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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783079/altered-neural-encoding-of-prediction-errors-in-assault-related-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#1
Marisa C Ross, Jennifer K Lenow, Clinton D Kilts, Josh M Cisler
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is widely associated with deficits in extinguishing learned fear responses, which relies on mechanisms of reinforcement learning (e.g., updating expectations based on prediction errors). However, the degree to which PTSD is associated with impairments in general reinforcement learning (i.e., outside of the context of fear stimuli) remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate brain and behavioral differences in general reinforcement learning between adult women with and without a current diagnosis of PTSD...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781743/a-treatment-comparison-study-of-a-photo-activity-schedule-and-social-stories-for-teaching-social-skills-to-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-brief-report
#2
Sabrina D Daneshvar, Marjorie H Charlop, Debra Berry Malmberg
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of two procedures, a photo activity schedule intervention and Social Stories, to teach social skills to four children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). METHODS: An adapted alternating treatments design with an additional multiple baseline control was used, and two social skills were targeted for each of the four participants, one under each intervention condition. RESULTS: Results indicated that all four participants learned the target social behaviours with the photo activity schedule intervention, but did not learn target social behaviours with Social Stories...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781731/neuropsychologists-as-primary-care-providers-of-cognitive-health-a-novel-comprehensive-cognitive-wellness-service-delivery-model
#3
Patricia A Pimental, John B O'Hara, Jessica L Jandak
By virtue of their extensive knowledge base and specialized training in brain-behavior relationships, neuropsychologists are especially poised to execute a unique broad-based approach to overall cognitive wellness and should be viewed as primary care providers of cognitive health. This article will describe a novel comprehensive cognitive wellness service delivery model including cognitive health, anti-aging, lifelong wellness, and longevity-oriented practices. These practice areas include brain-based cognitive wellness, emotional and spiritually centric exploration, and related multimodality health interventions...
July 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781701/intervention-for-bilingual-speech-sound-disorders-a-case-study-of-an-isixhosa-english-speaking-child
#4
Kate Rossouw, Michelle Pascoe
 Bilingualism is common in South Africa, with many children acquiring isiXhosa as a home language and learning English from a young age in nursery or crèche. IsiXhosa is a local language, part of the Bantu language family, widely spoken in the country. Aims: To describe changes in a bilingual child's speech following intervention based on a theoretically motivated and tailored intervention plan. Methods and procedures: This study describes a female isiXhosa-English bilingual child, named Gcobisa (pseudonym) (chronological age 4 years and 2 months) with a speech sound disorder...
March 19, 2018: South African Journal of Communication Disorders. die Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Kommunikasieafwykings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781628/early-life-stress-impairs-contextual-threat-expression-in-female-but-not-male-mice
#5
Gabriela Manzano-Nieves, Mizan Gaillard, Meghan Gallo, Kevin G Bath
Early life stress (ELS) is associated with altered processing of threat signals, and increased lifetime risk of anxiety and affective pathology, disorders that disproportionately affect females. We tested the impact of a limited bedding paradigm of ELS (from P4-11) on contextual threat learning, context memory, footshock sensitivity, and anxietylike behavior, in adult male and female mice. To examine contextual threat learning, mice conditioned by context/footshock association were tested 24 hr later for the context memory...
May 21, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781379/innovative-curriculum-integrating-the-bio-behavioral-and-social-science-principles-across-the-lifestages-in-basic-science-years
#6
Anuradha Lele Mookerjee, Bradford D Fischer, Susan Cavanaugh, Vijay Rajput
Behavioral and social science integration in clinical practice improves health outcomes across the life stages. The medical school curriculum requires an integration of the behavioral and social science principles in early medical education. We developed and delivered a four-week course entitled "LifeStages" to the first year medical students. The learning objectives of the bio-behavioral and social science principles along with the cultural, economic, political, and ethical parameters were integrated across the lifespan in the curriculum matrix...
