptozotocin-induced-testicular-damage-and-oxidative-stress-in-diabetic-rats
#12
Gideon Oludare Oladipo, Chidinma Martha Nlekerem, Emmanuel Oluwafemi Ibukun, Ayodele Oluseyi Kolawole
INTRODUCTION: The testicular milieu is the machinery for the metabolism of testosterone in the male reproductive system. PURPOSE: The dysfunction of this highly regenerating system is inevitable in the condition of glucose imbalance as a result of insulin machinery impairment. Therefore, it is imperative to recommend dietary intervention for attenuating the testicular dysfunction and oxidative stress resulting from STZ-induction of diabetes. METHODS: STZ-induced diabetes (65 mg/kg, ip) was treated with QEYEM (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day) and quercetin (50 mg/kg/day) for 7weeks...
October 19, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051717/continuous-low-dose-rate-irradiation-promotes-growth-of-silkworms
#13
Yuta Shibamoto, Yoshiaki Kamei, Koichi Kamei, Takahiro Tsuchiya, Natsuto Aoyama
To investigate the influence of low-dose-rate irradiation on the growth of silkworms, Bombyx mori, eggs of silkworms were randomly divided into 2 groups and were grown on either low-dose-radiation-emitting sheets or control sheets. On the radiation-emitting sheets, the dose rate was measured as 66.0 (4.3) μSv/h (mean [standard deviation]) by a Geiger-Müller counter for α, β, and γ rays and 3.8 (0.3) μSv/h by a survey meter for γ rays. The silkworms became larger when bred on the radiation-emitting sheets, and their body weight was about 25% to 37% heavier on day 42 to 49 after starting the experiment...
October 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051502/comparative-transcriptomics-reveal-developmental-turning-points-during-embryogenesis-of-a-hemimetabolous-insect-the-damselfly-ischnura-elegans
#14
Sabrina Simon, Sven Sagasser, Edoardo Saccenti, Mercer R Brugler, M Eric Schranz, Heike Hadrys, George Amato, Rob DeSalle
Identifying transcriptional changes during embryogenesis is of crucial importance for unravelling evolutionary, molecular and cellular mechanisms that underpin patterning and morphogenesis. However, comparative studies focusing on early/embryonic stages during insect development are limited to a few taxa. Drosophila melanogaster is the paradigm for insect development, whereas comparative transcriptomic studies of embryonic stages of hemimetabolous insects are completely lacking. We reconstructed the first comparative transcriptome covering the daily embryonic developmental progression of the blue-tailed damselfly Ischnura elegans (Odonata), an ancient hemimetabolous representative...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051452/metal-levels-in-blood-of-three-species-of-shorebirds-during-stopover-on-delaware-bay-reflect-levels-in-their-food-horseshoe-crab-eggs
#15
Joanna Burger, Nellie Tsipoura, Michael Gochfeld
Understanding the relationship between metal level in predators and their prey is an important issue, and is usually difficult to determine because animals eat a variety of organisms. However, shorebirds that stop over during spring migration along Delaware Bay (New Jersey) stay for only 2-3 weeks, and eat mainly horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs. In this paper, we examine the relationship between metal levels in horseshoe crab eggs, and blood and feather levels of metals in red knot (Calidris canutus rufa; n = 30), sanderling (Calidris alba; n = 20) and semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla; n = 38) from Delaware Bay...
August 28, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051429/fish-reproduction-is-disrupted-upon-lifelong-exposure-to-environmental-pahs-fractions-revealing-different-modes-of-action
#16
Caroline Vignet, Thibaut Larcher, Blandine Davail, Lucette Joassard, Karyn Le Menach, Tiphaine Guionnet, Laura Lyphout, Mireille Ledevin, Manon Goubeau, Hélène Budzinski, Marie-Laure Bégout, Xavier Cousin
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute a large family of organic pollutants emitted in the environment as complex mixtures, the compositions of which depend on origin. Among a wide range of physiological defects, PAHs are suspected to be involved in disruption of reproduction. In an aquatic environment, the trophic route is an important source of chronic exposure to PAHs. Here, we performed trophic exposure of zebrafish to three fractions of different origin, one pyrolytic and two petrogenic. Produced diets contained PAHs at environmental concentrations...
October 28, 2016: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051226/thermal-tachypnea-in-avian-embryos
#17
Kênia C Bícego, Jacopo P Mortola
Many adult mammals and birds respond to heat with thermal tachypnea, an increase in breathing frequency with shallow tidal volume, with minimal increase in oxygen consumption (V̇O2 ). This pattern favors heat dissipation by evaporative water loss (EWL) through the respiratory tract. We asked to what extent this response was apparent at the earliest stages of development, when pulmonary ventilation (V̇E) initiates. Measurements of V̇E(barometric technique), V̇O2 (open-flow methodology) and EWL (water scrubbers) were performed on chicken embryos at the earliest appearance of V̇E, during the internal pipping stage...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050971/a-simple-method-for-obtaining-rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus-infected-small-brown-planthopper-nymphs
#18
Changwei Zhou, Shuo Li, Yijun Zhou, Yongjian Fan
Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), an important rice virus, is transmitted by vector small brown planthopper (SBPH) in a persistent manner, but not transovarial transmission. In order to obtain viruliferous SBPH nymphs for relevant research, a simple and reliable method was developed, through allowing SBPH adults laying eggs on RBSDV-infected rice plants. The results showed the hatching nymphs on diseased plants could early acquire virus, and the virus was detected in 2nd-instar nymphs from the spawning method, which was earlier than insect feed on diseased plant...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050970/polyphenolic-profile-and-biological-activities-of-black-carrot-crude-extract-daucus-carota-l-ssp-sativus-var-atrorubens-alef
#19
A Smeriglio, M Denaro, D Barreca, V D'Angelo, M P Germanò, D Trombetta
Black carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) is a valuable source of carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins and contains also high amounts of anthocyanins giving the characteristic deep-purple color. These latter compounds are known as natural dyes used in the food and pharmaceutical industry that have recently attracted much attention for their healthful properties. The aim of this work was to investigate for the first time the polyphenolic profile and biological properties of a black carrot crude extract (BCCE) through an in-depth analysis of the main polyphenolic classes evaluating its antioxidant, cytoprotective and anti-angiogenic properties...
October 16, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050919/anthelmintic-therapy-of-equine-cyathostomin-nematodes-larvicidal-efficacy-egg-reappearance-period-and-drug-resistance
#20
Jennifer L Bellaw, Kristen Krebs, Craig R Reinemeyer, Jamie K Norris, Jessica A Scare, Stefanie Pagano, Martin K Nielsen
Cyathostomins are ubiquitous in grazing horses across the world, and anthelmintic resistance has been reported with increasing levels over past decades. The aims of the present study were i) to investigate the efficacy against encysted larval stages of moxidectin (0.4 mg/kg) and fenbendazole (10 mg/kg daily for five consecutive days) and compare these regimens at 2 and 5 weeks post-treatment, ii) to investigate individual cyathostomin species associated with shortened egg reappearance periods (ERP), and iii) to document species exhibiting decreased susceptibility to the evaluated compounds...
October 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
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