May 20, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780334/an-innovative-framework-for-delivering-psychotherapy-to-patients-with-treatment-resistant-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-rationale-for-interactive-motion-assisted-therapy
#7
Marieke J van Gelderen, Mirjam J Nijdam, Eric Vermetten
Despite an array of evidence-based psychological treatments for patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a majority of patients do not fully benefit from the potential of these therapies. In veterans with PTSD, up to two-thirds retain their diagnosis after psychotherapy and often their disorder is treatment-resistant, which calls for improvement of therapeutic approaches for this population. One of the factors hypothesized to underlie low response in PTSD treatment is high behavioral and cognitive avoidance to traumatic reminders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780303/closed-loop-deep-brain-stimulation-for-ptsd-addiction-and-disorders-of-affective-facial-interpretation-review-and-discussion-of-potential-biomarkers-and-stimulation-paradigms
#8
REVIEW
Robert W Bina, Jean-Phillipe Langevin
The treatment of psychiatric diseases with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is becoming more of a reality as studies proliferate the indications and targets for therapies. Opinions on the initial failures of DBS trials for some psychiatric diseases point to a certain lack of finesse in using an Open Loop DBS (OLDBS) system in these dynamic, cyclical pathologies. OLDBS delivers monomorphic input into dysfunctional brain circuits with modulation of that input via human interface at discrete time points with no interim modulation or adaptation to the changing circuit dynamics...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778018/phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-anti-depressant-medicinal-plants-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Jeanette Martins, Brijesh S
Stress renders an individual to experience mental pressure and exhaustion which brings about feelings of anxiety, depression, anger and/or other negative emotions. Depression affects a person's state of mind, behaviour, health and is often associated with suicide. The use of anti-depressant drugs as therapeutic agents is associated with symptoms such as, delayed onset of action, side-effects, drug-drug and dietary interactions, sexual dysfunction, cardiac toxicity, etc. Thus, there is need to target these issues and improve current treatment options...
May 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777319/what-does-sex-have-to-do-with-it-the-role-of-sex-as-a-biological-variable-in-the-development-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#10
REVIEW
Sara L Kornfield, Liisa Hantsoo, C Neill Epperson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the neurobiological aspects of sex differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), specifically focusing on the physiological responses to trauma and presents evidence supporting hormone and neurosteroid/peptide differences from both preclinical and clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: While others have suggested that trauma type or acute emotional reaction are responsible for women's disproportionate risk to PTSD, neither of these explanations fully accounts for the sex differences in PTSD...
May 18, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777110/using-network-analysis-for-the-prediction-of-treatment-dropout-in-patients-with-mood-and-anxiety-disorders-a-methodological-proof-of-concept-study
#11
Wolfgang Lutz, Brian Schwartz, Stefan G Hofmann, Aaron J Fisher, Kristin Husen, Julian A Rubel
There are large health, societal, and economic costs associated with attrition from psychological services. The recently emerged, innovative statistical tool of complex network analysis was used in the present proof-of-concept study to improve the prediction of attrition. Fifty-eight patients undergoing psychological treatment for mood or anxiety disorders were assessed using Ecological Momentary Assessments four times a day for two weeks before treatment (3,248 measurements). Multilevel vector autoregressive models were employed to compute dynamic symptom networks...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776417/sinomenine-exerts-anticonvulsant-profile-and-neuroprotective-activity-in-pentylenetetrazole-kindled-rats-involvement-of-inhibition-of-nlrp1-inflammasome
#12
Bo Gao, Yu Wu, Yuan-Jian Yang, Wei-Zu Li, Kun Dong, Jun Zhou, Yan-Yan Yin, Da-Ke Huang, Wen-Ning Wu
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder and is not well controlled by available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Inflammation is considered to be a critical factor in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Sinomenine (SN), a bioactive alkaloid with anti-inflammatory effect, exerts neuroprotective activity in many nervous system diseases. However, little is known about the effect of SN on epilepsy. METHODS: The chronic epilepsy model was established by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775912/an-accurate-sleep-stages-classification-system-using-a-new-class-of-optimally-time-frequency-localized-three-band-wavelet-filter-bank
#13
Manish Sharma, Deepanshu Goyal, P V Achuth, U Rajendra Acharya
Sleep related disorder causes diminished quality of lives in human beings. Sleep scoring or sleep staging is the process of classifying various sleep stages which helps to detect the quality of sleep. The identification of sleep-stages using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is an arduous task. Just by looking at an EEG signal, one cannot determine the sleep stages precisely. Sleep specialists may make errors in identifying sleep stages by visual inspection. To mitigate the erroneous identification and to reduce the burden on doctors, a computer-aided EEG based system can be deployed in the hospitals, which can help identify the sleep stages, correctly...
May 10, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775869/mathematics-intervention-for-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-a-replication-and-extension-of-the-math-interactive-learning-experience-mile-program
#14
Katrina Kully-Martens, Jacqueline Pei, Julie Kable, Claire D Coles, Gail Andrew, Carmen Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) experience deficits in behavior, cognition, and academic functioning resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Although receiving intervention for developmental disabilities is a strong protective factor against negative outcomes in FASD, intervention research in this population is in its infancy. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend a mathematics intervention, the Math Interactive Learning Experience (MILE) program, which was developed in the USA specifically for children with FASD...
May 15, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773974/orexin-a-differentially-influences-the-extinction-retention-of-recent-and-remote-fear-memory
#15
Le Shi, Wenhao Chen, Jiahui Deng, Sijing Chen, Ying Han, Muhammad Z Khan, Jiajia Liu, Jianyu Que, Yanping Bao, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Recently the role of the orexin system in the learning and memory, especially orexin A, which could enhance fear memory through regulating the activity of amygdala, has drawn considerable attention. However, the relationship between orexin A and extinction memory remains unclear. To investigate the effect of orexin A on extinction memory in humans, we recruited 43 male subjects and divided them into a recent group and remote group. After acquiring Pavlovian fear conditioning, individuals in recent group experienced fear extinction 24 h after acquisition, and remote group underwent extinction 2 weeks later...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770255/a-method-for-the-interpretation-of-flow-cytometry-data-using-genetic-algorithms
#16
Cesar Angeletti
Background: Flow cytometry analysis is the method of choice for the differential diagnosis of hematologic disorders. It is typically performed by a trained hematopathologist through visual examination of bidimensional plots, making the analysis time-consuming and sometimes too subjective. Here, a pilot study applying genetic algorithms to flow cytometry data from normal and acute myeloid leukemia subjects is described. Subjects and Methods: Initially, Flow Cytometry Standard files from 316 normal and 43 acute myeloid leukemia subjects were transformed into multidimensional FITS image metafiles...
2018: Journal of Pathology Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767802/sitting-together-and-reaching-to-play-start-play-protocol-for-a-multisite-randomized-controlled-efficacy-trial-on-intervention-for-infants-with-neuromotor-disorders
#17
Regina T Harbourne, Stacey C Dusing, Michele A Lobo, Sarah Westcott-McCoy, James Bovaird, Susan Sheridan, James C Galloway, Hui-Ju Chang, Lin-Ya Hsu, Natalie Koziol, Emily C Marcinowski, Iryna Babik
Background: There is limited research examining the efficacy of early physical therapy on infants with neuromotor dysfunction. In addition, most early motor interventions have not been directly linked to learning, despite the clear association between motor activity and cognition during infancy. Objective: The aim of this project is to evaluate the efficacy of Sitting Together And Reaching To Play (START-Play), an intervention designed to target sitting, reaching, and motor-based problem solving to advance global development in infants with motor delays or neuromotor dysfunction...
June 1, 2018: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767737/recent-issues-in-the-use-of-signed-language-assessments-for-diagnosis-of-language-disorders-in-signing-deaf-and-hard-of-hearing-children
#18
Jon Henner, Rama Novogrodsky, Jeanne Reis, Robert Hoffmeister
In recent years, normed signed language assessments have become a useful tool for researchers, practitioners, and advocates. Nevertheless, there are limitations in their application, particularly for the diagnosis of language disorders, and learning disabilities. Here, we discuss some of the available normed, signed language assessments and some of their limitations. We have also provided information related to practices that should lead to improvement in the quality of signed language assessments.
May 15, 2018: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766490/emotional-hyper-reactivity-and-cardiometabolic-risk-in-remitted-bipolar-patients-a-machine-learning-approach
#19
A A Dargél, F Roussel, S Volant, B Etain, R Grant, J-M Azorin, K M'Bailara, F Bellivier, T Bougerol, J-P Kahn, P Roux, V Aubin, P Courtet, M Leboyer, F Kapczinski, C Henry
OBJECTIVE: Remitted bipolar disorder (BD) patients frequently present with chronic mood instability and emotional hyper-reactivity, associated with poor psychosocial functioning and low-grade inflammation. We investigated emotional hyper-reactivity as a dimension for characterization of remitted BD patients, and clinical and biological factors for identifying those with and without emotional hyper-reactivity. METHOD: A total of 635 adult remitted BD patients, evaluated in the French Network of Bipolar Expert Centers from 2010-2015, were assessed for emotional reactivity using the Multidimensional Assessment of Thymic States...
May 15, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766395/nonword-repetition-stimuli-for-vietnamese-speaking-children
#20
Giang Pham, Kerry Danahy Ebert, Kristine Thuy Dinh, Quynh Dam
Nonword repetition (NWR) has been a widely used measure of language-learning ability in children with and without language disorders. Although NWR tasks have been created for a variety of languages, minimal attention has been given to Asian tonal languages. This study introduces a new set of NWR stimuli for Vietnamese. The stimuli include 20 items ranging in length from one to four syllables. The items consist of dialect-neutral phonemes in consonant-vowel (CV) and CVC sequences that follow the phonotactic constraints of the language...
May 15, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
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